Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Milk, HumanMammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.United StatesLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mastectomy, Radical: Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.TriazolesSEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neoplasms, Basal Cell: Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary: Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.Mastectomy, Simple: Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Mammaglobin A: A secretoglobin that is produced by the MAMMARY GLAND of HUMANS and may be involved in the binding of ANDROGENS and other STEROIDS. The expression of this protein in normal breast epithelium and in human breast cancer has made it an important histological marker.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.

Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in human breast cancer. (1/3694)

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast tissues with significantly more malignant tissues expressing FGF8 (P=0.019) at significantly higher levels (P=0.031). In situ hybridization of breast cancer tissues and analysis of purified populations of normal epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines showed that malignant epithelial cells expressed FGF8 mRNA at high levels compared to non-malignant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts. Although two of the receptors which FGF8 binds to (FGFR2-IIIc, FGFR3-IIIc) are not expressed in breast cancer cells, an autocrine activation loop is possible since expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 and FGFR1 are retained in malignant epithelial cells. This is the first member of the FGF family to have increased expression in breast cancer and a potential autocrine role in its progression.  (+info)

Mammography and 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography in suspected breast cancer. (2/3694)

The aim of this work has been to evaluate whether a diagnostic protocol based on the joint use of mammography and 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintimammography is capable of reducing the number of biopsies required in patients with suspected breast cancer. METHODS: We performed prone scintimammography in 90 patients with suspected breast cancer, involving 97 lesions. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by way of biopsy. On mammography, we evaluated the degree of suspicion of malignancy and the size of the lesion (smaller or larger than 1 cm in diameter). RESULTS: The results of only 41 of the biopsies indicated malignancy. On mammography, 20 lesions (of which 1 was breast cancer) were considered to be of low suspicion of malignancy, 31 (of which 4 were breast cancer) as indeterminate and 46 (of which 36 were breast cancer) as high. Fourteen lesions (2 low probability, 2 indeterminate and 10 high) were smaller than 1 cm, whereas 83 (18 low probability, 29 indeterminate and 36 high) were larger. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of scintimammography were 85%, 79%, 74% and 88%, respectively. Scintimammography was positive in all cases of breast cancer that initially had a low or indeterminate suspicion of malignancy according to mammography, as well as in 30 cases of breast cancer that initially were highly suspicious. Six false-negative scintimammography studies were obtained in lesions with a high suspicion of malignancy. CONCLUSION: We propose a diagnostic protocol with a biopsy performed on lesions that have a high suspicion of malignancy as well as those with low or indeterminate suspicion that are smaller than 1 cm or with positive scintimammography results. This would have reduced the total number of biopsies performed by 34%. More importantly, there would have been a 65% reduction in number of biopsies performed in the low and indeterminate mammographic suspicion groups. All 41 cases of breast cancer would have been detected.  (+info)

The effect of the antiscatter grid on full-field digital mammography phantom images. (3/3694)

Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images (CAMPI) is a method for making quantitative measurements of image quality. This article reports on a recent application of this method to a prototype full-field digital mammography (FFDM) machine. Images of a modified ACR phantom were acquired on the General Electric Diagnostic Molybdenum Rhodium (GE-DMR) FFDM machine at a number of x-ray techniques, both with and without the scatter reduction grid. The techniques were chosen so that one had sets of grid and non-grid images with matched doses (200 mrads) and matched gray-scale values (1500). A third set was acquired at constant 26 kVp and varying mAs for both grid conditions. Analyses of the images yielded signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast and noise corresponding to each target object, and a non-uniformity measure. The results showed that under conditions of equal gray-scale value the grid images were markedly superior, albeit at higher doses than the non-grid images. Under constant dose conditions, the non-grid images were slightly superior in SNR (7%) but markedly less uniform (60%). Overall, the grid images had substantially greater contrast and superior image uniformity. These conclusions applied to the whole kVp range studied for the Mo-Mo target filter combination and 4 cm of breast equivalent material of average composition. These results suggest that use of the non-grid technique in digital mammography with the GE-DMR-FFDM unit, is presently not warranted. With improved uniformity correction procedure, this conclusion would change and one should be able to realize a 14% reduction in patient dose at the same SNR by using a non-grid technique.  (+info)

Macronutrient intake and change in mammographic density at menopause: results from a randomized trial. (4/3694)

To examine the effects of dietary fat intake on breast cancer risk, we are conducting a randomized trial of dietary intervention in women with extensive areas of radiologically dense breast tissue on mammography, a risk factor for breast cancer. Early results show that after 2 years on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet there is a significant reduction in area of density, particularly in women going through menopause. In women who went through menopause during the 2-year follow-up, the mean decreases in area of density and percentage of density in the intervention group were 11.0 cm2 and 11.0%, respectively, whereas the control group decreased 4.5 cm2 and 5.2%. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether changes in intake of specific macronutrients could account for the observed reduction in breast density in these women. Differences between 2-year and baseline values of macronutrients (averaged over 3 nonconsecutive days of food intake) were calculated. We examined the effect of dietary variables, adjusted for changes in total calorie intake and weight and for family history of breast cancer, on changes in area of density and percentage of density using linear regression. Reduction in total or saturated fat intake or cholesterol intake was significantly associated with decreased dense area (p < or = .004). The most significant dietary variable associated with reduction in percentage of density was reduction in dietary cholesterol intake (P = 0.001), although reducing saturated fat intake was of borderline significance (P = 0.05). The effect of the membership in the intervention and control groups on change in area of density or percentage of density was reduced by models that included changes in intake of any fat, or cholesterol, or carbohydrates. The observation of an effect of diet at menopause on breast density, a marker of increased risk of breast cancer, may be an indication that exposures at this time have an enhanced effect on subsequent risk.  (+info)

Inhibition of aberrant proliferation and induction of apoptosis in HER-2/neu oncogene transformed human mammary epithelial cells by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide. (5/3694)

Epithelial cells from non-cancerous mammary tissue in response to exposure to chemical carcinogens or transfection with oncogenes exhibit hyperproliferation and hyperplasia prior to the development of cancer. Aberrant proliferation may, therefore, represent a modifiable early occurring preneoplastic event that is susceptible to chemoprevention of carcinogenesis. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR), has exhibited preventive efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models, and represents a promising chemopreventive compound for clinical trials. Clinically relevant biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effects of HPR, however, are not fully understood. Experiments were performed on preneoplastic human mammary epithelial 184-B5/HER cells derived from reduction mammoplasty and initiated for tumorigenic transformation by overexpression of HER-2/neu oncogene, to examine whether HPR inhibits aberrant proliferation of these cells and to identify the possible mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of HPR. Continuous 7-day treatment with HPR produced a dose-dependent, reversible growth inhibition. Long-term (21 day) treatment of 184-B5/HER cells with HPR inhibited anchorage-dependent colony formation by approximately 80% (P < 0.01) relative to that observed in the solvent control. A 24 h treatment with cytostatic 400 nM HPR produced a 25% increase (P = 0.01) in G0/G1 phase, and a 36% decrease (P = 0.01) in S phase of the cell cycle. HPR treatment also induced a 10-fold increase (P = 0.02) in the sub-G0 (apoptotic) peak that was down-regulated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Treatment with HPR resulted in a 30% reduction of cellular immunoreactivity to tyrosine kinase, whereas immunoreactivity to p185HER remained essentially unaltered. HPR exposure resulted in time-dependent increase in cellular metabolism of the retinoid as evidenced by increased formation of the inert metabolite N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-retinamide (MPR) and progressive increase in apoptosis. Thus, HPR-induced inhibition of aberrant proliferation may be caused, in part, by its ability to inhibit HER-2/neu-mediated proliferative signal transduction, retard cell cycle progression and upregulate cellular apoptosis.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine premedication: can it improve outcome in patients undergoing breast biopsy procedures? (6/3694)

BACKGROUND: Women awaiting needle-guided breast biopsy procedures may experience high anxiety levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of midazolam and diazepam (in a lipid emulsion [Dizac]) to improve patient comfort during needle localization and breast biopsy procedures. METHODS: Ninety women received two consecutive doses of a study medication, one before the mammographic needle localization and a second before entering the operating room. Patients were assigned randomly to receive saline, 2.0 ml intravenously, at the two time points; midazolam, 1.0 mg intravenously and 2.0 mg intravenously; or diazepam emulsion, 2.0 mg intravenously and 5.0 mg intravenously, respectively. Patients assessed their anxiety levels before the needle localization, before entering the operating room, and on arrival in the operating room. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their perioperative experience at the time of discharge. RESULTS: Patient satisfaction during needle localization was significantly improved in both benzodiazepine treatment groups (vs. saline). The incidence of moderate-to-severe discomfort during needle localization was lower in the midazolam (20%) and diazepam emulsion (6%) groups compared with the saline group (70%) (P<0.05). The preoperative visual analogue scale anxiety scores were similar in all three groups. In the operating room, however, anxiety scores were 55% and 68% lower after midazolam (21+/-19) and diazepam emulsion (15+/-14) compared with saline (46+/-28). Finally, there was no difference in the time to achieve home-readiness or actual discharge time among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with midazolam or diazepam emulsion improved patients' comfort during needle localization procedures and significantly reduced intraoperative anxiety levels before breast biopsy procedures without prolonging discharge times. Use of diazepam emulsion may be an effective alternative to midazolam in this population.  (+info)

Double-phase 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography and trans-scan in diagnosing breast cancer. (7/3694)

The goal of our study was to assess the value of both scintimammography with 99mTc-sestamibi (SMM) and trans-scan (T-scan) in detecting breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 121 women were evaluated by palpation, mammography, SMM and T-scan. SMM was performed in the prone, breast dependent position. Immediate and delayed views (double-phase) were obtained. T-scan is a new breast imaging method that maps noninvasively the distribution of tissue electrical impedance and capacitance. RESULTS: SMM had 88.9% sensitivity, 88.4% specificity and 88.4% accuracy in detecting breast cancer. SMM had 100% sensitivity in detecting breast tumors >1 cm and only 66% sensitivity in detecting tumors <1 cm. T-scan had 72.2% sensitivity and 67% specificity in detecting breast cancer. It detected one more breast cancer than SMM, at the expense of 27 additional false-positive results. CONCLUSION: Double-phase SMM was sensitive and specific in detecting breast cancer. This method may reduce the rate of negative breast biopsies in tumors >1 cm. T-scan was only moderately accurate in detecting breast cancer. Its addition to SMM did not improve significantly the rate of breast cancer detection. However, because of its complete noninvasiveness, large-scale applicability and low cost, T-scan deserves further refining.  (+info)

N-acetyltransferase 1 genetic polymorphism, cigarette smoking, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk. (8/3694)

N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), encoded by the polymorphic NAT1 gene, has been shown to be one of the major enzymes in human breast tissue that activates aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Humans are mainly exposed to these carcinogens through cigarette smoking and consumption of well-done meat. To test the hypothesis that variations in the NAT1 gene are related to breast cancer risk, particularly among women who smoke or consume high levels of well-done meat, a nested case-control study was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 41,837 postmenopausal Iowa women. Information on cigarette smoking and other breast cancer risk factors was obtained at the baseline survey conducted in 1986. DNA samples and information on the consumption of well-done meat were obtained, in the case-control study, from breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1992 to 1994 and a random sample of cancer-free cohort members. Genomic DNA samples obtained from 154 cases and 330 controls were assayed for 11 NAT1 alleles (NAT1*3, *4, *5, *10, *11, *14, *15, *16, *17, *19, and *22). The NAT1*4 allele was the predominant allele observed in this study population, accounting for 73.2% (72.4% in cases versus 73.8% in controls) of the total alleles analyzed. Compared to controls, breast cancer cases had a slightly higher frequency of the NAT1*10 allele (18.8% in cases versus 17.3% in controls) and a substantially higher frequency of the NAT1*11 allele (3.6% versus 1.2%). In multivariate analyses, we found a 30% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8-1.9] elevated risk of breast cancer associated with the NAT1*10 allele and a nearly 4-fold (95% CI = 1.5-10.5) elevated risk associated with the NAT1*11 allele. The positive association of breast cancer with the NAT1*11 allele was more evident among smokers [odds ratio (OR) = 13.2, 95% CI = 1.5-116.0] and those who consumed a high level of red meat (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.1-33.2) or consistently consumed their red meat well done (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 0.5-62.7). The association of the NAT1*10 allele with breast cancer was mainly confined to former smokers (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2-9.5). These findings are consistent with a role for the NAT1 gene in the etiology of human breast cancer.  (+info)

*List of birds of West Virginia

Yellow-breasted chat[edit]. Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteriidae This species was historically placed in the wood-warblers ( ...

*Saturated fat

Breast cancer[edit]. Main article: Epidemiology and etiology of breast cancer § Specific dietary fatty acids ... Hanf V, Gonder U (2005-12-01). "Nutrition and primary prevention of breast cancer: foods, nutrients and breast cancer risk". ... Lof M, Weiderpass E (February 2009). "Impact of diet on breast cancer risk". Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 21 ( ... Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and breast milk) ...

*Hormone replacement therapy

Breast cancer[edit]. Studies regarding the association of breast cancer with hormone replacement have been mixed and vary with ... Observational studies of systemic HRT after breast cancer are generally reassuring. If HRT is necessary after breast cancer, ... Includes metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer with the exception of in situ breast cancer. ... "Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 107 (1): 103-111. doi:10.1007/s10549-007-9523-x. PMC 2211383. PMID 17333341.. ...

*Omeprazole

Pregnancy and breast-feeding[edit]. Epidemiological data do not show an increased risk of major birth defects after maternal ... indicating that little amount of drug is transferred to the milk duct during breast milk formation. ...

*Avon Products

Beginning in the early 1990s, Avon also began donating towards breast cancer research and care, through the Avon Breast Cancer ... Crusade and the Avon Walk for Breast Cancer, a series of U.S.-based charity walks.[32] Before 2003, the Walk was a function of ... "Breast Cancer Events" Archived June 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., June 2013 ...

*13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid

"Melatonin and Associated Signaling Pathways that Control Normal Breast Epithelium and Breast Cancer". Journal of Mammary Gland ... Breast cancer[edit]. 13(S)-HODE stimulates the proliferation of human MCF-7 estrogen receptor positive and MBA-MD-231 estrogen ... receptor negative human breast cancer cell lines (see List of breast cancer cell lines) in culture);[72] its production appears ... Reddy, Nagi; Everhart, Angela; Eling, Thomas; Glasgow, Wayne (1997). "Characterization of a 15-Lipoxygenase in Human Breast ...

*List of cancer types

For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast. Here, the adjective ductal refers ... Nearly all cancers developing in the breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and colon are carcinomas. ...

*Women's health

Breast cancer[edit]. Main article: Breast cancer. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most ... All three cancers (lung, breast, uterus) are now declining in cancer death rates (Siegel et al. Figure 8),[121] but more women ... Despite this, breast cancer remains the commonest cancer in women in developed countries, and is one of the more important ... Lung cancer has overtaken all other types of cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women, followed by breast cancer, ...

*5α-Reductase inhibitor

Breast changes[edit]. 5-ARIs have a small risk of breast changes in men including breast tenderness and gynecomastia (breast ... breast tenderness, gynecomastia, depression, anxiety, self-harm, and dementia.[20][21][22] In addition, while 5-ARIs decrease ... development/enlargement).[20] The risk of gynecomastia is about 2.8%.[20] There is no association of 5-ARIs with male breast ...

*List of birds of North Carolina

Yellow-breasted chat[edit]. Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteriidae This species was historically placed in the wood-warblers ( ...

*ZNF366

In the same study, it was shown that breast tumor tissue expresses lower levels of DC-SCRIPT than normal breast tissue from the ... Breast cancer[edit]. In 2010, it was shown that DC-SCRIPT can act as a coregulator of multiple nuclear receptors having ... nuclear receptor modulation and prognostic significance in primary breast cancer". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102 (1): 54-68. doi: ... same patient and that DC-SCRIPT mRNA expression is an independent prognostic factor for good survival of breast cancer patients ...

*Aspartame

Breast feeding[edit]. In a study done in 1979, the effect of aspartame ingestion on blood and milk amino acid levels in ... with the intent to study the differences in breast milk between the two. The study resulted with the conclusion that aspartame ...

*DDT

Breast cancer[edit]. The question of whether DDT or DDE are risk factors in breast cancer has not been conclusively answered. ... A 2007 case control study[82] using archived blood samples found that breast cancer risk was increased 5-fold among women who ... This study, which suggests a connection between DDT exposure and breast cancer that would not be picked up by most studies, has ... The findings "support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk ...

*Estrogen

Breast development[edit]. See also: Breast development § Biochemistry. Estrogen, in conjunction with growth hormone (GH) and ... Haslam SZ, Osuch JR (1 January 2006). Hormones and Breast Cancer in Post-Menopausal Women. IOS Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-58603- ... Kleinberg DL (February 1998). "Role of IGF-I in normal mammary development". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 47 (3): 201- ... Estrogens are implicated in various estrogen-dependent conditions, such as ER-positive breast cancer, as well as a number of ...

*Mastitis

Breast abscess[edit]. A breast abscess is a collection of pus that develops into the breast with different causes.[10] During ... Plugged milk duct,[3] breast engorgement,[4] breast cancer (rare)[1]. Prevention. Frequent breastfeeding with good technique[2] ... Breast abscess[edit]. An abscess (or suspected abscess) in the breast may be treated by ultrasound-guided fine-needle ... Nonpuerperal breast abscesses have a higher rate of recurrence compared to puerperal breast abscesses.[42] There is a high ...

*Axilla

Lymphogenic spread of breast cancer[edit]. Breast cancer typically spreads via lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes found in ...

*Patient derived xenograft

Breast cancer[edit]. The classification of genetic breast cancer subtypes, including triple-negative and HER2-positive subtypes ... "Breast Cancer Research. 14 (1): R11. doi:10.1186/bcr3095. PMC 3496128. PMID 22247967.. ... Utilizing PDX triple negative breast cancer models, scientists found that aurora kinase inhibitors slows tumor growth rate and ... Many PDX models have been successfully established for breast, prostate, colorectal, lung, and many other cancers because there ...

*List of birds of Cuba

Yellow-breasted chat[edit]. Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteriidae This species was historically placed in the New World ...

*Cryoablation

Breast cancer[edit]. Cryoablation for breast cancer is typically only possible for small tumors.[3] Often surgery is used ... With improvements in breast imaging and image-guided interventions, there is interest in ablative techniques for breast cancer ... Cryoablation is also currently being used to treat fibroadenomas of the breast. Fibroadenomas are benign breast tumors that are ... Sabel, MS (July 2014). "Nonsurgical ablation of breast cancer: future options for small breast tumors". Surgical oncology ...

*Breast reconstruction

"Breast Reconstruction: Immediate or Delayed".. *^ "Breast reconstruction using body tissue." Breast cancer , Lets Beat Cancer! ... Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women. It involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic ... "Breast cancer , Breast reconstruction using body tissue , Cancer Research UK". www.cancerresearchuk.org.. ... Frequently not just breast volume, but also skin surface area needs to be restored. Many patients undergoing delayed breast ...

*Projectional radiography

This has been used mostly on women to screen for breast cancer, but is also used to view male breasts, and used in conjunction ... Breast implants designed to enlarge the breasts reduce the viewing ability of mammography, and require more time for imaging as ... This is because the material used in the implant is very dense compared to breast tissue, and looks white (clear) on the film. ... Projectional radiography of the breasts is called mammography. ...

*MythBusters (2003 season)

Silicone Breasts[edit]. Myth statement Status Notes Silicone breast implants may explode at high altitudes or low air pressure ... Will silicone breast implants explode or expand in low pressure?. Can a standard CD-ROM drive shatter a CD?. ...

*Electrical impedance tomography

Breast (MF-EIT)[edit]. EIT is being investigated in the field of breast imaging as an alternative/complementary technique to ... develops a similar solution for non-invasive detection of breast cancer and offers the T-Scan 2000ED. Zilico Limited ... Further EIT applications proposed include detection/location of cancer in skin, breast, or cervix, localization of epileptic ... Jossinet, J. (1998). "The impedivity of freshly excised human breast tissue". Physiological Measurement. 19 (1): 61-76. doi: ...

*Antiandrogen

In any case, common side effects of antiandrogens in men include breast tenderness, breast enlargement, feminization, hot ... including AR-expressing triple-negative breast cancer and other types of AR-expressing breast cancer.[189][190][191][192][193] ... Breast cancer[edit]. Antiandrogens such as bicalutamide, enzalutamide, and abiraterone acetate are under investigation for the ... In males, the major side effects of antiandrogens are demasculinization and feminization.[82] These side effects include breast ...

*BHLHE41

Breast Cancer[edit]. BHLHE41 is thought to be a critical regulator of the metastasis of triple-negative-breast cancer (TNBC).[ ... Piccolo S, Enzo E, Montagner M (August 2013). "p63, Sharp1, and HIFs: master regulators of metastasis in triple-negative breast ... Breast cancer tumors that show high expression of BHLHE41 and CyclinG2 are believed to have a lower metastatic risk.[37][38] ... "SHARP1 suppresses breast cancer metastasis by promoting degradation of hypoxia-inducible factors". Nature. 487 (7407): 380-4. ...

*Coenzyme Q10

breast. 8-17 thigh 24-25 wing 11 Fish sardine. 5-64 ...
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of malignancy-associated death in women worldwide. Estrogens are the main sex hormones in women. They are essential for the development and function of normal breast mammary glands; however, prolonged exposure to estrogens increases the risk of breast cancer development and progression. Approximately two-thirds of all breast cancer patients are positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but only 50% of those cases can benefit from antiestrogen therapy.. In this thesis we investigated the effects of estrogen, diet modification, and anti-estrogen drugs on several immune modulators in normal human breast tissue. We used the microdialysis technique to sample the immune modulators in situ in normal human breast tissue, in malignant breast tissue, and in tumor tissue from both the immune competent mice with murine breast cancer and immune deficient mice bearing human breast tumors. Furthermore, we also used ex vivo culture of ...
Although approximately two-thirds of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, only a small proportion of epithelial cells in the mammary gland express the ER. The origin of the ER-positive breast cancers is unknown. Recently, we have developed a culture method to grow two morphologically and antigenically distinguishable types of normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) derived from reduction mammoplasty. In this report, we studied the expression of ER in these two types of cells and their transformed cell lines. The results indicate that Type I HBEC with luminal and stem cell characteristics expressed a variant ER (approximately 48 kd) by Western blot analysis. This variant ER contains a deletion in the DNA binding domain (exon 2) as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. The lack of the DNA-binding domain of the variant ER was also confirmed by the ER-estrogen responsive element binding assay, as well as by the immunofluorescence staining of the ER using anti-ER antibodies which recognize ...
Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on factors mediating angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, in normal and malignant breast tissue. In this thesis we have investigated the effects of estradiol, progesterone, and the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in normal human breast tissue, endothelial cells, and breast cancer. We have applied the technique of microdialysis to provide in situ sampling of estradiol and VEGF in tumors and normal breast tissue of breast cancer patients in vivo. Furthermore, we present a novel method of culturing normal human breast tissue ex vivo.. Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic effect of estradiol and an anti-angiogenic effect of tamoxifen in the breast. Estradiol increased extracellular levels of VEGF in normal human breast tissue and breast cancer cells in vitro. In addition, ...
In order to resolve the question of which ovarian steroid stimulates normal human mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we have implanted pieces of normal human breast tissue subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. These mice were then treated with slow-release pellets containing estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P) such that serum levels of E2 and P were increased to those seen in normal women. The proliferative activity of the tissue implants was assessed by uptake of tritiated thymidine and steroid receptor expression was measured immunocytochemically. Insertion of a 2 mg E2 pellet 14 days after tissue implantation increased the thymidine labeling index (TLI) from a median of 0.4% (n = 34) to a median of 2.1% after 7 days (n = 43; P , 0.001 by Mann Whitney U test). In contrast, treatment with a P pellet (4 mg) had no effect upon the TLI whereas P (4 mg) in combination with E2 (2 mg) had no effect over and above that of E2 alone. There was a significant correlation between the increase in TLI ...
Recent advances in defining the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control in eukaryotes provide a basis for better understanding the hormonal control of cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. It is now clear that a number of critical steps in cell cycle progression are controlled by families of serine/threonine kinases, the cdks. These kinases are activated by interactions with various cyclin gene products which form the regulatory subunits of the kinase complexes. Several families of cyclins control cell cycle progression in G1 phase, cyclins C, D and E, or in S, G2 and mitosis, cyclins A and B. Recent studies have defined the expression and regulation of cyclin genes in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cell lines. Following growth arrest of T-47D breast cancer cells by serum deprivation restimulation with insulin results in sequential induction of cyclin genes. Cyclin D1 mRNA increases within 1 h of mitogenic stimulation and is followed by increased
Breast size procedures are performed to increase or decrease the size of thebreast. The two types of breast size procedures are breast augmentation, or implants, and breast reduction. With the earliest experiments in breast size procedures documented in the 1890s by a doctor in Vienna who attempted breastenlargement with paraffin injections, further research along with the publics interest subsided until the introduction of liquid silicone in the 1950s and 1960s. As research continues, from implanting polyvinyl sponges in dogs in1952 to test their validity for use as prostheses in humans, to the search for the "perfect" and safer implant filler today, the demand for breast size procedures remains constant.. Augmentation. Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure used for enlarging the breast, tobalance a difference in size, to adjust a reduction in breast volume following pregnancy or weight loss, and as a reconstructive technique following breast cancer surgery. The classic technique for ...
HealthDay News) -- Women with dense breasts and no lobular involution -- an age-related change in breast tissue -- are at increased risk for breast cancer, a new study finds.. It included 2,666 women, aged 18 to 85, with benign breast disease who were followed for an average of 13.3 years. During that time, 172 (6.5 percent) of the women developed breast cancer.. The Mayo Clinic researchers found that breast density and lobular involution were independent risk factors for breast cancer.. The study appears online in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.. "Our findings also reveal that having a combination of dense breasts and no lobular involution was associated with higher breast cancer risk than having non-dense or fatty breasts and complete involution," they wrote in a news release from the publisher.. "Lobular involution is the physiological atrophy of the breast epithelium [the top layer of cells] and is known to increase with increasing age," the news release explained.. Breast ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression patterns distinguish breast carcinomas from normal breast tissues. T2 - The Malaysian context. AU - Pau Ni, Ivyna Bong. AU - Zakaria, Zubaidah. AU - Muhammad, Rohaizak. AU - Abdullah, Norlia. AU - Ibrahim, Naqiyah. AU - Aina Emran, Nor. AU - Hisham Abdullah, Nor. AU - Syed Hussain, Sharifah Noor Akmal. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - Genomic and transcriptomic alterations that affect cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion, commonly occur in breast oncogenesis. Epidemiological evidence has proven that the risk of breast cancer predisposition varies among different ethnicities. This study aims to identify the transcriptome changes that commonly occur during the transition of normal breast epithelium to carcinoma in three local ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians). The gene expression patterns of 43 breast carcinomas with 43 patient-matched normal breast tissues were investigated using Affymetrix U133A GeneChip® ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between expression of inflammatory markers in normal breast tissue and mammographic density among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. AU - Hanna, Mirette. AU - Dumas, Isabelle. AU - Orain, Michèle. AU - Jacob, Simon. AU - Têtu, Bernard. AU - Sanschagrin, François. AU - Bureau, Alexandre. AU - Poirier, Brigitte. AU - Diorio, Caroline. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective: Inflammatory markers may be associated with breast cancer risk. We assessed the association between expression levels of proinflammatory (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, cyclo-oxygenase 2, leptin, serum amyloid A1, interleukin 8, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and anti-inflammatory markers (transforming growth factor-β, interleukin 10, and lactoferrin) in normal breast tissue with mammographic density, a strong breast cancer risk indicator, among 163 breast cancer patients. Methods: The expression of inflammatory markers was ...
Although several studies suggest that women with denser breast tissue have an increased risk of breast cancer, a new study by Johns Hopkins researchers discredits breast density as a risk factor in and of itself, instead concluding that age and body fat, especially in the upper belly, contribute to the breast cancer seen in many patients.. "Many studies that link breast density to breast cancer risk used data from mammograms, which cant accurately measure breast density," says Wenlian Zhu, Ph.D., a research associate in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a member of the team reporting the study results online Oct. 21, 2015, in European Radiology. "Our research may help dispel the assertion that breast density alone is something women should be worried about with regard to their breast cancer risk, and it may help minimize confusion and unnecessary concern.". Breast density notification laws have been put into effect in 24 states. According to Zhu, such laws mandate that the ...
Large breasts cause neck and back pain, irritating grooves, cut in the skin of the shoulders by the pressure of brassiere straps, breast pain, and maceration and dermatoses in the inframammary region. From a psychological point of view, excessively large breasts can be troublesome focus of embarrassment for the teenager as well as the woman in her senior years. Unilateral hypertrophy with asymmetry heightens embarrassment. Thus, patients seek to reduce the size of their breasts.. In the human female, variant receptors were detected in epithelial cells in normal breast tissue, benign breast lesions, breast carcinoma tissue, and breast cancer cell lines2-11. The cause of the difference in breast development status is still unclear. Abnormalities at the tissue receptor level may be important in the pathophysiology of macromastia. This study aimed to make clear the difference in variant receptor levels between breast hypertrophy patients and macromastia ones by examining the receptor levels in ...
The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin.[1] These regulators induce the expression of growth factors, such as amphiregulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which in turn have specific roles in breast growth and maturation.[1] At puberty, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) begins to be secreted, in a pulsatile manner, from the hypothalamus.[2][3] GnRH, in turn, induces the secretion of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), from the pituitary gland.[2][3] These hormones travel to the ovaries through the bloodstream and cause estrogen and progesterone to be produced by them and released into the body in fluctuating amounts with each menstrual cycle.[2][3] Growth hormone (GH), which is secreted from the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth ...
Percent mammographic density, as assessed here in the area measurement, reflects variations in breast tissue composition (9) and has repeatedly been shown to be strongly associated with risk of breast cancer, with 4- to 5-fold differences in risk of the disease between women with ,75% percent density compared with those with ,10% (1, 2). The smaller gradient in risk associated with the area measure of mammographic density in the present study is attributable partly to the use of quintiles rather than the aforementioned categories, and the methods used to recruit subjects. Our method of recruitment selected for breast cancers detected by mammography, where the gradient in risk associated with density is less than for all breast cancers (2).. It is however recognized that current approaches to measurement have a number of limitations and that the true underlying risk of breast cancer associated with variations in breast tissue composition may be much stronger. All of the existing methods of ...
Health, ...The risk of dying from breast cancer was not related to high mammograp...One of the strongest risk factors for non-familial breast cancer is el...In order to determine if higher mammographic breast density is linked ...The researchers found that density does not influence the risk of deat...,Breast,density,does,not,influence,breast,cancer,death,among,breast,cancer,patients,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The main objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the p14ARF-hdm2-p53 regulatory pathway and E2F transcription factors play important roles in breast carcinogenesis. This study was conducted in four phases. The initial project investigated p53 mutations, p14ARF mutations and mRNA expression and hdm2 gene amplification. The genetic alterations were identified in 25% of primary breast cancers and 64% of human breast cell lines with p53 mutations being the predominant aberration. The second phase evaluated p53 expression by immunohistochemistry in invasive breast cancers and detected nuclear reactivity in 35% of the 105 Asian women. p53 immunopositivity correlated with poorer overall survival. The third project examined paired samples of DCIS and normal breast tissue samples and revealed p53 mutations in 20% of the DCIS lesions, but, none of the corresponding normal breast tissues. These findings support the hypothesis that ...
Breast size join our community. We offer 88 Products in our store. Our store specialize in supplying special featured herbal medecines, developed to improve your life and makes better your health. Has babitas breast size decreasedWhats Normal For Breast Size And Penis Size? Find Out If ....
A research team at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, is investigating whether the amount of DNA damage seen in the cells in normal breast tissue may be an indicator of future breast cancer risk. The researchers recruited women who had a benign breast biopsy and then went on to develop breast cancer (Phase I) and women who had a benign breast biopsy but did NOT go on to develop breast cancer (Phase II). By recruiting women who did develop breast cancer and women who did not, they will be able to look for markers in the breast cells that might be an indicator of breast cancer risk. The researchers wanted to enroll at least 150 women in the study. The Call to Action for Phase I was sent to Army of Women members on August 11, 2010, while the Call to Action for Phase II was sent on January 18, 2012. When the research team closed enrollment on July 10, 2013, the Army of Women had provided them with 338 women who were interested in enrolling in Phase I and 1,333 women who were interested in ...
With their unique cultural customs and relatively similar environmental exposures, a well-defined, genetically closed population structure, and extensive genealogic records, the Old Order Amish provide an ideal context in which to study the genetic contributions to breast density. Of particular relevance to studying breast density, the Old Order Amish population is characterized by a very low prevalence of exogenous hormone use, including oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, and high parity. Still, our results suggest that breast density varies widely in the Old Order Amish population, with values that are comparable with other highly parous populations. For example, in a sample of 294 Hispanic women (two thirds of whom were postmenopausal and three fourths of whom reported three or more live births), Lopez et al. (28) reported an overall mean of 17.7% for percent breast density, with a range of 1.9% to 54.6%. Similarly, in our sample of women (approximately two thirds of whom ...
Levels of the elF-2a-specific protein kinase, PkR, are higher in several breast carcinoma cell lines including the estrogen-responsive cell lines, MOF-7 and T-47D, as well as estrogen- independent cell lines, BT-20 and MDA-MB-468, compared with the normal breast cell line, Hs578 Bst, or the human HeLa cell line. In contrast, the phosphorylation state of elF-2a is very low in the breast carcinoma cell lines compared to the normal human breast cell line Hs578 Bst and HeLa cells, even at high cell densities, suggesting an inhibition of PkR activity in the breast oarninoma cell lines. In support of this hypothesis, treatment of cells with either alpha- or Beta-interferon, although increasing PKR levels slightly, do not result in higher steady state levels of elF-2a phosphorylation. These results suggest that deregulation of PKR activity is occurring at some level in breast carcinoma cell lines. This deregulation could result from increased levels/activities of cellular PKR inhibitory proteins, or from
ReportsnReports.com adds report Global Breast Cancer Market 2014-2018 to its store. Breast cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cancerous cells in the breast tissue. It occurs in both males and females; however, male breast cancer is rare. Histologically, breast cancer can be classified into ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, nipple cancer and other undifferentiated carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma is the form of breast cancer which starts in the lining of the milk ducts while lobular carcinoma begins in the milk glands of the breast. When breast cancer spreads from the site of origin to surrounding tissue, it is known as invasive breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common subtype accounting for 70 to 80 percent of all the breast cases. In women, breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer. GLOBOCAN reported that in the year 2012, breast cancer accounted for 11.9 percent of the total cancer cases and lead to 5,22,000 deaths worldwide.. Analysts forecast ...
Biopsy is the technique used to extract abnormal tissue or group of cells from any part of body for analysis. Breast biopsy is mainly done to detect cancer and also used as a preventive measure. Lump or hardness in a portion of breast is taken off and tested. Breast biopsy is diagnosing method not treatment. Breast biopsy is performed by using image guidance, hollow needle and surgical manner.. The major driving factor of the global breast biopsy market is increasing number of female breast cancer patients that had generated awareness in society which force people to undergo checkup. Breast cancer is spreading highly among the post age women is the other factor for increasing demand of breast biopsy. The region having higher population of female has high chances to fuel the market growth in that region. This diagnosis taken by middle group to elderly group is limited. High cost and specific gender are some of the factors that affect the market growth. The new developing technology in biopsy that ...
All women should be aware of what is normal for their breasts even if they get regular screening tests. Many women find their own breast cancer by noticing changes in the look and feel of their breasts.. Women can become familiar with their breast tissue by looking at and feeling their breasts. In the past, experts suggested that women should do this in a certain way each month. Research shows that this isnt necessary. There really isnt a right or wrong way for women to examine their breasts. They just need to know the whole area of their breast tissue well enough to notice changes. This includes the entire breast area up to the collarbone and under the armpits, as well as the nipples.. Tell your doctor about any unusual changes to your breasts. Most breast changes are not cancer. It may be normal for your breasts to be lumpy or tender before your period.. ...
Given that the premise of the hypothesis in this study depended on bilateral breast symmetry, it would be preferable to analyze each patients symmetry utilizing more remote mammograms prior to the detectable cancer. Unfortunately we did not have that dataset in our current study, thus were unable to carry out the analysis. Overall, the assessment of symmetry in mammography is potentially limited by the fact that natural distortions between breasts are likely to occur during the course of breast compression routinely used in mammography. As such, symmetry measures can be confounded by the nature of the imaging procedure itself [26]. In our recently published results using 3D MRI in the study of breast density in 58 normal women, 47 pre-menopausal and 11 post-menopausal women [32], we found that bilateral breasts in women without cancer are highly symmetrical (r = 0.97 for breast volume, r = 0.97 for fibroglandular tissue volume, and r = 0.98 for PD). Another study using MRI showed small ...
THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Joan Lunden -- co-host of "Good Morning America" for nearly two decades and a long-time health advocate -- is now also a breast cancer survivor.. By sharing her experience, Lunden hopes she can help other women facing a frightening cancer diagnosis.. "Its so shocking when you hear you have cancer, and you feel so vulnerable," said Lunden, 67.. Lunden never missed an annual mammogram to check for breast cancer. But each year, she said the process was "nerve-racking" because she has dense breast tissue that can make it difficult to distinguish healthy breast tissue from tumor tissue. Many women with dense breast tissue, particularly those with risk factors for breast cancer such as a family history, are advised to get additional testing -- an MRI or sometimes an ultrasound. When Lunden went in for an ultrasound, she received shocking news. "I had an aggressive, virulent form of breast cancer -- triple negative breast cancer," she said.. At the time ...
The healthy breast is a tissue composed of centrally located milk producing glands connected to the nipple by ducts, surrounded by fat tissue and connective tissue. The growth of the breast is primarily mediated by the estrogens, while the androgens mediate tissue homeostasis and protect against growth signals. In breast cancer, the cells of the glands or ducts undergo malignant transformation, and start proliferating in an uncontrollable fashion. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and it is estimated that 10% of all women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their life-time. The primary classification of breast cancer is based mainly on the expression of the estrogen receptor, and 70-80% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, and are classified as luminal. The remaining breast cancers are classified into HER2 positive or triple negative breast cancer. Out of all breast cancers, ~80% are androgen receptor positive. This varies in different subtypes, however, ...
The mammary glands, or breasts, are actually modified sebaceous glands (sweat) that are designed to secrete milk. On average, each breast weighs 200-300 g. They are composed of glandular tissue, fat, and supporting or stromal tissue. Each breast is organized into 12-25 triangular shaped lobes. Each lobe is composed of several smaller lobules. The breast lobules are linked by a collecting duct system which is responsible for the passage of milk. The spaces between the lobules are filled with fatty tissue. This intricate duct system terminates in the central portion of the breast, the areola or nipple area.. Pathologic (disease) changes may occur in any of the breast tissue. For example, the fat tissue in the breasts may actually necrose, or die, in response to trauma. Additionally, the stromal or support tissue of the breasts may give rise to fibrocystic changes, or benign solid tumors, called fibroadenomas. Breast cancer may also develop in any part of the breast.. Breast tissue responds to ...
The most common sign of a breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A lump that is painless, hard, and has uneven edges is more likely to be a cancer, but breast cancers can also be soft, tender and rounded. Its important to have any breast lump you notice evaluated by a doctor. Other signs of breast cancer can include swelling of all or part of the breast, skin irritation or dimpling, breast pain, nipple pain, a new turning-in (inversion) of the nipple, nipple discharge other than milk, scaling, redness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin, and a lump in the armpit. You should consult your doctor if you notice any of these findings.. One in eight U.S. women, sometime in their lifetime, will be found to have invasive breast cancer. Nearly 190,000 women in the U.S. in 2009 will be diagnosed with breast cancer. There are currently 2 ½ million breast cancer survivors living in the U.S.. Breast cancer is the most common cancer other than skin cancer in U.S. women. It is the second most common ...
Breast hypertrophy is a rare medical condition of the breast connective tissues in which the breasts become excessively large. The condition is often divided based on the severity into two types, macromastia and gigantomastia. Hypertrophy of the breast tissues may be caused by increased histologic sensitivity to certain hormones such as female sex hormones, prolactin, and growth factors. Breast hypertrophy is a benign progressive enlargement, which can occur in both breasts (bilateral) or only in one breast (unilateral). It was first scientifically described in 1648. The indication is a breast weight that exceeds approximately 3% of the total body weight. There are varying definitions of what is considered to be excessive breast tissue, that is the expected breast tissue plus extraordinary breast tissue, ranging from as little as 0.6 kilograms (1.3 lb) up to 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) with most physicians defining macromastia as excessive tissue of over 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb). Some resources ...
Both men and women have breast tissue. Although women have a lot more breast tissue and are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than men, cancers can also develop in male breast tissue.. In Australia, men account for less than one percent of breast cancer diagnoses, with as estimated 164 men diagnosed each year. More than 90% of men will be diagnosed at or after age 50. With an aging population, it is likely that the number of men diagnosed with breast cancer will continue to increase.. Because breast cancer is frequently seen as a womens disease, some men may find it difficult or embarrassing to discuss their diagnosis. Breast cancer may also leave some men feeling surprised, isolated, anxious and angry. If you need support, have further resources to provide emotional and practical support for people affected by cancer, including information and personal stories about men diagnosed with breast cancer.. ...
PHILADELPHIA - The use of postmenopausal hormone therapy has decreased over time in the United States, which researchers suggest may play a key role in the declining rate of atypical ductal hyperplasia, a known risk factor for breast cancer.. "Postmenopausal hormone treatment is associated with increased rates of benign breast biopsies, and early and late stages of cancer. Atypical ductal hyperplasia is associated with the use of postmenopausal hormone treatment and its rates have decreased with the decline in use of this treatment," said researcher Tehillah Menes, M.D., who was the chief of breast service in the Department of Surgery at Elmhurst Hospital Center, New York, when this study was conducted.. Details of these findings are published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, which is a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.. Atypical ductal hyperplasia is abnormal cells that grow in the milk ducts of the breast. Previous research has shown that women who are ...
Historically, black women have been more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer when they were younger than 40 and more likely to die from breast cancer than white women. Black women also are more likely to be diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer has no receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone and also has no HER2 receptors. This limits the treatments that can be used. Triple-negative breast cancer is considered more aggressive than hormone-receptor-positive disease. For many years, black women also were less likely overall to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women. But an October 2015 report from the American Cancer Society found that for the first time, rates of breast cancer among black and white women were about equal. Now another study has found genomic differences in breast cancers in black women compared to breast cancers in white women. These genomic differences may help explain why breast cancer is more aggressive in black ...
Bacteria that live in the body, known as the microbiome, influence many diseases. Most research has been done on the "gut" microbiome, or bacteria in the digestive tract. Researchers have long suspected that a "microbiome" exists within breast tissue and plays a role in breast cancer but it has not yet been characterized. The research team has taken the first step toward understanding the composition of the bacteria in breast cancer by uncovering distinct microbial differences in healthy and cancerous breast tissue.. "To my knowledge, this is the first study to examine both breast tissue and distant sites of the body for bacterial differences in breast cancer," said co-senior author Charis Eng, M.D., Ph.D., chair of Cleveland Clinics Genomic Medicine Institute and director of the Center for Personalized Genetic Healthcare. "Our hope is to find a biomarker that would help us diagnose breast cancer quickly and easily. In our wildest dreams, we hope we can use microbiomics right before breast ...
SAN FRANCISCO, CA-Breast Cancer Action (BCAction), the watchdog for the breast cancer movement, encourages would-be participants or donors of large-scale breast cancer walks and runs to carefully question where the money goes, in a new resource published today.. The hosts of the largest walks and runs for breast cancer are Susan G. Komen, Avon Foundation, and the American Cancer Society. They advertise heavily and entice millions of people each year to walk or run to "save lives," "find a cure," and "end breast cancer." The first such event this year is Avons "Walk to End Breast Cancer" in Houston, TX on April 23-24, 2016.. Women have been voicing concerns about how much money raised from these walks is actually going to breast cancer programs and which types of programs are being funded, but they have yet to get satisfactory answers.. "Raising money in the name breast cancer has become big business," said Karuna Jaggar, Executive Director of Breast Cancer Action. "People donating to and ...
Clinical Risk Factor Analysis for Breast Cancer: 568,000 Subjects Undergoing Breast Cancer Screening in Beijing, 2009 Multilevel statistical model;breast cancer screening;risk factors; Objectives: Although there are many reports about the risk of breast cancer, few have reported clinical factors including history of breast-related or other diseases that affect the prevalence of breast cancer. This study explores these risk factors for breast cancer cases reported in Beijing in 2009. Materials and Methods: Data were derived from a Beijing breast cancer screening performed in 2009, of 568,000 women, from 16 districts of Beijing, all aged between 40 and 60 years. In this study, multilevel statistical modeling was used to identify clinical factors that affect the prevalence of breast cancer and to provide more reliable evidence for clinical diagnostics by using screening data. Results and Conclusion: Those women who had organ transplants, compared with those with none, were associated with breast cancer
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women. Health statistics clearly demonstrate increasing frequency of breast cancer. For example, in 1940 the lifetime risk of breast cancer among women was 5% - in means only one woman among every 20 women had risks for developing breast cancer. In 2012 the lifetime risk of breast cancer increased up to 12 % which means one woman among every 8 women gets breast cancer. In addition, health experts experience increased cases of breast cancer in men. Whole statistics confirm increased breast cancer risks, and it is very important to highlight breast cancer risks and educate women to avoid some risks. If you know risk factors, most of them can be prevented. Modern prevention strategies can save millions of lives.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tailoring breast cancer screening intervals by breast density and risk for women aged 50 years or older. T2 - Collaborative modeling of screening outcomes. AU - Trentham-Dietz, Amy. AU - Kerlikowske, Karla. AU - Stout, Natasha K.. AU - Miglioretti, Diana L.. AU - Schechter, Clyde B.. AU - Ergun, Mehmet Ali. AU - Van Den Broek, Jeroen J.. AU - Alagoz, Oguzhan. AU - Sprague, Brian L.. AU - Van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.. AU - Near, Aimee M.. AU - Gangnon, Ronald E.. AU - Hampton, John M.. AU - Chandler, Young. AU - De Koning, Harry J.. AU - Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.. AU - Tosteson, Anna N.A.. PY - 2016/11/15. Y1 - 2016/11/15. N2 - Background: Biennial screening is generally recommended for average-risk women aged 50 to 74 years, but tailored screening may provide greater benefits. Objective: To estimate outcomes for various screening intervals after age 50 years based on breast density and risk for breast cancer. Design: Collaborative simulation modeling using national incidence, breast ...
26 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® Breast Cancer - Carcinoma in Situ (stage 0) , Version 1.2016 3 DCIS Breast cancer treatment Breast cancer treatment Chart 3.1 lists the treatment options for DCIS. The goal of treatment is for you to be free of cancer. Because DCIS is confined within the breast ducts, surgery that removes the tumor is the central part of treatment. As shown in Figure 3.2 , there are two types of breast surgery-lumpectomy and total mastectomy. Other treatments may be used with breast surgery to rid your body of cancer. Lumpectomy only A lumpectomy is a surgery that removes the tumor along with normal-looking tissue around its edge. The normal-looking tissue is called a surgical margin. Lumpectomy is a breast-conserving surgery because most of the normal breast tissue wont be removed. Its like an excisional biopsy except more tissue is removed. Chart 3.1 What are my options? Treatment options Deciding factors Lumpectomy only may be an option if all these factors describe you Ü ...
Pregnancy has been associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. This has been reproduced in multiple studies and has been seen in multiple races.. People have been evaluating different hormones and practices associated with pregnancy to determine what factors reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in these patients. These pronounced findings have been evaluated in great detail by multiple scientists and one of the hormones which we think might be associated with a reduction in breast cancer is hCG. This statement has been backed by multiple studies which have looked at the direct effect of hCG on the growth and death of breast cancer cells in the lab and in animal models of breast cancer.. We want to determine if hCG is given to patients who are at increased risk of breast cancer will result in an accentuated decrease in breast cancer risk above and beyond the effect received by conventional breast cancer reducing protocols. Our final outcome in this study will be breast density on ...
The role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its association with molecular biomarkers was investigated in 259 patients with breast cancer, 67 with benign pathology and 54 healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5 T. In 59 breast cancer patients, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) was also acquired. Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 x 10-3 mm2/s) compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 x 10-3 mm2/s) and healthy (1.78 ± 0.13 x 10-3 mm2/s) breast tissues. A cut-off ADC value of 1.23 x 10-3 mm2/s (sensitivity 92.5%; specificity 91.1%; AUC 0.96) to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by ROC analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE curve was seen while their ADC value showed as positive for malignancy implying the potential of the addition of DWI in increasing the specificity of DCEMRI data. Further, the association of ADC with the tumor volume, stage, hormonal
Breast size is largely determined by genetic predisposition and hormonal fluctuations throughout life. Using dietary modifications can help to increase your breast size slightly and may be enough of a change to please you. Changing your diet is a safer and cheaper alternative to choosing breast enhancing surgery.
Growth factor signaling plays a key role in the growth and development of breast. Aberrant expression and activation of growth factors like insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and their downstream signaling has been implicated in breast cancer. The deregulation of growth factor signaling is associated with increased proliferation and cell survival, decreased apoptosis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The aim of the present study is to survey the different signaling molecules involved in the IGF and EGF signaling pathways, and to find if there are any relationship between breast cancer and their levels and activation. Thirty-nine samples of breast cancer tissues (24 Grade II and 15 Grade III tumours) and sixteen normal breast tissue samples were collected. The expression of the receptors and signaling molecules were investigated using Western blot. IGF-IRβ, AR, pAkt, IKK-α and p38 are upregulated in cancer tissues in a grade depended manner. Further
Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein and a known mediator of glucocorticoid-regulated inflammatory responses. Using a combined multiple high-throughput approach, we recently identified a reduced expression of ANXA1 in human breast cancer. The finding was confirmed at the gene level by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and at the protein level by immunohistochemical staining of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues. In this study, we constructed and used a high-density human breast cancer tissue microarray to characterize the expressional pattern of ANXA1 according to histopathologies. The tissue microarray contains 1,158 informative breast tissue cores of different histologies including normal tissues, hyperplasia, in situ and invasive tumors, and lymph node metastases. Our results showed that there was a significant decrease in glandular expression of ANXA1 in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma compared with ...
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CHARLEEN KIM: Hi. My name is Dr. Charlene Kim. And Im a general surgeon with West Coast Surgical Associates. My topic today for you is breast cancer. Breast cancer is an actually very expansive topic. And when I go to conferences, this topic itself can last five days of conference time. But Im going to condense it down for you in about 40 minutes. Breast cancer is important because it is the most common cancer in women. It is the second leading cause of cancer death behind lung cancer, and 1 in 8 women in their lifetime will have breast cancer. This is irrespective of genetics and family history. However, if the patient does have a family history of breast cancer, their risk is doubled. The most important thing when it comes to breast cancer in terms of survival is early detection. So how do we detect breast masses? Breast masses are detected by palpation. Often times, the patients will come to our office and theyll have a breast mass that they felt themselves. Theyll come concerned and ...
Thank you for your interest in working at Breast Cancer Action!. For our current internship opportunities, learn more here. About Breast Cancer Action. Breast Cancer Action is not your average breast cancer organization. BCAction is fiercely independent and refuses corporate funding from any company that profits from or contributes to breast cancer, which means they can always put womens health first.. BCAction is focused on achieving health justice for all women living with and at risk of breast cancer. Radical and compassionate, BCAction never shies away from the hard truths. They tell it like it is about breast cancer: 40,000 women die of this devastating disease every year, and we dont have nearly enough to show for the billions of dollars raised in the name of breast cancer.. BCAction was founded in 1990 by a handful of women who were living with and dying from breast cancer and who demanded answers about their disease. Today, BCAction is a national grassroots organization with 50,000 ...
Researchers at Kaiser Permanente have found that patients with a very early form of breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS) who have higher mammographic density may be at increased risk for subsequent breast cancer, ...
In contrast to the studies of breast tumor biospies, proteomic analysis starting from breast cancer cells in culture has already given significant results with the identification of proteins with clinical interest. In 1980, Westley and Rochefort identified a secreted 46-kDa glycoprotein, induced by estrogens in human breast cancer cell lines, that was identified with specific antibodies as being the protease cathepsin D (22). In 1989, a computer-based analysis of 2DE gels reported a total of eight polypeptide differences between cancerous and normal breast epithelial cells in tissue culture (23). More precise characterization of such polypeptide differences was published in the early 90s with the demonstration that normal breast epithelial cells produce keratins K5, K6, K7, and K17, whereas tumor cells produce mainly keratins K8, K18, and K19 (24). This distribution was secondarily confirmed in tumor samples (25), and cytokeratin immunodetection is now eventually used to help discriminate benign ...
PURPOSE: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. METHODS: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Coopers ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, and 13% of breast cancer occurs in women 20-44 years. Survival from breast cancer has significantly improved, and the effects of treatment and the impact on quality of life have become increasingly important. Pregnancy, breastfeeding and breast reconstruction are all factors that influence the psychology of women and then their prognosis. A woman 28 aged was treated in our clinic for breast cancer by surgery and chemotherapy. She became pregnant five years after completion of the therapy and again after three years. The patient breastfed both her baby. In May 2010, fourteen years after the mastectomy, although the patient was very happy for motherhood, she continued to feel physically disabled for the lack of breast and so she decided to make a breast reconstruction. The treatment of breast cancer is particularly emotionally for patients because it requires partial or total removal of an organ (breast) with powerful ...
Researchers at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health found exposure to cumulative light at night (LAN) increased the risk of invasive breast cancer, but only in premenopausal women who are current or former smokers (1). The overall increase in breast cancer risk was estimated to be 14% for those exposed to the highest levels of outdoor LAN, compared to those exposed to the lowest levels.. Time-varying satellite data was used to estimate LAN exposure at residential addresses of each of the 110,000 study participants and these data were correlated with occurrence of breast cancer and other parameters linked to breast cancer risk.. Although previous studies have shown that women who live in areas with high LAN are at increased risk of breast cancer, this new, comprehensive study used data collected over 24 years and included women enrolled in the U.S. nationwide Nurses Health Study II (2).. The current study found the association between LAN and breast cancer was more pronounced among ...
A method of breast tissue examination using time-resolved spectroscopy includes the following steps. A support that includes an input port and an output port separated by a selected distance is positioned relative to the examined breast. Locations of the input and output ports are selected to examine a tissue region of the breast. Light pulses of a selected wavelength and duration less than a nanosecond are introduced into the breast tissue at the input port and detected over time at the detection port. Signals corresponding to photons of detected modified pulses are accumulated over time. Values of a scattering coefficient or an absorption coefficient of the examined breast tissue are calculated based on the shape of the modified pulses. The examined breast tissue is characterized based on the values of the scattering coefficient or the absorption coefficient. Absorbing or fluorescing contrast agents may be introduced into the examined tissue. This method may be used in conjunction with x-ray
In breast cancer, early detection remains key to improved prognosis and survival. While screening mammography has decreased mortality for breast cancer patients by 30 percent, its sensitivity is limited and is decreased in women with dense breast tissue. Such shortcomings warrant further refinements in breast cancer screening modalities and the identification of imaging biomarkers to guide follow-up care for breast cancer patients, said Doris Leithner, MD, research fellow at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, New York. Our study aimed to assess the differences in 18F-FDG PET/MRI biomarkers in healthy contralateral breast tissue among patients with malignant or benign breast tumors ...
A system, computer program product, and related methods are described for obtaining, processing, and/or and archiving full-field breast image data, such as full-field breast ultrasound (FFBU) data, in a manner that promotes ready integration with current x-ray mammogram-based breast cancer screening methodologies, and which can alternatively be used to support a full-field-only environment. Two-dimensional thick-slice images computed from a three-dimensional data volume are used to facilitate efficient archiving for a breast imaging session, the two-dimensional thick-slice images corresponding to slab-like subvolumes of the breast. Clinician data overload problems that can arise from the existence of large amounts of three-dimensional full-field breast image data are reduced. Archive space is also preserved while still providing sufficient information data for future reference purposes. Related adjunctive full-field workflow methods are also described. The described embodiments are applicable to FFBU
What is the most common breast size in america The KGB Agent answer: The average breast size in the US is 35.9 inches. Roughly equivalent to a 34B bra size. Text us again!
Breast MRIs follow the same procedural steps as an MRI scan. However, unlike a standard MRI, a breast MRI requires you to lie face down on a comfortable MRI bed. The bed has a large opening to accommodate for your breasts without compression. The opening also contains coils that help detect the and image the contrast dye in the breast.. Before your breast MRI scan, you will be given a contrast dye to help the MRI machine image your breast with more detail and accuracy. Unlike other contrast dyes, the dye used for a breast MRI does not expose you to radiation.. Once youve received your contrast dye, you lie on the MRI bed as it enters the MRI machine. The machine is like a large tube that surrounds your entire body. The test is painless, however, patients who are claustrophobic may find it somewhat uncomfortable.. While your breasts are scanned, it is normal for the machines magnet to make loud and repetitive tapping noises. That magnet sends information into a computer controlled by an MRI ...
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Women 40-49 years. Age is the biggest risk factor in developing breast cancer. Around 75% of all breast cancers occur in women over the age of 50. Current research shows that breast cancer screening is most effective in detecting early breast cancer in women aged 50-69 years.. Current evidence indicates that the benefits of breast cancer screening for women aged 40-49 years are not strong enough to encourage all women in this age group to have regular breast cancer screening.. Women in their 40s who have no breast problems are able to have a free screening mammogram through BreastScreen Australia if they wish. However, they are not specifically targeted to attend.. Women 40 years and under. Regular screening mammograms are not recommended for women under 40 years. One reason is that the risk of breast cancer in young women is low compared to that of older women. Also, mammographic screening is not as effective in younger women. As women grow older and approach menopause, their breasts change and ...
Most women know that they should check for lumps that are out of the ordinary.. However there are other changes to your breasts that you should look out for as well.. These includes:. 1) A change in the size or shape of your breast. 2) A change in the skin - particularly dimpling or puckering. 3) Breast pain that does not go away after a period. 4) A change in the appearance of the nipple or a discharge from the nipple. 5) If you notice any changes you should ask your doctor about them as soon as possible. They may well be harmless but your doctor will be able to reassure you. 6) Lumpy areas or thickening of the breast tissue. Most new lumps or other breast changes are not serious and can be easily treated if necessary. Should they prove to be cancer then there is a very good chance of successful treatment. And the earlier any problems are found, the better the chances. That is why it is important to be "breast aware" and to be on the look out for any changes. Many women worry about getting ...
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Genotoxins and the initiation of sporadic breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed female malignancy world-wide. The aetiology of the majority of cases remains obscure and the only genotoxin as yet known to initiate breast cancer is ionizing radiation, High penetrance susceptibility genes probably account for no more than 5-10% of cases, The breast, which consists of 70-90% adipose tissue, has a unique morphological structure. Dispersed within it are the functional elements that are lined with cancer-susceptible epithelial cells. Numerous dietary and/or environmental fat- soluble compounds are known to be rodent mammary carcinogens. Extracts of lipid obtained following collagenase digestion of elective reduction mammoplasty tissues from UK resident women showed activity in short-term genotoxicity assays in 40% of cases. More active lipid extracts tended to come from donors whose human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) exhibited pre- existing DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs). ...
HER-2 positive tumors are among the most aggressive subtypes of breast cancer and are frequently associated with metastasis and poor outcome. As with other aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, these tumors are associated with abnormally high expression of galectin-7 (gal-7), which confers metastatic breast tumor cells with increased invasive behavior. Although previous studies in the rat model of breast tumorigenesis have shown that gal-7 is also increased in primary breast tumor, its contribution to the development of the primary breast tumors remains unclear. In the present work, we have used genetically-engineered gal-7-deficient mice to examine the role of gal-7 in the development of the mammary gland and of breast cancer. Using histological and immunohistological analysis of whole mammary glands at different stages of development, we detected no significant changes between normal and gal-7-deficient mice. To test the involvement of gal-7 in breast cancer, we next examined the effects of ...
16 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® Breast Cancer - Carcinoma in Situ (stage 0) , Version 1.2016 2 LCIS Risk-reduction treatment Pathology review All biopsy samples must be viewed by a pathologist. The type and extent of the disease will be confirmed. Among women with LCIS, over half have LCIS in more than one lobule. Sometimes, both LCIS and breast cancer are found. The breast cancer may be confined to or have spread beyond the breast ducts. If an invasive breast cancer is found, read the NCCN patient book related to the cancer stage. The pathology results will be recorded in a report. Its a good idea to get a copy of your pathology report. Its used to plan treatment. Risk-reduction treatment Although LCIS increases your risk for breast cancer, you may not need risk-reduction treatment. There are many other risk factors to consider. One very important risk factor is if any of your blood relatives have had breast or ovarian cancer, especially at a young age. Using your medical and family ...
Tumor suppressor LATS decides cell fate. The researchers focused on cancer-inhibiting genes that prevent normal cells from becoming cancerous. In particular, they studied the tumor suppressors LATS1 and LATS2. Once LATS is deleted, the processes in the breast tissue change. Without LATS, the number of so-called luminal precursor cells in the epithelial tissue of breast glands increases. These are the cells of origin of most types of breast cancer in humans. LATS balances cell fate in the breast tissue. In its absence the equilibrium shifts and more cells that can give rise to tumors develop, explains Bentires-Alj.. Resistance to degradation. In healthy breast tissue, LATS brings together the estrogen receptor alpha with the protein degradation machinery. Without LATS the receptor can no longer be properly degraded, which has consequences for cancer therapy. We were able to show that cancer cells without LATS no longer respond to Fluvestrant, an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes its ...
The ducts and lobules of the breast are glandular tissue they make breast milkso cancers starting in these areas are often called adenocarcinomas.
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8 ...
Breast cancer. Colour-enhanced X-ray mammogram of a female breast in side view, showing cancer. The breast is orange at centre; its connective tissue and milk ducts make it appear fibrous. A cancerous tumour is seen within the breast as a yellow core with radiating contours of colour. At far right are ribs (blue) of the ribcage. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Most deaths from breast cancer occur when the cancer is not detected early enough and it spreads to other parts of the body. Mammography is a special X-ray technique used to visualize soft tissues of the breast as a means of screening women for breast cancer, and to detect tumours at an early stage. - Stock Image M122/0176
Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the breast, usually in the inner lining of the milk ducts or lobules. It is currently the most common type of cancer in women in developed and developing countries. The number of women affected by breast cancer is gradually increasing and remains as a significant health concern. Hence, the early detection of breast cancer can improve the survival rate and quality of life. Therefore, today, newer modalities are available to more accurately detect breast cancer. Researchers are continuously working to develop novel techniques to detect early stages of breast cancer. This book covers breast cancer detection using different imaging modalities such as mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, ultrasonography, infrared imaging, and other modalities. Architectural distortion is one of the major causes of false-negative findings in the detection of early stages of breast cancer. Chapter 1 presents methods ...
Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the breast, usually in the inner lining of the milk ducts or lobules. It is currently the most common type of cancer in women in developed and developing countries. The number of women affected by breast cancer is gradually increasing and remains as a significant health concern. Hence, the early detection of breast cancer can improve the survival rate and quality of life. Therefore, today, newer modalities are available to more accurately detect breast cancer. Researchers are continuously working to develop novel techniques to detect early stages of breast cancer. This book covers breast cancer detection using different imaging modalities such as mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, ultrasonography, infrared imaging, and other modalities. Architectural distortion is one of the major causes of false-negative findings in the detection of early stages of breast cancer. Chapter 1 presents methods ...
By Christabel Abewe and Vester Gunsaru. Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women and the most common cause of death from cancer. Globally, breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates vary considerably between the regions (approximately fourfold). However, what has been unequivocally consistent across the regions is that the incidence of breast cancer is increasing, and in regions without early detection programs, mortality is also increasing. The global trajectory is that breast cancer incidence is higher in the developed countries as compared with the developing countries, yet paradoxically; the breast cancer mortality in the developing countries is almost equal to that in the developed countries. This implies that breast cancer disproportionately affects women in developing countries. The high mortality in developing countries is largely attributed to the fact that about 75% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in low and middle income countries (LMICs) present ...
By Christabel Abewe and Vester Gunsaru. Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women and the most common cause of death from cancer. Globally, breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates vary considerably between the regions (approximately fourfold). However, what has been unequivocally consistent across the regions is that the incidence of breast cancer is increasing, and in regions without early detection programs, mortality is also increasing. The global trajectory is that breast cancer incidence is higher in the developed countries as compared with the developing countries, yet paradoxically; the breast cancer mortality in the developing countries is almost equal to that in the developed countries. This implies that breast cancer disproportionately affects women in developing countries. The high mortality in developing countries is largely attributed to the fact that about 75% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in low and middle income countries (LMICs) present ...
Objectives: Breast cancer has been the second most prevalent and fatal malignancy due to its frequent metastasis to other organs. We aim to study the effects of a key miRNA-mRNA signaling in breast cancer.Results: CNN1 was identified as the key gene in breast cancer by the bioinformatics analysis, and the downregulation of CNN1 in breast cancer tissues and cell lines was observed. Upregulating CNN1 inhibited cell survival, migration, invasion, and adhesion, but enhanced cell apoptosis. miR-106b-5p not only bound to CNN1 mRNA 3’UTR, but also promoted lung metastasis in vivo. Besides, the miR-106b-5p mimic enhanced breast cancer canceration by targeting CNN1 and activating Rho/ROCK1 signaling pathway.Conclusion: Overall, our results proved that miR-106b-5p promoted the metastasis of breast cancer by suppressing CNN1 and activating Rho/ROCK1 pathway.Methods: Bioinformatics analysis was performed to select the key gene in breast cancer. The overexpression and knockdown of Calponin 1 (CNN1) in
Infertility and hormonal fertility treatments may influence the amount of dense tissue in the breast, a risk factor for breast cancer, according to a study involving 43,313 women, published in the open access journal Breast Cancer Research.
TY - JOUR. T1 - CT evaluation of breast cancer. T2 - Spectrum of disease. AU - Kronthal, A. J.. AU - Fishman, E. K.. AU - Gottlieb, L. M.. AU - Davidson, N. E.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Although computed tomography is not typically used as a primary diagnostic modality for detection of a breast mass, it is playing an increasing role in the accurate staging of breast cancer as well as in determining patterns or recurrence. This article reviews the role of CT in the evaluation of breast cancer with specific emphasis on the varying patterns of disease recurrence. Specific emphasis is placed on complications and recurrences in the chest, axilla, the abdomen (including involvement of the major abdominal organs), as well as the musculoskeletal system. Specific case examples illustrating the various pathologic processes involving patients with breast cancer are presented.. AB - Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. ...
In this issue of American Family Physician, Dr. Apantakus article, titled "Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Screening,"1 provides a useful overview of issues that pertain to breast cancer. The importance of this topic is confirmed by the emphasis that breast cancer is accorded in the recently published Healthy People 2010.2 Objective 3-3 in Healthy People 20102 establishes the target of reducing the death rate attributable to breast cancer by 20 percent by the year 2010. As cited by Apantaku,1 the incidence of breast cancer is higher in white women than in black women aged 50 and older. Yet, the breast cancer mortality rate in 1997 was 28.0 deaths per 100,000 in white women of all ages, compared with a rate of 37.7 deaths per 100,000 in black women.2 Attention to facilitating earlier diagnoses of breast cancer must be a high priority, especially among black women.. Objective 3-13 in Healthy People 20102 articulates the goal of "increas[ing] the proportion of women 40 years and older who have ...
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Gene expression profiling is important for discovering and validating tumor biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Using the Cancer PathwayFinder PCR Array and the Human Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules PCR Array, we examined the gene expression profiles exhibited by two different human breast tumors relative to normal tissues. The study compared the relative expression of both tumorigenesis- and adhesion-related genes between each tumor sample and a normal breast tissue sample. This study provides an example of the identification of a pathway affected by the transformation of a particular tumor type.. Template cDNAs prepared from total RNA of normal human breast and two human breast tumors (BioChain Institute, Inc., 5.0 µg) were characterized in technical triplicates using the Human Cancer PathwayFinder™ PCR Array and the Human Extracellular Matrix & Adhesion Molecule PCR Array with the RT² SYBR Green / Fluorescein PCR master mix on the Bio-Rad iCycler®. ...
This page provides useful content and local businesses that can help with your search for Breast Cancer Treatment. You will find helpful, informative articles about Breast Cancer Treatment, including Protect Your Breasts and Keeping Breast Cancer at Bay. You will also find local businesses that provide the products or services that you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in Weirton, WV that will answer all of your questions about Breast Cancer Treatment.
Whilst improvements in diagnosis and treatment have led to a reduction in mortality rates for breast cancer, efforts to prevent the disease have stalled. The age standardised rate of breast cancer rose 24% in women between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014. Breast Cancer UK believe it is time for a fresh approach to the prevention of breast cancer and a greater focus on all of the risk factors. Were calling for the prioritisation of the primary prevention of breast cancer; a cancer strategy that acknowledges hormone disrupting chemicals as a potential risk factor for breast cancer; and, greater research investment into the causes of the disease. We engage with Government departments, independent agencies and other relevant stakeholders in an effort to persuade key policy makers that more can be done to help prevent breast cancer, not just deal with the consequences. Make your voice heard - write to your MP. A lot of laws and regulations that protect people from harmful chemicals originate in the EU. You ...
The most common symptom found by the woman herself or a health care provider is a painless lump in the breast. At times, a painful lump turns out to be cancer. The characteristics of a cancerous lump are: it is hard, not well defined, and is immovable. Occasionally, breast cancer appears as a lump in the armpit or axilla. One lump or several in the armpit can be a symptom of breast cancer, but can also be due to noncancerous conditions. Bleeding from the nipple is not a common sign of cancer but it can possibly indicate cancer, especially if it is from one side only. Only 4% of nipple discharge on one side is cancer.. A more difficult symptom to be found by the woman herself is a thickening of the tissue somewhere in the breast. Any change in breast size or shape can be due to either non-cancerous conditions or cancer. For example, if one breast becomes more pendulous or the nipples are at different levels, cancer is a possibility. Swelling or edema occurs where the tumor is which causes the ...
There are two types of breast surgery for early breast cancer: breast conserving surgery and mastectomy. Breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for most women with early breast cancer. This means that for most women the chance of breast cancer spreading to other parts of the body and the chance of dying from breast cancer is the same
Following childbirth and/or breast-feeding, many women find that their breasts have changed, often for the worse, in terms of size, shape and feel. As the skin loses elasticity, the breasts tend to lose their shape and firmness and begin to sag. Even without pregnancies, the effects of time, gravity, and alternate weight gain and loss, can all take their toll. A breast uplift or mastopexy, is a surgical procedure to reshape and raise sagging breasts without altering the overall volume of the breast.. It is best to wait until you have finished childbearing to have mastopexy. While a mastopexy doesnt usually interfere with future pregnancies, it is important to understand that having an uplift will not prevent the breasts from drooping over the years due to the natural ageing process.. The best results are usually achieved in women with small, sagging breasts. Although breasts of any size can be lifted, the result may not last as long in heavy breasts. It is important to bear in mind that, ...
Being aware of breast cancer risk factors is the best way to determine and identify how you can reduce your risk. Keep in mind that risk statistics can be confusing. Before making sweeping changes based on the latest news headline, talk to your doctor about what a given statistic or risk factor means for you. Breast factors include:. Beginning female. Increasing age. Prior history of breast cancer or precancerous breast lesions. History of radiation to the chest. Family history of breast or ovarian cancer. An inherited genetic mutation. Dense breasts on a mammogram. Obesity after menopause. Longer estrogen exposure (early menstruation and late menopause). Use of combined menopausal hormone therapy. Use of the medication diethylstilbestrol (DES). Alcohol consumption. Smoking. Never having children. Source: Supplement to Mayo Clinic Health Letter August 2016. PLEASE REMEMBER TO DONATE THANK YOU!. ...
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Press Release issued Jul 2, 2014: It is important women check their breasts on a regular basis. Survival rates for breast cancer are improving. Unfortunately, a lot of women do not check their breasts, this is for many reasons. One reasons is some women believe if there is no family history of breast cancer they are not in danger of finding a lump in their breast. However, 85% of breast cancers occur in women with no family history of breast cancer. Another reason some women do not check is due to the fact they are not sure how to examine their breasts
A partial (segmental) mastectomy involves the removal of the breast cancer and a larger portion of the normal breast tissue around the breast cancer (the areas removed during the surgery are shaded in green). The surgeon may also remove the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor and some of the lymph nodes under the arm. The bean-shaped lymph nodes under the arm (also called the axillary lymph nodes) drain the lymphatic vessels from the upper arms, the majority of the breast, the neck, and the underarm regions. Often breast cancer spreads to these lymph nodes, enters the lymphatic system and spreads to other parts of the body. Radiation therapy may also be given after a partial mastectomy to destroy cancer cells that may not have been removed during the partial mastectomy procedure.. ...
A partial (segmental) mastectomy involves the removal of the breast cancer and a larger portion of the normal breast tissue around the breast cancer (the areas removed during the surgery are shaded in green). The surgeon may also remove the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor and some of the lymph nodes under the arm. The bean-shaped lymph nodes under the arm (also called the axillary lymph nodes) drain the lymphatic vessels from the upper arms, the majority of the breast, the neck, and the underarm regions. Often breast cancer spreads to these lymph nodes, enters the lymphatic system and spreads to other parts of the body. Radiation therapy may also be given after a partial mastectomy to destroy cancer cells that may not have been removed during the partial mastectomy procedure.. ...
Breast development happens in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also happen to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer. Most are over 50, but younger women, and in rare cases, men, can also get breast cancer.. A womans breasts are made up of fat, connective tissue and thousands of tiny glands, known as lobules, which produce milk. If a woman has a baby, the milk is delivered to the nipple through tiny tubes called ducts, which allow her to breastfeed.. Our bodies are made up of billions of tiny cells. Normally, cells grow and multiply in an orderly way. New cells are only made when and where they are needed. In cancer, this orderly process goes wrong and cells begin to grow and multiply uncontrollably.. Breast cancer can have a number of symptoms but usually shows as a lump or thickening in the breast tissue (although most breast lumps are not cancerous). If cancer is detected at an early stage, it can be treated before it spreads to nearby parts of the body.. If you notice any of these symptoms, see Dr. B C Shah as soon as possible. After an examination, they may feel it ...
Katie*. Its not true. Touching or massaging breasts does not make them grow.. Theres a lot of wrong information about breast development out there. Some of the things you may hear are outright cons - like special creams or pills that make breasts bigger. (They dont work!) Others are myths - some girls who want smaller breasts think that sleeping in a bra or wearing a bra thats too small can stunt breast growth, but thats also not true.. In reality, genes and hormones determine breast growth. Some girls develop earlier, others later, and a girls breasts can keep growing and changing into her late teens.. Every girl wants to be proud of her body. There are things you can do - like eating well and getting enough exercise and sleep - to help your body develop in a healthy way.. Dont feel shy about talking to your doctor if you have questions about your body and how it is developing. Your doc is used to answering questions like this, and he or she will be able to give you advice about your ...
Most DCIS arises in the larger ducts and LCIS arises within the lobules of the breast. However, the ducts and lobules are connected which means that DCIS may travel into the lobules and LCIS may travel up the ducts. For this reason, pathologists rely on the type of cells and pattern of growth to determine the diagnosis of DCIS vs. LCIS. Only a pathologist can make this distinction. In some cases, both DCIS and LCIS are present in the same biopsy.. DCIS and LCIS both increase a patients relative risk for developing invasive breast cancer and that risk applies to both breasts. However, DCIS is also thought to be a "precursor" to invasive carcinoma based upon numerous research studies. This is why your surgeon tries to remove all areas of DCIS from your breast and why many patients subsequently receive radiation therapy to that breast.. LCIS, on the other hand, has not traditionally been considered to be a "precursor" to invasive carcinoma, therefore complete removal of LCIS and radiation therapy ...
Reviews a study by Hon et al that applied MethylC-seq, histone CHiP-seq, and RNA-seq to a breast cancer cell line and primary human mammary epithelial cells.
Scientists agree that there is no safe dose of radiation. Cellular DNA in the breast is more easily damaged by very small doses of radiation than thyroid tissue or bone marrow; in fact, breast cells are second only to fetal tissues in sensitivity to radiation. And the younger the breast cells, the more easily their DNA is damaged by radiation. As an added risk, one percent of American women carry a hard-to-detect oncogene which is triggered by radiation; a single mammogram increases their risk of breast cancer by a factor of 4-6 times. "The usual dose of radiation during a mammographic x-ray is from 0.25 to1 rad with the very best equipment; thats 1-4 rads per screening mammogram (two views each of two breasts). And, according to Samuel Epstein, M.D., of the University of Chicagos School of Public Health, the dose can be ten times more than that . Sister Rosalie Bertell-one of the worlds most respected authorities on the dangers of radiation-says one rad increases breast cancer risk one ...
Did you know there are different kinds of breast cancer? Use this guide to learn more about the types of breast cancer, how they are determined, and how they are classified.. After a breast cancer diagnosis, your medical team will need to determine your specific type of breast cancer. To do this, an in-depth evaluation will be done on a tissue sample collected from your breast biopsy, or on the tumor itself after your breast cancer surgery.. There are several factors that are considered, including:. ...
Mammography has been evaluated more extensively than any other imaging technique and remains a mainstay of the diagnosis of breast cancer. Reported sensitivity in detecting palpable breast cancer is 80-90%,1 but it is lower in patients with dense breast parenchyma. A normal mammogram can be seen in the presence of a palpable breast cancer, so national guidance recommends that all breast units should provide triple assessment clinics for symptomatic women rather than an open access imaging service for general practitioners.2 ...
Scientists have identified a gene, which helps to regulate how different genes operate in different cell types. This finding may now allow scientists to find new ways to target and treat aggressive types of breast cancer. Scientists have pinpointed a gene, TAZ, which controls whether breast cells behave more like basal cells or more like luminal cells, information that might be important in understanding and possibly treating difficult-to-treat forms of breast cancer. Researchers have known for a long time that breast cells can lose their normal identity when they become cancerous, but are now realizing that normal cells can change their characteristics as well in response to transcription factors like TAZ. This might be a factor in the development of breast cancer. By identifying the genes responsible for this change in cells from breast tissue, researchers now hope to identify a way to stop or reverse it.
Recent Progress in HER2 Associated Breast Cancer HER2;breast cancer;mechanism;treatment; Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide among women and the second most common cancer. Approximately 15-23% of breast cancers over-express human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2), a 185-kDa transmembrane tyrosine kinase, which is mainly found at the cell surface of tumor cells. HER2-positive breast cancer, featuring amplification of HER2/neu and negative expression of ER and PR, has the three following characteristics: rapid tumor growth, lower survival rate, and better response to adjuvant therapies. Clinically, it is notable for its role in a pathogenesis that is associated with increased disease recurrence and acts as a worse prognosis. At the same time, it represents a good target for anti-cancer immunotherapy despite the prevalence of drug resistance. New treatments are a major topic of research, and a brighter future can be expected. This review discusses the role of HER2 in breast cancer,
It is important to differentiate ZD from breast cancer. Patients should be carefully checked to make sure that they do not have breast cancer, which can include having a physical exam, mammogram and ultrasound. In Zuskas disease, breast imaging may show a cystic mass or sometimes multiple cystic masses. A biopsy, or tissue sample may need to be obtained to rule out cancer.. ZD treatment may require antibiotics. Abscesses should be drained when they reach "a head". Bacteria that live with and without oxygen (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria) may be isolated in cultures from patients with ZD, with the most common organisms being anaerobic Peptostreptococci together with aerobic Staphylococci. Surgery is the only curative treatment for a lactiferous fistula, a disease tract between the abscess and the breast skin. Core excision of the fistula and all of the associated infected breast tissue is the definitive treatment. Smoking cessation is also essential to help prevent recurrences of ZD.. For more ...
Breast cancer is the diagnosis of 29% of all types of cancer in women in the United States. Unfortunately, it is also the leading cause of cancer death in women. In addition, the highest rates of breast cancer is found in the westernized world. Epidemiological studies point to causative factors such as western dietary patterns, decreased physical activity, rising obesity rates, and use of exogenous hormones (Stopeck & Thompson, 2013).. Other studies have shown that physical exercise can decrease the occurrence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women by up to 25%. In the same vein, obesity is a risk factor for the occurrence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (Guinan et al., 2013). One epidemiological study showed that women who are involved in moderate to vigorous physical activity for 3-5 days a week can reduce their risk of breast cancer by 20-40% (Volaklis, Halle, & Tokmakidis, 2013).. Physical activity is related to breast cancer because it affects some biomarkers that result in the ...
Imaging and local therapy are important modalities for detection and management of localized breast cancer. Improvements in screening and local therapy have contributed to reduced breast cancer-associated morbidity and mortality. The Coalition of Cancer Cooperative Groups (CCCG) convened the Scientific Leadership Council (SLC) in breast cancer, an expert panel, to identify priorities for future research and current trials with greatest practice-changing potential. Panelists formed a consensus on research priorities for breast imaging and locoregional therapy, and also identified six trials judged to be of high priority. Current high priority trials included trials determining: (1) the role of accelerated partial breast versus whole-breast radiation (B39), (2) the feasibility, safety, and local and systemic control of small localized breast cancers treated with tumor ablation (Z1072), (3) the role of removal of the primary cancer in selected patients with metastatic disease (E2108), and (4) the clinical
Some women whove been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in one breast choose to have that breast and the other healthy breast removed -- a double mastectomy. Removing the other healthy breast is called contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. The healthy breast usually is removed because of understandable fear that a new, second breast cancer might develop in that breast. More and more women whove been diagnosed are opting for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy -- in the late 1990s, between 4% and 6% of women who were having a mastectomy decided to have the other healthy breast removed. More recently, between 11% and 25% of women having a mastectomy decided to have contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. In particular, more women who are diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger are deciding to have the other healthy breast removed. Some doctors are concerned that too many women are choosing the very aggressive step of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy during or shortly ...
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Here we present a case of an 11-year old hispanic girl affected by bilateral mammary nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, an uncommon breast disease, with a review of the literature related to diagnostic workup, differential diagnosis, and management. A rapidly growing mass in the breast may be stressful for both parents and child as the suspicion of malignancy arises. Multiple wide excisions of both breasts were performed.. CONCLUSIONS ...
1 Sung et al. Safety and efficacy of radioactive seed localization with I-125 prior to lumpectomy and/or excisional biopsy. European Journal of Radiology. 2013; 82. 1453-1457. 2 Chiu et al. Radioactive seed localization of non-palpable breast lesions in an academic comprehensive cancer program community hospital setting. The American Surgeon. 2014; 80: 675-679. 3 Diego et al. Localizing high risk lesions for excisional breast biopsy: a comparison between radioactive seed localization and wire localization. Annals of Surgical Oncology. 2014; 21: 3268-3272. 4 Barentsz et al. Radioactive seed localization for non-palpable breast cancer. British Journal of Surgery. 2013; 100: 582-588. 5 Murphy et al. Radioactive seed localization compared to wire localization in breast-conserving surgery: Initial 6-Month Experience. Annals of Surgical Oncology. 2013; 20: 4121-4127. 6 McGhan et al. Radioactive seed localization for non-palpable breast lesions: Review of 1,000 consecutive procedures at a single ...
A prophylactic mastectomy may be a total mastectomy (also called simple mastectomy), which is considered the most effective at breast cancer prevention. Its also used as a treatment in women diagnosed with a form of breast cancer called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) [source: Lambert]. During a total mastectomy the entire breast is removed; the muscles from beneath the breast and the lymph nodes in the underarm area are left intact. Its called a bilateral mastectomy when both breasts are removed, and contralateral when one breast is removed.. For women who plan to have immediate breast reconstruction surgery, surgeons may use skin-sparing techniques during breast removal. During this type of surgery, the breast skin is left behind to be used in shaping the new breasts during reconstruction. Subcutaneous mastectomy may be performed to remove breast tissue while keeping the nipple intact.. Women who do not choose immediate reconstruction can expect a brief hospital stay, and should expect pain, ...
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article{ac3c1e27-9238-408a-9002-fb95610acc6d, abstract = {Introduction - A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general. Objectives - To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer. Subjects - From the files of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease. Methods - DNA from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis ...
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Fibrocystic Breast DiseaseFibrocystic Breast Disease

... fibrocystic breast disease is more a characteristic of the breast than a disease. It is often more prominent during ovulation ... Having fibrocystic breasts does not place women at a higher or lower risk of developing breast cancer. ... https://www.healthcentral.com/condition/fibrocystic-breast-disease. Fibrocystic Breast Disease. Fibrocystic Breast Disease. ... fibrocystic breast disease is more a characteristic of the breast than a disease. It is often more prominent during ovulation ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/condition/fibrocystic-breast-disease

Fibrocystic Breast Changes |  Healing Centers | Healing Centers | Healthways, Inc.Fibrocystic Breast Changes | Healing Centers | Healing Centers | Healthways, Inc.

... almost half of all women develop some degree of a condition called fibrocystic breast syndrome (FBS) in which their breast ... Learn About Fibrocystic Breast Changes What are Fibrocystic Breast Changes?. Key Symptoms. What Causes Fibrocystic Breast ... What are Fibrocystic Breast Changes? Many women experience the breast pain and lumps that doctors call fibrocystic breast ... What are Fibrocystic Breast Changes?. Key Symptoms. What Causes Fibrocystic Breast Changes?. Conventional Treatments. ...
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Silicone Gel Breast Implants Manufactured by Poly Implant Prosthese (PIP)Silicone Gel Breast Implants Manufactured by Poly Implant Prosthese (PIP)

Breast implants manufactured by PIP have been filled with a non-approved silicone gel. The use of non-approved silicone gel may ... Testing of the breast implants by regulators in France, Australia, and the UK has found no evidence of toxicity with the filler ... It is believed the filling of the implants with the non-approved gel commenced in 2001, so all PIP breast implants manufactured ... To date there have been no device notifications to the database for breast implants manufactured or filled by PIP. Medsafe ...
more infohttp://www.medsafe.govt.nz/hot/RecallActionNoticesNew/SiliconeBreastImplantsPIP.asp

Breast implant legal definition of breast implantBreast implant legal definition of breast implant

What is breast implant? Meaning of breast implant as a legal term. What does breast implant mean in law? ... Definition of breast implant in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Safety of Silicone Breast Implants, Report of the committee on the Safety of Silicone Breast Implants (IOM).. Reconstruction ... Planned radiation therapy to the breast following breast implant placement. FDA Approves 28 Additional Styles Of Allergans ...
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Fibrocystic Breast Disease « Body & Body Image « Sexual HealthFibrocystic Breast Disease « Body & Body Image « Sexual Health

It may not be breast cancer; it could be a Fibrocystic Breast Condition. ... It is not related to breast cancer in any way. Feeling a lump can be very scary and concerning. You need to seek the advice of ... Fibrocystic breast disease. It really isnt a disease at all. ... It can occur in just one breast or both breasts. You many have ... Symptoms of fibrocystic breasts include pain or discomfort in the breasts. You may or may not have lumps present. The breasts ...
more infohttps://www.edenfantasys.com/sexis/sex-health/fibrocystic-breast-disease/print/

FRENCH WOMEN BURN THEIR BREAST IMPLANTS | Weekly World NewsFRENCH WOMEN BURN THEIR BREAST IMPLANTS | Weekly World News

At least 250 women with breast implants have already scheduled breast implant removals for the first week of January. Heres ... Tags: breast implants, burn bras, burn implants, feminists, French, French women, fuel additive, PIP, Poly Implant Prothese, ... The French government is expected to hold a news conference this week to announce whether it will pay for the removal of breast ... "Yes, some women want breasts implants because they want to feel better about themselves, but most women get them in order to ...
more infohttp://weeklyworldnews.com/headlines/41881/french-women-burn-their-breast-implants/

Physiotherapy treatments for breast cancer-related lymphedema: a literature reviewPhysiotherapy treatments for breast cancer-related lymphedema: a literature review

... Physiotherapy treatments for breast cancer- ... Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer among women. Surgery is part of the therapeutic process to prevent metastases ...
more infohttp://atlaschiro.com/physiotherapy-treatments-for-breast-cancer-related-lymphedema-a-literature-review/

Fibrocystic Breasts, Caffeine and Estrogen - DrDonnica.com - The First Name in Womens HealthFibrocystic Breasts, Caffeine and Estrogen - DrDonnica.com - The First Name in Women's Health

I had read that fibrocystic breasts can be caused by consuming caffeine, but my doctor didn t tell me to stop. Should I? Can ... Fibrocystic Breasts, Caffeine and Estrogen Q: I recently had a stereotactic biopsy done on my right breast after my routine ... with fibrocystic breasts do not have a higher incidence of breast cancer than women without fibrocystic breasts. You should ... Will I be in greater danger from breast cancer now?. I would really appreciate hearing from you. I read your column in First ...
more infohttp://drdonnica.com/faqs/00006069.htm

Silicone breast implants: an oncologic perspective. - MyScienc...Silicone breast implants: an oncologic perspective. - MyScienc...

... the FDA decided that silicone gel-filled breast implants would be available only through controlle ... The safety of silicone breast implants had been called into question after several reports of a possible association between ... In 1992, the FDA decided that silicone gel-filled breast implants would be available only through controlled clinical studies, ... This article reviews current scientific evidence on the safety of silicone gel-filled breast implants. Issues pertinent to ...
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E breast implantsE breast implants

Breast Augmentation Los Angeles Pasadena Breast,Breast Actives,Breast Implants Before and After Photos Augmentation Pics,Breast ... Tags:Botched Patients Leaking 4000cc Implants Are a Breast,Breast implant Wikipedia,Breast Implants Which Type Shape and Size ... Augmentation Connecticut Breast Implants,How to Choose Between Silicone and Saline Breast Implants,Breast Implants Injury ... Is for You,Breast Implants Enlargement Surgery In Bangkok Thailand, ...
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Breast Implants and Cancer of the Immune System (ALCL): A History of Who Knew What When - Stop Cancer FundBreast Implants and Cancer of the Immune System (ALCL): A History of Who Knew What When - Stop Cancer Fund

It is important to understand that even when ALCL is in the breast, it is not breast cancer, but rather a cancer of the immune ... Although plastic surgeons and breast implant manufacturers admit that breast implants can cause ALCL, they claimed it was very ... For many years, women with breast implants were assured by implant companies, plastic surgeons, and the FDA that breast ... Mazzucco, Anna, Ph.D and Zuckerman, Diana, Ph.D. "ALCL and Breast Implants: 2017 Update." Breast Implant Information. Web. ...
more infohttp://stopcancerfund.org/pz-other-cancers/breast-implants-and-cancer-of-the-immune-system/

Breast implants - Part 2Breast implants - Part 2

Breast lift, Breast revision surgery and tagged breast augmentation, breast implants, breast lift, breast revision on December ... Breast lift, Breast revision surgery and tagged breast augmentation, breast implant exchange, breast implants, breast lift, ... Breast lift, Breast revision surgery and tagged breast augmentation, breast implant exchange, breast implant size, breast ... Breast lift, Breast revision surgery and tagged breast augmentation, breast implant exchange, breast implant size, breast ...
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Silicone Implant Rupture - Utah Breast ImplantsSilicone Implant Rupture - Utah Breast Implants

Although silicone breast implants are durable and strong, ruptures do occur. The diagnosis of silicone breast implant rupture ... Implant manufacturers warranty silicone breast implants which can help significantly with the costs of silicone breast implant ... Once a rupture is suspected, breast implant imaging such as MRI or ultrasound can be helpful to confirm the rupture. Unlike ... There is controversy regarding the best protocol for surveillance of silicone breast implants. The FDA is recommending frequent ...
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Saline Breast Implants - Hess Plastic SurgerySaline Breast Implants - Hess Plastic Surgery

But the silicone elastomer breast implant has emerged as the only FDA approved device for breast augmentation. After the breast ... Saline Breast Implants. Many different materials have been inserted into womens breasts to increase their size, such as ... Saline breast implants tend to feel more firm when initially placed. But over the course of several months they do soften and ... Saline breast implants have a shell made of silicone elastomer; the same shell used for silicone implants. These implants are ...
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Jacksonville - Dow Corning Breast Implant Lawyer HelplineJacksonville - Dow Corning Breast Implant Lawyer Helpline

Breast Implant Helpline, Dow Corning Trust Breast Implant Claims. *Breast Implant Lawyers Can Help You, Breast Implant Helpline ... Breast Implant Blog. * Dow Corning Breast Implant Litigation Lawyers: Breast Implant Lawyers Accepting Dow Corning Breast ... Breast Implant, Lawyers Accepting Cases for Dow Corning Breast Implants. * News On Breast Surgery, Breast Implant Claim ... Silicone Breast Implant Lawyers, Silicone Breast Implant Class Action * Dow Settlement Lawyers, Breast Implant Lawyer, Breast ...
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Silicone Breast Implants Are Back!! - HerHealthMatters | HerHealthMattersSilicone Breast Implants Are Back!! - HerHealthMatters | HerHealthMatters

The FDA has had a love-hate relationship with silicone breast implants since the 90s when they were thought to cause a myriad ... The third company to launch silicone breast implants post ban is California-based Sientra. Johnson and Johnson And Allergan, ... of diseases including breast cancer and lupus. The concerns have not been sufficiently validated in any study and the implants ...
more infohttp://herhealthmatters.org/inthenews/silicone-breast-implants-are-back/

The Truth about Silicone Breast Implants | BeFrillyThe Truth about Silicone Breast Implants | BeFrilly

Silicone Breast Implants (Dont) Pop. There is a 0.5% chance that your silicone breast implants will pop or rupture over the ... Silicone Breast Implants Arent Permanent. When you opt for silicone breast implants youre going to have a natural looking ... Silicone Breast Implants Are Safe. Often women dont think silicone breast implants are safe. Theyve heard about problems that ... Silicone gets a bad rap when it comes to breast implants. Years ago when silicone breast implants were first introduced, they ...
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Breast Cancer | VitalSigns | CDCBreast Cancer | VitalSigns | CDC

Black women have the highest death rates of all racial and ethnic groups and are 40% more likely to die of breast cancer than ... Breast cancer deaths are going down the fastest among white women compared to women of other races and ethnicities. ... Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States (2005-2009). ... Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States (2005-2009). Breast cancer deaths ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/breastcancer/index.html

Breast Cancer | VitalSigns | CDCBreast Cancer | VitalSigns | CDC

Black women have the highest death rates of all racial and ethnic groups and are 40% more likely to die of breast cancer than ... Breast cancer deaths are going down the fastest among white women compared to women of other races and ethnicities. ... Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States (2005-2009). ... Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States (2005-2009). Breast cancer deaths ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/BreastCancer/

Jaundice and breastfeeding: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaJaundice and breastfeeding: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

There are two common problems that may occur in newborns receiving breast milk. ... At times, jaundice occurs when your baby does not get enough breast milk, instead of from the breast milk itself. This is ... Sometimes, jaundice occurs when your baby does not get enough breast milk, instead of from the breast milk itself. This kind of ... Breast milk jaundice is seen after the first week of life. It is likely caused by:. *Factors in a mothers milk that help a ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000995.htm

New Study Says Breast Cancer Is 11 Different Diseases, Allowing Researchers To Predict RelapseNew Study Says Breast Cancer Is 11 Different Diseases, Allowing Researchers To Predict Relapse

A new study which followed 2,000 women with breast cancer for twenty-years post-diagnosis has revealed that breast cancer is ... "Treatments for breast cancer have improved dramatically in recent years, but unfortunately for some women, their breast cancer ... "Treatments for breast cancer have improved dramatically in recent years, but unfortunately for some women, their breast cancer ... "In this study, weve delved deeper into breast molecular subtypes so we can more accurately identify who might be at risk of ...
more infohttps://www.forbes.com/sites/victoriaforster/2019/03/14/new-study-says-breast-cancer-is-11-different-diseases-each-with-a-different-chance-of-relapse/

Breast Cancer Awareness Month - National Breast Cancer FoundationBreast Cancer Awareness Month - National Breast Cancer Foundation

Join us in helping women now! Share your story, get a free breast health guide, and help spread awareness online. ... Dense Breasts Guide. Nearly half of all women 40 and older have dense breasts. In honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we ... Breast Cancer Awareness Month October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, an annual campaign to increase awareness of the disease ... Breast cancer doesnt run in my family; it sprints. Now it was my turn, and I was determined to defeat this. I couldnt change ...
more infohttps://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/breast-cancer-awareness-month

Breast cancer support charity | Breast Cancer CareBreast cancer support charity | Breast Cancer Care

Breast Cancer Care is a UK charity providing support for people living with and beyond breast cancer. Find out how to receive ... 2019 Breast Cancer Care.. Breast Cancer Care is a working name of Breast Cancer Care and Breast Cancer Now, a company limited ... Our merger with Breast Cancer Now We have united to create one charity for everyone affected by breast cancer. ... Breast Cancer Care helped me live my life when cancer was busy trying to take it away. And, for that, Ill be forever grateful ...
more infohttps://www.breastcancercare.org.uk/

Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer | American Cancer SocietyChemotherapy for Breast Cancer | American Cancer Society

For advanced breast cancer: Chemo can be used as the main treatment for women whose cancer has spread outside the breast and ... See Breast Cancer Gene Expression Tests for more information. Which chemotherapy drugs are used for breast cancer?. In most ... Chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Chemo drugs useful in treating women with breast cancer that has spread include:. * ... For breast cancer patients, the central line is typically placed on the opposite side of the breast that had surgery. ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/treatment/chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer.html

Breast AugmentationBreast Augmentation

... involves using breast implants or fat transfer to increase the size of your breasts. ... Breast augmentation, sometimes referred to as a boob job by patients, ... What breast augmentation surgery cant do. Breast augmentation does not correct severely drooping breasts. A breast lift may be ... Breast augmentation, sometimes referred to as a "breast aug" or "boob job" by patients, involves using breast implants or fat ...
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  • Multiple small cysts and an increasing level of breast pain commonly develop when a woman hits her 30s. (healthcentral.com)
  • Bromocriptine reduces prolactin release and suppresses breast milk production after pregnancy . (healthcentral.com)
  • Treatment for fibrocystic breast condition include: use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications, increased intake of vitamin C and E, and decreasing caffeine and fat intake. (edenfantasys.com)
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