In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.
Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.
Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A secretoglobin that is produced by the MAMMARY GLAND of HUMANS and may be involved in the binding of ANDROGENS and other STEROIDS. The expression of this protein in normal breast epithelium and in human breast cancer has made it an important histological marker.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.

Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in human breast cancer. (1/3694)

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast tissues with significantly more malignant tissues expressing FGF8 (P=0.019) at significantly higher levels (P=0.031). In situ hybridization of breast cancer tissues and analysis of purified populations of normal epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines showed that malignant epithelial cells expressed FGF8 mRNA at high levels compared to non-malignant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts. Although two of the receptors which FGF8 binds to (FGFR2-IIIc, FGFR3-IIIc) are not expressed in breast cancer cells, an autocrine activation loop is possible since expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 and FGFR1 are retained in malignant epithelial cells. This is the first member of the FGF family to have increased expression in breast cancer and a potential autocrine role in its progression.  (+info)

Mammography and 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography in suspected breast cancer. (2/3694)

The aim of this work has been to evaluate whether a diagnostic protocol based on the joint use of mammography and 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintimammography is capable of reducing the number of biopsies required in patients with suspected breast cancer. METHODS: We performed prone scintimammography in 90 patients with suspected breast cancer, involving 97 lesions. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by way of biopsy. On mammography, we evaluated the degree of suspicion of malignancy and the size of the lesion (smaller or larger than 1 cm in diameter). RESULTS: The results of only 41 of the biopsies indicated malignancy. On mammography, 20 lesions (of which 1 was breast cancer) were considered to be of low suspicion of malignancy, 31 (of which 4 were breast cancer) as indeterminate and 46 (of which 36 were breast cancer) as high. Fourteen lesions (2 low probability, 2 indeterminate and 10 high) were smaller than 1 cm, whereas 83 (18 low probability, 29 indeterminate and 36 high) were larger. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of scintimammography were 85%, 79%, 74% and 88%, respectively. Scintimammography was positive in all cases of breast cancer that initially had a low or indeterminate suspicion of malignancy according to mammography, as well as in 30 cases of breast cancer that initially were highly suspicious. Six false-negative scintimammography studies were obtained in lesions with a high suspicion of malignancy. CONCLUSION: We propose a diagnostic protocol with a biopsy performed on lesions that have a high suspicion of malignancy as well as those with low or indeterminate suspicion that are smaller than 1 cm or with positive scintimammography results. This would have reduced the total number of biopsies performed by 34%. More importantly, there would have been a 65% reduction in number of biopsies performed in the low and indeterminate mammographic suspicion groups. All 41 cases of breast cancer would have been detected.  (+info)

The effect of the antiscatter grid on full-field digital mammography phantom images. (3/3694)

Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images (CAMPI) is a method for making quantitative measurements of image quality. This article reports on a recent application of this method to a prototype full-field digital mammography (FFDM) machine. Images of a modified ACR phantom were acquired on the General Electric Diagnostic Molybdenum Rhodium (GE-DMR) FFDM machine at a number of x-ray techniques, both with and without the scatter reduction grid. The techniques were chosen so that one had sets of grid and non-grid images with matched doses (200 mrads) and matched gray-scale values (1500). A third set was acquired at constant 26 kVp and varying mAs for both grid conditions. Analyses of the images yielded signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast and noise corresponding to each target object, and a non-uniformity measure. The results showed that under conditions of equal gray-scale value the grid images were markedly superior, albeit at higher doses than the non-grid images. Under constant dose conditions, the non-grid images were slightly superior in SNR (7%) but markedly less uniform (60%). Overall, the grid images had substantially greater contrast and superior image uniformity. These conclusions applied to the whole kVp range studied for the Mo-Mo target filter combination and 4 cm of breast equivalent material of average composition. These results suggest that use of the non-grid technique in digital mammography with the GE-DMR-FFDM unit, is presently not warranted. With improved uniformity correction procedure, this conclusion would change and one should be able to realize a 14% reduction in patient dose at the same SNR by using a non-grid technique.  (+info)

Macronutrient intake and change in mammographic density at menopause: results from a randomized trial. (4/3694)

To examine the effects of dietary fat intake on breast cancer risk, we are conducting a randomized trial of dietary intervention in women with extensive areas of radiologically dense breast tissue on mammography, a risk factor for breast cancer. Early results show that after 2 years on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet there is a significant reduction in area of density, particularly in women going through menopause. In women who went through menopause during the 2-year follow-up, the mean decreases in area of density and percentage of density in the intervention group were 11.0 cm2 and 11.0%, respectively, whereas the control group decreased 4.5 cm2 and 5.2%. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether changes in intake of specific macronutrients could account for the observed reduction in breast density in these women. Differences between 2-year and baseline values of macronutrients (averaged over 3 nonconsecutive days of food intake) were calculated. We examined the effect of dietary variables, adjusted for changes in total calorie intake and weight and for family history of breast cancer, on changes in area of density and percentage of density using linear regression. Reduction in total or saturated fat intake or cholesterol intake was significantly associated with decreased dense area (p < or = .004). The most significant dietary variable associated with reduction in percentage of density was reduction in dietary cholesterol intake (P = 0.001), although reducing saturated fat intake was of borderline significance (P = 0.05). The effect of the membership in the intervention and control groups on change in area of density or percentage of density was reduced by models that included changes in intake of any fat, or cholesterol, or carbohydrates. The observation of an effect of diet at menopause on breast density, a marker of increased risk of breast cancer, may be an indication that exposures at this time have an enhanced effect on subsequent risk.  (+info)

Inhibition of aberrant proliferation and induction of apoptosis in HER-2/neu oncogene transformed human mammary epithelial cells by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide. (5/3694)

Epithelial cells from non-cancerous mammary tissue in response to exposure to chemical carcinogens or transfection with oncogenes exhibit hyperproliferation and hyperplasia prior to the development of cancer. Aberrant proliferation may, therefore, represent a modifiable early occurring preneoplastic event that is susceptible to chemoprevention of carcinogenesis. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR), has exhibited preventive efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models, and represents a promising chemopreventive compound for clinical trials. Clinically relevant biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effects of HPR, however, are not fully understood. Experiments were performed on preneoplastic human mammary epithelial 184-B5/HER cells derived from reduction mammoplasty and initiated for tumorigenic transformation by overexpression of HER-2/neu oncogene, to examine whether HPR inhibits aberrant proliferation of these cells and to identify the possible mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of HPR. Continuous 7-day treatment with HPR produced a dose-dependent, reversible growth inhibition. Long-term (21 day) treatment of 184-B5/HER cells with HPR inhibited anchorage-dependent colony formation by approximately 80% (P < 0.01) relative to that observed in the solvent control. A 24 h treatment with cytostatic 400 nM HPR produced a 25% increase (P = 0.01) in G0/G1 phase, and a 36% decrease (P = 0.01) in S phase of the cell cycle. HPR treatment also induced a 10-fold increase (P = 0.02) in the sub-G0 (apoptotic) peak that was down-regulated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Treatment with HPR resulted in a 30% reduction of cellular immunoreactivity to tyrosine kinase, whereas immunoreactivity to p185HER remained essentially unaltered. HPR exposure resulted in time-dependent increase in cellular metabolism of the retinoid as evidenced by increased formation of the inert metabolite N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-retinamide (MPR) and progressive increase in apoptosis. Thus, HPR-induced inhibition of aberrant proliferation may be caused, in part, by its ability to inhibit HER-2/neu-mediated proliferative signal transduction, retard cell cycle progression and upregulate cellular apoptosis.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine premedication: can it improve outcome in patients undergoing breast biopsy procedures? (6/3694)

BACKGROUND: Women awaiting needle-guided breast biopsy procedures may experience high anxiety levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of midazolam and diazepam (in a lipid emulsion [Dizac]) to improve patient comfort during needle localization and breast biopsy procedures. METHODS: Ninety women received two consecutive doses of a study medication, one before the mammographic needle localization and a second before entering the operating room. Patients were assigned randomly to receive saline, 2.0 ml intravenously, at the two time points; midazolam, 1.0 mg intravenously and 2.0 mg intravenously; or diazepam emulsion, 2.0 mg intravenously and 5.0 mg intravenously, respectively. Patients assessed their anxiety levels before the needle localization, before entering the operating room, and on arrival in the operating room. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their perioperative experience at the time of discharge. RESULTS: Patient satisfaction during needle localization was significantly improved in both benzodiazepine treatment groups (vs. saline). The incidence of moderate-to-severe discomfort during needle localization was lower in the midazolam (20%) and diazepam emulsion (6%) groups compared with the saline group (70%) (P<0.05). The preoperative visual analogue scale anxiety scores were similar in all three groups. In the operating room, however, anxiety scores were 55% and 68% lower after midazolam (21+/-19) and diazepam emulsion (15+/-14) compared with saline (46+/-28). Finally, there was no difference in the time to achieve home-readiness or actual discharge time among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with midazolam or diazepam emulsion improved patients' comfort during needle localization procedures and significantly reduced intraoperative anxiety levels before breast biopsy procedures without prolonging discharge times. Use of diazepam emulsion may be an effective alternative to midazolam in this population.  (+info)

Double-phase 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography and trans-scan in diagnosing breast cancer. (7/3694)

The goal of our study was to assess the value of both scintimammography with 99mTc-sestamibi (SMM) and trans-scan (T-scan) in detecting breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 121 women were evaluated by palpation, mammography, SMM and T-scan. SMM was performed in the prone, breast dependent position. Immediate and delayed views (double-phase) were obtained. T-scan is a new breast imaging method that maps noninvasively the distribution of tissue electrical impedance and capacitance. RESULTS: SMM had 88.9% sensitivity, 88.4% specificity and 88.4% accuracy in detecting breast cancer. SMM had 100% sensitivity in detecting breast tumors >1 cm and only 66% sensitivity in detecting tumors <1 cm. T-scan had 72.2% sensitivity and 67% specificity in detecting breast cancer. It detected one more breast cancer than SMM, at the expense of 27 additional false-positive results. CONCLUSION: Double-phase SMM was sensitive and specific in detecting breast cancer. This method may reduce the rate of negative breast biopsies in tumors >1 cm. T-scan was only moderately accurate in detecting breast cancer. Its addition to SMM did not improve significantly the rate of breast cancer detection. However, because of its complete noninvasiveness, large-scale applicability and low cost, T-scan deserves further refining.  (+info)

N-acetyltransferase 1 genetic polymorphism, cigarette smoking, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk. (8/3694)

N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), encoded by the polymorphic NAT1 gene, has been shown to be one of the major enzymes in human breast tissue that activates aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Humans are mainly exposed to these carcinogens through cigarette smoking and consumption of well-done meat. To test the hypothesis that variations in the NAT1 gene are related to breast cancer risk, particularly among women who smoke or consume high levels of well-done meat, a nested case-control study was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 41,837 postmenopausal Iowa women. Information on cigarette smoking and other breast cancer risk factors was obtained at the baseline survey conducted in 1986. DNA samples and information on the consumption of well-done meat were obtained, in the case-control study, from breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1992 to 1994 and a random sample of cancer-free cohort members. Genomic DNA samples obtained from 154 cases and 330 controls were assayed for 11 NAT1 alleles (NAT1*3, *4, *5, *10, *11, *14, *15, *16, *17, *19, and *22). The NAT1*4 allele was the predominant allele observed in this study population, accounting for 73.2% (72.4% in cases versus 73.8% in controls) of the total alleles analyzed. Compared to controls, breast cancer cases had a slightly higher frequency of the NAT1*10 allele (18.8% in cases versus 17.3% in controls) and a substantially higher frequency of the NAT1*11 allele (3.6% versus 1.2%). In multivariate analyses, we found a 30% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8-1.9] elevated risk of breast cancer associated with the NAT1*10 allele and a nearly 4-fold (95% CI = 1.5-10.5) elevated risk associated with the NAT1*11 allele. The positive association of breast cancer with the NAT1*11 allele was more evident among smokers [odds ratio (OR) = 13.2, 95% CI = 1.5-116.0] and those who consumed a high level of red meat (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.1-33.2) or consistently consumed their red meat well done (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 0.5-62.7). The association of the NAT1*10 allele with breast cancer was mainly confined to former smokers (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2-9.5). These findings are consistent with a role for the NAT1 gene in the etiology of human breast cancer.  (+info)

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of malignancy-associated death in women worldwide. Estrogens are the main sex hormones in women. They are essential for the development and function of normal breast mammary glands; however, prolonged exposure to estrogens increases the risk of breast cancer development and progression. Approximately two-thirds of all breast cancer patients are positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but only 50% of those cases can benefit from antiestrogen therapy.. In this thesis we investigated the effects of estrogen, diet modification, and anti-estrogen drugs on several immune modulators in normal human breast tissue. We used the microdialysis technique to sample the immune modulators in situ in normal human breast tissue, in malignant breast tissue, and in tumor tissue from both the immune competent mice with murine breast cancer and immune deficient mice bearing human breast tumors. Furthermore, we also used ex vivo culture of ...
Although approximately two-thirds of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, only a small proportion of epithelial cells in the mammary gland express the ER. The origin of the ER-positive breast cancers is unknown. Recently, we have developed a culture method to grow two morphologically and antigenically distinguishable types of normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) derived from reduction mammoplasty. In this report, we studied the expression of ER in these two types of cells and their transformed cell lines. The results indicate that Type I HBEC with luminal and stem cell characteristics expressed a variant ER (approximately 48 kd) by Western blot analysis. This variant ER contains a deletion in the DNA binding domain (exon 2) as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. The lack of the DNA-binding domain of the variant ER was also confirmed by the ER-estrogen responsive element binding assay, as well as by the immunofluorescence staining of the ER using anti-ER antibodies which recognize ...
Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on factors mediating angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, in normal and malignant breast tissue. In this thesis we have investigated the effects of estradiol, progesterone, and the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in normal human breast tissue, endothelial cells, and breast cancer. We have applied the technique of microdialysis to provide in situ sampling of estradiol and VEGF in tumors and normal breast tissue of breast cancer patients in vivo. Furthermore, we present a novel method of culturing normal human breast tissue ex vivo.. Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic effect of estradiol and an anti-angiogenic effect of tamoxifen in the breast. Estradiol increased extracellular levels of VEGF in normal human breast tissue and breast cancer cells in vitro. In addition, ...
In order to resolve the question of which ovarian steroid stimulates normal human mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we have implanted pieces of normal human breast tissue subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. These mice were then treated with slow-release pellets containing estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P) such that serum levels of E2 and P were increased to those seen in normal women. The proliferative activity of the tissue implants was assessed by uptake of tritiated thymidine and steroid receptor expression was measured immunocytochemically. Insertion of a 2 mg E2 pellet 14 days after tissue implantation increased the thymidine labeling index (TLI) from a median of 0.4% (n = 34) to a median of 2.1% after 7 days (n = 43; P , 0.001 by Mann Whitney U test). In contrast, treatment with a P pellet (4 mg) had no effect upon the TLI whereas P (4 mg) in combination with E2 (2 mg) had no effect over and above that of E2 alone. There was a significant correlation between the increase in TLI ...
Recent advances in defining the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control in eukaryotes provide a basis for better understanding the hormonal control of cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. It is now clear that a number of critical steps in cell cycle progression are controlled by families of serine/threonine kinases, the cdks. These kinases are activated by interactions with various cyclin gene products which form the regulatory subunits of the kinase complexes. Several families of cyclins control cell cycle progression in G1 phase, cyclins C, D and E, or in S, G2 and mitosis, cyclins A and B. Recent studies have defined the expression and regulation of cyclin genes in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cell lines. Following growth arrest of T-47D breast cancer cells by serum deprivation restimulation with insulin results in sequential induction of cyclin genes. Cyclin D1 mRNA increases within 1 h of mitogenic stimulation and is followed by increased
Percent mammographic density, as assessed here in the area measurement, reflects variations in breast tissue composition (9) and has repeatedly been shown to be strongly associated with risk of breast cancer, with 4- to 5-fold differences in risk of the disease between women with ,75% percent density compared with those with ,10% (1, 2). The smaller gradient in risk associated with the area measure of mammographic density in the present study is attributable partly to the use of quintiles rather than the aforementioned categories, and the methods used to recruit subjects. Our method of recruitment selected for breast cancers detected by mammography, where the gradient in risk associated with density is less than for all breast cancers (2).. It is however recognized that current approaches to measurement have a number of limitations and that the true underlying risk of breast cancer associated with variations in breast tissue composition may be much stronger. All of the existing methods of ...
Breast size procedures are performed to increase or decrease the size of thebreast. The two types of breast size procedures are breast augmentation, or implants, and breast reduction. With the earliest experiments in breast size procedures documented in the 1890s by a doctor in Vienna who attempted breastenlargement with paraffin injections, further research along with the publics interest subsided until the introduction of liquid silicone in the 1950s and 1960s. As research continues, from implanting polyvinyl sponges in dogs in1952 to test their validity for use as prostheses in humans, to the search for the perfect and safer implant filler today, the demand for breast size procedures remains constant.. Augmentation. Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure used for enlarging the breast, tobalance a difference in size, to adjust a reduction in breast volume following pregnancy or weight loss, and as a reconstructive technique following breast cancer surgery. The classic technique for ...
HealthDay News) -- Women with dense breasts and no lobular involution -- an age-related change in breast tissue -- are at increased risk for breast cancer, a new study finds.. It included 2,666 women, aged 18 to 85, with benign breast disease who were followed for an average of 13.3 years. During that time, 172 (6.5 percent) of the women developed breast cancer.. The Mayo Clinic researchers found that breast density and lobular involution were independent risk factors for breast cancer.. The study appears online in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.. Our findings also reveal that having a combination of dense breasts and no lobular involution was associated with higher breast cancer risk than having non-dense or fatty breasts and complete involution, they wrote in a news release from the publisher.. Lobular involution is the physiological atrophy of the breast epithelium [the top layer of cells] and is known to increase with increasing age, the news release explained.. Breast ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression patterns distinguish breast carcinomas from normal breast tissues. T2 - The Malaysian context. AU - Pau Ni, Ivyna Bong. AU - Zakaria, Zubaidah. AU - Muhammad, Rohaizak. AU - Abdullah, Norlia. AU - Ibrahim, Naqiyah. AU - Aina Emran, Nor. AU - Hisham Abdullah, Nor. AU - Syed Hussain, Sharifah Noor Akmal. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - Genomic and transcriptomic alterations that affect cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion, commonly occur in breast oncogenesis. Epidemiological evidence has proven that the risk of breast cancer predisposition varies among different ethnicities. This study aims to identify the transcriptome changes that commonly occur during the transition of normal breast epithelium to carcinoma in three local ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians). The gene expression patterns of 43 breast carcinomas with 43 patient-matched normal breast tissues were investigated using Affymetrix U133A GeneChip® ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between expression of inflammatory markers in normal breast tissue and mammographic density among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. AU - Hanna, Mirette. AU - Dumas, Isabelle. AU - Orain, Michèle. AU - Jacob, Simon. AU - Têtu, Bernard. AU - Sanschagrin, François. AU - Bureau, Alexandre. AU - Poirier, Brigitte. AU - Diorio, Caroline. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective: Inflammatory markers may be associated with breast cancer risk. We assessed the association between expression levels of proinflammatory (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, cyclo-oxygenase 2, leptin, serum amyloid A1, interleukin 8, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and anti-inflammatory markers (transforming growth factor-β, interleukin 10, and lactoferrin) in normal breast tissue with mammographic density, a strong breast cancer risk indicator, among 163 breast cancer patients. Methods: The expression of inflammatory markers was ...
Although several studies suggest that women with denser breast tissue have an increased risk of breast cancer, a new study by Johns Hopkins researchers discredits breast density as a risk factor in and of itself, instead concluding that age and body fat, especially in the upper belly, contribute to the breast cancer seen in many patients.. Many studies that link breast density to breast cancer risk used data from mammograms, which cant accurately measure breast density, says Wenlian Zhu, Ph.D., a research associate in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a member of the team reporting the study results online Oct. 21, 2015, in European Radiology. Our research may help dispel the assertion that breast density alone is something women should be worried about with regard to their breast cancer risk, and it may help minimize confusion and unnecessary concern.. Breast density notification laws have been put into effect in 24 states. According to Zhu, such laws mandate that the ...
Large breasts cause neck and back pain, irritating grooves, cut in the skin of the shoulders by the pressure of brassiere straps, breast pain, and maceration and dermatoses in the inframammary region. From a psychological point of view, excessively large breasts can be troublesome focus of embarrassment for the teenager as well as the woman in her senior years. Unilateral hypertrophy with asymmetry heightens embarrassment. Thus, patients seek to reduce the size of their breasts.. In the human female, variant receptors were detected in epithelial cells in normal breast tissue, benign breast lesions, breast carcinoma tissue, and breast cancer cell lines2-11. The cause of the difference in breast development status is still unclear. Abnormalities at the tissue receptor level may be important in the pathophysiology of macromastia. This study aimed to make clear the difference in variant receptor levels between breast hypertrophy patients and macromastia ones by examining the receptor levels in ...
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein that can activate cell-signaling pathways and lead to cancer development and metastasis. Elevated OPN expression was reported in different cancer types, including breast tumors. Here, we present a new immuno-mass spectrometry method for OPN quantification in fresh-frozen malignant and adjacent normal human breast tissues. For quantification we used two proteotypic peptides: OPN-peptide-1 and OPN-peptide-2. Peptide concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with stable isotope standards (SIS) and immuno-affinity enrichment for isolation of OPN peptides. Based on the OPN-peptide-1, the average OPN concentration in normal breast tissue was 19.42 μg/g, while the corresponding level in breast tumors was 603.9 μg/g. Based on OPN-peptide-2, the average concentration in normal breast tissue was 19.30 μg/g and in breast tumors 535.0 μg/g. In ER/PR/HER2(−) ...
Development of the breasts during the prenatal stage of life is independent of biological sex and sex hormones.[20] During embryonic development, the breast buds, in which networks of tubules are formed, are generated from the ectoderm.[21] These rudimentary tubules will eventually become the matured lactiferous (milk) ducts, which connect the lobules (milk containers) of the breast, grape-like clusters of alveoli, to the nipples.[22] Until puberty, the tubule networks of the breast buds remain rudimentary and quiescent,[1] and the male and female breast do not show any differences.[20] During puberty in females, estrogen, in conjunction with GH/IGF-1, through activation of ERα specifically (and notably not ERβ or GPER),[23][24] causes growth of and transformation of the tubules into the matured ductal system of the breasts.[20][21][25] Under the influence of estrogen, the ducts sprout and elongate, and terminal end buds (TEBs), bulbous structures at the tips of the ducts, penetrate into the ...
Percent mammographic density, as assessed here in the area measurement, reflects variations in breast tissue composition (9) and has repeatedly been shown to be strongly associated with risk of breast cancer, with 4- to 5-fold differences in risk of the disease between women with ,75% percent density compared with those with ,10% (1, 2). The smaller gradient in risk associated with the area measure of mammographic density in the present study is attributable partly to the use of quintiles rather than the aforementioned categories, and the methods used to recruit subjects. Our method of recruitment selected for breast cancers detected by mammography, where the gradient in risk associated with density is less than for all breast cancers (2).. It is however recognized that current approaches to measurement have a number of limitations and that the true underlying risk of breast cancer associated with variations in breast tissue composition may be much stronger. All of the existing methods of ...
Health, ...The risk of dying from breast cancer was not related to high mammograp...One of the strongest risk factors for non-familial breast cancer is el...In order to determine if higher mammographic breast density is linked ...The researchers found that density does not influence the risk of deat...,Breast,density,does,not,influence,breast,cancer,death,among,breast,cancer,patients,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The main objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the p14ARF-hdm2-p53 regulatory pathway and E2F transcription factors play important roles in breast carcinogenesis. This study was conducted in four phases. The initial project investigated p53 mutations, p14ARF mutations and mRNA expression and hdm2 gene amplification. The genetic alterations were identified in 25% of primary breast cancers and 64% of human breast cell lines with p53 mutations being the predominant aberration. The second phase evaluated p53 expression by immunohistochemistry in invasive breast cancers and detected nuclear reactivity in 35% of the 105 Asian women. p53 immunopositivity correlated with poorer overall survival. The third project examined paired samples of DCIS and normal breast tissue samples and revealed p53 mutations in 20% of the DCIS lesions, but, none of the corresponding normal breast tissues. These findings support the hypothesis that ...
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A research team at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, is investigating whether the amount of DNA damage seen in the cells in normal breast tissue may be an indicator of future breast cancer risk. The researchers recruited women who had a benign breast biopsy and then went on to develop breast cancer (Phase I) and women who had a benign breast biopsy but did NOT go on to develop breast cancer (Phase II). By recruiting women who did develop breast cancer and women who did not, they will be able to look for markers in the breast cells that might be an indicator of breast cancer risk. The researchers wanted to enroll at least 150 women in the study. The Call to Action for Phase I was sent to Army of Women members on August 11, 2010, while the Call to Action for Phase II was sent on January 18, 2012. When the research team closed enrollment on July 10, 2013, the Army of Women had provided them with 338 women who were interested in enrolling in Phase I and 1,333 women who were interested in ...
Levels of the elF-2a-specific protein kinase, PkR, are higher in several breast carcinoma cell lines including the estrogen-responsive cell lines, MOF-7 and T-47D, as well as estrogen- independent cell lines, BT-20 and MDA-MB-468, compared with the normal breast cell line, Hs578 Bst, or the human HeLa cell line. In contrast, the phosphorylation state of elF-2a is very low in the breast carcinoma cell lines compared to the normal human breast cell line Hs578 Bst and HeLa cells, even at high cell densities, suggesting an inhibition of PkR activity in the breast oarninoma cell lines. In support of this hypothesis, treatment of cells with either alpha- or Beta-interferon, although increasing PKR levels slightly, do not result in higher steady state levels of elF-2a phosphorylation. These results suggest that deregulation of PKR activity is occurring at some level in breast carcinoma cell lines. This deregulation could result from increased levels/activities of cellular PKR inhibitory proteins, or from adds report Global Breast Cancer Market 2014-2018 to its store. Breast cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cancerous cells in the breast tissue. It occurs in both males and females; however, male breast cancer is rare. Histologically, breast cancer can be classified into ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, nipple cancer and other undifferentiated carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma is the form of breast cancer which starts in the lining of the milk ducts while lobular carcinoma begins in the milk glands of the breast. When breast cancer spreads from the site of origin to surrounding tissue, it is known as invasive breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common subtype accounting for 70 to 80 percent of all the breast cases. In women, breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer. GLOBOCAN reported that in the year 2012, breast cancer accounted for 11.9 percent of the total cancer cases and lead to 5,22,000 deaths worldwide.. Analysts forecast ...
Our radiologists believe Breast Tomosynthesis/DBT is a valuable tool to provide a definitive diagnosis and reduce patient recalls for additional evaluation. Breast Tomosynthesis produces a three dimensional view of the breast tissue, which helps the radiologists identify and characterize individual breast structures without the confusion of overlapping tissue.. While Breast Tomosynthesis can benefit all screening and diagnostic mammography patients, it is especially valuable for women receiving a baseline screening, those who have dense breast tissue, and women with a personal history of breast cancer.. The Breast Tomosynthesis screening experience is similar to a traditional 2D mammogram. During the exam, multiple low-dose images of the breast are acquired at different angles. These images are then used to produce a 3D image of the breast in a series of one-millimeter slices, enabling the radiologist to scroll through the images to view the layers of the breast.. Our radiologists recommend you ...
Active fibroblasts, the predominant and the most active cells of breast cancer stroma, are responsible for tumor growth and spread. However, the molecular mediators and pathways responsible for stromal fibroblast activation, and their paracrine pro-carcinogenic effects are still not well defined. The CHEK2 tumor suppressor gene codes for a protein kinase, which plays important roles in the cellular response to various genotoxic stresses. Immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence were used to assess the expression of CHEK2 in different primary breast fibroblasts and in tissues. The effect of CHEK2 on the expression and secretion of SDF-1 and IL-6 was evaluated by immunoblotting and ELISA. The WST-1 colorimetric assay was used to assess cell proliferation, while the BD BioCoat Matrigel invasion chambers were utilized to determine the effects of CHEK2 on the migratory and the invasiveness capacities of breast stromal fibroblasts as well as breast cancer cells. We have shown that CHEK2 is
product list Breast cancer test tissue array, with normal breast tissues as control, including TNM, clinical stage and pathology grade, 6 cases 24 cores, replaced by T085 Breast cancer test tissue array, with normal breast tissues as control, including TNM, clinical stage and pathology grade, 6 cases 24 cores, replaced by T085
Biopsy is the technique used to extract abnormal tissue or group of cells from any part of body for analysis. Breast biopsy is mainly done to detect cancer and also used as a preventive measure. Lump or hardness in a portion of breast is taken off and tested. Breast biopsy is diagnosing method not treatment. Breast biopsy is performed by using image guidance, hollow needle and surgical manner.. The major driving factor of the global breast biopsy market is increasing number of female breast cancer patients that had generated awareness in society which force people to undergo checkup. Breast cancer is spreading highly among the post age women is the other factor for increasing demand of breast biopsy. The region having higher population of female has high chances to fuel the market growth in that region. This diagnosis taken by middle group to elderly group is limited. High cost and specific gender are some of the factors that affect the market growth. The new developing technology in biopsy that ...
Photogram of a healthy breast mammogram. The left breast is on the right hand side of the image and the right breast is on the left hand side of the image, separated by a vertical white line in the centre of the image. Mammography uses low dose X-rays to examine the inside of the breast in order to look for early signs of breast cancer. In England, routine breast screening is currently offered to women aged 50-70. Photograms are images created without a camera but which instead use photographic materials such as light-sensitive photographic paper. This image forms part of a series of work Diorama, which interweaves medical imaging with darkroom techniques to examine the human body and its flaws, the injuries, traumas and the process of healing. This image is a contact print, created with X-ray plates and photographic paper.
All women should be aware of what is normal for their breasts even if they get regular screening tests. Many women find their own breast cancer by noticing changes in the look and feel of their breasts.. Women can become familiar with their breast tissue by looking at and feeling their breasts. In the past, experts suggested that women should do this in a certain way each month. Research shows that this isnt necessary. There really isnt a right or wrong way for women to examine their breasts. They just need to know the whole area of their breast tissue well enough to notice changes. This includes the entire breast area up to the collarbone and under the armpits, as well as the nipples.. Tell your doctor about any unusual changes to your breasts. Most breast changes are not cancer. It may be normal for your breasts to be lumpy or tender before your period.. ...
Given that the premise of the hypothesis in this study depended on bilateral breast symmetry, it would be preferable to analyze each patients symmetry utilizing more remote mammograms prior to the detectable cancer. Unfortunately we did not have that dataset in our current study, thus were unable to carry out the analysis. Overall, the assessment of symmetry in mammography is potentially limited by the fact that natural distortions between breasts are likely to occur during the course of breast compression routinely used in mammography. As such, symmetry measures can be confounded by the nature of the imaging procedure itself [26]. In our recently published results using 3D MRI in the study of breast density in 58 normal women, 47 pre-menopausal and 11 post-menopausal women [32], we found that bilateral breasts in women without cancer are highly symmetrical (r = 0.97 for breast volume, r = 0.97 for fibroglandular tissue volume, and r = 0.98 for PD). Another study using MRI showed small ...
THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Joan Lunden -- co-host of Good Morning America for nearly two decades and a long-time health advocate -- is now also a breast cancer survivor.. By sharing her experience, Lunden hopes she can help other women facing a frightening cancer diagnosis.. Its so shocking when you hear you have cancer, and you feel so vulnerable, said Lunden, 67.. Lunden never missed an annual mammogram to check for breast cancer. But each year, she said the process was nerve-racking because she has dense breast tissue that can make it difficult to distinguish healthy breast tissue from tumor tissue. Many women with dense breast tissue, particularly those with risk factors for breast cancer such as a family history, are advised to get additional testing -- an MRI or sometimes an ultrasound. When Lunden went in for an ultrasound, she received shocking news. I had an aggressive, virulent form of breast cancer -- triple negative breast cancer, she said.. At the time ...
The healthy breast is a tissue composed of centrally located milk producing glands connected to the nipple by ducts, surrounded by fat tissue and connective tissue. The growth of the breast is primarily mediated by the estrogens, while the androgens mediate tissue homeostasis and protect against growth signals. In breast cancer, the cells of the glands or ducts undergo malignant transformation, and start proliferating in an uncontrollable fashion. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and it is estimated that 10% of all women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their life-time. The primary classification of breast cancer is based mainly on the expression of the estrogen receptor, and 70-80% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, and are classified as luminal. The remaining breast cancers are classified into HER2 positive or triple negative breast cancer. Out of all breast cancers, ~80% are androgen receptor positive. This varies in different subtypes, however, ...
Breast cancer has become one of the major killers of women. Many females are died of breast cancer every year. Most importantly, breast cancer attack is presenting a younger and multiple trend, which should have attracted greater attention of every female. Its very important to get some knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and prevention.. Risk factors of breast cancer. There is not an agreement on the cause of breast cancer, but it is commonly agree that it is related to menstruation. Early menarche and early menopause are said easy to cause breast cancer. For women at the age of fertility, those who have ever given birth is comparatively more dangerous than those who have already delivered and breastfed.. Breast cancer prevention. 1. Self-examination and regular health check up. Check your breasts regularly and go to hospital for diagnosis if any mass is found. And it is very important to have annual breast health check up.. Proper massage is helpful for breast disease prevention. Do some ...
The mammary glands, or breasts, are actually modified sebaceous glands (sweat) that are designed to secrete milk. On average, each breast weighs 200-300 g. They are composed of glandular tissue, fat, and supporting or stromal tissue. Each breast is organized into 12-25 triangular shaped lobes. Each lobe is composed of several smaller lobules. The breast lobules are linked by a collecting duct system which is responsible for the passage of milk. The spaces between the lobules are filled with fatty tissue. This intricate duct system terminates in the central portion of the breast, the areola or nipple area.. Pathologic (disease) changes may occur in any of the breast tissue. For example, the fat tissue in the breasts may actually necrose, or die, in response to trauma. Additionally, the stromal or support tissue of the breasts may give rise to fibrocystic changes, or benign solid tumors, called fibroadenomas. Breast cancer may also develop in any part of the breast.. Breast tissue responds to ...
Breast cancer - Animation Of all the different types of cancers, breast cancer is one of the most talked about, and with good reason. One out of every eight women will develop breast cancer sometime in their life. Thats why every woman should be thinking about how to protect herself from this disease. Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the breast. Usually, it begins in the tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the breast or body, its called invasive breast cancer. Some breast cancers are more aggressive, growing more quickly than others. Although women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer, men can also get the disease because they do have breast tissue. Youre more likely to get breast cancer if youre over 50, you started your periods before age 12, or you have a close family member with the disease. Drinking more than a couple of glasses of alcohol a day and using hormone replacement therapy for several years also ...
The most common sign of a breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A lump that is painless, hard, and has uneven edges is more likely to be a cancer, but breast cancers can also be soft, tender and rounded. Its important to have any breast lump you notice evaluated by a doctor. Other signs of breast cancer can include swelling of all or part of the breast, skin irritation or dimpling, breast pain, nipple pain, a new turning-in (inversion) of the nipple, nipple discharge other than milk, scaling, redness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin, and a lump in the armpit. You should consult your doctor if you notice any of these findings.. One in eight U.S. women, sometime in their lifetime, will be found to have invasive breast cancer. Nearly 190,000 women in the U.S. in 2009 will be diagnosed with breast cancer. There are currently 2 ½ million breast cancer survivors living in the U.S.. Breast cancer is the most common cancer other than skin cancer in U.S. women. It is the second most common ...
When performing breast lifts, it is critical to gauge the lower breast pole during breast tissue in-setting. This is because the lower breast pole tissues are very dynamic. Often, they will shift and stretch out even within three to six months. Thus, the typical complaint I observe on social question and answer platform, is why are more nipples pointing upward? This side effect occurs very frequently as the lower breast pole gives out and results in what we call bottoming out. Bottoming out occurs when the weight of the breast pushes on the lower breast skin and makes it stretch out. The resulting deformity is described by a prominent lower breast pole, poor upper breast pole fullness, and nipples that are pointing up to the sky. In order to counter this, often, the lower breast pole is over tightened during surgery. Over tightening is intentional and ensures that once the breast tissues and skin settle, that breast is aesthetically shaped and not bottomed out. Unfortunately, patients get ...
Breast hypertrophy is a rare medical condition of the breast connective tissues in which the breasts become excessively large. The condition is often divided based on the severity into two types, macromastia and gigantomastia. Hypertrophy of the breast tissues may be caused by increased histologic sensitivity to certain hormones such as female sex hormones, prolactin, and growth factors. Breast hypertrophy is a benign progressive enlargement, which can occur in both breasts (bilateral) or only in one breast (unilateral). It was first scientifically described in 1648. The indication is a breast weight that exceeds approximately 3% of the total body weight. There are varying definitions of what is considered to be excessive breast tissue, that is the expected breast tissue plus extraordinary breast tissue, ranging from as little as 0.6 kilograms (1.3 lb) up to 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) with most physicians defining macromastia as excessive tissue of over 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb). Some resources ...
Both men and women have breast tissue. Although women have a lot more breast tissue and are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than men, cancers can also develop in male breast tissue.. In Australia, men account for less than one percent of breast cancer diagnoses, with as estimated 164 men diagnosed each year. More than 90% of men will be diagnosed at or after age 50. With an aging population, it is likely that the number of men diagnosed with breast cancer will continue to increase.. Because breast cancer is frequently seen as a womens disease, some men may find it difficult or embarrassing to discuss their diagnosis. Breast cancer may also leave some men feeling surprised, isolated, anxious and angry. If you need support, have further resources to provide emotional and practical support for people affected by cancer, including information and personal stories about men diagnosed with breast cancer.. ...
PHILADELPHIA - The use of postmenopausal hormone therapy has decreased over time in the United States, which researchers suggest may play a key role in the declining rate of atypical ductal hyperplasia, a known risk factor for breast cancer.. Postmenopausal hormone treatment is associated with increased rates of benign breast biopsies, and early and late stages of cancer. Atypical ductal hyperplasia is associated with the use of postmenopausal hormone treatment and its rates have decreased with the decline in use of this treatment, said researcher Tehillah Menes, M.D., who was the chief of breast service in the Department of Surgery at Elmhurst Hospital Center, New York, when this study was conducted.. Details of these findings are published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, which is a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.. Atypical ductal hyperplasia is abnormal cells that grow in the milk ducts of the breast. Previous research has shown that women who are ...
Historically, black women have been more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer when they were younger than 40 and more likely to die from breast cancer than white women. Black women also are more likely to be diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer has no receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone and also has no HER2 receptors. This limits the treatments that can be used. Triple-negative breast cancer is considered more aggressive than hormone-receptor-positive disease. For many years, black women also were less likely overall to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women. But an October 2015 report from the American Cancer Society found that for the first time, rates of breast cancer among black and white women were about equal. Now another study has found genomic differences in breast cancers in black women compared to breast cancers in white women. These genomic differences may help explain why breast cancer is more aggressive in black ...
Bacteria that live in the body, known as the microbiome, influence many diseases. Most research has been done on the gut microbiome, or bacteria in the digestive tract. Researchers have long suspected that a microbiome exists within breast tissue and plays a role in breast cancer but it has not yet been characterized. The research team has taken the first step toward understanding the composition of the bacteria in breast cancer by uncovering distinct microbial differences in healthy and cancerous breast tissue.. To my knowledge, this is the first study to examine both breast tissue and distant sites of the body for bacterial differences in breast cancer, said co-senior author Charis Eng, M.D., Ph.D., chair of Cleveland Clinics Genomic Medicine Institute and director of the Center for Personalized Genetic Healthcare. Our hope is to find a biomarker that would help us diagnose breast cancer quickly and easily. In our wildest dreams, we hope we can use microbiomics right before breast ...
SAN FRANCISCO, CA-Breast Cancer Action (BCAction), the watchdog for the breast cancer movement, encourages would-be participants or donors of large-scale breast cancer walks and runs to carefully question where the money goes, in a new resource published today.. The hosts of the largest walks and runs for breast cancer are Susan G. Komen, Avon Foundation, and the American Cancer Society. They advertise heavily and entice millions of people each year to walk or run to save lives, find a cure, and end breast cancer. The first such event this year is Avons Walk to End Breast Cancer in Houston, TX on April 23-24, 2016.. Women have been voicing concerns about how much money raised from these walks is actually going to breast cancer programs and which types of programs are being funded, but they have yet to get satisfactory answers.. Raising money in the name breast cancer has become big business, said Karuna Jaggar, Executive Director of Breast Cancer Action. People donating to and ...
Clinical Risk Factor Analysis for Breast Cancer: 568,000 Subjects Undergoing Breast Cancer Screening in Beijing, 2009 Multilevel statistical model;breast cancer screening;risk factors; Objectives: Although there are many reports about the risk of breast cancer, few have reported clinical factors including history of breast-related or other diseases that affect the prevalence of breast cancer. This study explores these risk factors for breast cancer cases reported in Beijing in 2009. Materials and Methods: Data were derived from a Beijing breast cancer screening performed in 2009, of 568,000 women, from 16 districts of Beijing, all aged between 40 and 60 years. In this study, multilevel statistical modeling was used to identify clinical factors that affect the prevalence of breast cancer and to provide more reliable evidence for clinical diagnostics by using screening data. Results and Conclusion: Those women who had organ transplants, compared with those with none, were associated with breast cancer
The increased cell surface expression of the serine integral membrane protease, seprase, has been associated with the invasive behavior of human melanoma cell lines in vitro. The present study investigates the expression of seprase in malignant, premalignant, benign, and normal human breast tissues. …
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women. Health statistics clearly demonstrate increasing frequency of breast cancer. For example, in 1940 the lifetime risk of breast cancer among women was 5% - in means only one woman among every 20 women had risks for developing breast cancer. In 2012 the lifetime risk of breast cancer increased up to 12 % which means one woman among every 8 women gets breast cancer. In addition, health experts experience increased cases of breast cancer in men. Whole statistics confirm increased breast cancer risks, and it is very important to highlight breast cancer risks and educate women to avoid some risks. If you know risk factors, most of them can be prevented. Modern prevention strategies can save millions of lives.. ...
BACKGROUND: Stromal fibroblasts associated with in situ and invasive breast carcinoma differ phenotypically from fibroblasts associated with normal breast epithelium, and these alterations in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) may promote breast carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the changes that occur in fibroblasts during carcinogenesis and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tailoring breast cancer screening intervals by breast density and risk for women aged 50 years or older. T2 - Collaborative modeling of screening outcomes. AU - Trentham-Dietz, Amy. AU - Kerlikowske, Karla. AU - Stout, Natasha K.. AU - Miglioretti, Diana L.. AU - Schechter, Clyde B.. AU - Ergun, Mehmet Ali. AU - Van Den Broek, Jeroen J.. AU - Alagoz, Oguzhan. AU - Sprague, Brian L.. AU - Van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.. AU - Near, Aimee M.. AU - Gangnon, Ronald E.. AU - Hampton, John M.. AU - Chandler, Young. AU - De Koning, Harry J.. AU - Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.. AU - Tosteson, Anna N.A.. PY - 2016/11/15. Y1 - 2016/11/15. N2 - Background: Biennial screening is generally recommended for average-risk women aged 50 to 74 years, but tailored screening may provide greater benefits. Objective: To estimate outcomes for various screening intervals after age 50 years based on breast density and risk for breast cancer. Design: Collaborative simulation modeling using national incidence, breast ...
26 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® Breast Cancer - Carcinoma in Situ (stage 0) , Version 1.2016 3 DCIS Breast cancer treatment Breast cancer treatment Chart 3.1 lists the treatment options for DCIS. The goal of treatment is for you to be free of cancer. Because DCIS is confined within the breast ducts, surgery that removes the tumor is the central part of treatment. As shown in Figure 3.2 , there are two types of breast surgery-lumpectomy and total mastectomy. Other treatments may be used with breast surgery to rid your body of cancer. Lumpectomy only A lumpectomy is a surgery that removes the tumor along with normal-looking tissue around its edge. The normal-looking tissue is called a surgical margin. Lumpectomy is a breast-conserving surgery because most of the normal breast tissue wont be removed. Its like an excisional biopsy except more tissue is removed. Chart 3.1 What are my options? Treatment options Deciding factors Lumpectomy only may be an option if all these factors describe you Ü ...
Some women whove been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in one breast choose to have that breast and the other healthy breast removed -- a double mastectomy. Removing the other healthy breast is called contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. The healthy breast usually is removed because of understandable fear that a new, second breast cancer might develop in that breast. More and more women whove been diagnosed are opting for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy -- in the late 1990s, between 4% and 6% of women who were having a mastectomy decided to have the other healthy breast removed. More recently, between 11% and 25% of women having a mastectomy decided to have contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. In particular, more women who are diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger are deciding to have the other healthy breast removed. Some doctors are concerned that too many women are choosing the very aggressive step of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy during or shortly ...
We examined the relationship between breast cancer family history and mammographic breast density. Participants included 35,019 postmenopausal women aged ≥40 years enrolled in a population-based mammo
TY - JOUR. T1 - n-3 and n-6 fatty acid processing and growth effects in neoplastic and non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cell lines. AU - Grammatikos, S. I.. AU - Subbaiah, P. V.. AU - Victor, T. A.. AU - Miller, W. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994/8. Y1 - 1994/8. N2 - The type rather than the amount of dietary fat may be more important in breast carcinogenesis. While animal studies support this view, little is known about the effects of essential fatty acids (EFAs) at the cellular level. The MCF-7 breast cancer and the MCF-10A non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cell lines are compared in terms of growth response to EFAs and ability to incorporate and process the EFAs. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, n-3) acids, presented bound to albumin, inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells by as much as 50% in a dose-dependent manner (6-30 µM) in medium containing 0.5% serum. ɑ-Linolenic (LNA, n-3) and arachidonic (AA, n-6) acids ...
This study retrospectively analyzed the mean glandular dose (MGD) to 133 breasts from 132 subjects, all women, who participated in a clinical trial evaluating dedicated breast CT in a diagnostic population. The clinical trial was conducted in adherence to a protocol approved by institutional review boards and the study participants provided written informed consent. Individual estimates of MGD to each breast from dedicated breast CT was obtained by combining x-ray beam characteristics with estimates of breast dimensions and fibroglandular fraction from volumetric breast CT images, and using normalized glandular dose coefficients. For each study participant and for the breast corresponding to that imaged with breast CT, an estimate of the MGD from diagnostic mammography (including supplemental views) was obtained from the DICOM image headers for comparison. This estimate uses normalized glandular dose coefficients corresponding to a breast with 50% fibroglandular weight fraction. The median
PURPOSEWe investigated the expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences in breast cancer.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNReverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to examine expression of the envelope (env) region of ERV3, HERV-E4-1, and HERV-K in breast cancer cell lines, human breast tumor samples, adjacent uninvolved breast tissues, nonmalignant breast tissues, and placenta. Expression of HERV transcripts was confirmed by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization (ISH). To evaluate coding potential, amplified HERV sequences were cloned into vectors for expression and sequence analysis.RESULTSNo expression of ERV3 or HERV-E4-1 RNA was detected in the analyzed breast samples. In contrast, HERV-K transcripts were detected in most breast cancer cell lines and many breast tumor tissues. Expression was detected in a small percentage of matched, uninvolved breast tissues and in placentas but not nonmalignant breast tissues. In HERV-K-positive breast cancer tissues, Northern blot analysis ...
Breast Reduction, although actually a reconstructive surgical procedure, is used to correct marked breast enlargement, out of proportion to body size, and causing significant back, neck, and shoulder pain, as well as a tendency to rashes and yeast infections in the folds under the breasts. The cause varies but is generally associated with genetic pre-disposition, hormone fluctuation (e.g. puberty, pregnancy, or menopause), or marked weight variation. Breast Reduction is a surgical method of size reduction of the breasts, relieving the weight burden, and usually producing an improvement in breast shape. Mastopexy or Breast Lift is a similar but distinct technique, designed to cosmetically restore a youthful breast shape and tissue firmness, but not remove any breast tissue. Insurance has traditionally covered the cost of Reduction Mammaplasty surgery (but not cosmetic Mastopexy), however, many HMOs and similar discount insurance schemes have found it convenient to deny this service by falsely ...
Simona Halep, 17 year old Romanian tennis star, will be having a breast reduction operation this fall. Halep won the junior French Open title last year. She is reported to say, This fall Ill have a breast reduction operation. The breasts make me uncomfortable when I play. Its the weight that troubles me - my ability to react quickly.. Breast reduction (or reduction mammoplasty) is an operation designed to reduce and reshape large breasts. It is a surgical procedure designed to help reduce and in many cases eliminate, the pain and other symptoms associated with large breasts. Discomfort associated with large breasts can include chronic back, neck, and shoulder pain, as well as painful shoulder grooves from bra straps. It can also include chronic rashes under the breasts in the inframammary fold. These are the medical reasons to have a breast reduction. Most insurance companies in the United States will cover breast reduction surgery done for medical reasons. Be sure to check your ...
Moffitt Cancer Center Screening and Prevention, 4117 E. Fowler Ave., offers women more comprehensive breast imaging through 3D mammography and automated breast ultrasound (ABUS). Moffitt is the only hospital in Florida that uses the General Electric Invenia 3rd Generation ABUS technology to help physicians look at dense breast tissue. Three-dimensional breast and ABUS scans offer a better chance to diagnose breast cancer early, at a more treatable stage for women with dense breasts.. Breast tomosynthesis, or 3-D mammography, produces a three-dimensional view of the breast tissue that helps radiologists identify and characterize individual breast structures without the confusion of overlapping tissue. The screenings are quicker, produce sharper images and are more comfortable for patients.. Moffitts automated breast ultrasound technology will help to increase breast cancer detection for women with dense breast tissue with no previous clinical breast interventions. Using ABUS, radiologists can ...
Study compares bacterial composition in healthy vs. cancerous breast tissue. Source:. Cleveland Clinic. Summary:. Researchers have uncovered differences in the bacterial composition of breast tissue of healthy women vs. women with breast cancer. The research team has discovered for the first time that healthy breast tissue contains more of the bacterial species Methylobacterium, a finding which could offer a new perspective in the battle against breast cancer.. FULL STORY. Bacteria that live in the body, known as the microbiome, influence many diseases.. In a newly published study, Cleveland Clinic researchers have uncovered differences in the bacterial composition of breast tissue of healthy women vs. women with breast cancer. The research team has discovered for the first time that healthy breast tissue contains more of the bacterial species Methylobacterium, a finding which could offer a new perspective in the battle against breast cancer.. Bacteria that live in the body, known as the ...
Purpose: Mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. However, very little is known about how other breast cancer risk factors may modify the association between breast density and breast cancer. We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors.. Methods: This study included 1,044 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computer-assisted methods. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires completed before the date of the cancer diagnosis for cancer cases and their matched controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to describe the association between breast density measures and breast cancer risk. The risk estimates were presented as odds ratios ...
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates that approximately 12% of women will develop breast cancer by age 70. Risk factors for breast cancer include female gender, increasing age, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, age at first live birth over thirty, previous breast biopsies, previous breast biopsy with atypia, Other factors such as therapeutic radiation during adolescence, obesity with a BMI ,25, alcohol consumption, dense breast tissue and environmental exposures are not included in traditional risk assessment models, but are considered by most to mildly or moderately increase risk. Understanding your risk of developing breast cancer is important in management of your breast condition.. The most widely recognized tool for assessing breast cancer risk is the Gail model, developed by scientists at the NCI. Limitations of this model are that it does not account for second-degree relatives with breast cancer, relatives of a young age with breast cancer, and environmental factors. ...
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Dr. Hartmann and her co-investigators were heartened to find convincing evidence that women with the most common, non-proliferative forms of benign findings had no increased risk of developing breast cancer -- as long as they did not have a strong family history of breast cancer. However, for proliferative and atypical types, the opposite was true, and these lesions pointed to an increased risk of a future breast cancer, even when the family history of breast cancer was negative. Dr. Hartmann and her colleagues say continued studies of this kind are necessary to help understand the process of breast cancer development.. The study population of 9,087 women was drawn from the Mayo Clinic Surgical and Pathology Indices, identifying women ages 18 to 85, who had a biopsy of a benign breast lesion during a 25-year period from Jan. 1, 1967, through Dec. 31, 1991. Family histories were obtained at time of follow-up and from Mayo medical record questionnaires.. All benign breast samples were evaluated by ...
PURPOSE: Dedicated breast CT prototypes used in clinical investigations utilize single circular source trajectory and cone-beam geometry with flat-panel detectors that do not satisfy data-sufficiency conditions and could lead to cone beam artifacts. Hence, this work investigated the glandular dose characteristics of a circle-plus-line trajectory that fulfills data-sufficiency conditions for image reconstruction in dedicated breast CT. METHODS: Monte Carlo-based computer simulations were performed using the GEANT4 toolkit and was validated with previously reported normalized glandular dose coefficients for one prototype breast CT system. Upon validation, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the normalized glandular dose coefficients as a function of x-ray source position along the line scan. The source-to-axis of rotation distance and the source-to-detector distance were maintained constant at 65 and 100 cm, respectively, in all simulations. The ratio of the normalized glandular dose
Following age, mammographic density (MD) is considered one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Despite the association between MD and breast cance...
With advances in breast reconstruction surgery, many women undergoing breast removal (mastectomy) choose to have their breast(s) rebuilt. Even though medical, surgical, and radiation therapy treatments for breast cancer have increased the number of breast-sparing procedures available, some breast cancer patients still need a mastectomy. In addition, other women have their breast(s) removed due to other diseases.. Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.. The goal of reconstructive surgery is to create a breast mound that matches the opposite breast and to achieve symmetry. If both breasts have been removed, the goal of breast reconstructive surgery is to create both breast mounds about the size of the patients natural breasts.. ...
BACKGROUND: Fluorescence spectroscopy is an evolving technology that can rapidly differentiate between benign and malignant tissues. These differences are thought to be due to endogenous fluorophores, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, and tryptophan, and absorbers such as beta-carotene and hemoglobin. We hypothesized that a statistically significant difference would be demonstrated between benign and malignant breast tissues on the basis of their unique fluorescence and reflectance properties. METHODS: Optical measurements were performed on 56 samples of tumor or benign breast tissue. Autofluorescence spectra were measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 300 to 460 nm, and diffuse reflectance was measured between 300 and 600 nm. Principal component analysis to dimensionally reduce the spectral data and a Wilcoxon ranked sum test were used to determine which wavelengths showed statistically significant differences. A support vector machine algorithm ...
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in tumourigenesis. Expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) was reported in human breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. It was suggested that PRL may act as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Here, we addressed the role of locally synthesised PRL in breast cancer. We analysed the expression of PRL in human breast cancer tumours using qPCR analysis and in situ hybridization (ISH). PRL mRNA expression was very low or undetectable in the majority of samples in three cDNA arrays representing samples from 144 breast cancer patients and in 13 of 14 breast cancer cell lines when analysed by qPCR. In accordance, PRL expression did not reach detectable levels in any of the 19 human breast carcinomas or 5 cell lines, which were analysed using a validated ISH protocol. Two T47D-derived breast cancer cell lines were stably transfected with PRL-expressing constructs. Conditioned medium from the T47D/PRL clones promoted proliferation of ...
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a high degree of intra- and intertumoral diversity, which impedes accurate patient stratification, prognosis and optimal treatment. The mammary gland consists of a complex network of epithelial ducts which end in clusters of alveoli, called terminal ductal lobular units (TDLUs) which are the functional units of the mammary gland. Postnatal mammary gland development and homeostasis require an enormous regenerative output, suggesting the existence of tissue stem/progenitor cells and a high degree of cellular plasticity to ensure functional robustness, i.e. the production and secretion of milk during lactation. Therefore, the observed heterogeneity in breast cancer is likely the result of normal mammary gland architecture and functionality. Unfortunately, the identification and characterization of human stem/progenitor cells and the analysis of cellular plasticity are hampered by the limited applicability of currently used murine in vivo assays and the ...
Breast reduction surgery is very common and extremely effective at not only reshaping the breasts but alleviating many of the musculoskeletal symptoms from their weight. Contrary to the concerns and perceptions of some patients, every breast reduction is also a full breast lift. It is simply not possible to do a satisfying reduction without elevating the nipple position and repositioning the breast mound back up onto the chest wall at the same time. That is exactly why the breast is so measured and marked before surgery, that represents the pattern of skin removal to create the lift and the resultant inverted T or anchor scar pattern seen afterwards.. Conversely, breast lifts can and are often done without removing any breast tissue. If the patients breast volume is adequate, the excess skin is removed and tightened around the existing volume to reshape and lift the breast mound. But is some cases of breast lifts, there is a little too much volume to accomodate the amount of lifting needed. ...
Breast cancer is cancer in the breast. In the world, breast cancer is the fifth-most common cause of cancer death. The first four are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer. In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) in the world.[1] Among all women in the world, breast cancer is the most common cancer.[1] In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death in women (after lung cancer). In 2007, breast cancer caused about 40,910 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths) in the U.S.[2][3] Women in the United States have a 1 in 8 chance of getting breast cancer in their lives. They have a 1 in 33 chance of death from breast cancer.[3] There are many more people getting breast cancer since the 1970s. This is because of how people in the Western world live.[4][5] Because the breast is composed of identical tissues in males and females, breast cancer ...
RATIONALE: Lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, diet, and obesity, and hormone function may affect breast density. Screening tests, such as mammography, may help doctors find tumor cells early and plan better treatment for breast cancer.. PURPOSE: This clinical trial is studying the effect of lifestyle factors and hormone function on breast density in healthy Hispanic women who are undergoing mammography for breast cancer screening. ...
Endogenous retroviruses have several potential functional roles in their host. By analogy with mouse models of cancer, we hypothesized that proteins encoded by HERV env genes may act as tumor antigens. As a first test of this hypothesis, we used RT-PCR to examine expression of the env region of several candidate HERV genes in human breast cancer cell lines and surgical specimens. Whereas no breast tissue expression of ERV3 or HERV-E4-1 was found in our analyses, RT-PCR readily detected HERV-K transcripts in six of eight breast carcinoma cell lines and in 45% of the 55 analyzed breast tumor tissue samples. In contrast, a normal breast epithelial cell culture (HME) and multiple breast tissue samples from individuals not having breast cancer showed no detectable HERV-K env RNA. Northern blot analysis using an env probe derived from a breast tumor sample confirmed expression of HERV-K transcripts in breast cancer. Because a small percentage of samples judged to be nonmalignant by gross pathological ...
INCREASE IN QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER BREAST REDUCTION. Recent medical study shows Breast Reduction Surgery to decrease pain and significantly improve the quality of life.. Large, heavy breasts can cause much physical and psychological pain to women of all backgrounds and ages. Excessive breast size can literally weigh a woman down and throw off her center of gravity and the alignment of her spine. The result is a large array of health problems including chronic back, neck and shoulder pain, strained and overworked muscles, headaches, skin rashes, sagging breasts and stretch marks as well as low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with overall body image. Studies have also shown that women living with this type of physical pain compare their symptoms to other medical conditions with chronic pain such as arthritis, joint pain and low back pain.. Many women who suffer from these physical and emotional problems seek a breast reduction, also known as reduction mammaplasty. This common surgical procedure can ...
Study of antitumor activity in breast cell lines using silver nanoparticles produced by yeast Francisco G Ortega,1 Martín A Fernández-Baldo,2 Jorge G Fernández,2 María J Serrano,1 María I Sanz,2 Juan J Diaz-Mochón,1 José A Lorente,1 Julio Raba21GENYO, Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research: Pfizer-University of Granada, Andalusian Regional Government, PTS Granada, Avenida de Ilustración, Granada, Spain; 2INQUISAL, Departamento de Química, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis, Argentina Abstract: In the present article, we describe a study of antitumor activity in breast cell lines using silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by a microbiological method. These Ag NPs were tested for their antitumor activity against MCF7 and T47D cancer cells and MCF10-A normal breast cell line. We analyzed cell viability, apoptosis induction, and endocytosis activity of those cell lines and we observed that the effects of the
Background: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumor in young women, and its growth and metabolism may be under hormonal control. in the present paper we described the proteoglycan (PG) composition and synthesis rate of normal breast and fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle.Methods: Samples of fibroadenoma and adjacent normal breast tissue were obtained at surgery. PGs were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis and enzymatic degradation with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) lyases, and immunolocalized by confocal microscopy. To assess the synthesis rate, PGs were metabolic labeled by S-35-sulfate.Results: the concentration of PGs in normal breast was higher during the secretory phase. Fibroadenoma contained and synthesized more PGs than their paired controls, but the PG concentrations varied less with the menstrual cycle and, in contrast to normal tissue, peaked in the proliferative phase. the main mammary GAGs are heparan sulfate (HS, 71%-74%) and dermatan sulfate (DS, 26%-29%). the ...
The breast biopsy is the common medical procedure in Los Angeles in which the breast tissues collected to check for cancers or other diseases. The procedure is done when doctors find abnormalities in the breast or when the women experience discomfort or other medical issues. Los Angeles is known for its excellence in medical science, and one can really find a plenty of clinics that offer breast biopsy in Los Angeles at the most affordable cost.. What is Breast Biopsy?. Breast biopsy is actually a process of examining any suspicious or abnormal growth in the mammary glands of the body. If a lump is seen in the breast, the tissues are collected by using suction method through a needle or through a surgical incision. The pathologist will then examine the tissue samples and identify whether it is benign or malignant. You must know that the benign tumor or group of cells is non-cancerous whereas a malignant tissue is considered cancerous and must be treated immediately. In order to treat the ...
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers found among 9/11 female first responders, downtown workers and downtown residents. Turley Hansen represents many breast cancer survivors in claims before the 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund.. About 1 in 8 U.S. women (about 12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of their lifetime. Women exposed to the toxins in downtown Manhattan have a particularly high risk of developing breast cancer. The Zadroga Act covers invasive ductal carcinomas (about 80% of all breast cancers), ductal carcinoma in situ (the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer) and male breast cancer.. Surgery, either lumpectomy or mastectomy (partial, total, modified radical), are common starting points of treatment for breast cancer. Surgery may be followed up by chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. New immunotherapy clinical trials for breast cancer patients are potentially offering new weapons to fight breast cancer.. ...
Review question. In women with metastatic breast cancer (when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body), what is the effectiveness of breast surgery (mastectomy: removal of the whole breast including nipple and areola, or lumpectomy: removal of the tumour and breast tissue around it but preserving the nipple and areola) combined with medical treatment (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) compared to medical treatment alone?. Background. Metastatic breast cancer is considered an incurable disease with poor prognosis, although some women can live for many years. It is traditionally treated only with medical treatment. Breast surgery was believed to be palliative and performed only to relieve symptoms such as local bleeding, infection, or pain. With the development of new medications, women with metastatic breast cancer are living longer, and breast surgery could benefit this group of women. Retrospective data (i.e. data from types of studies other than randomised controlled trials ...
If you like the way your breasts look in a bra, and want them to stay that way when the bra is off, a breast lift might be the right choice for you. Women who experience the effects of breast deflation after childbirth or rapid weight loss benefit from breast lifts to regain their optimal shape. The goal of this surgery is to improve the position of the breast on the chest wall and to make sure that the nipple is nicely centered. A breast lift does not add volume to the breast, nor does not add firmness. It is really a shaping and lifting procedure. Some patients will add a breast implant to increase breast volume or improve firmness. In my practice, my preferred operation is a vertical breast lift where the lollypop shaped incisions are placed around the areola and a line extending down at the 6 oclock position. The scars are placed on the most discreet part of your breast and can be hidden even by the tiniest Brazilian bikini. There are some women who need a little bit more skin removed ...
What is breast tomosynthesis? Breast tomosynthesis, or 3D mammography represents a significant breakthrough in breast imaging technology. A screening and diagnostic tool designed for early breast cancer detection, 3D mammography is done in conjunction with a traditional 2D digital mammogram.. Tomosynthesis uses x-rays to produce a three dimensional picture of the breast that a radiologist can view in 1-millimeter slices, making it possible to visualize breast tissue at a level of detail never before possible. The additional 3D images allow radiologists to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of a patients breast tissue during screening while reducing the need for follow-up imaging.. How are the 3D images obtained? 3D images are obtained when the x-ray beam swings in an arc over the breast, capturing multiple images in a single pass, from a variety of angles.. Who should get breast tomosynthesis? Everyone who is a candidate for 2D mammography is also a candidate for tomosynthesis. Patients ...
What is breast tomosynthesis? Breast tomosynthesis, or 3D mammography represents a significant breakthrough in breast imaging technology. A screening and diagnostic tool designed for early breast cancer detection, 3D mammography is done in conjunction with a traditional 2D digital mammogram.. Tomosynthesis uses x-rays to produce a three dimensional picture of the breast that a radiologist can view in 1-millimeter slices, making it possible to visualize breast tissue at a level of detail never before possible. The additional 3D images allow radiologists to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of a patients breast tissue during screening while reducing the need for follow-up imaging.. How are the 3D images obtained? 3D images are obtained when the x-ray beam swings in an arc over the breast, capturing multiple images in a single pass, from a variety of angles.. Who should get breast tomosynthesis? Everyone who is a candidate for 2D mammography is also a candidate for tomosynthesis. Patients ...
Some patients desiring Breast Enhancement have breast tissue that is loose and saggy. The medical term for this condition is Breast Ptosis. This may be a consequence of advancing age, pregnancy, nursing and/ or weight fluctuations. Breasts progressively hang lower on the chest with loss of upper breast projection (perkiness), elongation and flattening. In some cases, the nipples point straight down. These changes are also common in patients with naturally large breasts.. The basic problem with ptotic (saggy) breasts is that there is too much skin for the amount of breast tissue present. Additionally, the nipple may reside too low on the chest wall. With mild stages of breast ptosis, a breast implant may be all that is needed. However, in many women, the breast has fallen too far down the chest to allow an implant to give an aesthetically pleasing result. In these women, some form of breast lift (Mastopexy) is indicated. In this situation, a simple breast augmentation would result in the implant ...
We have benefited greatly from several articles published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery concerning breast cancer and reduction mammaplasty.1,2 We have also noticed the higher morbidity of breast cancer among Chinese patients in our clinical work. Although some doctors have questioned the price of the diagnostic test compared with the low cancer occurrence rate,3 we still believe it is effective for detecting occult breast cancer among patients undergoing reduction mammaplasty.. Combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, breast-conserving surgery has been proven to be an effective method of treating early-stage breast cancer. During the tissue reshaping of breast reduction, a significant amount of intraoperative adjustment is required both in terms of removing tissue and in terms of reshaping tissue to obtain the best result. Thus, when breast cancer is detected, surgeons have no idea about the location of the tumor, and mastectomy is usually the result. However, most of the tumors that ... breast enhancement pills before and after. Natural breast enlargement pills are probably the most effective ways to have bigger breasts naturally. Natural Breast Enhancement is considered the most reliable NBE method you may use when you are really determined to have bigger breast size as well as boost the firmness of your respective breasts.. Breast enlargement pills usually do not cost a fortunate - they can fit perfectly to the womans budget. When it comes to way breast pills work - it is focused on the herbal treatments used as ingredients inside the pills formulas. It can be those breast enlargement herbs that promote balanced distribution of herbal estrogen in your body. With sufficient volume of estrogen it will be easy to boost your breast size and may finally receive the fuller and greater breasts you have always wanted.. It really is nonessential protein the body synthesizes from another amino acid; it is actually a precursor of various neurotransmitters, including ... offers natural breast enhancement pills. Natural breast enhancement pills are among the most effective ways to have bigger breasts naturally. Natural Breast Enlargement is easily the most reliable NBE method you can use in case you are really determined to have bigger breast size as well as enhance the firmness of your own breasts.. Breast enlargement pills tend not to cost you a fortunate - they fit perfectly to the womans budget. When it comes to way breast pills work - it is all about the herbal remedies used as ingredients from the pills formulas. It is those breast enlargement herbs that promote balanced distribution of herbal estrogen inside your body. With sufficient amount of estrogen you will be able to further improve your breast size and can finally have the fuller and larger breasts you may have always wanted.. It can be nonessential amino acid how the body synthesizes from another protein; it is actually a precursor of several neurotransmitters, including L-dopa, ...
Inference of the biological roles of lncRNAs in breast cancer development remains a challenge. Here, Indiana University researchers analyzed RNA-seq data in tumor and normal breast tissue samples from 18 breast cancer patients and 18 healthy controls and constructed a functional lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network. They revealed two distinctive co-expression patterns associated with breast cancer, reflecting different underlying regulatory mechanisms: (1) 516 pairs of lncRNA-mRNAs have differential co-expression pattern, in which the correlation between lncRNA and mRNA expression differs in tumor and normal breast tissue; (2) 291 pairs have dose-response co-expression pattern, in which the correlation is similar, but the expression level of lncRNA or mRNA differs in the two tissue types. The researchers further validated their findings in TCGA dataset and annotated lncRNAs using TANRIC. One novel lncRNA, AC145110.1 on 8p12, was found differentially co-expressed with 127 mRNAs (including TOX4 and ...
Some breast cancers need the hormones estrogen or progesterone (or both) to grow. These cancer cells have receptors on their surfaces. Receptors are like doorways to let hormones in. These types of cancer are called estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone-receptor-positive (PR+) breast cancer.. And some breast cancers also have a large amount of a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2 or HER-2/neu). These breast cancers tend to grow faster and spread more quickly than breast cancers without as much HER-2. So, HER-2 positive (HER-2+) breast cancers are usually treated with a targeted medicine (such as trastuzumab) and chemotherapy.. If the breast cancer cells dont have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER-2 protein, they are said to be triple-negative. Triple-negative breast cancer is a less common type of breast cancer. It tends to grow faster and spread more quickly and is harder to treat than breast cancers that have hormone ...
Human breast milk acts as a substitute, instead of formula, when a mother cannot provide her own milk. Human breast milk can ... Donating breast milk can be traced back to the practice of wet nursing. The first record of regulations regarding the sharing ... "Milk Banks , Amazing Breast Milk". Retrieved 2019-04-25. Moro, Guido E. (April 2018). "History of Milk Banking: From Origin to ... Human milk banks offer a solution to the mothers that cannot supply their own breast milk to their child, for reasons such as a ...
Tominaga, T (30 December 1994). "Presidential address: Newly established Japanese breast cancer society and the future". Breast ... On 13 October 1804, Hanaoka performed a partial mastectomy for breast cancer on a 60-year-old woman named Kan Aiya, using ... Matsuki A (March 2002). "A Study on Seishu Hanaoka's Nyugan Seimei Roku (Scroll of Diseases): A Name List of Breast Cancer ... 66-68 Izuo, M (November 2004). "Medical history: Seishū Hanaoka and his success in breast cancer surgery under general ...
October 28 - Louise Hay (born 1935), French-born American mathematician; breast cancer. December 14 - Andrei Sakharov (born ...
Brinker, Nancy; Braun, Susan (1998-12-01). "The Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation1". Breast Disease. 10 (5-6): 23-28. doi ... Lisa A. Carey is a Distinguished Professor in Breast Cancer Research at UNC School of Medicine, Division Chief of Hematology ... and was named co-chair of the Alliance National Cooperative Group Breast Committee in 2016. In 1998, Carey was hired as a ... was named co-chair of the Alliance National Cooperative Group Breast Committee in 2016. In 2018, Carey was selected to serve on ...
Some styles are padded to hide developing breast buds or to increase the perceived size of the breasts. Prior to the 1950s, ... Firm, upright breasts are typical of youth. As such, they may not physically require the support of a bra. A Pencil test, ... As the breasts continue to develop, usually around Tanner stage III, regular bras are available in sizes 30AAA to 38B. The ... In it, they advised girls: As your breasts develop, you may need a bra. Some girls feel that wearing a bra for the first time ...
January 2020). "Microsatellite instability in Japanese female patients with triple-negative breast cancer". Breast Cancer. 27 ( ... breast and cervical cancer. The most common chromosomal aneuploidy is a trisomy of chromosome 21, which manifests itself as ...
Causes: It may happen if there is a family medical history of breast cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer or uterine cancer, or ... Breast tenderness. Nausea and vomiting. Fever. Rapid breathing. Faintness or dizziness. Sharp pelvic pain. Treatment: Taking of ...
Breast Center; Baby-Friendly Center; Hemodialysis Center; Respiratory Care Center; Pain Management Center; International ... Gamma Knife for various cancers including breast cancer, lymphoma, and esophagus cancer. Aside from offering radiosurgery, ...
ARCHAMPONG, E. Q. (1990). Breast cancer. p. iii. African Academy of Sciences. (1991). Profiles of African Scientists. p. 110. ... Breast Cancer in Ghana, (1990). Emmanuel married Catherine Awula-Ata Konotey-Ahulu in 1963. Together they have twelve ...
ORT is one of the principal elements of the UNICEF "GOBI FFF" program (growth monitoring; ORT; breast feeding; immunization; ...
For example, all of the following are pronounced /sɛ̃/: sain "healthy"; saint "saint, holy"; sein "breast"; ceins "(you) tie ...
"Autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in breast cancer. Evidence from cell lines and primary breast cancer ... In HER2 overexpressing breast cancers, the HER2-IL-6-STAT3 signaling relationship could be targeted to develop new therapeutic ... In breast cancer, the acquisition of tamoxifen resistance is another major therapeutic problem. It has been shown that ... Furthermore, in human breast cancer, interference with the de-regulated Wnt signaling pathway reduces proliferation and ...
Complete breast development, from thelarche to adult breasts, takes between 2 and 4 years. If secondary breast development ... This system does not use breast size, but instead examines the shape of breasts, nipples, and areolae to determine the ... Due to change in hormone levels, young breasts are likely to develop asymmetrically and in many cases, adult breasts will ... where stage 1 represents the lack of breast development, stage 2 is the breast budding or thelarche stage, stages 3 and 4 are ...
Breast Cancer Research. 18 (1): 127. doi:10.1186/s13058-016-0754-9. ISSN 1465-542X. PMC 5155399. PMID 27964754. Hama, Hiroshi; ...
"Breast cancer fundraising lags after abortion dispute". Reuters. March 24, 2012. "Opponents of Texas abortion restrictions ... and breast and cervical cancer screening to qualified health providers whether or not they give abortions. However, this rule ... clinical breast examinations; cervical cancer screening; pregnancy testing and pregnancy options counseling; prenatal care; ...
In 2002 she launched the Breast of Canada calendar in support of breast health and breast cancer prevention. Following ... "2009 Breast of Canada". Breast of Canada. Retrieved 2012-07-28. Migdal, Alex (2014-08-06). "Artistic pioneer Sue Richards ... Cook, Maria (2001-09-29). "Women bare breasts for cancer: A Guelph entrepreneur has developed a provocative 'Breast of Canada' ... "Breast of Canada has served us well". Guelph Mercury. 2007-08-20. pp. A8. Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved ...
Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 12 (3): 287-96. doi:10.1007/BF01811241. PMID 3147727.[non-primary source needed] Martikainen H, ...
PLAY ranked Tina as the third-hottest blonde in games in 2010, and jokingly deemed her breasts "the undisputed #1 and #2 of all ... Series developer Koei Tecmo released a host of licensed items, such as a 20" × 28" suede tapestry, an oppai (breasts-imitating ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Yeo, Matt (December 1997). "Simply the Breast!". Sega Saturn Magazine #26. Retrieved ... "Why does Tina's animation make her breasts flop about while most of the other characters remain stationary? Why does she have ...
... in patients with breast cancer and a meta-analysis of earlier studies". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 157 (2): 281-294 ... Its main uses are in breast cancer and malignant melanoma surgery, although it has been used in other tumor types (colon cancer ... The first such trial, led by Umberto Veronesi at the European Institute of Oncology, showed that women with breast tumours of 2 ... 2006) Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy as a staging procedure in breast cancer: update of a randomised controlled study. Lancet Oncol ...
His breast plate is held by the Queensland Women's Historical Association. Billy Hippie - King of Minnon. Billy King of the ... His breast plate is held by the Queensland Women's Historical Association. Jackey Jackey King of Logan and Pimpama also John ... His breast plate is held by the Queensland Women's Historical Association. King Brown Woolumba. Location of Woolumba is unknown ... "Aboriginal Breast Plates". Inside the Collection. Archived from the original on 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019. " ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "SB484 - The Safe Cosmetics Act of 2005". Breast Cancer Fund. 2006-05-17. Archived from ...
"Expression profiling predicts outcome in breast cancer". Breast Cancer Research. 5 (1): 57-8. doi:10.1186/bcr562. PMC 154139. ... "A cell proliferation signature is a marker of extremely poor outcome in a subpopulation of breast cancer patients". Cancer ... "A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer". New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (25): 1999-2009 ...
The latissimus dorsi is a potential source of muscle for breast reconstruction surgery after mastectomy (e.g. Mannu flap) or to ... Breast Care (Basel). 8 (2): 139-42. doi:10.1159/000350778. PMC 3683949. PMID 24419214. Masia J, Pons G, Loschi P, Sanchez Porro ... "Immediate partial breast reconstruction with endoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle flap harvest". Arch Plast Surg. 41 (5): 513-9. ...
Organizations conducting breast cancer research have identified access to biological specimens as a top priority, and therefore ... Taube, S. E.; Barr, P.; Livolsi, V.; Pinn, V. W. (1998). "Ensuring the Availability of Specimens for Research". The Breast ...
"Measuring proliferation in breast cancer". Breast Cancer Research. 8 (6): 216. doi:10.1186/bcr1618. PMC 1797032. PMID 17164010 ... For example, a low mitotic index loses any prognostic value for women over 70 years old with breast cancer. The mitotic index ... van Diest, PJ; van der Wall, E; Baak, JP (2004). "Prognostic value of proliferation in invasive breast cancer". J. Clin. Pathol ... Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 115 (2): 241-254. doi:10.1007/s10549-008-0126-y. hdl:1956/5701. PMID 18665447. Edexcel ...
In breast cancer, The MPRAD framework classified malignant from benign breast lesions with excellent sensitivity and ... More importantly, in breast, normal glandular tissue MPRAD were similar between each group with no significance differences. ... doi:10.1007/s40336-014-0064-0. Parekh VS, Jacobs MA (2017-11-14). "Integrated radiomic framework for breast cancer and tumor ... The Multiparametric Radiomics was tested on two different organs and diseases; breast cancer and cerebrovascular accidents in ...
... with the aim of producing a coordinated program of research to tackle breast cancer. It is the first dedicated breast cancer ... "Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre - The Institute of Cancer Research, London". "Our research centre ... In 1991, her family founded the Breakthrough Toby Robins Breast Cancer Centre in London, which was opened in 1999 by HRH The ... Toby Robins died from breast cancer in 1986, one week after her 55th birthday. ...
Liu S, Dontu G, Wicha MS (2005). "Mammary stem cells, self-renewal pathways, and carcinogenesis". Breast Cancer Research. 7 (3 ... Breast Cancer Research. 6 (6): R605-615. doi:10.1186/bcr920. PMC 1064073. PMID 15535842. Beachy PA, Karhadkar SS, Berman DM ( ... cells for growth of the mammary gland during puberty and gestation and play an important role in carcinogenesis of the breast. ...
2009). "CD146 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in human breast tumors and with enhanced motility in breast cancer ... MCAM inhibits breast cancer progression. Normal melanocytes do not express MCAM and the expression of MCAM is first found in ... cell lines". Breast Cancer Research. 11 (1): R1. doi:10.1186/bcr2215. PMC 2687703. PMID 19123925. Schwab KE, Gargett CE ( ...
DCIS is a non-invasive form of breast cancer, but comedo-type DCIS may be more aggressive and so may be more likely to become ... "Breast cancer treatment". Physician Desk Query. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 13 June 2013. British Association of ...
Breast size and cancer risk[edit]. Some factors of breast morphology, including their density, are clearly implicated in breast ... At menopause, breast development ceases and the breasts atrophy. Breast development results in prominent and developed ... COX-2 expression has been positively associated with breast volume and inflammation in breast tissue, as well as with breast ... Jansen LA, Backstein RM, Brown MH (2014). "Breast size and breast cancer: a systematic review". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. ...
The left breast is on the right hand side of the image and the right breast is on the left hand side of the image, separated by ... Mammography uses low dose X-rays to examine the inside of the breast in order to look for early signs of breast cancer. In ... England, routine breast screening is currently offered to women aged 50-70. Photograms are images created without a camera but ... Healthy breast mammogram, artwork Photogram of a healthy breast mammogram. The left breast is on the right hand side of the ...
Breast reduction is a surgical procedure performed in order to decrease the size of the breasts. Women with very large breasts ... Breast enlargement may result in decreased sensation in the breast, or interference with breast-feeding. Implants can also make ... Sometimes a woman having a breast reconstruction after a mastectomy will need theopposite breast enlarged to make the breasts ... The two types of breast size procedures are breast augmentation, or implants, and breast reduction. With the earliest ...
A breast biopsy is usually done to check a lump found during a breast examination or a suspicious area found on a mammogram, ... A breast biopsy removes a sample of breast tissue that is looked at under a microscope to check for breast cancer. ... A breast biopsy removes a sample of breast tissue that is looked at under a microscope to check for breast cancer. A breast ... A breast biopsy removes a sample of breast tissue that is looked at under a microscope for breast cancer. ...
Breast Cancer in Young Womenplus icon *Bring Your Brave Campaign. *Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Womenplus icon ... Learn what breast cancer is and about symptoms, risk factors, mammograms, diagnosis, and treatment for breast cancer. ... CDCs National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program provides low-cost breast and cervical cancer screenings. ... Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the United States. The Data Visualizations Tool provides detailed ...
Describes tests used to find or diagnose breast cancer. ... homeBreast Cancer. *Basic Informationplus icon *What Is Breast ... Breast Cancer in Young Womenplus icon *Bring Your Brave Campaign. *Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Womenplus icon ... or has spread outside the breast determines your stage of breast cancer. The type and stage of breast cancer tells doctors what ... If breast cancer is diagnosed, other tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts ...
Breast Cancer Care is a UK charity providing support for people living with and beyond breast cancer. Find out how to receive ... 2019 Breast Cancer Care.. Breast Cancer Care is a working name of Breast Cancer Care and Breast Cancer Now, a company limited ... Our merger with Breast Cancer Now We have united to create one charity for everyone affected by breast cancer. ... Breast Cancer Care helped me live my life when cancer was busy trying to take it away. And, for that, Ill be forever grateful ...
For advanced breast cancer: Chemo can be used as the main treatment for women whose cancer has spread outside the breast and ... See Breast Cancer Gene Expression Tests for more information. Which chemotherapy drugs are used for breast cancer?. In most ... Chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Chemo drugs useful in treating women with breast cancer that has spread include:. * ... For breast cancer patients, the central line is typically placed on the opposite side of the breast that had surgery. ...
Miami Cancer Institute provides comprehensive breast cancer care, but also the compassionate and caring support you need - all ... Irritation, redness or thickening of the nipple or breast skin. Understanding Your Breast Cancer Risk Most breast cancers are ... Breast ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of the breast.. *Fine needle biopsy allows your physician to withdraw a ... Women with dense breast tissue may benefit from 3-D mammography. *Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps physicians ...
Get information from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons about options available for breast reconstruction. ... Immediate breast tissue expander placement. The surgical process for saline breast tissue expanders and breast expanders ... Answers to common questions about breast reconstruction Michelle De Souza, MD Breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients ... The breast implant will be placed under the ADM and your own muscle. This allows the breast implant to settle in a normal ...
Encourage use of breast conserving surgery whenever possible, defer definitive mastectomy and/or reconstruction until after the ... Developed by the COVID 19 Pandemic Breast Cancer Consortium (this consortium is made up of representatives from the NAPBC, CoC ... Many women with early stage, ER positive breast cancers to not benefit substantially from chemotherapy. In general, these ... COVID-19 Guidelines for Triage of Breast Cancer Patients. Online March 24, 2020 ...
Women with bilateral breast cancer were not included in the study. Women without invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in ... In fact, breast density is perhaps the strongest but least recognized risk factor for breast cancer. Many studies have shown ... A wax pencil was used to outline the breast area and breast densities. Films, with the wax pencil marks, were digitized on a ... 11 ). A recent tamoxifen trial measured breast density as a surrogate end point for breast cancer risk and found that the most ...
Breast implant Breast lift Breast reduction plasty Free flap breast reconstruction Nipple prosthesis Titoo Rabin, Roni Caryn ( ... "Breast Reconstruction: Immediate or Delayed". "Breast reconstruction using body tissue." Breast cancer , Lets Beat Cancer! ... Breast Reconstruction Following Breast Removal from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons National Cancer Institute breast ... Frequently not just breast volume, but also skin surface area needs to be restored. Many patients undergoing delayed breast ...
Breast atrophy is the normal or spontaneous atrophy or shrinkage of the breasts. Breast atrophy commonly occurs in women during ... breast atrophy may be a desired effect. Examples of treatment options for breast atrophy, depending on the situation/when ... 67-. ISBN 1-4557-3340-7. Thomas J. Lawton (27 April 2009). Breast. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-. ISBN 978-0-521-88159-3. ... 42-. ISBN 978-3-540-89873-3. Kristen A. Atkins; Christina Kong (29 October 2012). Practical Breast Pathology: A Diagnostic ...
The information here can help you understand medical language you might find in a breast pathology report. ... After a breast biopsy, your doctor will get a report that gives a diagnosis for each sample taken. ... Breast Pathology. When your breast was biopsied, the samples taken were studied under the microscope by a specialized doctor ... Benign Breast Conditions. Benign (non-cancer) breast changes can include adenosis, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, ...
A Webtv friendly place for anyone touched by breast cancer to talk to others. We talk through guest books and message boards ... This page is for breast cancer survivors to talk to each other. I am a 14 year survivor of Breast Cancer and 7 year survivor of ... This page is a webtv friendly Breast cancer support group. We talk to each other by posting in a guest book. There are many ... excellent breast cancer support pages out there. I dont think I can do a better job. Its just that they seem to be getting ...
Breast Reduction in Men. The breast reduction in men has a name, is gynecomastia and ultimately is part of the most demanded by ... Male Breast Reduction. This operation, in short, removes fat and glandular tissue from the breasts. In more extreme cases it ... Diet to Reduce Male Breast Size. The men who suffer from this problem of increased breasts can follow certain dietary routines ... Like zinc, omega-3 fatty acid also helps to reduce the size of the breasts as it also helps to increase the production of ...
Breast Cancer Rates Saving Our Species From Another Mass Extinction Breast Cancer Cancer Breast Cancer Evolution ... As a breast cancer doctor who has been practicing for some 25 years, I have often wondered why the breast is the favorite place ... About 29 percent of all cancers in women start in the breast, more than any other type of cancer. Only 10 percent of breast ... Director of Breast Health Outreach & Breast Radiation Oncology, Lankenau Medical Center; President and Founder of Breastcancer. ...
One is a friend (age 32) in hospice care right now due to stage 4 breast cancer. Another is another friend (age 35) who started ... I have personal reasons for wanting everyone to see the tough new documentary about the hypethat can infest some breast-cancer- ... Funding related to breast cancer-who gets the money raised and how it is used-has been a topic on the minds of potential donors ... The issue took a dramatic turn this past winter, when the Susan G. Komen for the Cure foundation, the biggest breast cancer- ...
A breast mass is one of the most common presenting complaints evaluated by surgeons in their offices daily. Obviously, both ... Seltzer M. Breast complaints, biopsies, and cancer correlated with age in 10, 000 consecutive new surgical referrals. Breast J ... Page D, Simpson J. Benign, high-risk, and premalignant lesions of the breast. In: Bland K, Copeland E, editors. The breast: ... Larkin A.C. (2010) Breast Mass. In: Dirbas F., Scott-Conner C. (eds) Breast Surgical Techniques and Interdisciplinary ...
Whereas the phrase breast or bottle might once have implied a choice between two relative equals, human milk is now believed ... Breast or Bottle? is a kairology of breastfeeding, an analysis of the rhetorical activity that has made possible conflicting ... Breast or Bottle? is the first scholarly examination of the shift in breastfeeding recommendations occurring over the last half ...
A breast abscess is a painful collection of pus that forms in the breast. Most abscesses develop just under the skin and are ... Breast abscess A breast abscess is a painful build-up of pus in the breast caused by an infection. It mainly affects women who ... Causes of breast abscesses. A breast abscess can form if you have a breast infection (called mastitis) and its not treated ... This wont harm your baby and can help your breast heal.. Try expressing milk from your breasts with your hand or a breast pump ...
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Breast Imaging, IWDM 2016, held in Malmö, ... Breast Density Assessment Using Breast Tomosynthesis Images Pontus Timberg, Andreas Fieselmann, Magnus Dustler, Hannie ... Towards Optimization of Image Quality as a Function of Breast Thickness in Mammography: An Investigation of the Breast ... Diagnostic Usefulness of Synthetic MMG (SMMG) with DBT (Digital Breast Tomosynthesis) for Clinical Setting in Breast Cancer ...
... tasty chicken breast recipes - chicken marsala, thai chicken, chicken fajitas.... try a new recipe every day. Watch our videos ... 9 Top Chicken Breast Dinners 9 Top Chicken Breast Dinners These recipes all call for 5 ingredients or fewer, and are ready ... Mexican-Style Chicken Breasts Mexican-Style Chicken Breasts Read More ... Chicken Breast Recipes. Get inspired! Easy, healthy, tasty chicken breast recipes - chicken marsala, thai chicken, chicken ...
Scientists look for new ways to treat advanced breast cancer in clinical trials. These studies test new drugs to see if they ... Youre probably familiar with these tests from when you were diagnosed with breast cancer. Doctors take a tiny sample of tissue ... "Its very empowering for women, to help future generations of breast cancer patients," says Rita Nanda, MD, of the University ... In phase III, the study will compare the new treatment with the standard treatments for advanced breast cancer. ...
Breast cancer changed everything for these women, and for dozens of others who have been a part of Livestrong at the YMCA, a ... In counseling breast cancer patients who wish to change and improve their eating habits, Malcher points to the food plan ... A diagnosis of breast cancer often leads to a treatment plan that includes surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation and frequent ... For breast cancer patients, sometimes the best therapy is just talking about their experience with others going through the ...
When breast cancer landed on my doorstep, so did mail. Daily, we were flooded with boxes and envelopes from friends, family and ... The new Comprehensive Breast Center at Middlesex Hospitals cancer center in Middletown is now open, and is specifically aimed ... Married for 27 years and the mother of two sons, she says having breast cancer made her realize how strong she is and how ... Police in two central Connecticut cities are coming together to aid Julia Gallup, who is fighting breast cancer. She is a ...
Get facts and tips on managing and living with breast cancer during treatment and beyond. ... Coping with breast cancer can be draining and stressful. ... Warning Signs of Breast Cancer. Article Breast Cancer: Steps to ... Coping with breast cancer can be draining and stressful. Here are some tips to help you manage life with and after breast ... Breast Reconstruction Surgery Getting breast reconstruction surgery after a mastectomy is a personal choice. Here are some ...
Early birds may have lower risk of breast cancer. Women who love the early hours of the day are less likely to develop breast ... But for some women, another breast-related issue can make it hard to do that - dense breast tissue. "When patients dont know ... This new technology supports mammography by helping to detect breast cancer in women with dense breast tissue, in those who ... Cancer survivor, 86, leads breast-knitting campaign. Pat Anderson knits breast-shaped bra inserts for women who have undergone ...
Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. ... Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. ... Male breast cancer represents less than 1 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses. Scientists estimate that about 2,600 new ... These factors include sex, age, ethnic background, a history of previous breast cancer, certain changes in breast tissue, and ...
Most women, however, have non-cancerous breast health concerns as well. These include breast pain, breastfeeding, nipple ... Breast health is often associated with breast cancer. ... Breast Health. Breast health is often associated with breast ... Breast tenderness is as a sign of pregnancy.. From a mild tingling in the breasts, a gentle swelling, or an aching soreness, ... AnswerYou dont say whether or not you are breast feeding. If you are breast feeding perhaps the baby is not latching on ...
Breast development is a vital part of puberty in the human female. Interestingly, humans are the only mammals whose breasts ... and the beginnings of breast tissue, but most of breast development occurs in two different periods of time in a womans life: ... Source for information on Breast Development: Gale Encyclopedia of Childrens Health: Infancy through Adolescence dictionary. ... Breast development Definition A newborn baby has nipples, areolas, ...
  • [9] GH induction of IGF-1 production and secretion occurs in almost all types of tissue in the body, but especially in the liver , which is the source of approximately 80% of circulating IGF-1, [10] as well as locally in the breasts. (
  • [5] [11] Although IGF-1 is responsible for most of the role of GH in mediating breast development, GH itself has been found to play a direct, augmenting role as well, as it increases estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast stromal (connective) tissue , while IGF-1, in contrast, has been found to not do this. (
  • A breast biopsy removes a sample of breast tissue that is looked at under a microscope to check for breast cancer. (
  • The sample of breast tissue will be looked at under a microscope to check for cancer cells. (
  • Your doctor inserts a needle with a special tip and removes a sample of breast tissue about the size of a grain of rice. (
  • This is done with a probe that uses a gentle vacuum to remove a small sample of breast tissue. (
  • Your doctor will make a small cut in the skin and breast tissue to remove part or all of a lump. (
  • Once the area is numb, a needle is put through your skin into your breast tissue. (
  • Despite the establishment of tissue data bases and the use of state-of-the-art proteomic technologies, the complex biology of the mammary gland, as well as of breast tumors, remains a major limitation to the full deployment of proteomic tools and the successful realization of their theoretical power. (
  • It uses a non-radioactive contrast dye in combination with a powerful magnetic field to produce high-resolution images of breast tissue. (
  • You have very dense breast tissue and your prior breast cancer wasn't detected on mammogram. (
  • You have a history of precancerous breast changes - such as atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ - or a strong family history of breast cancer and dense breast tissue. (
  • By comparing healthy contralateral breast tissue of patients with malignant breast tumors and benign breast tumors, researchers found that multiple differences in biomarkers can be assessed with PET/MRI imaging, which could impact risk-adapted screening and risk-reduction strategies in clinical practice. (
  • While screening mammography has decreased mortality for breast cancer patients by 30 percent, its sensitivity is limited and is decreased in women with dense breast tissue. (
  • Our study aimed to assess the differences in 18F-FDG PET/MRI biomarkers in healthy contralateral breast tissue among patients with malignant or benign breast tumors. (
  • In all patients, several imaging biomarkers were recorded in the tumor-free breast: background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue (from MRI), mean apparent diffusion coefficient (from DWI) and breast parenchymal uptake (from 18F-FDG PET). (
  • In the contralateral breast tissue, background parenchymal enhancement and breast parenchymal uptake were decreased and differed significantly between patients with benign and malignant lesions. (
  • Development of tissue based, molecular markers of breast cancer risk would offer a novel means of individualizing risk assessment and may provide new opportunities for prevention. (
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate biomarkers of DDR activation in normal breast tissue as predictors of future development of breast cancer. (
  • A research team at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, is investigating whether the amount of DNA damage seen in the cells in normal breast tissue may be an indicator of future breast cancer risk. (
  • A breast MRI offers a safe and accurate approach to detecting breast cancers and breast abnormalities. (
  • Although it's a very sensitive test, breast MRI can still miss some breast cancers that a mammogram will detect. (
  • Sometimes the cancers detected by breast MRIs are aggressive and have spread throughout the body, unable to be treated. (
  • The first is to discover new molecular markers for early diagnosis and profiling of breast tumors. (
  • The second is to decipher the intracellular signaling pathways leading to the initiation and progression of breast tumors. (
  • Current methods used to detect breast tumors, either benign or malignant, are based on mammography. (
  • Several studies have been performed in an attempt to identify factors associated with either the growth rate or the metastatic potential of breast tumors ( i.e. prognostic factors) or factors related to sensitivity and/or resistance to therapeutic agents ( i.e. predictive factors). (
  • It also serves as a valuable resource in detecting breast cancer for those with implants, where mammography alone is unable to make an accurate diagnosis. (
  • First, there are suggestions that X-rays can potentially induced carcinogenesis, and second, it is clear that to be detected in mammography, a breast tumor should be at least a few millimeters in size. (
  • From the cellular point of view, given the fact that a single cell can lead to the development of a whole tumor (clonal origin of cancer), it is already late when a breast tumor is detected by mammography. (
  • Depending on the cellular and histological origin of the cancer cells and on the evolution of the disease, a broad range of breast tumor types have been described. (
  • The study included 141 patients with imaging abnormalities on mammography or sonography on a tumor-free contralateral breast. (
  • A breast biopsy checks to see if a breast lump or a suspicious area seen on a mammogram is cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign). (
  • You or your doctor can feel a mass or other lump in your breast, but it's not detectable on mammogram or ultrasound. (
  • Breast development results in prominent and developed structures on the chest known as breasts in primates, which serve primarily as mammary glands . (
  • The breast: cross-section scheme of the mammary gland . (
  • Mammography uses low dose X-rays to examine the inside of the breast in order to look for early signs of breast cancer. (
  • Based on these results, tracer uptake of normal breast parenchyma in 18F-FDG PET might serve as another important, easily quantifiable imaging biomarker in breast cancer, similar to breast density in mammography and background parenchymal enhancement in MRI,' Leithner explained. (
  • Breast MRI is also used to detect breast implant integrity. (
  • You have a suspected leak or rupture of a breast implant. (
  • Such shortcomings warrant further refinements in breast cancer screening modalities and the identification of imaging biomarkers to guide follow-up care for breast cancer patients,' said Doris Leithner, MD, research fellow at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, New York. (
  • The patients underwent combined PET/MRI of the breast with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the radiotracer 18F-FDG. (
  • Most breast cancer patients have no known antecedent risk factors. (
  • The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones , estrogen and progesterone , growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin . (
  • [5] It has been found that both estrogen and GH are essential for breast development at puberty - in the absence of either, no development will take place. (
  • [12] [13] In addition to estrogen and GH/IGF-1 both being essential for pubertal breast development, they are synergistic in bringing it about. (
  • As hybrid PET/MRI scanners are increasingly being used in clinical practice, they can simultaneously assess and monitor multiple imaging biomarkers--including breast parenchymal uptake--which could consequently contribute to risk-adapted screening and guide risk-reduction strategies. (
  • Reston, VA--Researchers have identified several potentially useful breast cancer biomarkers that indicate the presence and risk of malignancy, according to new research published in the January issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. (
  • The researchers recruited women who had a benign breast biopsy and then went on to develop breast cancer (Phase I) and women who had a benign breast biopsy but did NOT go on to develop breast cancer (Phase II). (
  • Our primary hypothesis is that activation of the DDR pathway occurs as an early event in breast tumorigenesis and will be positively associated with invasive breast cancer risk. (
  • Unlike other contrast dyes, the dye used for a breast MRI does not expose you to radiation. (
  • Unlike X-rays, breast MRIs are free of radiation, safe and non-invasive. (
  • This leading-edge technology is a vital tool in breast cancer treatment. (
  • Breast MRIs allow your doctors to begin creating a treatment protocol immediately. (
  • Despite the apparent necessity of GH/IGF-1 signaling in pubertal breast development however, women with Laron syndrome , in whom the growth hormone receptor (GHR) is defective and insensitive to GH and serum IGF-1 levels are very low, puberty, including breast development, is delayed, although full sexual maturity is always eventually reached. (
  • These rudimentary tubules will eventually become the matured lactiferous (milk) ducts, which connect the lobules (milk "containers") of the breast, grape-like clusters of alveoli, to the nipples. (
  • You're at high risk of breast cancer, defined as a lifetime risk of 20 to 25 percent or greater. (
  • By recruiting women who did develop breast cancer and women who did not, they will be able to look for markers in the breast cells that might be an indicator of breast cancer risk. (
  • It is hoped that stratifying breast cancer patients in this more detailed way could lead to better personalized medicine approaches, reducing the number of people who relapse as well as reassuring those with a very low risk of relapse. (
  • Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the United States. (
  • CDC's Bring Your Brave campaign educates younger women about breast cancer. (
  • They may refer women to a breast specialist or a surgeon. (
  • Treatments for breast cancer have improved dramatically in recent years, but unfortunately for some women, their breast cancer returns and spreads, becoming incurable. (
  • The study was jointly led by Professor Christina Curtis, PhD at Stanford University and examined genetic changes in breast tumors from 2,000 women, following them over 20 years to see whether or not the cancer returned. (
  • When Claire discovered that about 2/3 of women choose not to have reconstruction after mastectomy, she decided to set up her Intimate Tour of Breasts. (
  • Chemo can be used as the main treatment for women whose cancer has spread outside the breast and underarm area, either when it is diagnosed or after initial treatments. (
  • There are tests available, such as Oncotype DX and Mammoprint, that can help determine which women will most likely benefit from chemo after breast surgery. (
  • While our team has the expertise to take care of any stage of breast cancer, we work hard to teach women about cancer prevention. (
  • Applying strict validation criteria to qualify readers to quantify mammographic breast density for research studies will enhance the chance of accurately assessing breast density and discriminating women at high and low risk of breast cancer. (
  • Despite the apparent necessity of GH/IGF-1 signaling in pubertal breast development however, women with Laron syndrome , in whom the growth hormone receptor (GHR) is defective and insensitive to GH and serum IGF-1 levels are very low, puberty, including breast development, is delayed, although full sexual maturity is always eventually reached. (
  • [15] [16] The relatively large breasts in women with Laron syndrome have been suggested to be due to increased secretion of prolactin (which is known to produce breast enlargement) caused by a drift phenomenon from somatomammotrophic cells in the pituitary gland with a high GH secretion. (
  • Breast atrophy commonly occurs in women during menopause when estrogen levels decrease. (
  • In the treatment of gynecomastia in males and macromastia in women, and in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for trans men , [10] breast atrophy may be a desired effect. (
  • Morrow M, Wong S, Venta L. The evaluation of breast masses in women younger than forty years of age. (
  • Long-term risk of breast cancer in women with fibroadenoma. (
  • We have a once in a lifetime opportunity to stop women dying from breast cancer. (
  • It's very empowering for women, to help future generations of breast cancer patients," says Rita Nanda, MD, of the University of Chicago. (
  • Jolie carries a variant of a gene called BRCA1 that makes women highly likely to develop breast and ovarian cancer . (
  • A number of studies have shown that bilateral risk-reducing mastectomies (the official term) do indeed reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with the BRCA1 mutation. (
  • As a result, women who carry BRCA mutations have a 40 to 85 percent risk of developing breast cancer during their lifetime. (
  • Breast cancer changed everything for these women, and for dozens of others who have been a part of Livestrong at the YMCA, a free 12 -week exercise, wellness and nutrition program for anyone who has had cancer. (
  • The new Comprehensive Breast Center at Middlesex Hospital's cancer center in Middletown is now open, and is specifically aimed at improving care and detection for women at high risk for breast cancer. (
  • Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. (
  • Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. (
  • About one in eight women in the United States will develop invasive breast cancer in her lifetime. (
  • Researchers estimate that more than 276,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in U.S. women in 2020. (
  • These genes are described as "high penetrance" because they are associated with a high risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer and a moderate risk of developing pancreatic cancer and a type of skin cancer called melanoma in women who have mutations. (
  • Most women, however, have non-cancerous breast health concerns as well. (
  • Some women are more prone to yeast infections during pregnancy, and sore breasts and/or nipples is a sign of pregnancy. (
  • These hormones are believed to be responsible for the cyclical changes such as the swelling, pain , and tenderness that many women experience in their breasts just before menstruation. (
  • Many women also experience changes in breast texture, with breasts feeling particularly lumpy. (
  • Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. (
  • Researchers from the University of Buffalo have found that women who regularly consume onions and garlic could be reducing their risk of developing breast. (
  • Breast cancer affects hundreds of thousands of women in the United States each year, and much research has been done on risk factors that influence breast. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that women who do not have health problems exclusively breast-feed their infants for at least the first six months, with it continuing at least through the first year as other foods are introduced. (
  • More than a million older women will be living with breast cancer within a generation, say campaigners who warn today that the NHS is ill-prepared to take care of them. (
  • He continued: "We can no longer tolerate the present situation where too many cancer doctors are making assumptions based on age which often result in older women receiving inadequate care for their breast cancer. (
  • Carolinas Breast Friends (CBF) is nonprofit organization that provides a caring and positive environment for women diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • Most women diagnosed with breast cancer are over 50, but younger women can also get breast cancer. (
  • About one in eight women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime. (
  • For this reason, it's vital that women check their breasts regularly for any changes and always get any changes examined by their GP. (
  • Women with a higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer may be offered screening and genetic testing for the condition. (
  • As the risk of breast cancer increases with age, all women who are 50 to 70 years old are invited for breast cancer screening every three years. (
  • In a small proportion of women, breast cancer is discovered after it's spread to other parts of the body (metastatic breast cancer). (
  • In the United States, around 12 percent of women, which is about 1 in every 8 women, will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. (
  • The number of women who die from breast cancer has been decreasing since 1989, due, in part, to early detection through screening and improved treatment. (
  • Women of all ages should be informed of the benefits, limitations, and potential harms of breast cancer screening. (
  • Since 2001, Breast Cancer Emergency Fund (BCEF) has been the only Bay Area organization dedicated to providing emergency financial assistance to low-income women and men battling breast cancer. (
  • Family history: The risk of breast cancer is higher among women who have relatives with the disease. (
  • Women diagnosed with certain benign breast conditions have an increased risk of breast cancer. (
  • Race: White women have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, but African-American women tend to have more aggressive tumors when they do develop breast cancer. (
  • Being overweight or obese increases the risk of breast cancer both in pre- and postmenopausal women but at different rates. (
  • The FDA approved saline-filled breast implants for breast augmentation in women age 18 or older and for breast reconstruction in women of any age. (
  • Silicone gel-filled breast implants are approved for breast augmentation in women age 22 or older and for breast reconstruction in women of any age. (
  • In addition, women with breast implants may have a very low but increased likelihood of being diagnosed with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). (
  • The study was of a test which detects tumour cells in the bloodstream - in this case in women with breast cancer which had spread to distant parts of the body. (
  • Women with advanced breast cancer don't all take the same course. (
  • Where it's needed most is in women with early breast cancer to help decide who might need more aggressive therapy when they're first diagnosed. (
  • Most women, when first diagnosed with breast cancer, focus on becoming cancer free as quickly as possible. (
  • More women are diagnosed with breast cancer than any other cancer. (
  • That's why, within a few weeks of beginning chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer, many women report losing some or all of their hair. (
  • Breast cancer, the growth of malignant cells in the breast, is the most common cancer among women. (
  • Approximately 10% of women with breast cancer have a positive family history. (
  • Women who have at least 2 first degree relatives with breast cancer that was diagnosed before the age of 50, or ovarian cancer diagnosed at any age, may have inherited one of two breast cancer genes, increasing their risk of both breast and ovarian cancer. (
  • Women who have no children, have their first child in their 30s, or have never breastfed may be more susceptible to breast cancer. (
  • Having fibrocystic breasts does not place women at a higher or lower risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • Atypical hyperplasia is associated with a fivefold increase in breast cancer risk and is found in an estimated 4 to 10 percent of women with lumpy breasts. (
  • This type of breast cancer is typically found in women aged 50 and above. (
  • 90% of the women who experience these symptoms have an underlying breast cancer. (
  • A breast cancer clinic at Harris Health Smith Clinic, organized and staffed by physicians from the Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center at Baylor Medicine, has been established to improve breast care for Houston's underserved women. (
  • Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. (
  • Women with small breasts can nurse a baby just as well as women with large breasts . (
  • The real evolutionary purpose of women having breasts is to attract the male of the species . (
  • The number of women dying from breast cancer has gone down significantly in the last 20 years in the UK mainly because of efficient and early screening and detection of the cancer. (
  • HER2-positive cancer usually occurs in younger women and is more quickly-growing and aggressive than other types of breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. (
  • According to the National Breast Cancer Foundation, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. (
  • The goal of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, founded in 1991 by breast cancer survivor Janelle Hail, is to educate women of the importance of early detection and the availability of support services. (
  • Breast cancer affects one in every eight women. (
  • Nearly 200,000 American women will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer this year. (
  • Most women who get treated for breast cancer will not have a recurrence. (
  • We expanded research into breast cancer, ovarian cancer, osteoporosis, and other serious diseases that afflict women. (
  • But experts say much of what women think they know about breast cancer could be wrong. (
  • But first, to health care here in the U.S. Women here know they face a threat from breast cancer, but much of what they think they know is wrong, according to a new survey commissioned by the National Breast Cancer Coalition. (
  • MARTIN: Doctor, I think you've probably heard that, apparently, a lot of people believe that most women at risk for breast cancer have a family history of the disease. (
  • Most women who have breast cancer have no relatives who have breast cancer, or no family history of breast cancer. (
  • It would be unfortunate if the women of Long Island declined screening for breast cancer based on this editorial. (
  • It is likely that the women screened annually were considered to be at higher risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • We have also partnered with the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Foundation to assist and support women with triple-negative breast cancer. (
  • Women with Medicare coverage who are coping with metastatic breast cancer may be eligible for co-payment assistance through the Cancer Care Co-Payment Assistance Foundation . (
  • Women are taught using plastic breast models to detect lumps (tumours) that are extremely small - from 5 mm to 10 mm in diameter. (
  • Preventive health care, 2001 update: Should women be routinely taught breast self-examination to screen for breast cancer? (
  • Effect of preoperative therapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50 to 59 years. (
  • A condition that alarms women ad nauseam -- a stinging ache in the breasts, well may have them go blue. (
  • Women may endure breast discomfort on account of several reasons, and the intensity, too, may vary. (
  • Many women go through an uncomfortable, and sometimes, painful experience when get tender breasts after periods. (
  • One of the first signs of menopause in women is noticing breast tenderness. (
  • Sore breasts and nipples is usually a common condition faced by many women. (
  • One of a common complaints of pregnant or lactating women is the pain in the left breast region. (
  • Many women often complain of pain in one breast and fear the worst, i.e., breast cancer. (
  • Breast pain commonly affects young women, especially during their menstrual cycle. (
  • Women who use bust-enhancing dietary supplements containing the mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN), a naturally occurring toxin that widely contaminates agricultural products, could be increasing their risk of breast cancer. (
  • A recent study suggests the risk of suicide is tripled for women who have undergone cosmetic breast implant surgery. (
  • The increased suicide risk-together with a similar increase in deaths from alcohol or drug dependence-suggests that plastic surgeons should consider mental health screening and follow-up for women who seek breast implants. (
  • Dr. Lipworth and colleagues performed an extended follow-up study of 3,527 Swedish women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery between 1965 and 1993. (
  • Death certificate data were used to analyze causes of death among women with breast implants, compared to the general female population. (
  • At an average follow-up of nearly 19 years, the suicide rate was three times higher for women with breast implants, compared to the general population (based on 24 deaths among implant recipients). (
  • The risk was greatest-nearly seven times higher-for women who received their breast implants at age 45 or older. (
  • Women with breast implants also had higher rates of death from psychiatric disorders, including a three-fold increase in deaths resulting from alcohol and drug dependence. (
  • There was no increase in the risk of death from cancer , including breast cancer, among women with breast implants. (
  • Increases in deaths from lung cancer and respiratory diseases such as emphysema likely reflected higher smoking rates among women with breast implants. (
  • Several epidemiological studies have found an increased suicide rate among women with cosmetic breast implants. (
  • The current study provides extended follow-up data on a previous nationwide study of Swedish women with breast implants, more than doubling the number of deaths analyzed. (
  • The use of Swedish national health care and death certificate records ensures near-complete identification of women undergoing breast implant surgery and information on causes of death. (
  • The increases in suicide and in deaths related to alcohol and drug dependence suggest that a "nontrivial proportion of women undergoing breast augmentation undergoing cosmetic breast augmentation may bring with them-or develop later-serious long-term psychiatric morbidity and eventually mortality," Dr. Lipworth and colleagues write. (
  • The researchers conclude, "Such findings warrant increased screening, counseling, and perhaps postimplant monitoring of women seeking cosmetic breast implants. (
  • In an invited discussion, David B. Sarwer, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine recommends that plastic surgeons assess the mental health status and history of women desiring breast augmentation. (
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women (besides skin cancer), affecting about 12% or 1 in 8 women in her lifetime. (
  • While it's very common and completely normal for women to have one breast that's larger than the other, any changes to size or shape of the breast should send you to the doctor for evaluation. (
  • Complicated breast cysts on sonography: is aspiration necessary to exclude malignancy? (
  • Instead, they can show benign changes in the breast such as fibrous growths, cysts, calcium deposits or old scars. (
  • Nonmalignant cysts and tumors in the breasts. (
  • During these times, hormone level changes often cause the breast cells to retain fluid and develop into nodules or cysts (sacs filled with fluid), which feel like a lump when touched. (
  • The nodules or cysts can spread throughout the breast, may be located in one general area or simply appear as one or more large cysts. (
  • Multiple small cysts and an increasing level of breast pain commonly develop when a woman hits her 30s. (
  • It can also be caused by injuries and cysts on the breasts. (
  • Breast ultrasound. (
  • You'll have an ultrasound scan of your breast to check for an abscess. (
  • One must keep in mind that the breast flattens against the chest wall during ultrasound, so an oblique needle path carries a risk of injury to underlying muscles or even the pleura and lungs . (
  • Dempsey, P. J. The history of breast ultrasound. (
  • Berg WA, Bandos AI, Mendelson EB, Lehrer D, Jong RA, Pisano ED. Ultrasound as the Primary Screening Test for Breast Cancer: Analysis From ACRIN 6666. (
  • The image quality and lesion characterization of breast using automated whole-breast ultrasound: A comparison with handheld ultrasound. (
  • The Practice of Breast Ultrasound. (
  • Dominique A. Lobar Ultrasound of the Breast. (
  • Rochira D, Cavalcanti P, Ottaviani A, Tambasco D. Longitudinal Ultrasound Study of Breast Implant Rupture Over a Six-Year Interval. (
  • WFUMB guidelines and recommendations for clinical use of ultrasound elastography: Part 2: breast. (
  • Advances in Breast Ultrasound. (
  • Learn about symptoms of breast cancer in men and things that may increase your risk. (
  • Learn how to check for the signs and symptoms of breast cancer. (
  • Our team helps you understand the type and complexity of your breast cancer, while managing your symptoms. (
  • These can be symptoms of a breast infection or abscess. (
  • In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. (
  • Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer. (
  • Read more about the symptoms of breast cancer . (
  • Diagnostic mammograms can also check for breast cancer when there are signs and symptoms, such as a lump. (
  • The cause of fibrocystic breast change is not known, but the symptoms and signs are linked to a woman's hormone patterns. (
  • It's simple to use, completely free and full of helpful information about the signs and symptoms of breast cancer. (
  • Sore breasts is one of the most common symptoms of ovulation. (
  • Beverley Nash was devastated when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with breast cancer, or has concerns about a breast-related symptom or personal risk factors, our team is here for you. (
  • You're probably familiar with these tests from when you were diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • Macmillan Cancer Research says the health service faces a "timebomb", with the number of over 65s who have been diagnosed with breast cancer at some point in their lives due to almost quadruple by 2040. (
  • In rare cases, men can also be diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • Personal history: Having been diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast increases the risk of cancer in the other breast or the chance of an additional cancer in the original breast. (
  • Casey Maurer of Emmaus was diagnosed with breast cancer at 34. (
  • The numbers below come from the National Cancer Data Base, and are based on people who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2001 and 2002. (
  • I was diagnosed with breast cancer ten years ago and that kind of lead me to want to build something for Mount Sinai because I was being treated at Mount Sinai and they didn't have it and I thought that it was hard for me to go through this, but how about someone who didn't have the medical background who wasn't able to coordinate things? (
  • Good Morning America anchor Robin Roberts, 52, made a name for herself interviewing athletes, actors, and other newsworthy personalities, but in 2007, she turned the camera on herself to announce she'd been diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • The biggest problem I had is was when I have a patient - and this doesn't happen very often, but it happened enough - when I have patient that I diagnosed with breast cancer, and they'll look at me and say, well, doctor, what I'm going to do is change my diet and I'm going to eat right so that I don't need that chemotherapy and radiation. (
  • LBBC was founded in 1991 by a radiation oncologist who discovered there weren't many resources for those diagnosed with breast cancer, and facing treatment. (
  • The American Cancer Society reports that more than 2,600 men are diagnosed with breast cancer each year. (
  • Breast implants may also be used for breast reconstruction after mastectomy or injury. (
  • Breast reconstruction utilizes several plastic surgery techniques to restore a breast to near normal shape and appearance following mastectomy. (
  • What options are available for breast reconstruction? (
  • If you've decided to have breast reconstruction, you'll still have many things to think about as you and your doctors talk about what type of reconstruction might be best for you. (
  • Take the time to learn about the breast reconstruction options and consider talking to others who have had that procedure before you make a decision. (
  • There are several techniques that can be used for implant-based breast reconstruction. (
  • Breast Reconstruction Surgery Getting breast reconstruction surgery after a mastectomy is a personal choice. (
  • Breast reconstruction may be performed after mastectomy, to rebuild injured or congenitally deformed breasts, or as part of gender reassignment surgery. (
  • Surgeons in the Breast Reconstruction Program understand the profound impact the loss of a breast or part of a breast can have on your sense of self. (
  • Our breast reconstruction experts specialize in surgically recreating natural-looking breasts to help you achieve a positive body image. (
  • Our division performs more than 500 breast reconstruction surgeries each year. (
  • Whether you are a candidate for a minimally invasive procedure or require breast reconstruction, we have carefully designed a step-by-step pathway for your preoperative and postoperative care. (
  • If you are a breast cancer patient, the plastic surgeon will collaborate with your surgical oncologist to discuss your cancer treatment plan, including postoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy, to ensure that the reconstruction options provided to you are aligned with your overall cancer treatment plan. (
  • The plastic surgeon will work with you and a team of Mass General experts from multiple specialties, including breast surgical oncologists, radiation therapists, radiologists and radiation physicians and nurses, to develop a personalized plan that helps you achieve your breast reconstruction goals. (
  • Breast reconstruction surgery will become both safer and more realistic thanks to research led by Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia. (
  • non-invasive breast cancer (carcinoma in situ) - found in the ducts of the breast (ductal carcinoma in situ, DCIS) and hasn't developed the ability to spread outside the breast. (
  • invasive breast cancer - usually develops in the cells that line the breast ducts (invasive ductal breast cancer) and is the most common type of breast cancer. (
  • Individuals may develop one, the other, or a combination of invasive and noninvasive breast cancer. (
  • This is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma. (
  • This is rare type of invasive breast cancer that rarely spreads to the lymph nodes. (
  • They may be associated with the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) , an early-stage cancer that remains inside the duct, or even invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) that has spread to the surrounding breast tissues. (
  • The HER2 marker is present in about 20% of cases of invasive breast cancer. (
  • Many others disagree with the new guidelines, including the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. "Every day we discover invasive breast cancer in a woman age 40-50," said Sandhya Pruthin, director of Mayo's Breast Clinic. (
  • If your family has a strong history of breast cancer, your specific DNA may include some of the genes or abnormal cells that may lead to cancer. (
  • Hyperplasia is a term used when there is an abnormal pattern of growth of cells within the ducts and/or lobules of the breast that is not cancer. (
  • These include atypical hyperplasia, a condition in which there is abnormal proliferation of breast cells but no cancer has developed. (
  • In DCIS the cancer cells are present within the ducts of the breast. (
  • Suffering from sore breasts? (
  • Hormonal imbalance might also be the reason why you may suffer from sore breasts. (
  • Let us know in detail what causes sore breasts at the time of ovulation, in this article. (
  • Breast tenderness is as a sign of pregnancy. (
  • Fibrocystic breast disease is usually diagnosed when a patient goes to her doctor for a checkup or seeks help for pain, tenderness or a lump that was probably discovered during breast self-examination. (
  • Usually, hormonal imbalance leads to cyclical mastalgia or premenstrual breast tenderness. (
  • Through this article, let us discuss the reasons and remedial measures for breast tenderness after menopause. (
  • Breast tenderness is not something to worry on when experienced during puberty or periods and the remedies explained in this article will give you much comfort. (
  • While pain is typically not associated with most types of breast cancer, tenderness or discomfort in the breast is worth getting checked out as it could signal other issues related to hormones or other conditions. (
  • What Does It Mean to Have Dense Breasts? (
  • So what was intended as an evolutionary advantage has turned into a curse of modern life, contributing to a significantly higher incidence of breast cancer. (
  • The incidence of breast cancer rises after age 40. (
  • The rising incidence of breast cancer is one of the many public health challenges that face us today. (
  • Breast development results in prominent and developed structures on the chest known as breasts in primates, which serve primarily as mammary glands . (
  • Exposure to previous chest radiation or use of diethylstilbestrol increases the risk of breast cancer. (
  • A breast cancer recurrence, or "recurrent breast cancer," is cancer that has come back in the same or opposite breast or chest wall after a period of time when the cancer couldn't be detected. (
  • This procedure can also restore breast volume lost after weight reduction or pregnancy, achieve a more rounded breast shape or improve natural breast size asymmetry. (
  • From a mild tingling in the breasts, a gentle swelling, or an aching soreness, the breasts go through changes in response to the shifting hormones in your body that are an early sign of pregnancy. (
  • Only pregnancy brings about the fullness of breast growth and development. (
  • This, too, is related to the glands in the breast enlarging in preparation for a possible pregnancy. (
  • If pregnancy does not occur, the breasts return to normal size. (
  • There can be several causes of breast pain during pregnancy. (
  • Read this Buzzle post to learn a few home remedies to alleviate pain in the breasts during pregnancy. (
  • A lump or swelling, usually painless, anywhere in the breast or underarm area (but most commonly in the upper and outer region of the breast). (
  • Perhaps the most common sign of breast cancer is the development of a lump in the breast or under the armpit. (
  • If your nipples hurt or you have tender breasts it just means that your boobs are growing and you are getting ready to start your period or have your next period, in other words it is perfectly normal. (
  • During a clinical breast examination, the health care provider examines the breasts (including the nipples and areola) for retractions, skin changes, and discharge. (
  • NIST recently worked with Boulder, Colorado-based High Precision Devices, Inc., to create a new breast cancer screening phantom that is compatible with MRI systems from most manufacturers. (
  • In this short video, Dr. Pouneh Razavi, director of breast imaging, talks about what you need to know about screening for breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer screening: a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (
  • The randomized trials of breast cancer screening: what have we learned? (
  • Mammographic screening, where X-ray images of the breast are taken, is the most commonly available method of detecting an early breast lesion. (
  • Read about breast screening . (
  • Find breast cancer screening services near you . (
  • Breast screening technology has helped reduce the number of fatalities from breast cancer. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved tomosynthesis for breast screening. (
  • However, as this is a new technology that is only available in limited hospitals, it is not yet considered the standard screening for breast cancer. (
  • Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius tried to dispel concerns Wednesday that new guidelines on breast-cancer screening threaten insurance coverage for the procedure amid a growing debate about the guidelines among patients, medical professionals and legislators. (
  • Miller AB, Baines CJ, To T, Wall C. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 2. (
  • A joint BYU-Utah research team is developing a new breast cancer screening technique that has the potential to reduce false positives, and, possibly, minimize. (
  • A breast rash describes redness and irritation of the skin on your breast. (
  • Inflammatory breast cancer also sometimes causes pain, swelling and redness in the breast. (
  • As a breast cancer doctor who has been practicing for some 25 years, I have often wondered why the breast is the favorite place for cancer to occur in a woman's body. (
  • Although it can occur at any age, male breast cancer usually occurs in men over 60 years of age. (
  • However, not all breast pain causes indicate cancer, and there can be several reasons for the pain to occur. (
  • This pain may occur in one or both the breasts, and there can be a number of reasons for its occurrence. (
  • Some rashes occur only on the breast. (
  • Women's breasts can change in size and shape based on hormonal fluctuations that occur normally during the menstrual cycle. (
  • Since food for air travel needs to be prepared far in advance, airlines back in the day created a special cut of chicken breast that wouldn't dry out as much as normal. (
  • This October, Boar's Head is demonstrating their support for the Breast Cancer Research Foundation by donating to breast cancer research with the help of two of their flagship delicatessen products, EverRoast® Oven Roasted Chicken Breast and Ovengold® Roasted Turkey Breast. (
  • Both EverRoast® Oven Roasted Chicken Breast and Ovengold® Roasted Turkey Breast are certified by the American Heart Association as heart-healthy products. (
  • Allrecipes has more than 230 trusted chicken breast salad recipes complete with ratings, reviews and cooking tips. (
  • If you're not breastfeeding but you develop spontaneous discharge from the breast - whether that's watery or thick, clear or another color - "it's important to seek evaluation," Burstein says. (
  • Nine readers (three radiologists, two non-radiology physicians, and four nonphysicians) assessed breast density on 144 digitized films (60 contralateral films of breast cancer cases and 84 controls) on a computer workstation with custom software. (
  • At Mass General, only specially trained breast radiologists do these procedures. (
  • Discomfort or pain in the breast in advanced cases. (
  • There are no specific treatments for fibrocystic breast disease, other than those to minimize discomfort. (
  • Which chemotherapy drugs are used for breast cancer? (
  • Fran Visco, President of the National Breast Cancer Coalition, and Dr. Robert Dewitty, a surgeon at Howard University Hospital specializing in breast cancer, help listeners sort fact from myth. (
  • And Dr. Robert Dewitty, a surgeon at Howard University Hospital, who specializes in breast cancer. (
  • Still, some combinations, such as paclitaxel plus carboplatin, are commonly used to treat advanced breast cancer. (
  • the study measured variables commonly analyzed in other breastfeeding studies-BMI, obesity, digit recollection, math skills, reading, vocabulary and scholastic competence-and found that the breast was indeed best. (
  • It's not commonly recognised as a sign of breast cancer. (
  • CDC's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program provides low-cost breast and cervical cancer screenings. (
  • Early detection of breast cancer: large-section and subgross thick-section histologic correlation with mammographic appearances. (
  • Mahoney L, Csima A. Efficiency of palpation in clinical detection of breast cancer. (