Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional: Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Image-Guided Biopsy: Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.Nipple Aspirate Fluid: Fluid collected from nipple by gentle aspiration. The fluid contains cells and extracellular fluid from the breast ductal epithelium.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biopsy, Large-Core Needle: The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Milk, HumanNeoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Neoplasm Seeding: The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.United StatesTaxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Digital Rectal Examination: A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
On July 3, 2009, it was announced that Arroyo had undergone a biopsy to examine lumps discovered in her breast and groin. Press ... TJ Burgonio (July 3, 2009). "Biopsy, not breast job for Arroyo - Palace". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original ... Charissa M. Luci (July 3, 2009). "Palace confirms biopsy". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 3, 2009. ... editions of the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Star that Arroyo had undergone surgery for the removal or repair of breast ...
Core needle biopsy. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. H&E stain. Histopathology of invasive ... Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) is the most common form of invasive breast cancer. It accounts for 55% of breast ... Breast cancer (Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast) assayed with anti HER-2 (ErbB2) antibody. Histopathology of ... Histopathology of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. H&E stain. The presence of cancer cell in small blood vessels is ...
ISBN 978-0-7020-4967-5. Schnitt, Stuart (2013). Biopsy interpretation of the breast. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/ ... test Thyroid blood tests Head CT scan or MRI to look for pituitary tumor Mammography Ultrasound of the breast Breast biopsy ... after breast lumps and breast pain. It is also known to occur in adolescent boys and girls going through puberty. Nipple ... Fibrocystic breast (normal lumpiness in the breast) Use of certain medicines Use of certain herbs, such as anise and fennel ...
Liberman, Laura (May 1, 2000). "Percutaneous imaging-guided core breast biopsy". American Journal of Roentgenology. 174 (5): ... taking special interest in radiation treatment for oral and breast cancers. Pfahler was the 1910-11 president of the American ...
Vasich, Tom (August 31, 2015). "Better than biopsies". UCI News. Retrieved 20 October 2015. Cruz, Sherri (November 29, 2013). " ... "Beckman's portable laser breast scanner detects cancer and guides treatment". The Orange County Register. Retrieved 20 October ... and monitoring of the effects of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Faculty at the Beckman Laser Institute have included: ...
Thompson, Dennis (2015-03-17). "Breast biopsy results may not be accurate, UW study finds". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2017- ... "Doctors often disagree on when to call abnormal breast cells cancer". Reuters. 2016-03-21. Retrieved 2017-08-31. Thompson, ... such as biopsies. Medicine, UW. "Joann G. Elmore M.D., M.P.H". www.uwmedicine.org. Retrieved 2017-08-31. "Elmore, Joann". epi. ... Dennis (2017-06-30). "Melanoma biopsy results can differ, worrying patients". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2017-08-31. ...
Steph finds a lump in her breast and fears that her cancer has returned. She goes to the hospital for a biopsy. When Lyn tries ... After finding a lump in her breast, Steph is told that she has cancer. Steph struggles to cope with the news and ends her ... battling breast cancer, pregnancy, being the victim of a stabbing and infidelity. Upon her return, Steph revealed that she had ... One of the biggest storylines for Steph saw her being diagnosed with breast cancer. Bonner wanted to play the scenes with ...
Thus, a biopsy is rarely called for, especially if the lesion is homogeneous and smaller than 3 centimeters. Follow-up images ... Breast adenomas are called fibroadenomas. They are often very small and difficult to detect. Often there are no symptoms. ... Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but, sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells ... Treatments can include a needle biopsy, and/or removal. Adenomas can also appear in the appendix. The condition is extremely ...
"Study: 600,000 Women Get Unneeded Biopsies". Retrieved 2016-06-24. "Study of Breast Biopsies Finds Surgery Used Too Extensively ... "Quality Assurance Initiative at One Institution for Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy as the Initial Diagnostic Technique". ... Breast J. 22: 303-9. doi:10.1111/tbj.12573. PMID 26854189. Suzuki K, Bower M, Cassaro S, Patel RI, Karpeh MS, Leitman IM (2015 ... Leitman is also known for his research on the outcomes following the surgical treatment of breast cancer, colon cancer, lower ...
A biopsy will establish the diagnosis. The histology of the lesion is the same as for Paget's disease of the breast.[citation ... Paget's disease of the breast is almost always associated with an underlying invasive malignancy, i.e. breast cancer (e.g. ... Marques-Costa, JC; Cuzzi, T; Carneiro, S; Parish, LC; Ramos-e-Silva, M (May-Jun 2012). "Paget's disease of the breast". Skinmed ...
Other cases have made screening for breast cancer difficult and in some cases impossible due to the number and density of the ... The diagnosis of PASH is by biopsy. The important differential diagnosis is angiosarcoma, from which it was first ... In breast pathology, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, commonly abbreviated PASH, is an overgrowth of myofibroblastic ... There have been cases of PASH diagnosed where the tumors co-exist with breast cancer. ...
Small amounts of chloroquine are excreted in the breast milk of lactating women. However, because this drug can be safely ... Electron microscopy of cardiac biopsies show pathognomonic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, ...
Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisional biopsy. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Histopathology of ... On the other hand, the peripheral type are often multiple papillomas arising at the peripheral breasts, and are usually found ... Ahmadiyeh N, Stoleru MA, Raza S, Lester SC, Golshan M (August 2009). "Management of intraductal papillomas of the breast: an ... Intraductal papillomas of the breast are benign lesions with an incidence of approximately 2-3% in humans. Two types of ...
Evaluation of a skin biopsy clearly distinguishes FCP from viral warts. FCP is associated with underlying cancer of the breast ... The underlying cancer is most often gastric adenocarcinoma but also with breast cancer, bladder cancer, hepatobiliary cancer, ...
SDC are diagnosed by examination of tissue, e.g. a biopsy. Their histologic appearance is similar to ductal breast carcinoma. ...
"Liquid Biopsy": trastuzumab in HER2/neu-positive breast carcinoma". J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 137 (9): 1317-1327. doi:10.1007 ... "Fluid Biopsy in Patients with Metastatic Prostate, Pancreatic and Breast Cancers". Physical Biology. 9 (1): 016003. Bibcode: ... "The significance of circulating epithelial cells in Breast Cancer patients by a novel negative selection method". Breast Cancer ... Tissue biopsies are poor diagnostic procedures: they are invasive, cannot be used repeatedly, and are ineffective in ...
... breast cancer that has spread to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer. Metastases often have a characteristic round ... Immunostaining of a biopsy is often helpful to determine the original source. The presence of Napsin-A, TTF-1, CK7 and CK20 are ... This makes it the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and second most common in women after breast cancer. The ... It is based on the results of imaging studies (such as CT scans and PET scans) and biopsy results. Surgical staging is ...
"Heat shock proteins and cell proliferation in human breast cancer biopsy samples". Cancer Detection and Prevention. 21 (5): 441 ... High levels of Hsp27 were also found in sera of breast cancer patients; therefore Hsp27 could be a potential diagnostic marker ... breast cancers, and lung cancers, which led to its use as a prognostic marker for these cancers. Notably, phosphorylated Hsp27 ... "Use of serological proteomic methods to find biomarkers associated with breast cancer". Proteomics. 3 (4): 433-9. doi:10.1002/ ...
It is considered a viable breast conservation therapy, as the amount of tissue removed is limited compared to a full-breast ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Zujewski J, Eng-Wong J (2005). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of ... of breast cancer in the US. Although early treatment of DCIS was similar to invasive breast cancer, involving full mastectomy ... 2011). "Breast cancer statistics". CA Cancer J Clin. 61: 409-418. doi:10.3322/caac.20134. Fisher B, Redmond C, Poisson R; et al ...
AT Still University, School of osteopathic medicine, lecture on breast biopsies. October 2012.. ... mammography and needle biopsy. If the results of a TTS are greater than five, an excisional biopsy is indicated.[citation ... The triple test score (TTS) is a diagnostic tool for examining potentially cancerous breasts. Diagnostic accuracy of the triple ...
Radiation to the breast reduces the ability of that breast to produce milk and increases the risk of mastitis. Also, when ... It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy. Many cancers can be prevented by not ... for breast cancer, see Carlson RW, Allred DC, Anderson BO, Burstein HJ, Carter WB, Edge SB, et al. (February 2009). "Breast ... Recommends mammography for breast cancer screening every two years from ages 50-74, but does not recommend either breast self- ...
... gene amplification in primary breast cancer core biopsy samples". Gynecol. Oncol. 93 (1): 54-8. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2004.01.019 ...
Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Hyperplasia of the breast(many more)[1][2]. Diagnostic method. Biopsy[3]. ... Hyperplasia of the breast - "Hyperplastic" lesions of the breast include usual ductal hyperplasia, a focal expansion of the ... Koerner, Frederick C. (2009). Diagnostic Problems in Breast Pathology. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-1416026129. .. ... In the case of endometrial hyperplasia usually a Pap smear is done, also a biopsy during the pelvic examination, may be done of ...
... which then opened up the field of optical biopsy in 1984. In fact, he introduced the term "optical biopsy." In 1981 Alfano used ... to diagnose cancers in human breast tissue. He was pioneer to conduct ultrafast time-resolved techniques in picosecond ranges ... He initiated the field known now as Optical Biopsy He recently calculated he has brought in $62 million worth of funding to ... Advances in Laser and Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and Other Diseases III: Optical Biopsy. SPIE Proceedings. 2679. p. ...
Breast cancer has historically been detected through self exams and mammograms, and confirmed by biopsy. All breast imaging at ... Diagnostic mammography helps characterize breast masses or determine causes of other breast symptoms. All of the imaging ... The Breast Center is an affiliate of Anne Arundel Medical Center and is nationally recognized for its outstanding care, ... In 2009 the pavilion opened, offering an expanded Breast Center, outpatient rehab programs and doctor's offices. In 2008, ...
... (also kidney biopsy) is a medical procedure in which a small piece of kidney is removed from the body for examination, usually under a microscope. Microscopic examination of the tissue can provide information needed to diagnose, monitor or treat problems of the kidney. A renal biopsy can be targeted to a particular lesion, for example a tumour arising from the kidney (targeted renal biopsy). More commonly, however, the biopsy is non-targeted as medical conditions affecting the kidney typically involve all kidney tissue indiscriminately. In the latter situation, any sufficiently-sized piece of kidney tissue can be used. A native renal biopsy is one in which the patient's own kidneys are biopsied. In a transplant renal biopsy, the kidney of another person that has been transplanted into the patient is ...
The endometrial biopsy is a medical procedure that involves taking a tissue sample of the lining of the uterus. The tissue subsequently undergoes a histologic evaluation which aids the physician in forming a diagnosis. There are a number of indications for obtaining an endometrial biopsy in a non-pregnant woman: Women with chronic anovulation such as the polycystic ovary syndrome are at increased risk for endometrial problems and an endometrial biopsy may be useful to assess their lining specifically to rule out endometrial hyperplasia or cancer. In women with abnormal vaginal bleeding the biopsy may indicate the presence of abnormal lining such as endometrial hyperplasia or cancer. In patients with suspected uterine cancer, the biopsy may discover the presence of cancer cells in the endometrium or cervix. In female infertility the ...
... is the removal of a small piece of brain tissue for the diagnosis of abnormalities of the brain. It is used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease, tumors, infection, inflammation, and other brain disorders. By examining the tissue sample under a microscope, the biopsy sample provides doctors with the information necessary to guide diagnosis and treatment. When an abnormality of the brain is suspected, stereotactic (probing in three dimensions) brain needle biopsy is performed and guided precisely by a computer system to avoid serious complications. A small hole is drilled into the skull, and a needle is inserted into the brain tissue guided by computer-assisted imaging techniques (CT or MRI scans). Historically, the patient's head was held in a rigid frame to direct the probe into the brain; however, since the early 1990s, it has been possible to perform these biopsies without the frame. Since the frame was attached to the skull with screws, ...
The Banff Classification is a schema for nomenclature and classification of renal allograft pathology, established in 1991 by Kim Solez and Lorraine C. Racusen in Banff, Canada. The initiative was "inspired by the then recent development of a consensus grading system for diagnosis of rejection in cardiac allografts led by Dr Margaret Billingham, a key participant at the first Banff meeting". Prior the Banff Classification there was no standardized, international classification for renal allograft biopsies, which resulted in considerable heterogeneity among pathologists in characterization of renal allograft biopsies. The first Banff schema was published in 1993, and has since undergone updates at regular intervals. The classification is expanded and updated every two years in meetings organized by the Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology. An evaluation of the Banff Classification in March 2000 confirmed significant association between the revised Banff '97 classification and graft outcome. ...
... (born 1946) is an American pathologist and co-founder of the Banff Classification, the first standardized international classification for renal allograft biopsies. He is also the founder of the Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology. Kim Solez obtained his M.D. with AOA honours from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, and trained in pathology at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, Maryland where he was mentored in renal pathology by Robert H. Heptinstall. He joined the faculty at Johns Hopkins and in 1987 became chairman of the Department of Pathology at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. In 1991, he established the Banff Classification, the first standardized, international classification for renal allograft biopsies, with Johns Hopkins pathologist Lorraine Racusen. The Banff Classification, updated in regular intervals, continues to "set standards worldwide for how biopsies from kidney and other solid organ transplants are ...
In statistics, sampling error is the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population.[1] The sampling error is the difference between a sample statistic used to estimate a population parameter and the actual but unknown value of the parameter.[2] An estimate of a quantity of interest, such as an average or percentage, will generally be subject to sample-to-sample variation.[1] These variations in the possible sample values of a statistic can theoretically be expressed as sampling errors, although in practice the exact sampling error is typically unknown. Sampling error also refers more broadly to this phenomenon of random sampling variation. Random sampling, and its derived terms such as sampling error, imply specific procedures for gathering and analyzing data that are rigorously applied as a method for arriving at results considered representative of a given population as a whole. Despite a common misunderstanding, "random" does not mean the same thing as "chance" as this ...
Many types of skin tumors, both benign (noncancerous) and malignant (cancerous), exist. Approximately 20-40% of primary skin tumors are malignant in dogs and 50-65% are malignant in cats. Not all forms of skin cancer in cats and dogs are caused by sun exposure, but it can happen occasionally. On dogs, the nose and pads of the feet contain sensitive skin and no fur to protect from the sun. Also, cats and dogs with thin or light-colored coats are at a higher risk of sun damage over their entire bodies. Typically, either cytologic or histopathologic analysis of the suspected mass is done prior to initiating treatment. The commonly used diagnostic procedures for skin tumors are fine-needle aspiration cytology and tissue biopsy. Cytology is an important tool that can help the veterinarian distinguish a tumor from inflammatory lesions. The biopsy technique used will largely depend on the tumor's size and location. Small masses are usually ...
Excisional biopsies may remove the tumor, but further surgery is often necessary to reduce the risk of recurrence. Complete surgical excision with adequate surgical margins and assessment for the presence of detectable metastatic disease along with short- and long-term followup is standard. Often this is done by a wide local excision (WLE) with 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) margins. Melanoma-in-situ and lentigo malignas are treated with narrower surgical margins, usually 0.2-0.5 cm (0.1-0.2 in). Many surgeons consider 0.5 cm (0.2 in) the standard of care for standard excision of melanoma-in-situ,[84] but 0.2 cm (0.1 in) margin might be acceptable for margin controlled surgery (Mohs surgery, or the double-bladed technique with margin control). The wide excision aims to reduce the rate of tumor recurrence at the site of the original lesion. This is a common pattern of treatment failure in melanoma. Considerable research has aimed to elucidate appropriate margins for excision with a general trend toward less ...
... is a benign rare chronic inflammatory disorder. Its primary symptoms are subdermal lesions in the head or neck or painless unilateral inflammation of cervical lymph nodes. Its cause remains unknown. Reasons like an allergic reaction or an alteration of immune regulation are suspected. Other theories like persistent antigenic stimulation following arthropod bites and parasitic or candidal infection have also been proposed. To date, none of these theories has been substantiated. The pathophysiology of Kimura's disease remains unknown, although an allergic reaction, trauma, and an autoimmune process have all been implicated as the possible cause. The disease is manifested by an abnormal proliferation of lymphoid follicles and vascular endothelium. Peripheral eosinophilia and the presence of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate suggest it may be a hypersensitivity reaction. Some evidence has indicated TH2 lymphocytes may also play a role, but further investigation is needed. ...
ଜାଏଣ୍ଟ ସେଲ ଆର୍ଟେରାଇଟିସ ବା ଜିସିଏ , ଅନ୍ୟ ନାମ ଟେମ୍ପୋରାଲ ଆର୍ଟେରାଇଟିସ (ଇଂରାଜୀ ଭାଷାରେ Giant-cell arteritis/ GCA, also called temporal arteritis) ଏକ ପ୍ରଦାହ (inflammatory) ରୋଗ ଯାହା ରକ୍ତନଳୀକୁ (blood vessels) ଆକ୍ରମଣ କରିଥାଏ । [୪] ଏହି ରୋଗ ହେଲେ ମୁଣ୍ଡ ବିନ୍ଧା, ଟେମ୍ପ୍ଲ ସ୍ଥାନରେ ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା, ଫ୍ଲୁ ଭଳି ଲକ୍ଷଣ (flu-like symptoms), ଦ୍ୱୈତ ଦୃଷ୍ଟି (double vision), ପାଟି ଖୋଲିବାକୁ କଷ୍ଟ ହେବା ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ଲକ୍ଷଣ ଦେଖାଯାଏ । [୩] ରୋଗ ଜଟିଳ ହେଲେ ଅଫଥାଲମିକ ଧମନୀ ଅବରୋଧ ହେବା ଯୋଗୁ ରୋଗୀ ଅନ୍ଧ ହୋଇପାରେ, ଆଓର୍ଟିକ ...
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed bi a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involvin samplin o cells or tishies for examination. ...
... is an Iranian hematologist who invented the Jamshidi needle used for bone marrow biopsy. SOFT TISSUE BIOPSY DEVICE - Google Patent ...
இழைய ஆய்வு (biopsy) அல்லது நுள்ளாய்வு அல்லது திசு ஆய்வு என்பது நோய் தாக்கியதாக ஐயுறும் உடலில் இருந்து எடுக்கப்பட்ட பதக்கூற்று உயிர்க்கலங்கள் அல்லது இழையங்களில் நோய்நிலையை அறிய அறுவையர் அல்லது கதிரியலாளர் அல்லது இதயவியலாளர் செய்யும் மருத்துவ ஆய்வாகும். இந்த இழையங்கள் ஒரு நோயியலாளரால் நுண்ணோக்கி வழியாக ஆய்வு செய்யப்படுகிறது. இது ஆய்வகத்தில் வேதியியலாகவும் ஆய்வு ...
Therefore, frozen section analysis of all SLNs during breast cancer surgery in patients with ILC should remain the standard of ... 100%) for frozen section analysis for confirming the presence of metastatic disease within SLNs during breast cancer surgery ... of intraoperative frozen section analysis for confirming the presence of metastatic disease within SLNs during breast cancer ... biopsy is the standard of care for the surgical assessment of the axilla during breast cancer surgery. However, the diagnostic ...
... , Axilary Lymph Node Biopsy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy For Breast Cancer - Lazoi.com, What is a ... Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy In Breast Cancer, ... Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy In Breast Cancer. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy In Breast Cancer. Dr. Charles E. Cox, of the Breast ... Sentinel Node Biopsy. Sentinel Node Biopsy. A sentinel node biopsy determines if breast cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. ...
What are fibrocystic breasts? Ada doctors explain its signs, symptoms (lumpy, painful breasts), diagnosis, causes, and ... Good to know: About 80 percent of women who undergo a breast biopsy do not have breast cancer. [10] ... A biopsy is only necessary if the other two examination procedures confirm the suspicion of a change in the breast tissue. ... 3) Biopsy:. A biopsy is a procedure in which a tissue sample or liquid is obtained using a needle. The cells from the tissue ...
It may not be breast cancer; it could be a Fibrocystic Breast Condition. ... It is not related to breast cancer in any way. Feeling a lump can be very scary and concerning. You need to seek the advice of ... Fibrocystic breast disease. It really isnt a disease at all. ... My aunt went so far as to having one of her lumps biopsied. If ... Symptoms of fibrocystic breasts include pain or discomfort in the breasts. You may or may not have lumps present. The breasts ...
I had read that fibrocystic breasts can be caused by consuming caffeine, but my doctor didn t tell me to stop. Should I? Can ... Fibrocystic Breasts, Caffeine and Estrogen Q: I recently had a stereotactic biopsy done on my right breast after my routine ... with fibrocystic breasts do not have a higher incidence of breast cancer than women without fibrocystic breasts. You should ... Will I be in greater danger from breast cancer now?. I would really appreciate hearing from you. I read your column in First ...
... affecting more than one-half of women at some point in their lives and was once known as fibrocystic breast disease. ... Fibrocystic breast changes cause noncancerous growths in the breasts, most often in premenopausal women. The condition is quite ... Diagnosing Fibrocystic Breast Changes with Biopsies. Some women may require a fine-needle aspiration or breast biopsy to ... Fibrocystic Breast Changes: Prognosis. Having fibrocystic breasts does not raise a womans risk of getting breast cancer later ...
At Mass General, only specially trained breast radiologists do these procedures. ... A breast biopsy is a common procedure that uses a thin needle to remove a small amount of breast tissue to determine whether ... A breast biopsy is a common procedure that uses a thin needle to remove a small amount of breast tissue to determine whether ... Most results of breast biopsies are not cancer. Instead, they can show benign changes in the breast such as fibrous growths, ...
Its used if other breast tests or a physical exam show there might be a chance of breast cancer. Learn more. ... A breast biopsy is a test that can confirm or rule out breast cancer. ... What is a breast biopsy?. A breast biopsy is a procedure that removes a small sample of breast tissue for testing. The tissue ... Why do I need a breast biopsy?. You may need a breast biopsy if:. *You or your health care provider felt a lump in your breast ...
If a mammogram and other tests show breast changes, a doctor may recommend a biopsy to find out if further treatment is needed ... A breast biopsy involves the removal of some breast tissue or cells to find out whether there is any cancer. ... A breast biopsy is the removal of a sample of breast tissue or cells to be tested for breast cancer. The doctor may recommend a ... There are several ways of doing a breast biopsy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). If there is a palpable lump, a biopsy ...
A breast biopsy is the removal of breast tissue to examine it for signs of breast cancer or other disorders. ... Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound; Breast cancer - breast ... A breast biopsy is the removal of breast tissue to examine it for signs of breast cancer or other disorders. ... There are several types of breast biopsies, including stereotactic, ultrasound-guided, MRI-guided, and excisional breast biopsy ...
Its simply removal of some of the lump youve felt in your breast, or some of the tissue identified as ... A biopsy is acknowledged to be the single most important tool available for diagnosing cancer. ... Which, of course, is more distressing than the biopsy itself. But take heart; 80% of breast biopsies show no cancer, and ... A. Needle biopsies come in two types, basically: a fine needle biopsy, or a core biopsy. They both involve sticking a needle ...
If a core biopsy done on the same location (right breast) but different lesion would I be able to code this as x2. (both at 2: ... Breast biopsy with no breast tissue. By lindacoder in forum Diagnosis Coding ... Please help! If a core biopsy done on the same location (right breast) but different lesion would I be able to code this as x2 ...
Here are some questions to help you talk with your health care providers about breast biopsy. ... There are different types of breast biopsies. Each has pros and cons. ... Questions to Ask Before a Breast Biopsy. There are different types of breast biopsies. Its important to understand the type of ... Will the size of my breast affect the way the biopsy is done? ... Breast Biopsy * Questions to Ask Before a Breast Biopsy * Fine ...
A breast biopsy is a small piece of breast tissue that is removed and checked in a lab. This is done to see if cancer or other ... What is a breast biopsy?. A biopsy is a small piece of tissue that is removed and checked in a lab. For a breast biopsy, breast ... Types of breast biopsies. There are several types of breast biopsy procedures. The type of biopsy that you have will depend on ... Why might I need a breast biopsy?. Breast biopsies may be done:. * To check a lump or mass that can be felt (is palpable) in ...
Your doctor will order a breast biopsy if theyre concerned about the results of an imaging study or if a lump was found during ... Why a breast biopsy is performed. A breast biopsy is typically performed to investigate a lump in the breast. Most breast lumps ... What is a breast biopsy?. A breast biopsy is a simple medical procedure in which a sample of breast tissue is removed and sent ... What the risks of a breast biopsy are. Although a breast biopsy is relatively simple and its risks are low, every surgical ...
Stereotactic breast biopsy. During a stereotactic breast biopsy, your breast will be firmly compressed between two plates. X- ... to determine the exact location for the biopsy. A sample of breast tissue in the area of concern is then removed with a needle. ...
WebMD explains how sentinel node biopsy helps treat breast cancer. ... Breast Cancer and the Sentinel Node Biopsy. In this Article. In this Article In this Article * How is a Sentinel Node Biopsy ... What Are the Advantages of a Sentinel Node Biopsy? In breast cancer, a sentinel node biopsy pinpoints the first few lymph nodes ... What Are the Advantages of a Sentinel Node Biopsy?. Research suggests that the sentinel node biopsy procedure can be useful in ...
A stereotactic breast biopsy uses special mammogram machines to help guide a biopsy that can show whether breast cancer is ... What is a breast biopsy? A breast biopsy involves the removal of some breast tissue or cells to find out whether there is any ... A stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography imaging to guide the procedure. A stereotactic breast biopsy is a specific kind ... A stereotactic biopsy is a type of biopsy that can help to diagnose cancerous cells in breast tissue. Using a mammography ...
Get detailed information about a core needle biopsy of the breast including what it is, special types, what to expect, and what ... Breast Biopsy. 2017. UpToDate. Accessed at www.uptodate.com/contents/breast-biopsy on September 5, 2017. ... Core Needle Biopsy of the Breast. If other tests show you might have breast cancer, your doctor may refer you for a core needle ... All biopsies can cause bleeding and can lead to swelling. This can make it seem like the breast lump is larger after the biopsy ...
Breast biopsy day has arrived. Stephanie, the ultrasound technician from yesterday was back, and she ... Living with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Series, Part 4: ... Needles in the breast.. The actual biopsy procedure was ... The Purpose of a Breast Biopsy. From Mayo Clinic: "It may take a few days before your biopsy results are available. After the ... Living with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. (#4 in a series). Breast biopsy day has arrived. Stephanie, the ultrasound ...
There are several ways to perform a breast biopsy and learn more about possible cancerous changes in the breast. Learn how we ... the next step is likely to be a biopsy. During a breast biopsy, a tissue sample is taken from your breast. Its then examined ... We may recommend a surgical biopsy for two main reasons. The first is if other breast biopsy procedures dont provide a clear ... For most women, this type of breast biopsy can spare them a more uncomfortable and expensive surgical biopsy. It may also ...
I was told that a small metal marker in the shape of the classic pink breast cancer loop symbol would be place... ... What are my rights in refusing the titanium marker from my stereotactic breast biopsy? ... my stereotactic breast biopsy? I was told that a small metal marker in the shape of the classic pink breast cancer loop symbol ... The said since the main thing was to find out if I had cancer they decided to do the biopsy. They asked me to sign a paper ...
How Is Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Performed?. Stereotactic breast biopsies are performed either prone or seated. If prone, a ... New ultrasound technique helps identify patients who need breast biopsies. When Is a Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Performed?. ... The biopsy is done below the table after raising it to gain access to your breast. If the biopsy is performed with you seated, ... What Is Stereotactic Needle Core Breast Biopsy (Vacuum Assisted)?. In many cases it is not possible to tell from a mammogram ...
... that manufactures minimally invasive breast biopsy devices. Based on proprietary technology (EnCapsule ... that manufactures minimally invasive breast biopsy devices. Based on proprietary technology (EnCapsule™ Breast Biopsy Device), ... Some of the features of the EnCapsule Precise Breast Biopsy Device:. - Enables pathology comparable to open surgical biopsy. - ... The other device that the company manufactures is EnCapsule Stereo Breast Biopsy Device. Rubicor Medicals products are FDA ...
So you have the option to choose the modality and biopsy treatment option for each and every patient - to help improve their ... Our all-in-one breast health platform includes everything from imaging equipment and breast biopsy devices to guidance systems ... Breast biopsy. Our all-in-one breast health platform includes everything from imaging equipment and breast biopsy devices to ... So you have the option to choose the modality and biopsy treatment option for each and every patient - to help improve their ...
  • The term fibrocystic breasts, also called fibrocystic mastopathy or mastopathia fibrosa cystica, describes a change in the connective tissue of the breasts. (ada.com)
  • It is the most common benign tissue change experienced in the breasts and affects about every second woman. (ada.com)
  • A biopsy is only necessary if the other two examination procedures confirm the suspicion of a change in the breast tissue. (ada.com)
  • A doctor can use it to obtain images of the inner breast tissue. (ada.com)
  • There are other hormones that affect breast tissue also. (edenfantasys.com)
  • They contain round or oval fluid-filled cysts, prominent scar-like tissue, and enlarged breast lobules, as well as an overgrowth of cells lining the milk-producing tissues or milk ducts. (facty.com)
  • This test is most effective for women under the age of 30 because it best shows the dense breast tissue common to younger women. (facty.com)
  • In the former test, a physician uses a thin, hollow needle to extract a small sample of tissue from the breast lump for testing. (facty.com)
  • The benign masses may be free-moving within the breast and can appear and disappear suddenly. (facty.com)
  • Lumpectomy is also called breast conserving surgery or wide local excision because unlike a mastectomy, only a portion of the breast is removed. (wn.com)
  • What are fibrocystic breasts? (ada.com)
  • If you think that you might have fibrocystic breasts, you can try using the Ada app to find out more about your symptoms. (ada.com)
  • What are the causes of fibrocystic breasts? (ada.com)
  • High oestrogen levels and low progesterone concentrations seem to increase the likelihood of the development of fibrocystic breasts. (ada.com)
  • The symptoms in women with fibrocystic breasts can vary from woman to woman. (ada.com)
  • What is the diagnosis of fibrocystic breasts? (ada.com)
  • Symptoms of fibrocystic breasts include pain or discomfort in the breasts. (edenfantasys.com)
  • Women on hormone replacement therapy may have an increase in symptoms of fibrocystic breasts. (edenfantasys.com)
  • While the condition was once known as fibrocystic breast disease, the medical profession has stopped calling it that because the changes seen with fibrocystic breasts are not indicative of disease. (facty.com)
  • As mentioned earlier, symptoms associated with fibrocystic breasts tend to be worst right before menstruation and disappear or lessen as soon as the period begins. (facty.com)
  • Fibrocystic breasts contain certain characteristics when viewed under a microscope. (facty.com)
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