Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

Measurement of prostate-specific antigen in detection of benign or malignant breast disease in women. (1/757)

Using a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, we have evaluated the measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a potential diagnostic test for differentiation between women with breast cancer and those with benign breast disease. In a controlled study consisting of 284 women with well-documented patient files and matched for age and long-term place of residence, serum samples collected from 90 women with histologically confirmed breast cancer, 94 women with benign breast disease and 100 controls were analysed. Serum total PSA levels in benign breast disease and cancer patients are not statistically different from those of healthy controls. Total PSA levels decrease with age in normal controls and breast cancer patients but not in those with benign breast disease. The total PSA concentration decreases after menopause in healthy women, though not in patients with breast cancer or benign breast disease. Total PSA bore no relation to the histological type or grade of the tumour or the disease stage of the breast cancer patients. In benign breast disease, all mastopathy patients had normal total PSA, whereas elevation of the values was observed in 7% of fibroadenoma patients. Our results show that serum total PSA cannot be used to distinguish between healthy women and/or women with breast cancer or benign breast disease.  (+info)

Systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis. (2/757)

We describe a case of hydronephrosis as a result of retroperitoneal fibrosis in a patient who had previous sclerosing lobulitis of the breast. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported association between these two conditions in the english literature. We presume these conditions are linked and unify them under the general heading of systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis.  (+info)

Screening for breast cancer: time, travel, and out-of-pocket expenses. (3/757)

BACKGROUND: We estimated the personal costs to women found to have a breast problem (either breast cancer or benign breast disease) in terms of time spent, miles traveled, and cash payments made for detection, diagnosis, initial treatment, and follow-up. METHODS: We analyzed data from personal interviews with 465 women from four communities in Florida. These women were randomly selected from those with a recent breast biopsy (within 6-8 months) that indicated either breast cancer (208 women) or benign breast disease (257 women). One community was the site of a multifaceted intervention to promote breast screening, and the other three communities were comparison sites for evaluation of that intervention. All P values are two-sided. RESULTS: In comparison with time spent and travel distance for women with benign breast disease (13 hours away from home and 56 miles traveled), time spent and travel distance were statistically significantly higher (P<.001) for treatment and follow-up of women with breast cancer (89 hours and 369 miles). Personal financial costs for treatment of women with breast cancer were also statistically significantly higher (breast cancer = $604; benign breast disease = $76; P < .001) but were statistically significantly lower for detection and diagnosis (breast cancer = $170; benign breast disease = $310; P < .001). Among women with breast cancer, time spent for treatment was statistically significantly lower (P = .013) when their breast cancer was detected by screening (68.9 hours) than when it was detected because of symptoms (84.2 hours). Personal cash payments for detection, diagnosis, and treatment were statistically significantly lower among women whose breast problems were detected by screening than among women whose breast problems were detected because of symptoms (screening detected = $453; symptom detected = $749; P = .045). CONCLUSION: There are substantial personal costs for women who are found to have a breast problem, whether the costs are associated with problems identified through screening or because of symptoms.  (+info)

Centrosomal kinase AIK1 is overexpressed in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. (4/757)

A centrosomal serine/threonine kinase, AIK1(3)/breast tumor amplified kinase/aurora2, which was recently identified as an oncogene, shows high amino acid identity with chromosome segregation kinases, fly Aurora, and yeast Ipl1. Immunohistochemical analyses of invasive ductal adenocarcinomas of the breast revealed that overexpression of AIK1 was observed in 94% of the cases, irrespective of the histopathological type, whereas the protein was not detected in normal ductal and lobular cells. Benign breast lesions including fibrocystic disease and fibroadenoma (epithelial components) displayed weakly detectable AIK1 expression in part of the lesions. This is the first immunohistochemical report of AIK1 expression in primary human breast carcinomas. Although the physiological function(s) of AIK1 kinase during cell division remains to be determined, the markedly high positivity of AIK1 staining in the cancer lesions suggested a possible involvement of its overexpression in the tumorigenesis of some of breast cancer cells.  (+info)

Comparison of mammographically guided breast biopsy techniques. (5/757)

OBJECTIVE: To determine which mammographically guided breast biopsy technique is the most efficient in making a diagnosis in women with suspicious mammograms. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Mammographically guided biopsy techniques include stereotactic 14-gauge core-needle biopsy (SC bx), stereotactic 11-gauge suction-assisted core biopsy (Mammotome [Mbx]), stereotactic coring excisional biopsy (Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrument [ABBI]), and wire-localized biopsy (WL bx). Controversy exists over which technique is best. METHODS: All patients undergoing any one of these biopsy methods over a 15-month period were reviewed, totaling 245 SC bx, 107 Mbx, 104 ABBI, and 520 WL bx. Information obtained included technical success, pathology, discordant pathology, and need for open biopsy. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in 94.3% of SC bx, 96.4% of Mbx, 92.5% of ABBI, and 98.7% of WL bx. The sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 98.6% for SC bx, 87.5% and 100% for Mbx, and 100% and 100% for ABBI. Discordant results or need for a repeat biopsy occurred in 25.7% of SC bx, 23.2% of Mbx, and 7.5% of ABBI biopsies. In 63.6% of ABBI and 50.9% of WL bx, positive margins required reexcision; of the cases with positive margins, 71.4% of ABBI and 70.4% of WL bx had residual tumor in the definitive treatment specimen. CONCLUSION: Although sensitivities and specificities of SC bx and Mbx are good, 20% to 25% of patients will require an open biopsy because a definitive diagnosis could not be reached. This does not occur with the ABBI excisional biopsy specimen. The positive margin rates and residual tumor rates are comparable between the ABBI and WL bx. The ABBI avoids operating room and reexcision costs; therefore, in appropriately selected patients, this appears to be the most efficient method of biopsy.  (+info)

In vitro estrogen-binding by human breast carcinomas. (6/757)

Patients whose breast carcinomas possess only low concentrations of a receptor molecule that binds estrogens with high affinity are unlikely to respond to hormonal manipulative therapy when the disease recurs. The estrogen-binding capacity of 106 breast carcinomas was measured by an in vitro method and was expressed per milligram wet weight and in some cases related to the concentration of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the tumours. The ability of tumors to bind 3H-estradiol ranged from 0 to 1.3 fm/mg in pre- and perenopausal women, and from 0 to 16.8 fm/mg in postmenopausal women. Menopausal status or serum concentrations of endogenous estrogen, or both, should therefore be considered when tumours are classified into low and high estrogen-binding capacity. It is not necessary to carry out Scatchard analysis for every tumour, and expressing estradiol binding on the basis of DNA concentration may be preferable to expressing in on a wet-weight basis.  (+info)

MammoWeb continuing medical education (CME): a web-based breast imaging CME program. (7/757)

The ubiquity of the world-wide web allows unique educational opportunities for continuing medical education (CME). We have designed a comprehensive breast imaging CME curriculum to permit individual physicians in their homes or offices to use personal computers to ease the burden of this process. Category 1 CME credits can be earned off-hours without having the physician travel out of town. In addition, since the course is computer-based, the overall costs to the participant are substantially reduced. The program can be updated on an ongoing basis to include new technology or to provide additional information requested by the users.  (+info)

Identification of women with early breast cancer by analysis of p43-positive lymphocytes. (8/757)

Regular screening mammographies and increasing knowledge of high-risk groups have resulted in an improvement in the rate of detection of smaller malignant lesions. However, uncertain minimal mammographic features frequently require further costly and often uncomfortable investigation, including repeat radiological controls or surgical procedures, before cancerous lesions can be identified. Placental isoferritin (p43), a protein with immunosuppressive effects, has been detected on the surface of lymphocytes taken from peripheral blood in patients with breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the expression of p43-positive lymphocytes as a marker in early stage breast cancer and also investigated its expression on T-cell subpopulations. The presence of p43-positive lymphocytes was investigated using the monoclonal antibody CM-H-9 and flow cytometry in 76 women with controversial, non-palpable mammographic findings who were undergoing surgical biopsy. Patients with early breast cancer (n = 48) had significantly higher p43-positive cell values (median 3.83%, range 0.98-19.4) than patients with benign lumps (n = 28, median 1.43%, range 0.17-3.7) or controls (n = 22, median 1.3%, range 0.4-1.87) (P < 0.0001). At a cut-off level of 2% p43-positive cells a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 89.3% for detection of breast cancer could be reached. While the median ratio of total CD4+/CD8+ cells was 2.6, a ratio of 1.3 was found for the p43-positive subpopulation (P < 0.001), thus indicating a significant link between p43 and CD8+ cells. The determination of p43-positive lymphocytes in peripheral blood could serve as an additional diagnostic tool in patients with controversial mammographic findings and could also reduce the need for cost-intensive and often uncomfortable management of these patients.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A randomized controlled trial of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of benign proliferative breast disease. AU - Rohan, Thomas E.. AU - Negassa, Abdissa. AU - Chlebowski, Rowan T.. AU - Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D.. AU - Cochrane, Barbara B.. AU - Lane, Dorothy S.. AU - Ginsberg, Mindy S.. AU - Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia. AU - Page, David L.. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - Experimental evidence provides strong support for anti-carcinogenic effects of calcium and vitamin D with respect to breast cancer. Observational epidemiologic data also provide some support for inverse associations with risk. We tested the effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on risk of benign proliferative breast disease, a condition which is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We used the Womens Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. The 36,282 participants were randomized either to 500 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate plus 200 IU of vitamin D 3 ...
Preneoplasia of the Breast A New Conceptual Approach to Proliferative Breast Disease by Professor, Dr. Werner Boecker | Buy Books at LoveReading.co.uk Safe and accurate preoperative diagnosis of breast lesions is crucial to spare patients unnecessary, disfiguring operations. The book covers the clinical, radiological and histological diagnosis of benign proliferative breast disease and precursor lesions of breast cancer. It focuses on a new immunohistochemical method based on an innovative progenitor cell concept...Find out more
... : Benign Breast Disease Anatomical Chart Pub Date: June 2003 Product Type: Print
The resident in the Breast Diseases PGY3 Enhanced Skills Program will:. 1. Demonstrate expertise in the identification, diagnosis and management of common and uncommon family medicine problems. 2. Engage patients in health promotion, including prevention and screening according to evidence based family medicine guidelines. 3. Be able to describe the pathological characteristics of benign and malignant breast disease.. 4. Demonstrate competence in breast assessment and the ability to investigate and manage common breast-related patient presentations such as:. a. A palpable breast mass or skin change. b. Indeterminate breast imaging abnormality. c. Nipple discharge. d. Breast pain. e. Pathological indicators of high-risk or patient with strong family history of breast cancer. 5. Demonstrate expertise in the assessment and clinical management of benign breast diseases such as:. a. Cysts. b. Fibroepithelial lesions. c. Mastitis or breast abscess. d. Atypia or lobular carcinoma in situ. e. ...
J. Michael Dixon, MBChB,MD, FRCS, FRCSEd, FRCP, Edinburgh Breast Unit,Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland.. The incidence of breast cancer increases with advancing age, and the relative frequency of benign breast disease (BBD) decreases. Therefore, all breast symptoms or abnormalities should be assessed with triple testing (clinical examination, imaging, +/-percutaneous needle biopsy if a localized lesion is identified) to establish a diagnosis.The spectrum of BBD changes substantially from about age 45 onwards.We review some of the benign conditions that occur in older women, such as cysts and duct ectasia, and describe clinical features and management.We also discuss specific BBDs that may be encountered more frequently and in a much older population of women than was previously identified, a consequence of both increased incidence of BBD due to past use of hormone replacement therapy and improved detection ...
Stromal fibroblasts are important for normal breast homeostasis and regulation of epithelial growth; however, this regulatory function is altered during carcinogenesis. To study the role of fibroblasts in the development of breast cancer, fibroblasts derived from normal breast (NAFs) were incorporated into the MCF10AT xenograft model of progressive proliferative breast disease. The persistence of human NAFs in xenografts was established by intracellular labeling and tyramide-coupled fluorescent in situ hybridization.
The number of breast cancer survivors is increasing due to the increased use of mammographic screening and adjuvant therapy. <BR>Adjuvant therapy for breast cancer increases the severity of menopausal symptoms and the incidence of amenorrhoea. <BR>Overall data on risk of HRT on breast cancer survivors are inconclusive. <BR>SSRIs, gabapentin or clonidine may be the best of the non-hormonal agents for treatment of vasomotor symptoms. <BR>Non-hormonal agents are often ineffective and one-third of women are prepared to use HRT. <BR>HRT is the most efficacious treatment and is an option in women with severe vasomotor symptoms refractory to non-hormonal agents. <BR>Benign breast disease is a risk factor for breast cancer depending on histology and family history. <BR>Women with a family history of breast cancer are at increased risk depending on the degree and number of relatives and require close surveillance. <BR>HRT is not thought to increase the risk further
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benign breast disease. T2 - Emerging findings in a diverse population. AU - Hartmann, Lynn C.. AU - Ghosh, Karthik. PY - 2007/3. Y1 - 2007/3. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33847091224&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33847091224&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2007.00387.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2007.00387.x. M3 - Article. C2 - 17319850. AN - SCOPUS:33847091224. VL - 13. SP - 113. EP - 114. JO - Breast Journal. JF - Breast Journal. SN - 1075-122X. IS - 2. ER - ...
A Wayne State University researcher has identified characteristics in benign breast disease associated with future cancer risk in African-American women.
To evaluate the spectrum of breast diseases and their association with presenting complains of patients. It was a cross sectional study conducted from 1st January 2010 - 30th December 2012. A total of 254 breast specimens of patients, who were admitted in Civil Hospital Karachi with breast complaints, were included. Specimens were collected either from mastectomy, lumpectomy or needle biopsy from the admitted patients. Informed written consent was taken from all the patients. All patients with primary breast diseases were included. Patients undergoing chemotherapy or with secondary breast disease and slides with insufficient specimen were excluded. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. There were 254 breast lesions, histologically diagnosed in 3 year review period. The overall mean age of patients with breast lesion was 25.18, SD ± 11.73 with a wide age range of 12-74 years. Most common cases identified are benign 191(75.3%), followed by inflammatory 30(11.8%) and malignant lesions 30(11.8
In this issue of American Family Physician, Morrow1 discusses the evaluation of three common breast problems: breast pain, nipple discharge and breast mass. I agree with the authors assertion that the goal of the evaluation is to exclude cancer and treat symptoms.. It seems prudent to include a review of risk factors in the efforts to exclude breast cancer. Risk factors include age, family history of breast cancer, early menarche, older age at first full-term pregnancy, nulliparity, presence or history of benign breast disease, and late menopause. Potentially modifiable risk factors include higher body mass index, heavy use of alcohol, use of oral contraceptives and not having breast-fed.2. The psychosocial impact of breast problems on patients is a frequently overlooked aspect of the evaluation of common breast problems. Because breast problems cause such a high level of distress for patients, particularly before a definitive diagnosis is obtained,3 physical examination alone may not provide ...
CBS News) -- New research shows alcohol might be linked to benign breast disease in young women. A new study that looked at 16 to 23-year-olds found the more they drank, the higher their risk.. Benign breast disease is a mixed group of different conditions like lumps or cysts, and they can be a warning sign. Theyre just thought the be a marker for increased risk of breast cancer, said Dr. Rulla Tamimi of the Brigham and Womens Hospital study. We consider them altogether; women have about a 50 percent increased risk of developing breast cancer.. Young women who drank six to seven days per week had more than five times the risk of benign breast disease than young women who never drank. Women who drank three to five days per week had three times the risk.. I think this really says that perhaps women should really consider modifying their alcohol intake, said Tamimi.. The findings are a wake-up call after a study last year that found binge drinking among college women in their early 20s ...
NEW SCAN ALMOST 100% ACCURATE IN IDENTIFYING BREAST CANCER. An estimated 1.4 million women undergo breast biopsies every year in the United States for abnormal findings on their mammograms, and approximately 85 percent of these suspicious mammographic findings will turn out to be benign following biopsy.. At the present time, breast imaging technology has not advanced enough to replace biopsy for most women with suspicious abnormalities noted on mammograms, or for women who develop palpable breast lumps. For example, MRI scans can detect 95 to 98 percent of early breast cancers, but MRI is also associated with a very high "false-positive" rate, in which as many as 25 percent of identified abnormalities turn out, after biopsy, to be benign. In an ideal world, a "perfect" breast scan would accurately identify 100 percent of cancers and 100 percent of benign breast lesions, but such a scan does not exist at this time. However, a new technology for scanning small cores of breast tissue removed ...
Dr. Hartmann and her co-investigators were heartened to find convincing evidence that women with the most common, non-proliferative forms of benign findings had no increased risk of developing breast cancer -- as long as they did not have a strong family history of breast cancer. However, for proliferative and atypical types, the opposite was true, and these lesions pointed to an increased risk of a future breast cancer, even when the family history of breast cancer was negative. Dr. Hartmann and her colleagues say continued studies of this kind are necessary to help understand the process of breast cancer development.. The study population of 9,087 women was drawn from the Mayo Clinic Surgical and Pathology Indices, identifying women ages 18 to 85, who had a biopsy of a benign breast lesion during a 25-year period from Jan. 1, 1967, through Dec. 31, 1991. Family histories were obtained at time of follow-up and from Mayo medical record questionnaires.. All benign breast samples were evaluated by ...
Background : We studied the associations between c-erbB-2 protein overexpression and p53 protein accumulation in benign breast tissue and the risk of subsequent breast cancer. Methods : We conducted a case-control study nested within the cohort of 4888 women in the National Breast Screening Study NBSS who were diagnosed with benign breast...
Benign breast lesions with malignant clinical and mammographic presentations.: Nine cases of benign breast disease in which mammograms had been false-positive w
Assessed on that basis of pre- and post-treatment evaluation with RPFNA (random periareolar fine needle aspiration). All subjects received a prescription for lovastatin 80 mg/day, to be taken as 40 mg twice-a-day.. Cytology was qualitatively and quantitatively, using the Masood semiquantitative scale to assign a number to each specimen, with higher numbers indicating increasing degrees of abnormality, as follows:. 06-10 Non-proliferative breast disease (NPBD). 11-14 Proliferative breast disease without atypia (PBD-A). 15-18 Proliferative breast disease with atypia (PBD+A). 19-24 Carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer (CIS/IC). If no cells could be obtained after multiple RPFNA attempts, the classification was acellular.. Change from NPBD to PBD-A was considered Unfavorable.. Change from NPBD to Acellular was considered Equivocal.. Change from PBD-A to NPBD was considered Favorable. ...
Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a newly developed imaging technology that is based on low-frequency vibrations induced in the object by the radiation force of ultrasound. VA is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. Here, we evaluate the performance of VA in identifying benign lesions and compare the results to those of mammography. An integrated mammography-VA system designed for in vivo breast imaging was tested on a group of female volunteers, age ≥ 18 years, with suspected breast lesions based on clinical examination. A set of VA scans was acquired after each corresponding mammography. Most lesions were classified as benign based on their histological results. However, in 4 cases, initial diagnosis based on clinical imaging determined that the lesions were cysts. These cysts were aspirated with needle aspiration and disappeared completely under direct ultrasound visualization. Therefore, no biopsies were performed on these cases and lesions were classified as benign based on clinical
Contributed by Professor Kefah Mokbel, lead breast surgeon, The Princess Grace Hospital, and honorary consultant breast surgeon, St Georges Hospital.
Women with benign proliferative breast disease (BPBD) are at increased risk for developing breast cancer. Evidence suggests that accumulation of adipose tissue can influence breast cancer development via hyperinsulinemia, increased estrogen, and/or inflammation. However, there are limited data investigating these pathways with respect to risk of BPBD. We evaluated serologic markers from these pathways in a case-control study of postmenopausal women nested within the Womens Health Initiative Clinical Trial. Cases were the 667 women who developed BPBD during follow-up, and they were matched to 1,321 controls. Levels of insulin, estradiol, C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin were measured in fasting serum collected at baseline. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs for the association of each factor with BPBD risk. Among nonusers of hormone therapy, fasting serum insulin was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk of BPBD (OR for highest vs. ...
Stay on top of the latest knowledge in the field with this must-have resource for all clinicians who treat breast diseases. Expand your knowledge of every aspect of breast diseases as a diverse and distinguished group of internationally-recognized experts summarize the current knowledge, including biology and epidemiology, clinical features, and management. Ideal for any clinician seeing patients with breast disease, especially carcinoma of the breast, This full color 5th Edition of the authoritative text in the field is designed to foster the understanding necessary to provide optimal patient care.. Features ?Covering the latest major clinical trials, along with concise management summaries for each clinical chapter. Illustrations and tables that emphasize breast imaging, microscopic and gross histology, anatomy, and procedural technique enhance visual understanding. Algorithms on problem management in all aspects of breast disease from benign processes to breast carcinoma inform clinical ...
Melbourne International Breast Congress - joint with the Australasian Society for Breast Disease (ASBD), 4th World Congress on Controversies in Breast Cancer (CoBrCa) and Breast Surgeons of Australia, The collaboration will create a multi-faceted ...
The authors note that caffeine - found in coffee, chocolate, tea, soft drinks, and various medications - is thought to be the worlds most commonly ingested drug.. That said, recent research focused on women diagnosed with non-cancerous breast disease revealed that cutting caffeine from the diet could improve symptoms among such patients.. Because benign breast disease is considered to be a risk factor for developing the malignant form of the disease, this finding had raised concerns that caffeine might also elevate the risk for breast cancer.. To explore this possibility, Dr. Zhang looked at the diets of almost 39,000 women over the age of 45 over a period of four years, between 1992 and 1995.. All the women were part of The Womens Health Study, a cohort of US health professionals, and 75 percent were registered nurses.. All the women worked as health-care professionals - three-quarters as registered nurses.. The research team observed that nearly one-quarter never drank coffee, and about ...
Aim: To investigate the role of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values preoperatively.. Methods: A total of 30 women between the ages of 14-75 years (mean, 47, 6 years) with 30 histopathologically verified breast lesions were investigated in this study. The patients were examined by a 1, 5 T MRI device using bilateral phased array breast coil. Spin echo planar diffusion imaging was used to scan patients. Images were obtained by b values 0 and 500 seconds/mm². Mean ADC values of the benign and malignant lesions were measured and calculated. The comparison between the histopathological diagnoses and the mean ADCs were performed by Mann Whitney U test.. Results: The diagnosis of 30 patients with 30 breast lesions were as follows; malign lesions (n=13), benign lesions (n=17). The ADC values were as follows (in units of 10-3mm² /sec): benign breast lesions (range: 1, 09-1, 98, ...
Heart failure is epidemic throughout the world. A growing incidence and prevalence has resulted in a large population of individuals transitioning to advanced stages of the syndrome and requiring uniquely specialized therapies and cardiac transplantation. The Oxford Textbook of Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation is a focused and comprehensive work covering this new and rapidly growing cardiovascular subspecialty. Authored by eminent international experts, it is the authoritative text on advanced heart failure and a central resource for clinicians caring for patients with this condition. Key areas of focus are the immunology and hemodynamic alterations characteristic of advanced stages of heart failure; device therapy including left and right ventricular assist devices; cardiac resynchronization therapy; implantable cardioverter defibrillators; and implantable monitoring devices. By covering a range of characteristics, therapeutic challenges, and practical aspects of managing ...
A research team at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, is investigating whether the amount of DNA damage seen in the cells in normal breast tissue may be an indicator of future breast cancer risk. The researchers recruited women who had a benign breast biopsy and then went on to develop breast cancer (Phase I) and women who had a benign breast biopsy but did NOT go on to develop breast cancer (Phase II). By recruiting women who did develop breast cancer and women who did not, they will be able to look for markers in the breast cells that might be an indicator of breast cancer risk. The researchers wanted to enroll at least 150 women in the study. The Call to Action for Phase I was sent to Army of Women members on August 11, 2010, while the Call to Action for Phase II was sent on January 18, 2012. When the research team closed enrollment on July 10, 2013, the Army of Women had provided them with 338 women who were interested in enrolling in Phase I and 1,333 women who were interested in ...
Pain between breasts - MedHelps Pain between breasts Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Pain between breasts. Find Pain between breasts information, treatments for Pain between breasts and Pain between breasts symptoms.
Purple spots on my breast symptoms - Hi Ive found two purple spots on top of my breast and I dont know what they are (i am female)? See your doctor. If the spots are away from the nipple it could be anything like a bruise or bite or insect bite. If they are close to the nipple they can be inflamed montgomery glands (they lubricate the nipple). Go see your doc if it does not spontaneously go away. Do you have nipple discharge? If bloody always go see your doc.
This is a forum where you can post a particular breast pathology question for Dr. Lawton and read other participants questions and Dr. Lawtons answers.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Life after breast cancer.. AU - Stuart, Kirsty. AU - Brennan, Meagan. AU - French, James. AU - Houssami, Nehmat. AU - Boyages, John. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - This thirteenth article in our series on breast disease explores the many concerns that patients face after completion of their breast cancer treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is an ordeal for women on a number of levels. Similarly, there are often a multitude of issues and concerns raised after the completion of treatment. Having an awareness of these medical and survivorship issues allows the general practitioner to provide important support to both the patient and her family.. AB - This thirteenth article in our series on breast disease explores the many concerns that patients face after completion of their breast cancer treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is an ordeal for women on a number of levels. Similarly, there are often a multitude of issues and concerns raised after ...
Legenda: riscontro frequente *, intermedio **, raro ***. BIBLIOGRAFIA/LETTURE CONSIGLIATE. 1- L.E. Hughes, R.E.Mansel, D.J.T. Webster: Benign disorders and diseases of the breastBaillère Tindall Ed.: 1989. 2 - Thomas D.B.: Role of exogenous female hormones in altering the risk of benign and malignant neoplasms in human.. Cancer Research 1989; 38:3991-4000.. 3- Berkowitz G.S., Canny P.F., Vivolsi V.A. & Al.: Cigarette smoking and benign breast disease. Journal of epidemiology. and community health 1985; 39:308-131.. 4- Foster M.E.,Garrahan N. & Williams S.: Fibroadenoma of the breast - a clinical and pathological study. Journal of the. Royal College of Surgeons ( Edimbourgh) 1987.. 5- Haagensen C.D.: Diseases of the breast, 3rd Ed Philadelphia, W.B Saunders 1986.. 6- Hughes L.E, Mansell R.E, Webster D.J.: Fibroadenoma and related tumors p 59-73 - Cancer in a fibroadenoma p 65 - in. Benign disorders and Diseases of hte Breast: Concepts and Clinical Management; Baillière Tindall 1989.. 7-- Hertel ...
Hyperplasia is also known as proliferative breast disease. Its an overgrowth of the cells that line the ducts or the milk glands. Learn more.
We usually recommend doing it after each period, or once a month if you are beyond the menopause. First you look at yourself in good light in front of a mirror. Look for dimpling, puckering, or redness of the breast. Then lie flat on your back and using your sensitive fingertips search one breast and then the other. If you think you have found a lump, you compare it with the same area on the opposite side, the "mirror-image" of it. If you can find something there that is similar, it may turn out to be normal tissue. You also look for a "dominant lump," or one that is larger than the other normal-sized lumps, and you look for a lack of symmetry from side to side.. Breast problems are evaluated by physical exam, and by testing that includes breast ultrasound, mammography and MRI. We perform a clinical breast exam in our office at least once a year. We check for changes in size or shape, we look for dimples or redness of the skin. We feel for lumps that are larger than they should be, and we ...
Aberrations in the Normal Development and Involution of the breast (ANDI) is an all-encompassing term that is used to describe a wide spectrum of the benign breast diseases. As the name suggests, it is based on the theory that most of the encount...
Background Females with atypical hyperplasia (AH) on a benign breast biopsy (BBB) are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer. not significantly contribute to breast cancer risk. The lack of a significant dose-response relationship between extent and type of atypia and breast cancer risk suggests that it would be premature to use extent of atypia to influence management decisions in women with ADH or ALH. and extent of atypia, it became apparent that association between extent of atypia and breast cancer risk was being driven by type of atypia, i.e. ALH, rather than extent of atypia (Table 3). Hartmann and colleagues have reported that the extent of atypia is significantly related to 97207-47-1 manufacture the subsequent breast cancer risk with relative risks of 3.2, 5.5 and 7.6 for 1, 2 and 97207-47-1 manufacture 3+ foci of atypical hyperplasia 97207-47-1 manufacture ( ...
Power3 Medical Products, Inc. (Houston) is a clinical diagnostics company commercializing powerful proteomics methods for diagnosing a range of serious human illnesses. Among its development-stage tests are diagnostics for cancer, neurologic diseases, and cancer drug resistance. In developing its breast cancer diagnostic, Power3 used 2-D gel electrophoresis to quantify differentially expressed protein biomarkers related to that disease from a group of 39 breast cancer patients and 38 controls with benign breast disease. The result was a proteomic profile of the serum and a statistical model that differentiates breast cancer patients from control subjects.. From thousands of expressed proteins, researchers identified a panel of 22 protein biomarkers whose expression differs significantly between the test groups. These proteins were selected by image analysis and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.. No single biomarker among these 22 possessed any ...
Breast cancer affects 1 in 10 women and the majority of UK women will attend a breast clinic at least once during their lives. The patients journey through assessment and management is one that involves a huge range of healthcare professionals, in which the truly multidisciplinary management style required has previously been only sparsely addressed.
A breast lump may either be a cyst filled with fluid or a solid mass of tissue. A sample of the breast tissue (biopsy) must be made to determine whether malignant (cancerous) cells are present. Almost two-thirds of all breast lumps are benign but the chance of a malignant lump is greatly increased if the woman is past menopause.. While the patient is awake and pain-free (using local anesthesia) or asleep and pain-free (using general anesthesia), an incision is made over the lump. The incision for a lumpectomy is usually around 3 to 4 centimeters long. The incision will also depend on the size of the lump that needs to be removed. After the lump is removed in one piece, it is sent to the laboratory for immediate examination. If the lump is found to be cancerous nearby lymph nodes will be removed to check for the extent of the cancer spreading.. ...
Breast lumps or changes are a common health worry for most women. Women may have many kinds of breast lumps and other breast changes throughout their lives, including changes that occur with menstrual periods, pregnancy, and aging. Most breast lumps and breast changes are normal. Breast changes in young girls Breast...
The study included 8736 women who biopsies at the Mayo Clinic benign benign during a 25 - year period from 1967, Breast tissue samples from this Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease cohort were evaluated the extent the extent of the recovery. As a group, the Mayo cohort http://www.levitra-danmark.net/vardenafil-hvad-er-det.html . Increased at 40 % risk …. ...
Kevin Wasco specializes in General Surgery and practices primarily at Surgical Associates of Neenah SC in Neenah, Wisconsin. Special interests include: Abdominal Cancer Surgery, Abdominal Surgery, Appendectomy, Bariatric Surgery, Benign Breast Disease,.
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR, Flint AJ, Hannan L, MacInnis RJ, Moore SC, Tobias GS, Anton-Culver H, Freeman LB, Beeson WL, Clipp SL, English DR, Folsom AR, Freedman DM, Giles G, Hakansson N, Henderson KD, Hoffman-Bolton J, Hoppin JA, Koenig KL, Lee IM, Linet MS, Park Y, Pocobelli G, Schatzkin A, Sesso HD, Weiderpass E, Willcox BJ, Wolk A, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Willett WC, Thun MJ. Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 2;363(23):2211-9. (PMID 21121834). Westhoff CL, Torgal AH, Mayeda ER, Stanczyk FZ, Lerner JP, Benn EK, Paik M. Ovarian suppression in normal-weight and obese women during oral contraceptive use: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug;116(2 Pt 1):275-83. (PMID: 20664386). Pearlman MD, Griffin JL. Benign breast disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Sep;116(3):747-58. (PMID: 20733462). Foster DC, Kotok MB, Huang LS, Watts A, Oakes D, Howard FM, Poleshuck EL, Stodgell CJ, Dworkin RH. Oral desipramine and topical ...
Breast cancer is a common cancer in women. Early diagnosis and treatments are vital for better outcomes. This formula consists of a liquid anti-disease anti-cancer formula that can be delivered to the
Most breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous). All women have lumpy breasts and many lumps or nodules that women find are areas of normal breast tissue which can become more prominent and lumpy just before a period
RU-486 otherwise known as Mifeprex (or Mifepristone) is a steroid that causes an abortion when taken orally. .. It is actually a combination of two drugs - mifepristone and misoprostol - that cause early abortion. .. It should not be used if it has been more than 70 days since your last period.. Side effects may include heavy bleeding, headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramping.. In a chemical abortion the fetus is usually expelled while you are alone. For some women this is very traumatic... This drug breaks down the uterine lining and the growing fetus is shed from the uterus over a period of about 12 days. .. Obama Food and Drug Administration recently relaxed standards for administering the abortion pill RU-486, allowing it to be used to abort children who are more developed in the womb.. The decision was a political one to support ZIONIST JEW EVIL PHARMA and not one based on safety... Despite the euphemisms the abortion industry uses to dehumanize them, these children arent just ...
Dr Raghavan Vidya, Consultant General Surgeon, MS, MD, FRCS (Eng), FRCS (Gen Surg) at Spire Healthcare. Learn more about this consultant here.
Breast problems - Okay so I am 7 months pregnant and over the last week or so my breasts have been leaking only a little, but about 15 mins ago...
Elizabeth Edwards received a devastating blow just hours after watching her husband and John Kerry admit defeat - doctors diagnosed her with breast...
Our team includes board-certified, fellowship trained surgeons whose focus is on treating women with breast disease. The decision to undergo breast surgery depends on many factors, and we work closely with you to determine the most appropriate path for treating cancerous and non-cancerous breast diseases. Our breast surgeons help you better understand your condition and educate you about your options.. ...
Inflammatory carcinoma - rapid growth, pain, red, warm, edema, metastasizes early, invades the subdermal lymphatics, need a skin biopsy because subdermal, rarely curable (chemotherapy ...
In the beginning, Aristotle defined two forms of life on planet Earth: plants and animals. Two thousand years later, the light microscope was invented and we discovered tiny, single-celled organisms like amoebas. Then, the electron microscope was invented and....... ...
If the breast lump is hard, uniform in shape, and you can move it around it is probably a clogged milk duct, galactocele, or abscess. Other types of breast lumps are
List of 64 disease causes of Breast lump, patient stories, diagnostic guides, 11 drug side effect causes. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Breast lump.
Breast lump removal - Sometimes painful breast lumps need to be removed, though most are benign.. Choose Spire Methley Park Hospital.
Frequency: Bi-monthly The official journal of The American Society of Breast Disease, The Senologic International Society, and The International Society of Breast Pathology Blackwell. ...
What are breast abnormalities? Your daughter may experience many breast changes in her teenage years-some are linked to the menstrual cycle, some are related to hormonal forms of birth control, and others may occur without a specific reason. Most of these changes will be benign, or non-cancerous. Common breast changes at this age include cyclical breast pain, cysts, or fibroadenomas.
A breast mass in a child is rare and often benign, but early detection is still important. Symptoms include breast tenderness and discharge. Read on to learn more.
Ultrasound is a well-established imaging modality for the evaluation of breast disease. The investigators objective is to characterise the properties
Benign breast lumps do not necessarily require any treatment, although treatment may be recommended if the lump is particularly large, is getting bigger, or is causing other symptoms such as pain.. Medication can often help relieve breast pain, and antibiotics can treat any bacterial infections that may have caused the lump to develop.. In some cases, a needle may need to be used to drain away any fluid or pus within the breast lump. Local anaesthetic will be used to numb the area being treated so you dont feel any pain while this is carried out.. Occasionally, surgery may be carried out to cut out the lump. This will normally be done under general anaesthetic (where you are asleep) and you will usually be able to go home the same day.. Read more about treating breast lumps.. ...
Few things can be more frightening for a woman than to be told that she has a lump in her breast, because even when these tumors are benign, they are believed to indicate an increased risk of breast
Introduction Nationally, 25% to 50% of patients undergoing lumpectomy for local management of breast cancer require a secondary excision because of the persistence of residual tumor. Intraoperative...
Learn about Breast Clinic research to improve the diagnosis, care and outcomes for people with the most serious and complex breast conditions.
There is a new test some doctors say could change the way we treat breast cancer. The new Halo Pap Test for the breast is now available to help doctors identify breast disease up to eight years earlier than a lesion might be found on a mammogram.
Study Breast Lump flashcards from F B.'s class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Penns Department of Radiology utilizes the most advanced breast imaging technology available to provide for the early detection and treatment of breast disease.
Follow-up imaging for patients with benign breast biopsies can be safely done at 12 months rather than 6 months, when radiologic and pathologic findings are concordant, according to a study reported a.... ...
Our High-Risk Breast Clinic helps those with dense breasts, a family history of breast cancer and other risk factors guard against the disease.
my mothers breast is swollen really bad and she is in alot of pain. she also has alot of discharge and crusty around the nipple. any help would be appreciated
A probe sheath and probe wire having a memory hook and soft flexibility are used to locate a small presymptomatic breast lesion, wherein the wire is sheathed within the sheathing cannula and both are inserted into the body tissue and directed to the site of the lesion. Thereafter the wire is extended through the sheath to assume its memory configuration and its location is determined mammographically. If re-positioning is necessary the wire may be retracted into the sheath and then extended and re-anchored after the wire and sheath are directed to a new position. When the probe wire location is acceptable the cannula is removed and the probe wire is left as a marker for surgical excision of the lesion.
The Westmead Breast Centre provides comprehensive, co-ordinated clinical care for patients with breast cancer and non-cancer breast disease.
KC is a 58-year-old Christian worker from Thailand. She had problems with her thyroid since high school days. She was on medication for some 10 years. Then she had surgery followed by medication again. The problem persisted. At one time, while in the United States, she was scheduled for radiotherapy. After reflection and prayer, KC…
See what patients have to say about Dr. Amber Seba, MD, a highly rated Hematology Specialist in Libertyville, IL specializing in Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), Breast Diseases, Blood Disorders.
Just got back from the doctors, have a lump on the bottom of the left breast. Can move it side to side between fingers. When she checked I didnt eve
Im 13 years old, and when I was about 11 I noticed a lump in my left breast. About a year later I found one in my right one too.
I just had a breast exam and Pap smear two weeks ago and definitely nothing there. It turns out I had a vaginal infection so was on antibiotics. Can this be related? I am so scared about this lump now. I am just 50 and feel like my period is going to start but not sure because my last one was a.... ...
I am 32yrs women .I hv small lump in my right breast . After checkup dr suggested me its of a fabroid lump. I hv gone through routine CBC tests it show lymphocyte count 46.92% and PDW 7.35% rest of the result shows normal value. I am worri
Learn about the difference between a benign or non-cancerous breast lump and a cancerous one, including potential symptoms and how they are diagnosed.
If your breasts are tender, your period might be arriving. If you feel a lump, you need to see a doctor. But what about your nipples?
If your breasts are tender, your period might be arriving. If you feel a lump, you need to see a doctor. But what about your nipples?
Painless lump on kneecap - I have a large, painless lump that doesnt move above my kneecap. I have an MRI scheduled. What do you think it May be? Sarcoma? Maybe. Thats what we need to rule out. Most of these are very benign. Hope yours is, but if theres any reason to be concerned, get tissue for pathology
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Lumps, bumps and masses should always be considered dangerous and the longer you let them grow the more of a risk they pose. Learn how these masses can be dealt with easier than you might think.
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Ive taken ZMA before and have never noticed anything peculiar. However lately my nipples are getting more and more pointy. Not the whole nipple just
Hamartomas of the breast, also known as fibroadenolipomas, lipofibroadenomas or adenolipomas, are benign lesions. Hamartomas account for between 0.04 and 1.15% of all benign breast tumors in females. Myoid hamartoma of the breast (MHB) is extremely rare. The present study describes a case of MHB in a 44-year-old female. Screening mammography revealed a lobulated partial indistinct isodense mass measuring ~3.8 cm in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Sonographic examinations revealed a 2-3-cm mass in the left breast, which was fairly well circumbscribed and demonstrated complex scattered echogenic areas and isoechoic tissue. A core needle biopsy demonstrated fibrocystic changes, with small focal ductule aggregations. As malignancy could not be excluded, a partial mastectomy was performed using a circumareolar incision. The mass was histopathologically diagnosed as MHB with focal chondromyoxid metaplasia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The histological diagnosis was based upon ...
Here we present a case of an 11-year old hispanic girl affected by bilateral mammary nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, an uncommon breast disease, with a review of the literature related to diagnostic workup, differential diagnosis, and management. A rapidly growing mass in the breast may be stressful for both parents and child as the suspicion of malignancy arises. Multiple wide excisions of both breasts were performed.. CONCLUSIONS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular breast imaging in pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. AU - Boughey, Judy C.. AU - Tortorelli, Cindy. AU - Hruska, Carrie. AU - OConnor, Michael. AU - Rhodes, Deborah. PY - 2010/7/1. Y1 - 2010/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79959523332&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79959523332&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:79959523332. VL - 1. JO - Journal of Surgical Radiology. JF - Journal of Surgical Radiology. SN - 2156-213X. IS - 1. ER - ...
Three cases are presented of complications after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy with immediate prosthetic replacement, performed for benign breast disease in women who ranged in age from 24 to 32 years, by surgeons outside the field of plastic surgery.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acidophilic nuclear inclusions are specific for florid ductal hyperplasia among proliferative breast lesions. AU - Lauer, Scott. AU - Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela. AU - Cohen, Cynthia. AU - Adsay, Volkan. AU - Adams, Amy L.. PY - 2011/6/1. Y1 - 2011/6/1. N2 - Context.-Recently we have observed distinctive acidophilic intranuclear inclusions in cases of usual intraductal hyperplasia of the breast. Similar inclusions were described almost 20 years ago in cases of mammary hyperplasia. These correlated ultrastructurally with so-called helioid inclusions. However, there since has been little discussion of these inclusions in the literature. Objective.-To examine the incidence and specificity of these inclusions in proliferative lesions of the breast. Design.-Forty cases of usual intraductal hyperplasia, 15 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia, and 34 cases of lowgrade ductal carcinoma in situ were examined for the presence of acidophilic intranuclear inclusions. Results.-Acidophilic ...
Home » Breast lump. Breast lump (Science: oncology, surgery) a breast lump that may be benign or cancerous. Examples of breast lumps include: breast abscess, fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic breast disease and breast cancer. A breast biopsy is the best way to determine the aetiology of a breast lump. Remember, 80 to 85% of all biopsies are benign. ...
CYP19A1 encodes for aromatase, which irreversibly converts androgens to estrogens; variation in this gene may affect individual susceptibility to breast cancer and other sex hormone-dependent outcomes. In a case-control study nested within a breast self-examination trial conducted in China, we examined whether CYP19A1 polymorphisms (rs1870049, rs1004982, rs28566535, rs936306, rs11636639, rs767199, rs4775936, rs11575899, rs10046, and rs4646) were associated with risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions. Cases were diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 614) or fibrocystic breast conditions (n = 465) during 1989 to 2000. Controls were free of breast disease during the same period (n = 879). Presence of proliferative changes within the extratumoral tissue of women with breast cancer and the lesions of women with fibrocystic conditions only was assessed. None of the polymorphisms were associated with overall risk of breast cancer or fibrocystic breast conditions. Differences in breast ...
Also called fibrocystic condition, fibrocystic change or cystic mastitis, fibrocystic breast disease is more a characteristic of the breast than a disease. It is often more prominent during ovulation
Fibrocystic breast disease. It really isnt a disease at all. It is not related to breast cancer in any way. Feeling a lump can be very scary and concerning. You need to seek the advice of a physician. It may not be breast cancer; it could be a Fibrocystic Breast Condition.
Learn more about Cyclic Mastalgia at Medical Center of Aurora Related Terms Breast Pain, Cyclic Breast Tenderness, Cyclic Cyclic Mastitis Fibrocystic Breast Disease Uses Principal...
Learn more about Cyclic Mastalgia at Sky Ridge Medical Center Related Terms Breast Pain, Cyclic Breast Tenderness, Cyclic Cyclic Mastitis Fibrocystic Breast Disease Uses Principal...
Learn more about Cyclic Mastalgia at Sky Ridge Medical Center Related Terms Breast Pain, Cyclic Breast Tenderness, Cyclic Cyclic Mastitis Fibrocystic Breast Disease Uses Principal...
Widespread use of mammography ends up in detection of small cancers with favorable diagnosis, in addition to an array of indeterminate lesions, nearly all of which develop into histologically benign. This publication offers an in depth account of the radiology and pathology of screening-detected lesions, with dialogue of hazard evaluate, to aid clinicians within the follow-up of their patients. comparable lesions are handled in consecutive chapters, giving the reader a chance for comparability. The e-book is definitely illustrated with radiological and pathological correlation of typically screening-detected photos together with mucocele-like lesions and columnar lesions. All professionals who care for sufferers with breast affliction, comparable to breast surgeons, radiologists, pathologists and breast care nurses, will locate the ebook highly useful for the management of sufferers with benign or indeterminate breast lesions in a multidisciplinary setting. ...
Fibrocystic breast disease diagnostics (costs for program #140161) ✔ University Hospital Münster ✔ Breast Center ✔ BookingHealth.com
The most common type of breast pain is associated with the menstrual cycle and is nearly always hormonal. Some women begin to have pain around the time of ovulation which continues until the beginning of their menstrual cycle. The pain can either be barely noticeable or so severe that the woman cannot wear tight-fitting clothing or tolerate close contact of any kind. The pain may be felt in only one breast or may be felt as a radiating sensation in the underarm region.. Some physicians have women chart their breast pain to determine if the pain is cyclical or not. After a few months, the relationship between the menstrual cycle and breast pain will emerge.. Physicians continue to study the role that hormones play in cyclical mastalgia. One study has suggested that some women with cyclical mastalgia have a decreased ratio of progesterone to estrogen in the second half of the menstrual cycle. Other studies have found that an abnormality in the hormone prolactin may affect breast pain. Hormones can ...
Breast cancer; Endometriosis; Female infertility (assisted reproduction); Prostate cancer; Uterine diseases (endometrial ... Thus they are commonly employed in the medical management of prostate cancer and have been used in patients with breast cancer. ... Breast cancer; Endometriosis; Menorrhagia; Precocious puberty; Prostate cancer; Uterine fibroids. Injection; Implant. 1985. ... Fertility medicine; Prostate cancer; Breast cancer; Menorrhagia; Endometriosis; Uterine fibroids; Hyperandrogenism; Hirsutism; ...
Sulik, Gayle (2010). Pink Ribbon Blues: How Breast Cancer Culture Undermines Women's Health. New York: Oxford University Press ... Acute disease. An acute disease is a short-lived disease, like the common cold.. Chronic disease. A chronic disease is one that ... hereditary diseases (including both genetic diseases and non-genetic hereditary diseases), and physiological diseases. Diseases ... Subclinical disease. Also called silent disease, silent stage, or asymptomatic disease. This is a stage in some diseases before ...
Sulik, Gayle (2010). Pink Ribbon Blues: How Breast Cancer Culture Undermines Women's Health. New York: Oxford University Press ... Acute disease. An acute disease is a short-lived disease, like the common cold.. Chronic disease. A chronic disease is one that ... It also sounds like it could imply secondary disease, but acquired disease can be primary disease.. Acute disease disease of a ... hereditary diseases (including both genetic diseases and non-genetic hereditary diseases), and physiological diseases. Diseases ...
California Breast Cancer Organizations (CABCO). *Celiac Disease Foundation. *Center for Science in the Public Interest ... CUE membership is currently about 50 member groups; the earliest members include the National Breast Cancer Coalition, Consumer ...
... breast cancer, venous thromboembolic disease, and osteoporosis.[14][23] In contrast to these potentially increased risks, rare ... The surgical removal of the breasts may be considered for both the psychological reasons and to reduce the risk of breast ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 1: 42. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-1-42. PMC 1634840. PMID 17062147.. ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 1: 42. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-1-42. PMC 1634840. PMID 17062147.. ...
Gentilini OD, Boccardo C (2015). "Male Breast Diseases". The Outpatient Breast Clinic: 431-446. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-15907-2_ ... Some gynecomastia and breast tenderness developed in one patient treated with 50 mg/day, but significantly improved upon the ... Signs of breast development occurred in all subjects within 6 weeks and were associated with increased nipple sensitivity; ... Kaplowitz N (16 October 2002). Drug-Induced Liver Disease. CRC Press. pp. 618-. ISBN 978-0-203-90912-6. Yun GY, Kim SH, Kim SW ...
no reduction in cardiovascular disease[38]. *no statistically significant reduction in invasive breast cancer[39] ... Lipids in Health and Disease. 9: 94. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-94. PMC 2941756 . PMID 20815907.. ... 2006). "Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (19): 1991-2002. doi ... Jennifer Petrelli; Kathleen Y. Wolin (2009). Obesity (Biographies of Disease). Westport, Conn: Greenwood. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-313 ...
Intercurrent diseases. Main article: Intercurrent disease in pregnancy. A pregnant woman may have intercurrent diseases, ... Missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, frequent urination[1]. Complications. Miscarriage, high blood ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 August 2017. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August ... "Pregnancy complicated by disease". Merck Manual, Home Health Handbook. Merck Sharp & Dohme. Archived from the original on 10 ...
Straus MJ (1979). "New developments in the treatment of advanced lung cancer". The American Review of Respiratory Disease. 120 ... Straus MJ, Moran RE (1980). "The cell cycle kinetics of human breast cancer". Cancer. 46 (12): 2634-9. doi:10.1002/1097-0142( ... He subsequently took up posts at the Westchester County Medical Center as Chief of Neoplastic Diseases and the New York Medical ... and nodal status in human breast cancer". Cancer. 54 (8): 1586-90. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19841015)54:8,1586::aid-cncr2820540820 ...
Breast diseaseEdit. In a number of breast pathologies, calcium is often deposited at sites of cell death or in association ... Pathologic basis of veterinary disease, fourth edition; Elsevier 2007.. *^ Robbins and Cotran (2009), Pathologic Basis of ... Laminated appearance suggests granulomatous disease while popcorn calcification indicates hamartoma. Malignant lesions may have ...
Jay R. Harris; Marc E. Lippman; C. Kent Osborne; Monica Morrow (28 March 2012). Diseases of the Breast. Lippincott Williams & ... Zhang X, Yee D (2001). "Tyrosine kinase signalling in breast cancer: insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in breast ... In breast cancer, where EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib are being used to inhibit the EGFR signaling pathway, IGF-1R confers ... The IGF-1R is implicated in several cancers, including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. In some instances its anti-apoptotic ...
Ismail Jatoi; Manfred Kaufmann (11 February 2010). Management of Breast Diseases. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 338-. ... The drug was under development for clinical use, for instance in the treatment of breast cancer and as an endometrial ... It was also under development for the treatment of endometrial cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and uterine cancer, but ... as first-line therapy in primary breast cancer". Eur. J. Cancer. 35 (2): 214-8. PMID 10448262. Katkam RR, Gopalkrishnan K, ...
Ismail Jatoi; Achim Rody (16 November 2016). Management of Breast Diseases. Springer. pp. 77-. ISBN 978-3-319-46356-8. Mansel R ... A study in France on 55 women showed that rubbing afimoxifene on the skin was as effective as oral tamoxifen at slowing breast ... A United States trial will compare 6 weeks use before breast cancer surgery. Skin application can reduce systemic levels by a ... Alice C. Levine (3 October 2011). Hormones and Cancer: Breast and Prostate, An Issue of Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of ...
Webster's Benign Disorders and Diseases of the Breast. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 312. ISBN 0-7020-2774-X. Trop I, Dugas A, ... Pre-operatively, also breast ultrasound and mammogram are performed to rule out other abnormalities of the breast. A ... Duct excision may be indicated for the treatment of recurrent breast abscess and mastitis, and the total removal of all ducts ... p. 1694 J Michael Dixon (22 June 2013). Breast Surgery: Companion to Specialist Surgical Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. p ...
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). "Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to ... Montgomery, D.L.; Splett, P.L. (1997). "Economic Benefit of Breast-Feeding Infants Enrolled in WIC". Journal of the American ... There are benefits for mothers too: women who don't breastfeed have increased risk of developing heart disease, hypertension, ... diabetes, high cholesterol, breast cancer, ovarian cancer and hip fractures in later life.[9][10][11] The BFHI aims to increase ...
Breast Disease. 31 (1): 7-18. doi:10.3233/BD-2009-0290. Cancer Genome Atlas Research, Network. (4 July 2013). "Comprehensive ... Historically cancer was identified, understood, and treated as a monolithic disease. It was seen as a "foreign" component that ... in order to study the disease as a complex adaptive system with emerging properties at multiple biological scales. Cancer ... "Dynamic modelling of oestrogen signalling and cell fate in breast cancer cells". Nat. Rev. Cancer. 11: 523-532. doi:10.1038/ ...
Breast Disease. 11: 113-24. doi:10.3233/bd-1999-11110. PMID 15687597. Joyce JA, Fearon DT (April 2015). "T cell exclusion, ... Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-faceted, age-dependent, progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and is a major cause of ... Monoclonal antibody therapy may prove to be beneficial for cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders that result ... Tissue-specific gene delivery using immunoliposomes has been achieved in brain and breast cancer tissue. Checkpoint therapy ...
The disease is characterised by the formation of painful abscesses in the mouth, lungs, breast, or gastrointestinal tract. ... Breast Disease. 35: 45-47. doi:10.3233/BD-140381. PMID 25095985. Ryan KJ; Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology ( ... but the disease remained classified as a fungus in the 1955 edition of the Control of Communicable Diseases in Man. Violinist ... Disease incidence is greater in males between the ages of 20 and 60 years than in females. Before antibiotic treatments became ...
... from embryogenesis to breast cancer progression". Breast disease. 29: 91-103. PMC 3175751 . PMID 19029628. Branford WW, Yost HJ ... from embryogenesis to breast cancer progression". Breast disease. 29: 91-103. PMC 3175751 . PMID 19029628. Kawasumi A, Nakamura ...
Szabo S, Haislip A, Garry R (2005). "Of mice, cats, and men: is human breast cancer a zoonosis?". Microsc Res Tech. 68 (3-4): ... News From an Old Disease". Veterinary Pathology. 48 (1): 98-116. doi:10.1177/0300985810390826. PMID 21149845.. ... There are many differences between mammary tumors in animals and breast cancer in humans, including tumor type, malignancy, and ... similarities to and differences from human breast cancer". J Proteome Res. 9 (12): 6380-91. doi:10.1021/pr100671c. PMID ...
As underweight children are more vulnerable to almost all infectious diseases, the indirect disease burden of malnutrition is ... Breast feeding and eating should resume as soon as possible.[42] Drinks such as soft drinks, fruit juices, or sweetened teas ... Overeating leads to many diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes, that may result in death. ... This conditions may include Crohn's disease or untreated coeliac disease.[4][9][52] Malnutrition may also occur due to ...
Diagnosis of Diseases of the Breast. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-9563-9. OCLC 488959603. Groves, Leslie ( ... That year he published "A Roentgenologic Study of the Breast". X-ray imaging of the breast had first been investigated by ... He was even able to detect an undiagnosed cancer in a breast that had been removed because of a large cyst. However, Salomon ... Warren developed the technique of producing stereoscopic images of the breast with X-rays while working in the Department of ...
"Hodgkin's Disease - Staging". oncologychannel. Retrieved 2010-10-14. "Breast Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute". ... Breast cancer: In breast cancer classification, staging is usually based on TNM, but staging in I-IV may be used as well. ... Systems of staging may differ between diseases or specific manifestations of a disease. Lymphoma: uses Ann Arbor staging ... NCCN Breast Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines Panel (2009). "Breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology". ...
... skinless chicken breast, the amount is much lower. A 100-g serving of baked chicken breast contains 4 g of fat and 31 g of ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 3, 2014.. *^ "The evolution, and revolution, of flu vaccines". FDA ... Barn systems have been found to have the worst bird welfare.[44] In Southeast Asia, a lack of disease control in free-range ... Other birds with breast muscle more suitable for sustained flight, such as ducks and geese, have red muscle (and therefore dark ...
These drugs also cross the placenta and are secreted in breast milk. Lugol's iodine may be used to block hormone synthesis ... Begbie's disease, Flajani's disease, Flajani-Basedow syndrome, and Marsh's disease.[39] These names for the disease were ... a b c d e f g Basedow's syndrome or disease at Who Named It? - the history and naming of the disease ... Graves' disease[39][40] has also been called exophthalmic goiter.[40] Less commonly, it has been known as Parry's disease,[39][ ...
大多數的基因是存在細胞核中,但是細胞中一個稱為粒線體的胞器,也擁有自己的基因組。粒線體基因組在粒線體疾病(mitochondrial disease)中具有一定的重要性。而且這些基因也可以用來研究人類的演化,舉例而言,若分析人類粒線體基因組的變異情況,將 ... Inhibition of breast cancer growth and invasion by single-minded 2s.. Carcinogenesis. PMID 16840439.. ... Olson M, Varki A. Sequencing
... fibrocystic breast disease is more a characteristic of the breast than a disease. It is often more prominent during ovulation ... www.healthcentral.com/condition/fibrocystic-breast-disease. Fibrocystic Breast Disease. Fibrocystic Breast Disease. March 27, ... fibrocystic breast disease is more a characteristic of the breast than a disease. It is often more prominent during ovulation ... Fibrocystic breast disease is usually diagnosed when a patient goes to her doctor for a checkup or seeks help for pain, ...
It really isnt a disease at all. It is not related to breast cancer in any way. Feeling a lump can be very scary and ... It may not be breast cancer; it could be a Fibrocystic Breast Condition. ... Fibrocystic Breast Disease. by travelnurse. Fibrocystic breast disease. It really isnt a disease at all. It is not related to ... It may not be breast cancer; it could be a Fibrocystic Breast Condition.. Fibrocystic breast disease is actually a common ...
A new study which followed 2,000 women with breast cancer for twenty-years post-diagnosis has revealed that breast cancer is ... eleven different diseases, each with a different risk of coming back after treatment. ... New research published in the journal Nature shows that breast cancer is 11 genetically distinct diseases, and each has a ... New research published in the journal Nature shows that breast cancer is 11 genetically distinct diseases, and each has a ...
Breast changes such as lumps, bumps, and discharge are common. Some causes can be aging, hormones, and medicines. Learn whats ... Fibroadenoma - breast (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Fibrocystic breast disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Breast self exam (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Breast skin and nipple changes (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Breast Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Gynecomastia (National Institutes of ...
Health Information on Breast Diseases: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Breast Diseases: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades del seno: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Breast Biopsy - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Breast Biopsy - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...
This text is intended as a practical guide for physicians and surgeons who treat diseases of the breast, both benign and ... The management of breast diseases requires a multidisciplinary approach, and this textbook therefore includes the views of a ... This text is intended as a practical guide for physicians and surgeons who treat diseases of the breast, both benign and ... Today the treatment of breast diseases is largely predicated on the results of randomized prospective trials. The results of ...
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the U.S. and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among ... When cancer starts in the breast, it is called breast cancer. As it grows, breast cancer can cause changes in how the breast ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Breast cancer symptoms vary, and some women dont have symptoms.. *Men can get breast cancer, but it is not very common. For ...
... and intensively focused information about Breast Diseases in a compact format. The editors have built Breast Diseases: New ... The content of Breast Diseases: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition has been produced by the worlds ... You can expect the information about Breast Diseases in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well ... Breast Diseases: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, ...
... breasts. It is a very common condition and not harmful. Learn more in this article. ... Fibrocystic breast disease causes a person to have lumpy, and sometimes painful, ... breasts that feel heavy. While lumpy breasts and discomfort are common in people with fibrocystic breast disease, it is ... Symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease can include tenderness and swelling. A doctor may diagnose fibrocystic breast disease ...
... disease is a common and benign change within the breast characterized by a dense irregular and bumpy consistency in the breast ... Fibrocystic breast disease is a common and benign change within the breast characterized by a dense irregular and bumpy ... consistency in the breast tissue. Mammography or biopsy may be needed to rule out other disorders. ...
15 (HealthDay News) -- Young women receiving radiation after having surgery for breast cancer are at increased risk of ... developing a new tumor in the opposite -- or contralateral -- breast, a new Dutch study suggests. ... Younger Breast Cancer Survivors Risk Disease in Other Breast. By Amanda Gardner. HealthDay Reporter. Wednesday, October 15, ... In general, according to the study, women diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast have three to four times the risk of ...
Pagets disease) of the breast is an uncommon type of cancer that forms around the nipple. It is usually associated with an ... underlying breast cancer. Find out about symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. ... These other diseases are not related to Paget disease of the breast. This fact sheet discusses only Paget disease of the breast ... breast ectasia, and breast infection. Sometimes its possible to feel breast cancer as a breast lump. The breast lump may or ...
Im experiencing an intermittent dull pain in the center of my chest that feels like its coming from my breast bone as opposed ... Can Mental Stress Lead to Heart Disease? Can depression and anxiety cause heart disease? Get the facts in this Missouri ... Heart Disease Forum This expert forum is not accepting new questions. Please post your question in one of our medical support ... Im experiencing an intermittent dull pain in the center of my chest that feels like its coming from my breast bone as opposed ...
For about a week now Ive noticed unusual pain in between my breasts as if the pain is located on the bone. It becomes painful ... Breast Bone Pain Kimmy600 For about a week now Ive noticed unusual pain in between my breasts as if the pain is located on the ... Breast Bone Pain. For about a week now Ive noticed unusual pain in between my breasts as if the pain is located on the bone. ... Can Mental Stress Lead to Heart Disease? Can depression and anxiety cause heart disease? Get the facts in this Missouri ...
Some breast cancer therapies can be hard on the heart. Experts say it shouldnt stand in the way of treatment and steps can be ... Some treatments for breast cancer can harm your heart.. And heart disease is the number one. cause of death for women in the ... Breast Cancer Treatments Can Increase Risk of Heart Disease. Written by Ann Pietrangelo. on February 8, 2018 ... In fact, breast cancer survivors, particularly women over age 65, are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than ...
Presentation at the 4th IMPAKT Breast Cancer Conference. Breast cancer in young women is a biologically unique disease that ... whether the disease had spread to lymph nodes and breast cancer molecular subtype, in addition to other variables. ... "Young women with breast cancer tend to have a poorer prognosis. This study provides evidence that breast cancer in young women ... "As breast cancer arising below the age of 40 is relatively uncommon, we lack information on whether different gene signatures ...
Pagets disease of the breast is a rash on and around the nipple that can indicate a rare form of breast cancer. Find out what ... Pagets disease of the breast may cause tingling and itching.. The symptoms of Pagets disease vary depending on the stage of ... Pagets disease of the breast or nipple refers to breast changes that can indicate that cancer cells are forming in or around ... Around half of all people with Pagets disease of the breast also have a breast lump behind the nipple. In 90% of these cases, ...
... watchful waiting is inappropriate when a breast lesion develops or enlarges during pregnancy or lactation ... Since breast cancer complicates 1 in 3000 deliveries in the US, ... Diagnosing and Managing Breast Disease During Pregnancy and ... Diagnosing and Managing Breast Disease During Pregnancy and Lactation. MedGenMed 1(2), 1999. [formerly published in Medscape ... During pregnancy, the size and weight of the breasts approximately double as glandular elements proliferate under hormonal ...
Cat scratch disease presenting as breast mastitis.. Gamblin TC1, Nobles-James C, Bradley RA, Katner HP, Dale PS. ... Cat Scratch Disease - Genetic Alliance. *Breast Diseases - MedlinePlus Health Information. *Cat Scratch Disease - MedlinePlus ...
... i hv been having pain under my left breast which feels like it is in my heart.Its its a very sharp pain,tighting and i cant ... pain undre left breast. Im a 25 years old female and since one year,i hv been having pain under my left breast which feels like ... Can Mental Stress Lead to Heart Disease? Can depression and anxiety cause heart disease? Get the facts in this Missouri ... Im a 25 years old female and since one year,i hv been having pain under my left breast which feels like it is in my heart.Its ...
APC of Breast Diseases: Breast Cancer - Epidemiology, risk factors, and Genetics BMJ 1994; 309 :1003 ... APC of Breast Diseases: Breast Cancer - Epidemiology, risk factors, and Genetics. BMJ 1994; 309 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/ ... Risk Factors for Breast cancer. Age The incidence of breast cancer increases with age, doubling about every 10 years until the ... Studies of migrants from Japan to Hawaii show that the rates of breast cancer in migrants assume the rate in the host country ...
Breast cancer patients may be at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and may benefit from a ... because older breast cancer survivors are more likely to die of heart disease than breast cancer," Dr. Mehta said. "And thats ... who are living with cardiovascular diseases and approximately 3 million breast cancer survivors, many people regard breast ... Breast cancer patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. *Download PDF Copy ...
... especially if they breast-feed for longer durations. ... Mothers who breast-feed their babies may reduce their risk of ... Mothers who breast-feed their babies may be at lower risk of heart disease and stroke. ... The team found that, overall, women who had breast-fed their children were at 9 percent lower risk of heart disease and 8 ... For every 6 additional months of breast-feeding, the risks of heart disease and stroke were reduced by 4 percent and 3 percent ...
Drugs & Diseases , Clinical Procedures , Breast Ultrasonography Q&A Which characteristics are evaluated on breast ... Breast cancer detection using automated whole breast ultrasound and mammography in radiographically dense breasts. Eur Radiol. ... Normal breast ultrasound. The woman is older than the one seen in the first two images. The breast has involuted, the ... Normal breast ultrasound. This is a younger patient than shown in the previous image. The breast parenchyma is thicker, less ...
... especially if they breast-feed for longer durations. ... Mothers who breast-feed their babies may reduce their risk of ... The team found that, overall, women who had breast-fed their children were at 9 percent lower risk of heart disease and 8 ... For every 6 additional months of breast-feeding, the risks of heart disease and stroke were reduced by 4 percent and 3 percent ... Heart disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and ...
  • Breast tissue retains fluid and grows larger. (healthcentral.com)
  • Fibrocystic breast disease is a name for healthy breast tissue that feels lumpy and may be painful at times. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Breast tissue responds to fluctuating levels of hormones, especially estrogen . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fibrocystic breast disease is a common and benign change within the breast characterized by a dense irregular and bumpy consistency in the breast tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosis of Paget disease of the breast is confirmed by a biopsy, a sample of tissue taken for laboratory analysis and diagnosis. (medicinenet.com)
  • The hallmark sign of Paget disease of the breast is the presence of certain malignant cells known as Paget cells, which are visible on microscopic examination of the tissue biopsy. (medicinenet.com)
  • The histology reflects preparation for lactation, with an excess of glandular elements over stroma (in contrast to "resting" breast tissue, where stroma predominates). (medscape.com)
  • The results show that MPM has the capability to identify the microstructure of lobule and stroma in normal breast tissue, the interaction of compressed ducts with surrounding collagen fiber in fibroadenoma, and the architecture of cysts filled with cystic fluid in fibrocystic disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Within breast tissue, many endogenous fluorophores including collagen bundles, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NAD(P)H), and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) can easily generate strong TPEF signals, and collagen fibers with noncentrosymmetric molecular structure are more effective in producing SHG signals. (hindawi.com)
  • You have dense breast tissue . (healthline.com)
  • This is a procedure in which a needle is used to obtain a small sample of breast tissue from a nipple, areola, or tumor. (healthline.com)
  • Once study participants have completed their ruxolitinib or placebo, participants will undergo surgery to remove the premalignant breast tissue. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In vitro studies have shown that high level thyroid hormones have estrogen-like effects and seem to play a role in oncogenic pathways, including that of breast tissue, which gave rise to Dr. Weng's research. (endocrineweb.com)
  • For women under 35, a may be used to look more closely at breast tissue. (umm.edu)
  • Ectopic breast (mammary heterotopia), which has been described as both supernumerary and aberrant breast tissue, is the most common congenital abnormality of the breast. (health.am)
  • However, an anatomic location outside the milk line should not preclude a diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue, because there are many well-documented, unusual sites of such tissue, including the knee, lateral thigh, buttock, face, ear, and neck. (health.am)
  • Aberrant breast tissue is usually located near the breast, most commonly in the axilla. (health.am)
  • When the nipple is absent, the presence of the accessory breast tissue is difficult to identify. (health.am)
  • The accessory breast tissue responds in the same way as normal breast tissue to physiological influences. (health.am)
  • Accessory breast tissue and polymastia are more common among Asians, especially Japanese, than whites. (health.am)
  • Recognition of ectopic breast tissue is important because it can serve as a milieu for the development of a variety of benign and malignant lesions encountered in the normal breast. (health.am)
  • The most common signs of fibrocystic breasts include lumpiness, tenderness, cysts (packets of fluid), areas of thickening, fibrosis (scar-like connective tissue), and breast pain . (imaginis.com)
  • Fibrocystic breast lumps tend to be smooth, rounded, and mobile (not attached to other breast tissue), though some fibrocystic tissue may have a thickened, irregular feel. (imaginis.com)
  • Serum and tissue LDH levels in patients with breast/gynaecological cancer and benign diseases. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated comparatively the total serum LDH activity and tissue isoenzyme LDH5 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha) levels in patients with breast (n = 18) and gynaecological (n = 23) malignancies and benign diseases (n =54). (nih.gov)
  • Serum and tissue LDH is up-regulated in gynaecologic and breast malignancies and in a subset of benign conditions such as fibro- and cystadenomas. (nih.gov)
  • Method of treating breast disease, including cancer, with a formula and a means of delivery with a topical, intraductal, ductal, and/or intraductal infusion to prevent the formation of cancer or precursors to cancer or atypia or other form of abnormal breast tissue or to treat breast diseases of all kinds. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • May include homeopathic remedies to be used topically or inside the breast with a delivery method to those regions and may be processed with or without photonic programming or an ionic delivery system for greater effectiveness and use against degenerative diseases or cancerous or precancerous diseases, precursors of breast disease, inflammatory breast disease, or accumulation of toxins in the breast tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This formula and method of its delivery is to treat abnormal breast tissue or other region of the body to be treated, or to prevent the formation of cancer or precursors to cancer or atypia or other form of abnormal breast or other tissue before it spreads or becomes breast cancer and causes metastasis to the brain, liver, bone and other parts of the body. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The most definitive study yet of the health effects of silicone breast implants has found no association between the implants and connective tissue diseases. (baltimoresun.com)
  • They analyzed data from June 1976 through May 1990, before an avalanche of lawsuits over purported links between silicone breast implants and connective tissue diseases. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The investigators found that women with implants were, if anything, slightly less likely to develop connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, or even to complain of signs and symptoms of disease that resembled those of connective tissue diseases but fell short of meeting the standard diagnostic criteria. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Another study, by researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., found no evidence that women with implants had developed any specific connective tissue disease. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Dr. Colditz said he and his colleagues conducted the study in response to growing public alarm over a possible link between implants and connective tissue diseases. (baltimoresun.com)
  • At that time, some women with implants had developed connective tissue diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and scleroderma, but there was no proof that the implants had caused the diseases. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Although the FDA was careful to say there was no scientific evidence linking implants and connective tissue diseases, the moratorium fueled the litigation. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The illnesses usually did not fit he standard definitions of connective tissue diseases, but the women's doctors and lawyers said the implants had caused not only classic connective tissue diseases, but also a new sort of disease, with symptoms resembling those of standard diseases but not quite fulfilling standard diagnostic criteria. (baltimoresun.com)
  • One possible explanation for the link between periodontal disease and breast cancer is that those bacteria enter the body's circulation and ultimately affect breast tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • A secondary emphasis will be on the CBR to act as an improved screening solution over mammography specifically in those patients with dense breast parenchymal tissue. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We thought that periodontal bacteria - either the bacteria themselves or the inflammation that's part of having periodontal disease - has an effect on other parts of the body, including breast tissue. (breastcancer.org)
  • We know there are bacteria in breast tissue and we know there are bacteria in mother's milk. (breastcancer.org)
  • ConclusionAn Edinburgh-based team used mice engineered to develop breast cancer to better understand how it spreads from breast tissue to the lung, where it can be fatal. (medworm.com)
  • Self-reported breast implants and connective-tissue diseases in female health professionals. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the association of breast implants with connective-tissue diseases. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 10,830 women reported breast implants and 11,805 reported connective-tissue diseases between 1962 and 1991. (nih.gov)
  • Self-reported connective-tissue diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with women who did not report breast implants, the relative risk (RR) of the combined end point of any connective-tissue disease among those who reported breast implants was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.41, P = .0015). (nih.gov)
  • These self-reported data from female health professionals are compatible with prior reports from other cohort studies that exclude a large hazard, but do suggest small increased risks of connective-tissue diseases among women with breast implants. (nih.gov)
  • The very large sample size makes chance an unlikely explanation for the results, but bias due to differential overreporting of connective-tissue diseases or selective participation by affected women with breast implants remains a plausible alternative explanation. (nih.gov)
  • The major contribution of this and other observational analytic studies has been to exclude large risks of connective-tissue diseases following breast implants. (nih.gov)
  • Breast implants and connective-tissue disease. (nih.gov)
  • In some patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, residual invasive cancer can be detected in breast tissue samples and lymph nodes removed during surgery. (eurekalert.org)
  • A breast neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue in the breast as a result of neoplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The breasts are composed of several cell and tissue types, which can be broadly classified as either epithelial or stromal. (gponline.com)
  • The texture of breast tissue is seldom uniform and generalised thickening, often referred to as nodularity, is common. (gponline.com)
  • Breast biopsy involves removing a sample of breast tissue to determine whether it is cancerous or benign. (medindia.net)
  • The most common test used to diagnose Paget's disease is the biopsy, removal of a tissue sample from the affected area which is then examined under the microscope by a pathologist, who distinguishes Paget cells from other cell types by staining tissues to identify specific cells (immunohistochemistry). (wikipedia.org)
  • The fat-graft transfer approach augments the size and corrects contour defects of the breast hemisphere with grafts of autologous adipocyte fat tissue, drawn from the woman's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a breast-reconstruction procedure, within a multi-stage reconstruction-mammoplasty, a tissue expander (a temporary breast-implant device) is emplaced and used to prepare (shape and enlarge) the recipient site (implant-pocket) to receive and accommodate the breast implant prosthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a non-implant breast-augmentation procedure, some fat-graft injection approaches feature tissue-engineering, which is the pre-operative, external expansion of the tissues of the recipient site to receive the grafts of adipocyte tissue drawn from the woman's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of the woman with much breast tissue, for whom sub-muscular emplacement is the recommended surgical approach, saline breast implants can afford an aesthetic result much like that afforded by silicone breast implants - a "look" of proportionate breast size, smooth contour, and realistic texture. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has since been elucidated that androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) function as trophic factors for the prostate gland, stimulating cell division and proliferation and producing tissue growth and glandular enlargement, which, in the context of prostate cancer, results in stimulation of tumors and a considerable acceleration of disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • GH induction of IGF-1 production and secretion occurs in almost all types of tissue in the body, but especially in the liver, which is the source of approximately 80% of circulating IGF-1, as well as locally in the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although IGF-1 is responsible for most of the role of GH in mediating breast development, GH itself has been found to play a direct, augmenting role as well, as it increases estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast stromal (connective) tissue, while IGF-1, in contrast, has been found to not do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are varying definitions of what is considered to be excessive breast tissue, that is the expected breast tissue plus extraordinary breast tissue, ranging from as little as 0.6 kilograms (1.3 lb) up to 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) with most physicians defining macromastia as excessive tissue of over 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some resources distinguish between macromastia (Greek, macro: large, mastos: breast), where excessive tissue is less than 2.5 kg, and gigantomastia (Greek, gigantikos: giant), where excessive tissue is more than 2.5 kg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many definitions of macromastia and gigantomastia are based on the term of "excessive breast tissue", and are therefore somewhat arbitrary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The underlying cause of the rapidly growing breast connective tissue, resulting in gigantic proportions, has not been well-elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macromastic breasts are reported to be composed mainly of adipose and fibrous tissue, while glandular tissue remains essentially stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • As teens, XXY males may develop breast tissue and also have weaker bones, and a lower energy level than other males. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, possible characteristics vary widely and include little to no sign of affectedness, a lanky, youthful build and facial appearance, or a rounded body type with some degree of gynecomastia (increased breast tissue). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibrocystic breasts or fibrocystic breast disease or fibrocystic breast condition commonly referred to as "FBC" is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age. (wikipedia.org)
  • The changes in fibrocystic breast disease are characterised by the appearance of fibrous tissue and a lumpy, cobblestone texture in the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is preliminary evidence that iodine deficiency contributes to fibrocystic breast changes by enhancing the sensitivity of breast tissue to estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • An affected human often has recently had dental work, poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, radiation therapy, or trauma (broken jaw) causing local tissue damage to the oral mucosa, all of which predispose the person to developing actinomycosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warren used radiology to track changes in breast tissue as a result of pregnancy and mastitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammography screening, scar tissue resulting from a breast hematoma can easily be confused with tumor tissue, especially in the first years following surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory diseases can be classified in many different ways, including by the organ or tissue involved, by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms, or by the cause of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer is consensually considered genetically and clinically as a heterogeneous disease, in that it reflects the heterogeneity of the normal breast tissue at its origin17873350. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cell lines can be used to model disease but it is difficult to study processes at the tissue level, within an organ or across the entire body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a few studies, iodine supplementation had beneficial effects (such as reducing the presence of breast cyst, fibrous tissue plaques and breast pain) in women with fibrocystic breast changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aromatase activity appears to be enhanced in certain estrogen-dependent local tissue next to breast tissue, endometrial cancer, endometriosis, and uterine fibroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • A liver biopsy (tissue examination) is the only test widely accepted as definitively distinguishing NASH from other forms of liver disease and can be used to assess the severity of the inflammation and resultant fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A circumareolar cut (following the circular line of the areola) is made, the ducts are divided from the underside of the nipple, and the surrounding breast tissue is removed to a depth of 2-3 cm behind the nipple-areola complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In surgical practice, for the reconstruction of a breast, the tissue expander device is a temporary breast prosthesis used to form and establish an implant pocket for the future permanent breast implant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1895, surgeon Vincenz Czerny effected the earliest breast implant emplacement when he used the patient's autologous adipose tissue, harvested from a benign lumbar lipoma, to repair the asymmetry of the breast from which he had removed a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mid-twentieth century, Morton I. Berson, in 1945, and Jacques Maliniac, in 1950, each performed flap-based breast augmentations by rotating the patient's chest wall tissue into the breast to increase its volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification of breast cancer is usually, but not always, primarily based on the histological appearance of tissue in the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grading focuses on the appearance of the breast cancer cells compared to the appearance of normal breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid leaking from a cyst, as may happen due to puncture or vigorous compression during mammography, or due to seatbelt injury in the course of an automobile accident, may trigger an aseptic inflammation in the surrounding breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a mammogram can provide valuable and clear images of the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, if there is any abnormality within the breast tissue, it will be shown on the mammogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cowden syndrome (also known as Cowden's disease and sometimes as multiple hamartoma syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by multiple non-cancerous tumor-like growths called hamartomas, which typically are found in the skin, mucous membranes (mouth, nasal membranes, GI tract), thyroid gland, and breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous research by the group showed that by analyzing the DNA of breast cancers, they can actually be considered to be 11 distinct diseases. (forbes.com)
  • The genomic analysis also identified a number of signaling pathways in the breast cancers of young women that could be potential targets for treatment, Dr Azim's group reports. (redorbit.com)
  • With 570 000 new cases in the world each year, breast cancer remains the commonest malignancy in women and comprises 18% of all female cancers. (bmj.com)
  • Worldwide breast cancers are a common cause of concern for patients as well as for doctors. (springer.com)
  • Afifi and colleagues added that the study emphasizes the importance for breast cancer survivors of following proper screening and preventive measures for other cancers. (auntminnie.com)
  • We do know that it represents a small portion of all breast cancers, and it's seen in between 1 and 4 percent of breast cancer cases. (healthline.com)
  • According to the NCI , half of breast cancers are found in women younger than age 62. (forbes.com)
  • In a new study published in the Journal of Hepatology , researchers identified links not only between NAFLD and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which have been well established, but also to cancers outside the liver, including colorectal and breast cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • Further studies are needed to specify which high-risk groups among patients with NAFLD carry a greater risk of developing specific cancers, including HCC, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer and that we should pay more attention to the cancer potential of NAFLD in clinical practice. (elsevier.com)
  • 2 This study confirmed that their data reflected higher fT4 levels were associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer, as well as any solid, non skin cancer, cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. (endocrineweb.com)
  • According to Mark W. Clemens , M.D., associate professor, Plastic Surgery and senior investigator, the team looked at "certain rare diseases" and found an association with some autoimmune diseases and cancers, including scleroderma and melanoma. (mdanderson.org)
  • Previous research has found links between periodontal disease and oral, esophageal, head and neck, pancreatic, and lung cancers, so the researchers wanted to see if there was any relationship with breast cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since 1994, scientists have known that mutations in the BRCA gene can contribute to a higher risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers. (time.com)
  • We will be laser-focused on diseases for which there are no known cure and have a poor prognosis, such as hard-to-treat cancers and incurable human genetic disease," Disney says. (scripps.edu)
  • Results reported at ESMO 2018 showed there were 32 breast cancer recurrences or second breast or non-breast cancers or deaths in patients treated with ZL, giving a 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) probability of 0.93. (news-medical.net)
  • Most breast cancers (22 of 26) arose within or at the margin of the radiation field and were infiltrating ductal carcinomas. (uni-bonn.de)
  • IMPLICATIONS: The high RR for development of breast cancer in women exposed to therapeutic radiation under 30 years of age raises important issues about optimal treatment strategies for patients with Hodgkin's disease, breast cancer, and other cancers. (uni-bonn.de)
  • The other important point is that the treatments for cancer are, in some cases, worse than the disease and that secondary cancers are often a result of the treatment of the first cancer. (bcaction.org)
  • How we think and talk about breast cancer and other cancers clearly has implications for how we address the disease. (bcaction.org)
  • The condition is an uncommon disease accounting for 1 to 4.3% of all breast cancers and was first described by Sir James Paget in 1874. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases of noninvasive cancers, simple mastectomies are performed in which only the breast with the lining over the chest muscles is removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IGF-1R is implicated in several cancers, including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Launched in early 2000 and continually updated, the site offers risk assessments for twelve different cancers and four other important chronic diseases: heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2000, The Harvard Cancer Risk Index developed into an online assessment and was renamed Your Cancer Risk, and offered assessments for four cancers: breast, colon, lung, and prostate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research and development is underway to create antibodies for diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Ebola and different types of cancers). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many PDX models have been successfully established for breast, prostate, colorectal, lung, and many other cancers because there are distinctive advantages when using PDX over cell lines for drug safety and efficacy studies as well as predicting patient tumor response to certain anti-cancer agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 5% of new breast cancers are attributable to hereditary syndromes, and well-established risk factors accounts for approximately 30% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was known for insisting on the use of rubber gloves by the entire surgical team, for advances in methods of identifying and treating benign and malignant cancers, particularly breast and bone cancers, and for advocating education of the public so they would seek routine medical examinations, even before any signs of cancer appeared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some breast cancers are aggressive and life-threatening, and must be treated with aggressive treatments that have major adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other breast cancers are less aggressive and can be treated with less aggressive treatments, such as lumpectomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancers can be classified by different schemata. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the hamartomas are benign, people with Cowden syndrome are at increased risk of certain forms of cancer, including breast, thyroid, uterus (endometrial), and kidney cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, people with Cowden syndrome are at increased risk of developing several types of cancer, including cancers of the breast, thyroid, uterus (endometrial), and kidney cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • His subsequent work has involved the identification of more moderate cancer susceptibility genes such as CHEK2, ATM and PALB2 each of which play a role in some breast cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also analysed the genomes from 24 different breast tumours and found a diversity of DNA abnormalities, indicating that cancers can be divided in more subcategories than previously thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nithiyanandam's research sought to develop a novel siRNA mechanism to decrease ID4 expression in aggressive triple-negative breast cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nithiyanandam found that a knockdown in ID4 expression resulted in aggressive triple-negative breast cancers developing primitive oestrogen receptors on their surface, consequently making the cancer susceptible to existing breast-cancer treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • WEDNESDAY, Oct. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Young women receiving radiation after having surgery for breast cancer are at increased risk of developing a new tumor in the opposite -- or contralateral -- breast, a new Dutch study suggests. (washingtonpost.com)
  • According to the American Cancer Society, radiation therapy is usually employed to destroy lingering cancer cells after a lumpectomy (also known as breast-conserving surgery), after a mastectomy involving a tumor larger than 5 centimeters in size, or when cancer is found in the lymph nodes. (washingtonpost.com)
  • However, women treated with radiation before they turned 45 had a slightly increased risk of a new tumor in the other breast, while women receiving radiation before they were 35 had a 78 percent increased risk. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The cause of Paget disease of the breast is poorly understood, but it may be related to tumor cells from other sites in the breast traveling through the milk ducts to the nipple . (medicinenet.com)
  • The most widely accepted theory is that cancer cells from a tumor inside the breast travel through the milk ducts to the nipple and areola. (medicinenet.com)
  • This would explain why a few people develop Paget disease of the breast without having a tumor inside the same breast. (cancer.gov)
  • Therefore, MPM attracts increasing attentions and investigations in the field of breast cancer including observing tumor initiation, monitoring tumor progression, and detecting tumor metastasis [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Introduction: With the emerging importance of the tumor immune environment in both invasive and preinvasive breast cancer, vaccine therapy may provide a well-tolerated, durable therapy for preinvasive breast cancer by preventing both recurrent preinvasive disease and progression to invasive disease. (washington.edu)
  • Coexisting ductal carcinoma in situ independently predicts lower tumor aggressiveness in node-positive luminal breast cancer. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Among these uncommon clinical aspects, there is mammarian granulomatous lymphadenitis which may appear as a mastitis or a solitary intraparenchymal mass, giving the impression of a breast tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • The mean time to ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 2.9 years. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The phase III National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-39 trial is currently ongoing and is asking a similar question, but in a large 4,000-patient study-does APBI limited to the region of the tumor bed after a lumpectomy provide equivalent local tumor control compared with conventional WBI in the management of early-stage breast cancer? (cancernetwork.com)
  • Gnant said denosumab likely helps reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence by keeping dormant tumor cells from becoming active. (health.com)
  • Presence of vulvar pain, bleeding, and tumor formation are reported to be more common in patients affected by invasive disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain-specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a minority of children, the early development is triggered by a disease such as a tumor or injury of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation or over expression of oncogenes can be kept under controlled expression in a very specific cellular context rather than throughout the organism.Another way to model human breast cancer is done through the targeted inhibition of a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme suggested as a tumor marker in malignant disease is the cytosolic cell cycle dependent TK1 that is present during cell division in quantities much larger than TK2 and is therefore set free to the circulation in quantities that completely dominate the activity of thymidine kinase in blood and other body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of many clinical trials are discussed in detail, and readers will find this book to be a useful guide to the evidence-based treatment of breast diseases. (springer.com)
  • Doing monthly breast self-exams and following a doctor's recommendations for clinical exams and mammograms can help catch any harmful changes early. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dr. Paula Klein , medical director of Breast Cancer Clinical Trials at Mount Sinai Health System in New York, told Healthline that Adriamycin, also known as the "red devil," is commonly incorporated into aggressive treatment programs. (healthline.com)
  • The researchers from Institut Jules Bordet are in fact planning a clinical trial in which premenopausal breast cancer patients will receive two injections of a drug called denosumab, which is a RANK-ligand inhibitor, one week before surgery. (redorbit.com)
  • This is clinically relevant as it underscores that these gene signatures could identify women below the age of 40 with ER+ disease who are at a low risk of relapse independent of clinical prognostic tools," Dr Azim explained. (redorbit.com)
  • WFUMB guidelines and recommendations for clinical use of ultrasound elastography: Part 2: breast. (medscape.com)
  • The surgical treatment of Paget's disease is always under debate, but it should be selected on the basis of clinical and radiological assessment as well as extent of involvement of cancer. (springer.com)
  • Even though the clinical and pathological description of breast cancer in men is similar to that of women, considering prognosis, men seems to have worst prognosis. (springer.com)
  • Breast Paget disease: clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects. (springer.com)
  • In addition to ordering a nipple biopsy, the doctor should perform a clinical breast exam to check for lumps or other breast changes. (cancer.gov)
  • However, recognition of clinical and imaging characteristics that support benign diagnoses is equally integral to accurate, cost-effective management of breast disease. (springer.com)
  • Best utilization of rapidly evolving ultrasound technology requires comprehensive knowledge of technique, lexicon, current practice patterns, and mastery of clinical and imaging manifestations of benign and malignant disease. (springer.com)
  • Often, fibrocystic breasts will be diagnosed with a physician-performed clinical breast exam alone. (imaginis.com)
  • Benign diseases of the breast are common clinical conditions that affect young women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, the investigators will systematically collect epidemiological, developmental and clinical data in young patients presenting with breast complaints. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of breast disorders detected by clinical breast examination during pregnancy and six months postpartum in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. (harvard.edu)
  • Expand your knowledge of every aspect of breast diseases as a diverse and distinguished group of internationally-recognized experts summarize the current knowledge, including biology and epidemiology, clinical features, and management. (r2library.com)
  • Algorithms on problem management in all aspects of breast disease from benign processes to breast carcinoma inform clinical practice. (r2library.com)
  • The agency asked the implant manufacturers to limit sales of the devices to women who needed reconstruction of a breast and agreed to participate in a clinical trial. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Physicians must be well informed regarding the concerns associated with medical photography of the breast to optimize its safe and ethical use in clinical practice. (springer.com)
  • His technique led to the development of Targaprimir-96 and multiple other disease-modifying compounds, some of which are now moving toward clinical development. (scripps.edu)
  • SAN ANTONIO -- Treatment with the chemotherapy agent capecitabine increased disease-free survival for women with HER2-negative breast cancer that was not eliminated by presurgery chemotherapy, according to results from the phase III CREATE-X clinical trial presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 8-12. (eurekalert.org)
  • It has been suggested that patients with residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy have chemoresistant breast cancer, but there have been no large-scale clinical trials to test whether adjuvant systemic chemotherapy is beneficial for these patients," said Masakazu Toi, MD, PhD, a professor at Kyoto University Hospital in Japan, and founder and senior director of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group (JBCRG). (eurekalert.org)
  • CREATE-X was designed to evaluate this clinical question by testing whether capecitabine could improve disease-free survival for patients with residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (eurekalert.org)
  • SAN ANTONIO -- Adding denosumab to adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy improved disease-free survival for postmenopausal patients with early-stage, hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, according to results from the phase III ABCSG-18 clinical trial presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 8-12. (eurekalert.org)
  • Benign lymphoreticulosis (cat scratch disease, CSD) may have a clinical course that varies from the most common lymphadenitis localized in the site of inoculation, preceded by the typical "primary lesion," to a context of severe systemic involvement. (hindawi.com)
  • We report a case of CSD of the breast in a 59-year-old woman, analyzing the clinical, histopathological, and instrumental appearance and also performing a literature review. (hindawi.com)
  • During the clinical and instrumental investigations, it may appear as a solitary intraglandular mass mimicking inflammatory breast cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical breast examination is a simple and inexpensive method of detecting breast cancer especially in women who do not have access to mammography. (medindia.net)
  • Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) was shown to be just as effective and safe as whole breast irradiation (WBI), according to the results of a randomized phase III clinical trial conducted in Italy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Results from a continuing clinical trial in benign breast disease indicate that danazol may induce progesterone receptors and that this effect persists after treatment. (bmj.com)
  • HOBOE-2 strongly supports the hypothesis that combination treatment with an aromatase inhibitor and bisphosphonate plus triptorelin may improve prognosis in premenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer,' said lead author Prof. Francesco Perrone, Director of the Clinical Trials Unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Naples, Italy. (news-medical.net)
  • WEDNESDAY, Dec. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A pair of drugs already on the market appear to reduce the recurrence of breast cancer in women who've already undergone treatment, two new clinical trials show. (health.com)
  • The study was funded by a grant from Specified Nonprofit Corporation-Advanced Clinical Research Organization and other donors to the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group. (health.com)
  • Vulvar Paget disease presents as a variety of clinical lesions that may occur over a protracted course. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 10th Global College of Neuroproetction and Neuroregeneration Annual Conference together with the International Association of Neurorestoratology VI was held to discuss on neurorestoration, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in various clinical neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, stroke and brain or spinal cord injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug was under development for clinical use, for instance in the treatment of breast cancer and as an endometrial contraceptive, but was discontinued during phase III clinical trials in 1995 due to findings that liver function abnormalities developed in a majority patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small breast hematomas that cause no discomfort often require merely clinical observation, with ultrasound being used to monitor the resolution of the hematoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a theoretical mechanism occurs by which stress could cause an aggravation of the autoimmune response that leads to Graves' disease, more robust clinical data are needed for a firm conclusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • He continued to undertake some clinical work, but his main energy was devoted to studying the relationship of hormones to breast disease, including hormone therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birkett divided up the subject simply and logically, into: Diseases before puberty Diseases during the establishment of puberty Diseases after the establishment of puberty During pregnancy, puerperium and lactation At any period or age after puberty He gave a clinical description of each condition, and related it to both anatomy and physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cheatle was a contemporary of Joseph Colt Bloodgood, who was studying the pathology and clinical treatment of prolifierative duct lesions of the breast in Johns Hopkins Hospital in the United States during the same period. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 10% of individuals, the disease progresses directly from the acute form to a symptomatic clinical form of chronic Chagas disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, in the 1990s, the saline breast implant was the prosthesis most common device used for breast augmentation surgery in the United States, because of the U.S. FDA's restriction against the implantation of silicone-filled breast implants outside of clinical studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hoped that stratifying breast cancer patients in this more detailed way could lead to better personalized medicine approaches, reducing the number of people who relapse as well as reassuring those with a very low risk of relapse. (forbes.com)
  • Bromocriptine reduces prolactin release and suppresses breast milk production after pregnancy . (healthcentral.com)
  • Although it can vary, the pain or discomfort is usually located in the undersides of the breasts or in the upper areas, when the majority of milk glands are. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One theory is that a person already has cancer of the breast, and some cancer cells migrate through the milk ducts to the surface of the nipple. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • New research links one antioxidant in particular - commonly found in breast milk and foods such as kiwi, soy, and celery - to the risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • breast milk, according to the group they were a part of. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • PQQ is naturally found in soil, interstellar dust, and human breast milk. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is the most common type of breast cancer, which can spread from the milk ducts to other parts of the breast or beyond if not treated promptly. (nypost.com)
  • During each menstrual cycle, normal hormonal stimulation causes the breasts’ milk glands and ducts to enlarge, and in turn, the breasts may retain water. (imaginis.com)
  • Joining us to explain how breast milk could be used to fight these diseases is Dr. Rana Alissa who is a pediatrician with UF Health Jacksonville. (news4jax.com)
  • An organic diet increases the amount of beneficial CLA and trans-vaccenic acid in human breast milk. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Maternal galactagogue herbal tea supplementation containing fenugreek seems to be useful for enhancing breast milk production and facilitating infant birth weight regain in early postnatal days. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Pre-germinated brown rice enhances the immunological quality of breast milk and the maternal mental health of women during lactation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We searched the literature in PubMed ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed ), EMBASE ( www.elsevier.com/online-tools/embase ), and Google Scholar ( http://scholar.google.com/ ) for all published articles until January 2013, using the terms "breast-feeding" and "Chagas," "breastfeeding" and " Trypanosoma cruzi ," "milk" and "Chagas," and "milk" and " Trypanosoma cruzi . (cdc.gov)
  • Levofloxacin does pass through breast milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, an underactive thyroid may inhibit the production of breast milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • These rudimentary tubules will eventually become the matured lactiferous (milk) ducts, which connect the lobules (milk "containers") of the breast, grape-like clusters of alveoli, to the nipples. (wikipedia.org)
  • The baby nursing from his or her own mother is the most common way of obtaining breast milk, but the milk can be pumped and then fed by baby bottle, cup and/or spoon, supplementation drip system, or nasogastric tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast milk can be supplied by a woman other than the baby's mother, either via donated pumped milk (generally from a milk bank or via informal milk donation), or when a woman nurses a child other than her own at her breast, a practice known as wetnursing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though it now is almost universally prescribed, in some countries in the 1950s the practice of breastfeeding went through a period where it was out of vogue and the use of infant formula was considered superior to breast milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is now universally recognized that there is no commercial formula that can equal breast milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast milk also contains antibodies and lymphocytes from the mother that help the baby resist infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune function of breast milk is individualized, as the mother, through her touching and taking care of the baby, comes into contact with pathogens that colonize the baby, and, as a consequence, her body makes the appropriate antibodies and immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast milk contains less iron than formula, because it is more bioavailable as lactoferrin, which carries more safety for mothers and children than ferrous sulphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many reasons a mother may not produce enough breast milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammoplasia may be due to breast engorgement, which is temporary enlargement of the breasts caused by the production and storage of breast milk in association with lactation and/or galactorrhea (excessive or inappropriate production of milk). (wikipedia.org)
  • The history and culture of breastfeeding traces changing social, medical and legal attitudes to breastfeeding, the act of feeding a child breast milk directly from breast to mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • However there are situations when a mother could not suckle her own baby, for example she may have died, become unwell or otherwise could not provide breast milk for her baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ivan analysed breast milk from many mothers in the USA where he lived and also from South American mothers in Lima, Peru, without finding any L. reuteri. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, he was still convinced that L. reuteri should be found in breast milk if Mother Nature was to decide. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then went to the university laboratory in Lima and presented some samples of breast milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common cause is congenital, but it can also be caused by maternal steroids passed on through breast milk to the newborn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moxonidine passes into breast milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cysts are not to be confused with "milk cysts" (galactoceles), which usually appear during weaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) report found that infant formula prepared in accordance with applicable Codex Alimentarius standards was a safe complementary food and a suitable breast milk substitute. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the women's breast milk dioxin was found at 400 times above the normal level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each month, the breasts respond to the cyclic peaks and troughs of estrogen and progesterone. (healthcentral.com)
  • In addition to toxicity from chemotherapy or radiation therapy , many women go on antiestrogens if they have an estrogen sensitive breast cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 2-Methoxyestradiol, an endogenous estrogen metabolite, sensitizes radioresistant breast cancer cells through multiple mechanisms. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Sulforaphane may prevent or treat breast cancer by reversing estrogen-induced metabolic changes or alterations in methylation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Unlike tamoxifen, which blocks estradiol binding to the estrogen receptor, letrozole is an aromatase inhibitor that profoundly suppresses estradiol levels but has not previously been evaluated in premenopausal breast cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Nearly all postmenopausal women with early stage, HR-positive breast cancer are treated with drugs that stop the production of estrogen, Gnant said. (health.com)
  • Neurodegenerative diseases can disrupt the normal human homeostasis and result in abnormal estrogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, estrogen studies have revealed complex interactions with neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen and estrogen-like molecules form a large family of potentially beneficial alternatives that can have dramatic effects on human homeostasis and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • These unexpected diseases hindered estrogen to get involved in neurodegenerative disease therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, when applying estrogen-like drugs to relieve neurodegenerative diseases, the concentration should be restrictly controlled to avoid these side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, estrogen deprivation is likely to initiate or enhance degenerative changes caused by oxidative stress, and to reduce the brain's ability to maintain synaptic connectivity and cholinergic integrity leading to the cognitive decline seen in aged and disease-afflicted individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that both estrogen and GH are essential for breast development at puberty - in the absence of either, no development will take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to estrogen and GH/IGF-1 both being essential for pubertal breast development, they are synergistic in bringing it about. (wikipedia.org)
  • During puberty in females, estrogen, in conjunction with GH/IGF-1, through activation of ERα specifically (and notably not ERβ or GPER), causes growth of and transformation of the tubules into the matured ductal system of the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progesterone, in conjunction with GH/IGF-1 similarly to estrogen, affects the development of the breasts during puberty and thereafter as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormonal breast enhancement or augmentation is a highly experimental potential medical treatment for the breasts in which hormones or hormonal agents such as estrogen, progesterone, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are utilized or manipulated to produce breast enlargement in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • At puberty, estrogen, but not progesterone at this time, and GH/IGF-1 are critical in mediating the development of the breasts, and are synergistic in doing so. (wikipedia.org)
  • In accordance, hormonal contraception and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen (and/or progestogens) have been associated with increased breast growth and breast size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, a trial of hormonal breast enhancement in 45 young women with very high doses (80 mg/injection) of intramuscular, bioidentical estrogen (in the form of estradiol polyphosphate, a slow-releasing estradiol prodrug) for six months found that only the women in whom an increase in IGF-1 levels occurred after four weeks (46.7% of subjects) experienced a significant increase in breast size (824.3 mm to 898.5 mm). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in accordance with the established fact that both estrogen and IGF-1 appear to be essential for breast development, and when present together, are synergistic in mediating it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The administration of estrogen to women with Turner syndrome, who normally do not develop breasts due to hypogonadism, results in normal pubertal breast development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trans women who are treated with estrogen experience normal pubertal breast development similarly to the case of girls with Turner syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, synergy of estrogen with GH/IGF-1, and by extension, maximal breast development potential, may be reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • An adolescent Vietnamese girl with Laron syndrome who was treated with a high dosage of IGF-1 and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue for 3-4 years paradoxically experienced isolated progression of breast development without any other pubertal changes in spite of estrogen levels in the low prepubertal range. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, proposed factors have included increased levels/expression of or heightened sensitivity to certain hormones (e.g., estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin) and/or growth factors (e.g., hepatic growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, and epidermal growth factor) in the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endoxifen, also known as N-desmethyl-4-hydroxytamoxifen, is an orally active nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group that is or was under development for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer cells may or may not have many different types of receptors, the three most important in the present classification being: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk of contralateral breast cancer was also greatest when three or more family members had a history of breast cancer, indicating that some of the women in the study might have the risk-raising BRCA1 or 2 genetic mutations. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Studies of migrants from Japan to Hawaii show that the rates of breast cancer in migrants assume the rate in the host country within one or two generations, indicating that environmental factors are of greater importance than genetic factors. (bmj.com)
  • BRCA1 is a protein, which in mutant form, "has been studied primarily as a genetic risk factor for ovarian and breast cancer," the authors wrote in the study published Nov. 30 in Nature Communications. (nurse.com)
  • Disney's deletion tool opens the possibility of creating drugs that can be taken conveniently as pills to correct genetic diseases-by destroying toxic gene products, and by chemically controlling the body's defense mechanisms. (scripps.edu)
  • There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, genetic diseases (both hereditary and non-hereditary), and physiological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic disease disease that is caused by genetic mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hereditary or inherited disease a type of genetic disease caused by mutation that is hereditary (and can run in families) Iatrogenic disease A disease condition caused by medical intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can be used to model any disease with a genetic foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes of such diseases can be various but can be concluded into four aspects: genetic mutation, protein misfolding, intracellular mechanisms and programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several variants of fibrocystic breast changes may be distinguished and these may have different causes and genetic predispostions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genetic predisposition for Graves' disease is seen, with some people more prone to develop TSH receptor activating antibodies due to a genetic cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various patterns of prevalence of genetic mutations in the genomes of primary breast tumour and its metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic studies of common diseases in humans suffer significant limitations for practical and ethical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances in knowledge about Tay-Sachs disease have stimulated debate about the proper scope of genetic testing, and the correctness of having diseases characterised as specific to one ethnicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jewish communities embraced the cause of genetic screening from the 1970s on, and Israel became the first country to offer free genetic screening and counseling for Tay-Sachs disease and other diseases, leading to discussion about the proper scope of genetic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much awareness of Ashkenazi Jews as an ethnic group stems from genetic studies of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some regard these studies as exhibiting ascertainment bias which created an impression that Jews are more susceptible to genetic disease than other populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sheila Rothman and Sherry Brandt-Rauf write: "Our findings cast doubt on the accuracy and desirability of linking ethnic groups to genetic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Tay-Sachs disease was one of the first autosomal recessive genetic disorders for which there was a test, it was intensely studied as a model for all such diseases, and researchers sought evidence of a selective process through a selective advantage for heterozygotes (carriers). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Two genetic mutations for this susceptibility have been identified, and these mutations provided clues to the mechanism of NASH and related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Polymorphisms (genetic variations) in the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) T455C and C482T in APOC3 are associated with fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and possibly hypertriglyceridemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a genetic researcher, he was instrumental in the development of techniques to produce monoclonal antibodies, and his diagnostic techniques and research into diseases such as Phenylketonuria have been fundamental to the early detection of affected individuals which has often lead to life-saving interventions and the prevention of further disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cotton was one of the first to recognize the need to document the extent of all human genetic variation in order to investigate, treat and prevent human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the Founder and Scientific Director of the Human Variome Project, he has led the world in developing ways to collect, curate, interpret and share information on the genetic changes that underlie both inherited and complex disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Talk can be viewed on the TedX Website at http://tedxsydney.com/site/item.cfm?item=FC929BF0C290F6C975E7E9173EC99F51 Following this discovery, Richard's research focus shifted to the biochemical genetics of human disease and he focused on human genetic mutations, which is the damaging of our genetic material that causes inherited disease and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many genetic diseases are developed from before birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances in the understanding of this diseases have increased both the life span and quality of life for many of those affected by genetic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association of a single gene to a disease is rare and a genetic disease may or may not be a transmissible disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some genetic diseases are inherited from the parent's genes, but others are caused by new mutations or changes to the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other occurrences, the same disease, for instance, some forms of carcinoma or melanoma, may stem from an inbred condition in some people, from new changes in other people, and from non-genetic causes in still other individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Great effort has been spent on finding the genes related to diseases However, increasingly evidences point out that most human diseases cannot be attributed to a single gene but arise due to complex interactions among multiple genetic variants and environmental risk factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several databases have been developed storing associations between genes and diseases such as the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the genetic Association Database (GAD) or the Disease genetic Association Database (DisGeNET). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic tests can confirm the leukemic cells at relapse are descendants of those present when the disease first appeared. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer have a mutated form of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, which normally suppress the growth of breast and ovarian tumours. (scienceblog.com)
  • You have close relatives who have had breast or ovarian cancer. (healthline.com)
  • Because of these findings, a structured screening program for breast cancer in this high-risk group has been set up in Germany, making use of existing structures put in place by the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (Deutsches Konsortium für familiären Brust- und Eierstockkrebs). (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists have linked the mutation of a protein associated with a specific gene to breast and ovarian cancer. (nurse.com)
  • It was also under development for the treatment of endometrial cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and uterine cancer, but was discontinued for these indications in favor of focusing on prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • For breast reconstruction, and for the augmentation and enhancement of the aesthetics - size, shape, and texture - of a woman's breasts, there are three types of breast implant devices: saline implants filled with sterile saline solution silicone implants filled with viscous silicone gel alternative-composition implants, filled with miscellaneous fillers - soy oil, polypropylene string, etc. - that are no longer manufactured. (wikipedia.org)
  • The woman's breasts can generate extraordinary discomfort, turning feverish, red, itchy, and even causing the skin to peel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the late nineteenth century, breast implants have been used to surgically augment the size (volume), modify the shape (contour), and enhance the feel (tact) of a woman's breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly, the term is used to refer specifically to infectious diseases, which are clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, many infectious diseases or pregnancy related conditions did not appear in the data at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Journal of Infectious Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lack of breastfeeding may contribute, as may a number of infectious diseases such as: gastroenteritis, pneumonia, malaria, and measles, which increase nutrient requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • A powerful new Lancet study reveals that the so-called breast cancer susceptibility genes -- BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 -- do not, in fact, cause breast cancer. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • As scientists gain insights into which genes drive diseases, they are pursuing the next logical question: Can gene editing technologies be developed to treat or even cure those diseases? (scripps.edu)
  • Interactions between disease-associated genes, proteins, and gene expressions have been explored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer phenotypes periodically express genes in metastasis that are indispensable for the metastatic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two autosomal dominant genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for most of the cases of familial breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the BRCA genes associated with breast cancer, the presence of NBR2, near breast cancer gene 1, has been discovered, and research into its contribution to breast cancer pathogenesis is ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence variants of these genes that are relatively common in the population may be associated with a small to moderate increased relative risk for breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richard contributed greatly to identification of the genes for phenylketonuria (PKU) and its variants by conceiving, planning and executing myeloma studies, conceiving affinity adsorbents for PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme deficient in PKU) & DHPR (di-hydro-folate reductase, also involved in PKU), as well as contributing to tests that are now applied worldwide to all newborns being screened for this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • For some illnesses, it has become apparent that it is not enough to obtain an index of the disease-related genes but to uncover how disruptions of molecular grids in the cell give rise to disease phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore, cataloguing to sort out all the diseases related to genes is needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • At different stages of any gene disease project, molecular biologists need to choose, even after careful statistical data analysis, which genes or proteins to investigate further experimentally and which to leave out because of limited resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The findings show that breast cancer arising at a young age seems to be associated with age-related biological processes, which appear to be independent of other prognostic factors that are commonly used by oncologists. (redorbit.com)
  • The findings should encourage more widespread breast-feeding for the benefit of the mother as well as the child. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The findings of the randomized study (S6-03) were presented at the 2014 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 6-9, by Kerin Adelson, M.D., assistant professor of medical oncology at Yale Cancer Center and chief quality officer at Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven. (eurekalert.org)
  • The functions of BRCA1 in the brain remain to be fully elucidated, but our findings suggest that it may play an important role in supporting critical brain functions in both health and disease," senior author Lennart Mucke, MD, said in the release. (nurse.com)
  • These findings support the hypothesis that dietary intake of fiber and nuts during adolescence influences subsequent risk of breast disease and may suggest a viable means for breast cancer prevention. (nih.gov)
  • If the patient's medical history and physical exam findings are consistent with normal breast changes, no additional tests are considered but otherwise the patient will be asked to return a few weeks later for reassessment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description of a breast cancer would optimally include all of these classification aspects, as well as other findings, such as signs found on physical exam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence and characteristics of the MMTV-like associated breast carcinomas in Tunisia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Both measures have inherent biases: RR overestimates relationships involving rare diseases and underestimates the comorbidity between highly prevalent diseases, while the ϕ {\displaystyle \phi } -correlation is accurate in describing comorbidity between diseases with similar prevalence but underestimates the comorbidity between rare and common diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Native American men have a high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was 38% in carriers, 0% wild (normal). (wikipedia.org)
  • In metastatic disease with bone involvement, bisphosphonates prevent or delay skeletal-related events and can improve pain control. (medworm.com)
  • The study was stopped early in May 2018 after a median follow-up of 65 months when the Independent Monitoring Committee recommended sharing the data with the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Cooperative Group (EBCTCG) 2018 overview. (news-medical.net)
  • New chapters have been added on pathology of in situ carcinomas, prophylactic contralateral mastectomy, implications of obesity in breast cancer, and an overview of survivorship issues. (r2library.com)