In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.
Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.
Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A secretoglobin that is produced by the MAMMARY GLAND of HUMANS and may be involved in the binding of ANDROGENS and other STEROIDS. The expression of this protein in normal breast epithelium and in human breast cancer has made it an important histological marker.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.

Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in human breast cancer. (1/3694)

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast tissues with significantly more malignant tissues expressing FGF8 (P=0.019) at significantly higher levels (P=0.031). In situ hybridization of breast cancer tissues and analysis of purified populations of normal epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines showed that malignant epithelial cells expressed FGF8 mRNA at high levels compared to non-malignant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts. Although two of the receptors which FGF8 binds to (FGFR2-IIIc, FGFR3-IIIc) are not expressed in breast cancer cells, an autocrine activation loop is possible since expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 and FGFR1 are retained in malignant epithelial cells. This is the first member of the FGF family to have increased expression in breast cancer and a potential autocrine role in its progression.  (+info)

Mammography and 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography in suspected breast cancer. (2/3694)

The aim of this work has been to evaluate whether a diagnostic protocol based on the joint use of mammography and 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintimammography is capable of reducing the number of biopsies required in patients with suspected breast cancer. METHODS: We performed prone scintimammography in 90 patients with suspected breast cancer, involving 97 lesions. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by way of biopsy. On mammography, we evaluated the degree of suspicion of malignancy and the size of the lesion (smaller or larger than 1 cm in diameter). RESULTS: The results of only 41 of the biopsies indicated malignancy. On mammography, 20 lesions (of which 1 was breast cancer) were considered to be of low suspicion of malignancy, 31 (of which 4 were breast cancer) as indeterminate and 46 (of which 36 were breast cancer) as high. Fourteen lesions (2 low probability, 2 indeterminate and 10 high) were smaller than 1 cm, whereas 83 (18 low probability, 29 indeterminate and 36 high) were larger. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of scintimammography were 85%, 79%, 74% and 88%, respectively. Scintimammography was positive in all cases of breast cancer that initially had a low or indeterminate suspicion of malignancy according to mammography, as well as in 30 cases of breast cancer that initially were highly suspicious. Six false-negative scintimammography studies were obtained in lesions with a high suspicion of malignancy. CONCLUSION: We propose a diagnostic protocol with a biopsy performed on lesions that have a high suspicion of malignancy as well as those with low or indeterminate suspicion that are smaller than 1 cm or with positive scintimammography results. This would have reduced the total number of biopsies performed by 34%. More importantly, there would have been a 65% reduction in number of biopsies performed in the low and indeterminate mammographic suspicion groups. All 41 cases of breast cancer would have been detected.  (+info)

The effect of the antiscatter grid on full-field digital mammography phantom images. (3/3694)

Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images (CAMPI) is a method for making quantitative measurements of image quality. This article reports on a recent application of this method to a prototype full-field digital mammography (FFDM) machine. Images of a modified ACR phantom were acquired on the General Electric Diagnostic Molybdenum Rhodium (GE-DMR) FFDM machine at a number of x-ray techniques, both with and without the scatter reduction grid. The techniques were chosen so that one had sets of grid and non-grid images with matched doses (200 mrads) and matched gray-scale values (1500). A third set was acquired at constant 26 kVp and varying mAs for both grid conditions. Analyses of the images yielded signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast and noise corresponding to each target object, and a non-uniformity measure. The results showed that under conditions of equal gray-scale value the grid images were markedly superior, albeit at higher doses than the non-grid images. Under constant dose conditions, the non-grid images were slightly superior in SNR (7%) but markedly less uniform (60%). Overall, the grid images had substantially greater contrast and superior image uniformity. These conclusions applied to the whole kVp range studied for the Mo-Mo target filter combination and 4 cm of breast equivalent material of average composition. These results suggest that use of the non-grid technique in digital mammography with the GE-DMR-FFDM unit, is presently not warranted. With improved uniformity correction procedure, this conclusion would change and one should be able to realize a 14% reduction in patient dose at the same SNR by using a non-grid technique.  (+info)

Macronutrient intake and change in mammographic density at menopause: results from a randomized trial. (4/3694)

To examine the effects of dietary fat intake on breast cancer risk, we are conducting a randomized trial of dietary intervention in women with extensive areas of radiologically dense breast tissue on mammography, a risk factor for breast cancer. Early results show that after 2 years on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet there is a significant reduction in area of density, particularly in women going through menopause. In women who went through menopause during the 2-year follow-up, the mean decreases in area of density and percentage of density in the intervention group were 11.0 cm2 and 11.0%, respectively, whereas the control group decreased 4.5 cm2 and 5.2%. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether changes in intake of specific macronutrients could account for the observed reduction in breast density in these women. Differences between 2-year and baseline values of macronutrients (averaged over 3 nonconsecutive days of food intake) were calculated. We examined the effect of dietary variables, adjusted for changes in total calorie intake and weight and for family history of breast cancer, on changes in area of density and percentage of density using linear regression. Reduction in total or saturated fat intake or cholesterol intake was significantly associated with decreased dense area (p < or = .004). The most significant dietary variable associated with reduction in percentage of density was reduction in dietary cholesterol intake (P = 0.001), although reducing saturated fat intake was of borderline significance (P = 0.05). The effect of the membership in the intervention and control groups on change in area of density or percentage of density was reduced by models that included changes in intake of any fat, or cholesterol, or carbohydrates. The observation of an effect of diet at menopause on breast density, a marker of increased risk of breast cancer, may be an indication that exposures at this time have an enhanced effect on subsequent risk.  (+info)

Inhibition of aberrant proliferation and induction of apoptosis in HER-2/neu oncogene transformed human mammary epithelial cells by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide. (5/3694)

Epithelial cells from non-cancerous mammary tissue in response to exposure to chemical carcinogens or transfection with oncogenes exhibit hyperproliferation and hyperplasia prior to the development of cancer. Aberrant proliferation may, therefore, represent a modifiable early occurring preneoplastic event that is susceptible to chemoprevention of carcinogenesis. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR), has exhibited preventive efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models, and represents a promising chemopreventive compound for clinical trials. Clinically relevant biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effects of HPR, however, are not fully understood. Experiments were performed on preneoplastic human mammary epithelial 184-B5/HER cells derived from reduction mammoplasty and initiated for tumorigenic transformation by overexpression of HER-2/neu oncogene, to examine whether HPR inhibits aberrant proliferation of these cells and to identify the possible mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of HPR. Continuous 7-day treatment with HPR produced a dose-dependent, reversible growth inhibition. Long-term (21 day) treatment of 184-B5/HER cells with HPR inhibited anchorage-dependent colony formation by approximately 80% (P < 0.01) relative to that observed in the solvent control. A 24 h treatment with cytostatic 400 nM HPR produced a 25% increase (P = 0.01) in G0/G1 phase, and a 36% decrease (P = 0.01) in S phase of the cell cycle. HPR treatment also induced a 10-fold increase (P = 0.02) in the sub-G0 (apoptotic) peak that was down-regulated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Treatment with HPR resulted in a 30% reduction of cellular immunoreactivity to tyrosine kinase, whereas immunoreactivity to p185HER remained essentially unaltered. HPR exposure resulted in time-dependent increase in cellular metabolism of the retinoid as evidenced by increased formation of the inert metabolite N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-retinamide (MPR) and progressive increase in apoptosis. Thus, HPR-induced inhibition of aberrant proliferation may be caused, in part, by its ability to inhibit HER-2/neu-mediated proliferative signal transduction, retard cell cycle progression and upregulate cellular apoptosis.  (+info)

Benzodiazepine premedication: can it improve outcome in patients undergoing breast biopsy procedures? (6/3694)

BACKGROUND: Women awaiting needle-guided breast biopsy procedures may experience high anxiety levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the ability of midazolam and diazepam (in a lipid emulsion [Dizac]) to improve patient comfort during needle localization and breast biopsy procedures. METHODS: Ninety women received two consecutive doses of a study medication, one before the mammographic needle localization and a second before entering the operating room. Patients were assigned randomly to receive saline, 2.0 ml intravenously, at the two time points; midazolam, 1.0 mg intravenously and 2.0 mg intravenously; or diazepam emulsion, 2.0 mg intravenously and 5.0 mg intravenously, respectively. Patients assessed their anxiety levels before the needle localization, before entering the operating room, and on arrival in the operating room. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their perioperative experience at the time of discharge. RESULTS: Patient satisfaction during needle localization was significantly improved in both benzodiazepine treatment groups (vs. saline). The incidence of moderate-to-severe discomfort during needle localization was lower in the midazolam (20%) and diazepam emulsion (6%) groups compared with the saline group (70%) (P<0.05). The preoperative visual analogue scale anxiety scores were similar in all three groups. In the operating room, however, anxiety scores were 55% and 68% lower after midazolam (21+/-19) and diazepam emulsion (15+/-14) compared with saline (46+/-28). Finally, there was no difference in the time to achieve home-readiness or actual discharge time among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Premedication with midazolam or diazepam emulsion improved patients' comfort during needle localization procedures and significantly reduced intraoperative anxiety levels before breast biopsy procedures without prolonging discharge times. Use of diazepam emulsion may be an effective alternative to midazolam in this population.  (+info)

Double-phase 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography and trans-scan in diagnosing breast cancer. (7/3694)

The goal of our study was to assess the value of both scintimammography with 99mTc-sestamibi (SMM) and trans-scan (T-scan) in detecting breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 121 women were evaluated by palpation, mammography, SMM and T-scan. SMM was performed in the prone, breast dependent position. Immediate and delayed views (double-phase) were obtained. T-scan is a new breast imaging method that maps noninvasively the distribution of tissue electrical impedance and capacitance. RESULTS: SMM had 88.9% sensitivity, 88.4% specificity and 88.4% accuracy in detecting breast cancer. SMM had 100% sensitivity in detecting breast tumors >1 cm and only 66% sensitivity in detecting tumors <1 cm. T-scan had 72.2% sensitivity and 67% specificity in detecting breast cancer. It detected one more breast cancer than SMM, at the expense of 27 additional false-positive results. CONCLUSION: Double-phase SMM was sensitive and specific in detecting breast cancer. This method may reduce the rate of negative breast biopsies in tumors >1 cm. T-scan was only moderately accurate in detecting breast cancer. Its addition to SMM did not improve significantly the rate of breast cancer detection. However, because of its complete noninvasiveness, large-scale applicability and low cost, T-scan deserves further refining.  (+info)

N-acetyltransferase 1 genetic polymorphism, cigarette smoking, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk. (8/3694)

N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), encoded by the polymorphic NAT1 gene, has been shown to be one of the major enzymes in human breast tissue that activates aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Humans are mainly exposed to these carcinogens through cigarette smoking and consumption of well-done meat. To test the hypothesis that variations in the NAT1 gene are related to breast cancer risk, particularly among women who smoke or consume high levels of well-done meat, a nested case-control study was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 41,837 postmenopausal Iowa women. Information on cigarette smoking and other breast cancer risk factors was obtained at the baseline survey conducted in 1986. DNA samples and information on the consumption of well-done meat were obtained, in the case-control study, from breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1992 to 1994 and a random sample of cancer-free cohort members. Genomic DNA samples obtained from 154 cases and 330 controls were assayed for 11 NAT1 alleles (NAT1*3, *4, *5, *10, *11, *14, *15, *16, *17, *19, and *22). The NAT1*4 allele was the predominant allele observed in this study population, accounting for 73.2% (72.4% in cases versus 73.8% in controls) of the total alleles analyzed. Compared to controls, breast cancer cases had a slightly higher frequency of the NAT1*10 allele (18.8% in cases versus 17.3% in controls) and a substantially higher frequency of the NAT1*11 allele (3.6% versus 1.2%). In multivariate analyses, we found a 30% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.8-1.9] elevated risk of breast cancer associated with the NAT1*10 allele and a nearly 4-fold (95% CI = 1.5-10.5) elevated risk associated with the NAT1*11 allele. The positive association of breast cancer with the NAT1*11 allele was more evident among smokers [odds ratio (OR) = 13.2, 95% CI = 1.5-116.0] and those who consumed a high level of red meat (OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.1-33.2) or consistently consumed their red meat well done (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 0.5-62.7). The association of the NAT1*10 allele with breast cancer was mainly confined to former smokers (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2-9.5). These findings are consistent with a role for the NAT1 gene in the etiology of human breast cancer.  (+info)

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of malignancy-associated death in women worldwide. Estrogens are the main sex hormones in women. They are essential for the development and function of normal breast mammary glands; however, prolonged exposure to estrogens increases the risk of breast cancer development and progression. Approximately two-thirds of all breast cancer patients are positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but only 50% of those cases can benefit from antiestrogen therapy.. In this thesis we investigated the effects of estrogen, diet modification, and anti-estrogen drugs on several immune modulators in normal human breast tissue. We used the microdialysis technique to sample the immune modulators in situ in normal human breast tissue, in malignant breast tissue, and in tumor tissue from both the immune competent mice with murine breast cancer and immune deficient mice bearing human breast tumors. Furthermore, we also used ex vivo culture of ...
Although approximately two-thirds of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, only a small proportion of epithelial cells in the mammary gland express the ER. The origin of the ER-positive breast cancers is unknown. Recently, we have developed a culture method to grow two morphologically and antigenically distinguishable types of normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) derived from reduction mammoplasty. In this report, we studied the expression of ER in these two types of cells and their transformed cell lines. The results indicate that Type I HBEC with luminal and stem cell characteristics expressed a variant ER (approximately 48 kd) by Western blot analysis. This variant ER contains a deletion in the DNA binding domain (exon 2) as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. The lack of the DNA-binding domain of the variant ER was also confirmed by the ER-estrogen responsive element binding assay, as well as by the immunofluorescence staining of the ER using anti-ER antibodies which recognize ...
Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on factors mediating angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, in normal and malignant breast tissue. In this thesis we have investigated the effects of estradiol, progesterone, and the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in normal human breast tissue, endothelial cells, and breast cancer. We have applied the technique of microdialysis to provide in situ sampling of estradiol and VEGF in tumors and normal breast tissue of breast cancer patients in vivo. Furthermore, we present a novel method of culturing normal human breast tissue ex vivo.. Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic effect of estradiol and an anti-angiogenic effect of tamoxifen in the breast. Estradiol increased extracellular levels of VEGF in normal human breast tissue and breast cancer cells in vitro. In addition, ...
In order to resolve the question of which ovarian steroid stimulates normal human mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we have implanted pieces of normal human breast tissue subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. These mice were then treated with slow-release pellets containing estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P) such that serum levels of E2 and P were increased to those seen in normal women. The proliferative activity of the tissue implants was assessed by uptake of tritiated thymidine and steroid receptor expression was measured immunocytochemically. Insertion of a 2 mg E2 pellet 14 days after tissue implantation increased the thymidine labeling index (TLI) from a median of 0.4% (n = 34) to a median of 2.1% after 7 days (n = 43; P , 0.001 by Mann Whitney U test). In contrast, treatment with a P pellet (4 mg) had no effect upon the TLI whereas P (4 mg) in combination with E2 (2 mg) had no effect over and above that of E2 alone. There was a significant correlation between the increase in TLI ...
Recent advances in defining the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control in eukaryotes provide a basis for better understanding the hormonal control of cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. It is now clear that a number of critical steps in cell cycle progression are controlled by families of serine/threonine kinases, the cdks. These kinases are activated by interactions with various cyclin gene products which form the regulatory subunits of the kinase complexes. Several families of cyclins control cell cycle progression in G1 phase, cyclins C, D and E, or in S, G2 and mitosis, cyclins A and B. Recent studies have defined the expression and regulation of cyclin genes in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cell lines. Following growth arrest of T-47D breast cancer cells by serum deprivation restimulation with insulin results in sequential induction of cyclin genes. Cyclin D1 mRNA increases within 1 h of mitogenic stimulation and is followed by increased
Percent mammographic density, as assessed here in the area measurement, reflects variations in breast tissue composition (9) and has repeatedly been shown to be strongly associated with risk of breast cancer, with 4- to 5-fold differences in risk of the disease between women with ,75% percent density compared with those with ,10% (1, 2). The smaller gradient in risk associated with the area measure of mammographic density in the present study is attributable partly to the use of quintiles rather than the aforementioned categories, and the methods used to recruit subjects. Our method of recruitment selected for breast cancers detected by mammography, where the gradient in risk associated with density is less than for all breast cancers (2).. It is however recognized that current approaches to measurement have a number of limitations and that the true underlying risk of breast cancer associated with variations in breast tissue composition may be much stronger. All of the existing methods of ...
Breast size procedures are performed to increase or decrease the size of thebreast. The two types of breast size procedures are breast augmentation, or implants, and breast reduction. With the earliest experiments in breast size procedures documented in the 1890s by a doctor in Vienna who attempted breastenlargement with paraffin injections, further research along with the publics interest subsided until the introduction of liquid silicone in the 1950s and 1960s. As research continues, from implanting polyvinyl sponges in dogs in1952 to test their validity for use as prostheses in humans, to the search for the perfect and safer implant filler today, the demand for breast size procedures remains constant.. Augmentation. Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure used for enlarging the breast, tobalance a difference in size, to adjust a reduction in breast volume following pregnancy or weight loss, and as a reconstructive technique following breast cancer surgery. The classic technique for ...
HealthDay News) -- Women with dense breasts and no lobular involution -- an age-related change in breast tissue -- are at increased risk for breast cancer, a new study finds.. It included 2,666 women, aged 18 to 85, with benign breast disease who were followed for an average of 13.3 years. During that time, 172 (6.5 percent) of the women developed breast cancer.. The Mayo Clinic researchers found that breast density and lobular involution were independent risk factors for breast cancer.. The study appears online in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.. Our findings also reveal that having a combination of dense breasts and no lobular involution was associated with higher breast cancer risk than having non-dense or fatty breasts and complete involution, they wrote in a news release from the publisher.. Lobular involution is the physiological atrophy of the breast epithelium [the top layer of cells] and is known to increase with increasing age, the news release explained.. Breast ...
Although a high frequency of androgen receptor (AR) expression in human breast cancers has been described, exploiting this knowledge for therapy has been challenging. This is in part because androgens can either inhibit or stimulate cell proliferation in pre-clinical models of breast cancer. In addition, many breast cancers co-express other steroid hormone receptors that can affect AR signaling, further obfuscating the effects of androgens on breast cancer cells. To create better-defined models of AR signaling in human breast epithelial cells, we took estrogen receptor (ER)-α-negative and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative human breast epithelial cell lines, both cancerous and non-cancerous, and engineered them to express AR, thus allowing the unambiguous study of AR signaling. We cloned a full-length cDNA of human AR, and expressed this transgene in MCF-10A non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast-cancer cells. We characterized the responses to AR ligand binding using
ORCID: 0000-0001-7695-4538, Gong, Yiping, Liu, Xuefeng, Amersi, Farin et al (show 3 more authors) , Dang, Catherine, Giuliano, Armando E and Cui, Xiaojiang (2017) Characterization of primary human mammary epithelial cells isolated and propagated by conditional reprogrammed cell culture. Oncotarget, 9 (14). Access the full-text of this item by clicking on the Open Access link. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene expression patterns distinguish breast carcinomas from normal breast tissues. T2 - The Malaysian context. AU - Pau Ni, Ivyna Bong. AU - Zakaria, Zubaidah. AU - Muhammad, Rohaizak. AU - Abdullah, Norlia. AU - Ibrahim, Naqiyah. AU - Aina Emran, Nor. AU - Hisham Abdullah, Nor. AU - Syed Hussain, Sharifah Noor Akmal. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - Genomic and transcriptomic alterations that affect cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion, commonly occur in breast oncogenesis. Epidemiological evidence has proven that the risk of breast cancer predisposition varies among different ethnicities. This study aims to identify the transcriptome changes that commonly occur during the transition of normal breast epithelium to carcinoma in three local ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians). The gene expression patterns of 43 breast carcinomas with 43 patient-matched normal breast tissues were investigated using Affymetrix U133A GeneChip® ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between expression of inflammatory markers in normal breast tissue and mammographic density among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. AU - Hanna, Mirette. AU - Dumas, Isabelle. AU - Orain, Michèle. AU - Jacob, Simon. AU - Têtu, Bernard. AU - Sanschagrin, François. AU - Bureau, Alexandre. AU - Poirier, Brigitte. AU - Diorio, Caroline. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective: Inflammatory markers may be associated with breast cancer risk. We assessed the association between expression levels of proinflammatory (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, cyclo-oxygenase 2, leptin, serum amyloid A1, interleukin 8, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and anti-inflammatory markers (transforming growth factor-β, interleukin 10, and lactoferrin) in normal breast tissue with mammographic density, a strong breast cancer risk indicator, among 163 breast cancer patients. Methods: The expression of inflammatory markers was ...
Although several studies suggest that women with denser breast tissue have an increased risk of breast cancer, a new study by Johns Hopkins researchers discredits breast density as a risk factor in and of itself, instead concluding that age and body fat, especially in the upper belly, contribute to the breast cancer seen in many patients.. Many studies that link breast density to breast cancer risk used data from mammograms, which cant accurately measure breast density, says Wenlian Zhu, Ph.D., a research associate in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a member of the team reporting the study results online Oct. 21, 2015, in European Radiology. Our research may help dispel the assertion that breast density alone is something women should be worried about with regard to their breast cancer risk, and it may help minimize confusion and unnecessary concern.. Breast density notification laws have been put into effect in 24 states. According to Zhu, such laws mandate that the ...
Large breasts cause neck and back pain, irritating grooves, cut in the skin of the shoulders by the pressure of brassiere straps, breast pain, and maceration and dermatoses in the inframammary region. From a psychological point of view, excessively large breasts can be troublesome focus of embarrassment for the teenager as well as the woman in her senior years. Unilateral hypertrophy with asymmetry heightens embarrassment. Thus, patients seek to reduce the size of their breasts.. In the human female, variant receptors were detected in epithelial cells in normal breast tissue, benign breast lesions, breast carcinoma tissue, and breast cancer cell lines2-11. The cause of the difference in breast development status is still unclear. Abnormalities at the tissue receptor level may be important in the pathophysiology of macromastia. This study aimed to make clear the difference in variant receptor levels between breast hypertrophy patients and macromastia ones by examining the receptor levels in ...
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein that can activate cell-signaling pathways and lead to cancer development and metastasis. Elevated OPN expression was reported in different cancer types, including breast tumors. Here, we present a new immuno-mass spectrometry method for OPN quantification in fresh-frozen malignant and adjacent normal human breast tissues. For quantification we used two proteotypic peptides: OPN-peptide-1 and OPN-peptide-2. Peptide concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with stable isotope standards (SIS) and immuno-affinity enrichment for isolation of OPN peptides. Based on the OPN-peptide-1, the average OPN concentration in normal breast tissue was 19.42 μg/g, while the corresponding level in breast tumors was 603.9 μg/g. Based on OPN-peptide-2, the average concentration in normal breast tissue was 19.30 μg/g and in breast tumors 535.0 μg/g. In ER/PR/HER2(−) ...
Development of the breasts during the prenatal stage of life is independent of biological sex and sex hormones.[20] During embryonic development, the breast buds, in which networks of tubules are formed, are generated from the ectoderm.[21] These rudimentary tubules will eventually become the matured lactiferous (milk) ducts, which connect the lobules (milk containers) of the breast, grape-like clusters of alveoli, to the nipples.[22] Until puberty, the tubule networks of the breast buds remain rudimentary and quiescent,[1] and the male and female breast do not show any differences.[20] During puberty in females, estrogen, in conjunction with GH/IGF-1, through activation of ERα specifically (and notably not ERβ or GPER),[23][24] causes growth of and transformation of the tubules into the matured ductal system of the breasts.[20][21][25] Under the influence of estrogen, the ducts sprout and elongate, and terminal end buds (TEBs), bulbous structures at the tips of the ducts, penetrate into the ...
Percent mammographic density, as assessed here in the area measurement, reflects variations in breast tissue composition (9) and has repeatedly been shown to be strongly associated with risk of breast cancer, with 4- to 5-fold differences in risk of the disease between women with ,75% percent density compared with those with ,10% (1, 2). The smaller gradient in risk associated with the area measure of mammographic density in the present study is attributable partly to the use of quintiles rather than the aforementioned categories, and the methods used to recruit subjects. Our method of recruitment selected for breast cancers detected by mammography, where the gradient in risk associated with density is less than for all breast cancers (2).. It is however recognized that current approaches to measurement have a number of limitations and that the true underlying risk of breast cancer associated with variations in breast tissue composition may be much stronger. All of the existing methods of ...
Health, ...The risk of dying from breast cancer was not related to high mammograp...One of the strongest risk factors for non-familial breast cancer is el...In order to determine if higher mammographic breast density is linked ...The researchers found that density does not influence the risk of deat...,Breast,density,does,not,influence,breast,cancer,death,among,breast,cancer,patients,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The main objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the p14ARF-hdm2-p53 regulatory pathway and E2F transcription factors play important roles in breast carcinogenesis. This study was conducted in four phases. The initial project investigated p53 mutations, p14ARF mutations and mRNA expression and hdm2 gene amplification. The genetic alterations were identified in 25% of primary breast cancers and 64% of human breast cell lines with p53 mutations being the predominant aberration. The second phase evaluated p53 expression by immunohistochemistry in invasive breast cancers and detected nuclear reactivity in 35% of the 105 Asian women. p53 immunopositivity correlated with poorer overall survival. The third project examined paired samples of DCIS and normal breast tissue samples and revealed p53 mutations in 20% of the DCIS lesions, but, none of the corresponding normal breast tissues. These findings support the hypothesis that ...
Breast size join our community. We offer 88 Products in our store. Our store specialize in supplying special featured herbal medecines, developed to improve your life and makes better your health. Has babitas breast size decreasedWhats Normal For Breast Size And Penis Size? Find Out If ....
Breast lift is surgery to lift breasts higher on the womans chest and to improve breast shape to a more youthful, round appearance. Surgeons tighten the breast skin envelope around existing breast tissue, then remove excess breast skin that caused the sagging. Skin removal produces scar on the breast. The more lifting and reshaping the breast needs, the more skin must be removed. The more skin that must be removed, in general, the longer the scar. Visible breast scars are not often sexy, nor are they beautiful. So how does the caring and skilled surgeon conceal breast scars?. If youre asking before your breast lift surgery, then youre becoming an educated patient. Educated patients nearly always have the best results. Prevention is the best treatment for scars. What can you do to prevent visible or objectionable breast lift scars?. 1/ Scars are only one aspect of breast lift results. Compare scars among breast lift galleries at plastic surgeons sites, but also breast shape, proportion, ...
A research team at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, is investigating whether the amount of DNA damage seen in the cells in normal breast tissue may be an indicator of future breast cancer risk. The researchers recruited women who had a benign breast biopsy and then went on to develop breast cancer (Phase I) and women who had a benign breast biopsy but did NOT go on to develop breast cancer (Phase II). By recruiting women who did develop breast cancer and women who did not, they will be able to look for markers in the breast cells that might be an indicator of breast cancer risk. The researchers wanted to enroll at least 150 women in the study. The Call to Action for Phase I was sent to Army of Women members on August 11, 2010, while the Call to Action for Phase II was sent on January 18, 2012. When the research team closed enrollment on July 10, 2013, the Army of Women had provided them with 338 women who were interested in enrolling in Phase I and 1,333 women who were interested in ...
Levels of the elF-2a-specific protein kinase, PkR, are higher in several breast carcinoma cell lines including the estrogen-responsive cell lines, MOF-7 and T-47D, as well as estrogen- independent cell lines, BT-20 and MDA-MB-468, compared with the normal breast cell line, Hs578 Bst, or the human HeLa cell line. In contrast, the phosphorylation state of elF-2a is very low in the breast carcinoma cell lines compared to the normal human breast cell line Hs578 Bst and HeLa cells, even at high cell densities, suggesting an inhibition of PkR activity in the breast oarninoma cell lines. In support of this hypothesis, treatment of cells with either alpha- or Beta-interferon, although increasing PKR levels slightly, do not result in higher steady state levels of elF-2a phosphorylation. These results suggest that deregulation of PKR activity is occurring at some level in breast carcinoma cell lines. This deregulation could result from increased levels/activities of cellular PKR inhibitory proteins, or from adds report Global Breast Cancer Market 2014-2018 to its store. Breast cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cancerous cells in the breast tissue. It occurs in both males and females; however, male breast cancer is rare. Histologically, breast cancer can be classified into ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, nipple cancer and other undifferentiated carcinoma. Ductal carcinoma is the form of breast cancer which starts in the lining of the milk ducts while lobular carcinoma begins in the milk glands of the breast. When breast cancer spreads from the site of origin to surrounding tissue, it is known as invasive breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common subtype accounting for 70 to 80 percent of all the breast cases. In women, breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer. GLOBOCAN reported that in the year 2012, breast cancer accounted for 11.9 percent of the total cancer cases and lead to 5,22,000 deaths worldwide.. Analysts forecast ...
Our radiologists believe Breast Tomosynthesis/DBT is a valuable tool to provide a definitive diagnosis and reduce patient recalls for additional evaluation. Breast Tomosynthesis produces a three dimensional view of the breast tissue, which helps the radiologists identify and characterize individual breast structures without the confusion of overlapping tissue.. While Breast Tomosynthesis can benefit all screening and diagnostic mammography patients, it is especially valuable for women receiving a baseline screening, those who have dense breast tissue, and women with a personal history of breast cancer.. The Breast Tomosynthesis screening experience is similar to a traditional 2D mammogram. During the exam, multiple low-dose images of the breast are acquired at different angles. These images are then used to produce a 3D image of the breast in a series of one-millimeter slices, enabling the radiologist to scroll through the images to view the layers of the breast.. Our radiologists recommend you ...
Active fibroblasts, the predominant and the most active cells of breast cancer stroma, are responsible for tumor growth and spread. However, the molecular mediators and pathways responsible for stromal fibroblast activation, and their paracrine pro-carcinogenic effects are still not well defined. The CHEK2 tumor suppressor gene codes for a protein kinase, which plays important roles in the cellular response to various genotoxic stresses. Immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence were used to assess the expression of CHEK2 in different primary breast fibroblasts and in tissues. The effect of CHEK2 on the expression and secretion of SDF-1 and IL-6 was evaluated by immunoblotting and ELISA. The WST-1 colorimetric assay was used to assess cell proliferation, while the BD BioCoat Matrigel invasion chambers were utilized to determine the effects of CHEK2 on the migratory and the invasiveness capacities of breast stromal fibroblasts as well as breast cancer cells. We have shown that CHEK2 is
product list Breast cancer test tissue array, with normal breast tissues as control, including TNM, clinical stage and pathology grade, 6 cases 24 cores, replaced by T085 Breast cancer test tissue array, with normal breast tissues as control, including TNM, clinical stage and pathology grade, 6 cases 24 cores, replaced by T085
Biopsy is the technique used to extract abnormal tissue or group of cells from any part of body for analysis. Breast biopsy is mainly done to detect cancer and also used as a preventive measure. Lump or hardness in a portion of breast is taken off and tested. Breast biopsy is diagnosing method not treatment. Breast biopsy is performed by using image guidance, hollow needle and surgical manner.. The major driving factor of the global breast biopsy market is increasing number of female breast cancer patients that had generated awareness in society which force people to undergo checkup. Breast cancer is spreading highly among the post age women is the other factor for increasing demand of breast biopsy. The region having higher population of female has high chances to fuel the market growth in that region. This diagnosis taken by middle group to elderly group is limited. High cost and specific gender are some of the factors that affect the market growth. The new developing technology in biopsy that ...
Photogram of a healthy breast mammogram. The left breast is on the right hand side of the image and the right breast is on the left hand side of the image, separated by a vertical white line in the centre of the image. Mammography uses low dose X-rays to examine the inside of the breast in order to look for early signs of breast cancer. In England, routine breast screening is currently offered to women aged 50-70. Photograms are images created without a camera but which instead use photographic materials such as light-sensitive photographic paper. This image forms part of a series of work Diorama, which interweaves medical imaging with darkroom techniques to examine the human body and its flaws, the injuries, traumas and the process of healing. This image is a contact print, created with X-ray plates and photographic paper.
All women should be aware of what is normal for their breasts even if they get regular screening tests. Many women find their own breast cancer by noticing changes in the look and feel of their breasts.. Women can become familiar with their breast tissue by looking at and feeling their breasts. In the past, experts suggested that women should do this in a certain way each month. Research shows that this isnt necessary. There really isnt a right or wrong way for women to examine their breasts. They just need to know the whole area of their breast tissue well enough to notice changes. This includes the entire breast area up to the collarbone and under the armpits, as well as the nipples.. Tell your doctor about any unusual changes to your breasts. Most breast changes are not cancer. It may be normal for your breasts to be lumpy or tender before your period.. ...
Given that the premise of the hypothesis in this study depended on bilateral breast symmetry, it would be preferable to analyze each patients symmetry utilizing more remote mammograms prior to the detectable cancer. Unfortunately we did not have that dataset in our current study, thus were unable to carry out the analysis. Overall, the assessment of symmetry in mammography is potentially limited by the fact that natural distortions between breasts are likely to occur during the course of breast compression routinely used in mammography. As such, symmetry measures can be confounded by the nature of the imaging procedure itself [26]. In our recently published results using 3D MRI in the study of breast density in 58 normal women, 47 pre-menopausal and 11 post-menopausal women [32], we found that bilateral breasts in women without cancer are highly symmetrical (r = 0.97 for breast volume, r = 0.97 for fibroglandular tissue volume, and r = 0.98 for PD). Another study using MRI showed small ...
THURSDAY, Oct. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Joan Lunden -- co-host of Good Morning America for nearly two decades and a long-time health advocate -- is now also a breast cancer survivor.. By sharing her experience, Lunden hopes she can help other women facing a frightening cancer diagnosis.. Its so shocking when you hear you have cancer, and you feel so vulnerable, said Lunden, 67.. Lunden never missed an annual mammogram to check for breast cancer. But each year, she said the process was nerve-racking because she has dense breast tissue that can make it difficult to distinguish healthy breast tissue from tumor tissue. Many women with dense breast tissue, particularly those with risk factors for breast cancer such as a family history, are advised to get additional testing -- an MRI or sometimes an ultrasound. When Lunden went in for an ultrasound, she received shocking news. I had an aggressive, virulent form of breast cancer -- triple negative breast cancer, she said.. At the time ...
The healthy breast is a tissue composed of centrally located milk producing glands connected to the nipple by ducts, surrounded by fat tissue and connective tissue. The growth of the breast is primarily mediated by the estrogens, while the androgens mediate tissue homeostasis and protect against growth signals. In breast cancer, the cells of the glands or ducts undergo malignant transformation, and start proliferating in an uncontrollable fashion. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and it is estimated that 10% of all women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their life-time. The primary classification of breast cancer is based mainly on the expression of the estrogen receptor, and 70-80% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, and are classified as luminal. The remaining breast cancers are classified into HER2 positive or triple negative breast cancer. Out of all breast cancers, ~80% are androgen receptor positive. This varies in different subtypes, however, ...
Breast cancer has become one of the major killers of women. Many females are died of breast cancer every year. Most importantly, breast cancer attack is presenting a younger and multiple trend, which should have attracted greater attention of every female. Its very important to get some knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and prevention.. Risk factors of breast cancer. There is not an agreement on the cause of breast cancer, but it is commonly agree that it is related to menstruation. Early menarche and early menopause are said easy to cause breast cancer. For women at the age of fertility, those who have ever given birth is comparatively more dangerous than those who have already delivered and breastfed.. Breast cancer prevention. 1. Self-examination and regular health check up. Check your breasts regularly and go to hospital for diagnosis if any mass is found. And it is very important to have annual breast health check up.. Proper massage is helpful for breast disease prevention. Do some ...
The mammary glands, or breasts, are actually modified sebaceous glands (sweat) that are designed to secrete milk. On average, each breast weighs 200-300 g. They are composed of glandular tissue, fat, and supporting or stromal tissue. Each breast is organized into 12-25 triangular shaped lobes. Each lobe is composed of several smaller lobules. The breast lobules are linked by a collecting duct system which is responsible for the passage of milk. The spaces between the lobules are filled with fatty tissue. This intricate duct system terminates in the central portion of the breast, the areola or nipple area.. Pathologic (disease) changes may occur in any of the breast tissue. For example, the fat tissue in the breasts may actually necrose, or die, in response to trauma. Additionally, the stromal or support tissue of the breasts may give rise to fibrocystic changes, or benign solid tumors, called fibroadenomas. Breast cancer may also develop in any part of the breast.. Breast tissue responds to ...
Breast cancer - Animation Of all the different types of cancers, breast cancer is one of the most talked about, and with good reason. One out of every eight women will develop breast cancer sometime in their life. Thats why every woman should be thinking about how to protect herself from this disease. Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the breast. Usually, it begins in the tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the breast or body, its called invasive breast cancer. Some breast cancers are more aggressive, growing more quickly than others. Although women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer, men can also get the disease because they do have breast tissue. Youre more likely to get breast cancer if youre over 50, you started your periods before age 12, or you have a close family member with the disease. Drinking more than a couple of glasses of alcohol a day and using hormone replacement therapy for several years also ...
The most common sign of a breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A lump that is painless, hard, and has uneven edges is more likely to be a cancer, but breast cancers can also be soft, tender and rounded. Its important to have any breast lump you notice evaluated by a doctor. Other signs of breast cancer can include swelling of all or part of the breast, skin irritation or dimpling, breast pain, nipple pain, a new turning-in (inversion) of the nipple, nipple discharge other than milk, scaling, redness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin, and a lump in the armpit. You should consult your doctor if you notice any of these findings.. One in eight U.S. women, sometime in their lifetime, will be found to have invasive breast cancer. Nearly 190,000 women in the U.S. in 2009 will be diagnosed with breast cancer. There are currently 2 ½ million breast cancer survivors living in the U.S.. Breast cancer is the most common cancer other than skin cancer in U.S. women. It is the second most common ...
When performing breast lifts, it is critical to gauge the lower breast pole during breast tissue in-setting. This is because the lower breast pole tissues are very dynamic. Often, they will shift and stretch out even within three to six months. Thus, the typical complaint I observe on social question and answer platform, is why are more nipples pointing upward? This side effect occurs very frequently as the lower breast pole gives out and results in what we call bottoming out. Bottoming out occurs when the weight of the breast pushes on the lower breast skin and makes it stretch out. The resulting deformity is described by a prominent lower breast pole, poor upper breast pole fullness, and nipples that are pointing up to the sky. In order to counter this, often, the lower breast pole is over tightened during surgery. Over tightening is intentional and ensures that once the breast tissues and skin settle, that breast is aesthetically shaped and not bottomed out. Unfortunately, patients get ...
Breast hypertrophy is a rare medical condition of the breast connective tissues in which the breasts become excessively large. The condition is often divided based on the severity into two types, macromastia and gigantomastia. Hypertrophy of the breast tissues may be caused by increased histologic sensitivity to certain hormones such as female sex hormones, prolactin, and growth factors. Breast hypertrophy is a benign progressive enlargement, which can occur in both breasts (bilateral) or only in one breast (unilateral). It was first scientifically described in 1648. The indication is a breast weight that exceeds approximately 3% of the total body weight. There are varying definitions of what is considered to be excessive breast tissue, that is the expected breast tissue plus extraordinary breast tissue, ranging from as little as 0.6 kilograms (1.3 lb) up to 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) with most physicians defining macromastia as excessive tissue of over 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb). Some resources ...
Both men and women have breast tissue. Although women have a lot more breast tissue and are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than men, cancers can also develop in male breast tissue.. In Australia, men account for less than one percent of breast cancer diagnoses, with as estimated 164 men diagnosed each year. More than 90% of men will be diagnosed at or after age 50. With an aging population, it is likely that the number of men diagnosed with breast cancer will continue to increase.. Because breast cancer is frequently seen as a womens disease, some men may find it difficult or embarrassing to discuss their diagnosis. Breast cancer may also leave some men feeling surprised, isolated, anxious and angry. If you need support, have further resources to provide emotional and practical support for people affected by cancer, including information and personal stories about men diagnosed with breast cancer.. ...
From 2010 to 2014, I published a breast cancer blog. This experience continues to bring me in contact with women and men newly diagnosed with breast cancer, many of whom felt they had nothing to worry about as a result of believing one or more of the myths that circulate about breast cancer.. Sometimes we embrace myths about breast cancer rather than deal with the realities of the disease. Unfortunately myths can paralyze us and put us in danger. Here are some myths about breast cancer, that many accept as facts:. 1. Breast Cancer Doesnt Run in My Family, Im Safe - Eighty to eighty-five percent of women who get breast cancer have no family history of the disease.. 2. Im Too Young for Breast Cancer - Breast cancer can affect women of any age. While the disease is more common in post-menopausal women, 5% of women diagnosed are between the ages of 20 and 39 years.. 3. Breast Cancer Is a Death Sentence - When caught early, up to 98 percent of women survive at least five years.. 4. All Breast ...
PHILADELPHIA - The use of postmenopausal hormone therapy has decreased over time in the United States, which researchers suggest may play a key role in the declining rate of atypical ductal hyperplasia, a known risk factor for breast cancer.. Postmenopausal hormone treatment is associated with increased rates of benign breast biopsies, and early and late stages of cancer. Atypical ductal hyperplasia is associated with the use of postmenopausal hormone treatment and its rates have decreased with the decline in use of this treatment, said researcher Tehillah Menes, M.D., who was the chief of breast service in the Department of Surgery at Elmhurst Hospital Center, New York, when this study was conducted.. Details of these findings are published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, which is a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.. Atypical ductal hyperplasia is abnormal cells that grow in the milk ducts of the breast. Previous research has shown that women who are ...
Historically, black women have been more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer when they were younger than 40 and more likely to die from breast cancer than white women. Black women also are more likely to be diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer has no receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone and also has no HER2 receptors. This limits the treatments that can be used. Triple-negative breast cancer is considered more aggressive than hormone-receptor-positive disease. For many years, black women also were less likely overall to be diagnosed with breast cancer than white women. But an October 2015 report from the American Cancer Society found that for the first time, rates of breast cancer among black and white women were about equal. Now another study has found genomic differences in breast cancers in black women compared to breast cancers in white women. These genomic differences may help explain why breast cancer is more aggressive in black ...
Breast cancer in women is a common phenomenon and people are very well aware of its symptoms and treatment now. A lot of awareness campaigns are organized every day around the world to create alertness about breast cancer in women. But breast cancer in males is often ignored.. Breast cancer is a deadly tumor which basically starts from breast cells. After originating from the cells it starts spreading into the tissues and surrounding cells. Breast tissues of a woman and a man are same before the age of puberty. These tissues tend to grow in women after the age of 14 but not in men.. Breast cancer in men is supposed to be equally severe as women. But it is diagnosed late in men as compared to women. The chances of a man getting breast cancer are very rare under the age of 35. Since the breast tissues are not developed. The chances of acquiring breast cancer increase with age in males and it is between 60 and 70.. ...
Bacteria that live in the body, known as the microbiome, influence many diseases. Most research has been done on the gut microbiome, or bacteria in the digestive tract. Researchers have long suspected that a microbiome exists within breast tissue and plays a role in breast cancer but it has not yet been characterized. The research team has taken the first step toward understanding the composition of the bacteria in breast cancer by uncovering distinct microbial differences in healthy and cancerous breast tissue.. To my knowledge, this is the first study to examine both breast tissue and distant sites of the body for bacterial differences in breast cancer, said co-senior author Charis Eng, M.D., Ph.D., chair of Cleveland Clinics Genomic Medicine Institute and director of the Center for Personalized Genetic Healthcare. Our hope is to find a biomarker that would help us diagnose breast cancer quickly and easily. In our wildest dreams, we hope we can use microbiomics right before breast ...
SAN FRANCISCO, CA-Breast Cancer Action (BCAction), the watchdog for the breast cancer movement, encourages would-be participants or donors of large-scale breast cancer walks and runs to carefully question where the money goes, in a new resource published today.. The hosts of the largest walks and runs for breast cancer are Susan G. Komen, Avon Foundation, and the American Cancer Society. They advertise heavily and entice millions of people each year to walk or run to save lives, find a cure, and end breast cancer. The first such event this year is Avons Walk to End Breast Cancer in Houston, TX on April 23-24, 2016.. Women have been voicing concerns about how much money raised from these walks is actually going to breast cancer programs and which types of programs are being funded, but they have yet to get satisfactory answers.. Raising money in the name breast cancer has become big business, said Karuna Jaggar, Executive Director of Breast Cancer Action. People donating to and ...
Clinical Risk Factor Analysis for Breast Cancer: 568,000 Subjects Undergoing Breast Cancer Screening in Beijing, 2009 Multilevel statistical model;breast cancer screening;risk factors; Objectives: Although there are many reports about the risk of breast cancer, few have reported clinical factors including history of breast-related or other diseases that affect the prevalence of breast cancer. This study explores these risk factors for breast cancer cases reported in Beijing in 2009. Materials and Methods: Data were derived from a Beijing breast cancer screening performed in 2009, of 568,000 women, from 16 districts of Beijing, all aged between 40 and 60 years. In this study, multilevel statistical modeling was used to identify clinical factors that affect the prevalence of breast cancer and to provide more reliable evidence for clinical diagnostics by using screening data. Results and Conclusion: Those women who had organ transplants, compared with those with none, were associated with breast cancer
The increased cell surface expression of the serine integral membrane protease, seprase, has been associated with the invasive behavior of human melanoma cell lines in vitro. The present study investigates the expression of seprase in malignant, premalignant, benign, and normal human breast tissues. …
Some women whove been diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in one breast choose to have that breast and the other healthy breast removed -- a double mastectomy. Removing the other healthy breast is called contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. The healthy breast usually is removed because of understandable fear that a new, second breast cancer might develop in that breast. More and more women whove been diagnosed are opting for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy -- in the late 1990s, between 4% and 6% of women who were having a mastectomy decided to have the other healthy breast removed. More recently, between 11% and 25% of women having a mastectomy decided to have contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. In particular, more women who are diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger are deciding to have the other healthy breast removed. Some doctors are concerned that too many women are choosing the very aggressive step of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy during or shortly ...
We examined the relationship between breast cancer family history and mammographic breast density. Participants included 35,019 postmenopausal women aged ≥40 years enrolled in a population-based mammo
TY - JOUR. T1 - n-3 and n-6 fatty acid processing and growth effects in neoplastic and non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cell lines. AU - Grammatikos, S. I.. AU - Subbaiah, P. V.. AU - Victor, T. A.. AU - Miller, W. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994/8. Y1 - 1994/8. N2 - The type rather than the amount of dietary fat may be more important in breast carcinogenesis. While animal studies support this view, little is known about the effects of essential fatty acids (EFAs) at the cellular level. The MCF-7 breast cancer and the MCF-10A non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cell lines are compared in terms of growth response to EFAs and ability to incorporate and process the EFAs. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, n-3) acids, presented bound to albumin, inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells by as much as 50% in a dose-dependent manner (6-30 µM) in medium containing 0.5% serum. ɑ-Linolenic (LNA, n-3) and arachidonic (AA, n-6) acids ...
This study retrospectively analyzed the mean glandular dose (MGD) to 133 breasts from 132 subjects, all women, who participated in a clinical trial evaluating dedicated breast CT in a diagnostic population. The clinical trial was conducted in adherence to a protocol approved by institutional review boards and the study participants provided written informed consent. Individual estimates of MGD to each breast from dedicated breast CT was obtained by combining x-ray beam characteristics with estimates of breast dimensions and fibroglandular fraction from volumetric breast CT images, and using normalized glandular dose coefficients. For each study participant and for the breast corresponding to that imaged with breast CT, an estimate of the MGD from diagnostic mammography (including supplemental views) was obtained from the DICOM image headers for comparison. This estimate uses normalized glandular dose coefficients corresponding to a breast with 50% fibroglandular weight fraction. The median
PURPOSEWe investigated the expression of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences in breast cancer.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNReverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to examine expression of the envelope (env) region of ERV3, HERV-E4-1, and HERV-K in breast cancer cell lines, human breast tumor samples, adjacent uninvolved breast tissues, nonmalignant breast tissues, and placenta. Expression of HERV transcripts was confirmed by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization (ISH). To evaluate coding potential, amplified HERV sequences were cloned into vectors for expression and sequence analysis.RESULTSNo expression of ERV3 or HERV-E4-1 RNA was detected in the analyzed breast samples. In contrast, HERV-K transcripts were detected in most breast cancer cell lines and many breast tumor tissues. Expression was detected in a small percentage of matched, uninvolved breast tissues and in placentas but not nonmalignant breast tissues. In HERV-K-positive breast cancer tissues, Northern blot analysis ...
Breast Reduction, although actually a reconstructive surgical procedure, is used to correct marked breast enlargement, out of proportion to body size, and causing significant back, neck, and shoulder pain, as well as a tendency to rashes and yeast infections in the folds under the breasts. The cause varies but is generally associated with genetic pre-disposition, hormone fluctuation (e.g. puberty, pregnancy, or menopause), or marked weight variation. Breast Reduction is a surgical method of size reduction of the breasts, relieving the weight burden, and usually producing an improvement in breast shape. Mastopexy or Breast Lift is a similar but distinct technique, designed to cosmetically restore a youthful breast shape and tissue firmness, but not remove any breast tissue. Insurance has traditionally covered the cost of Reduction Mammaplasty surgery (but not cosmetic Mastopexy), however, many HMOs and similar discount insurance schemes have found it convenient to deny this service by falsely ...
Simona Halep, 17 year old Romanian tennis star, will be having a breast reduction operation this fall. Halep won the junior French Open title last year. She is reported to say, This fall Ill have a breast reduction operation. The breasts make me uncomfortable when I play. Its the weight that troubles me - my ability to react quickly.. Breast reduction (or reduction mammoplasty) is an operation designed to reduce and reshape large breasts. It is a surgical procedure designed to help reduce and in many cases eliminate, the pain and other symptoms associated with large breasts. Discomfort associated with large breasts can include chronic back, neck, and shoulder pain, as well as painful shoulder grooves from bra straps. It can also include chronic rashes under the breasts in the inframammary fold. These are the medical reasons to have a breast reduction. Most insurance companies in the United States will cover breast reduction surgery done for medical reasons. Be sure to check your ...
A receptor blotting technique was used to detect SH2 domain containing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) substrates that exhibited differential expression either between normal breast epithelial cells and breast cancer cells or between different human breast cancer cell lines. This identified a 25 kD protein, subsequently identified as Grb2, which was markedly overexpressed in three breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-361 and -453) relative to both normal breast epithelial cells and the majority of breast cancer cell lines. Northern blot analysis revealed that 7/19 breast cancer cell lines exhibited more than twofold overexpression of Grb2 mRNA, with overexpression correlating with high expression of erbB receptors. In MCF-7, MDA-MB-361 and -453 cells the overexpression of Grb2 mRNA and protein was accompanied by a small amplification of the Grb2 gene locus. Overexpression of Grb2 correlated with increased complex formation between Grb2 and the hSos-1 Ras GDP-GTP exchange protein. This
Moffitt Cancer Center Screening and Prevention, 4117 E. Fowler Ave., offers women more comprehensive breast imaging through 3D mammography and automated breast ultrasound (ABUS). Moffitt is the only hospital in Florida that uses the General Electric Invenia 3rd Generation ABUS technology to help physicians look at dense breast tissue. Three-dimensional breast and ABUS scans offer a better chance to diagnose breast cancer early, at a more treatable stage for women with dense breasts.. Breast tomosynthesis, or 3-D mammography, produces a three-dimensional view of the breast tissue that helps radiologists identify and characterize individual breast structures without the confusion of overlapping tissue. The screenings are quicker, produce sharper images and are more comfortable for patients.. Moffitts automated breast ultrasound technology will help to increase breast cancer detection for women with dense breast tissue with no previous clinical breast interventions. Using ABUS, radiologists can ...
Study compares bacterial composition in healthy vs. cancerous breast tissue. Source:. Cleveland Clinic. Summary:. Researchers have uncovered differences in the bacterial composition of breast tissue of healthy women vs. women with breast cancer. The research team has discovered for the first time that healthy breast tissue contains more of the bacterial species Methylobacterium, a finding which could offer a new perspective in the battle against breast cancer.. FULL STORY. Bacteria that live in the body, known as the microbiome, influence many diseases.. In a newly published study, Cleveland Clinic researchers have uncovered differences in the bacterial composition of breast tissue of healthy women vs. women with breast cancer. The research team has discovered for the first time that healthy breast tissue contains more of the bacterial species Methylobacterium, a finding which could offer a new perspective in the battle against breast cancer.. Bacteria that live in the body, known as the ...
Purpose: Mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. However, very little is known about how other breast cancer risk factors may modify the association between breast density and breast cancer. We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors.. Methods: This study included 1,044 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computer-assisted methods. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires completed before the date of the cancer diagnosis for cancer cases and their matched controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to describe the association between breast density measures and breast cancer risk. The risk estimates were presented as odds ratios ...
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates that approximately 12% of women will develop breast cancer by age 70. Risk factors for breast cancer include female gender, increasing age, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, age at first live birth over thirty, previous breast biopsies, previous breast biopsy with atypia, Other factors such as therapeutic radiation during adolescence, obesity with a BMI ,25, alcohol consumption, dense breast tissue and environmental exposures are not included in traditional risk assessment models, but are considered by most to mildly or moderately increase risk. Understanding your risk of developing breast cancer is important in management of your breast condition.. The most widely recognized tool for assessing breast cancer risk is the Gail model, developed by scientists at the NCI. Limitations of this model are that it does not account for second-degree relatives with breast cancer, relatives of a young age with breast cancer, and environmental factors. ...
IH1 capsule and IH5 creams are made from the herbal formula. If you use IH5 creams, you can increase the size of the breast within a few weeks. Many women are using this medicine IH1 pills are not just breast enhancement pills but are NATURAL breast enhancement pills. They are specially designed with a formula that is based only on natural ingredients. If you want bigger and tight breast size then you can use IH5 creams. It is very good medicine for breast increase, this medicine is selling in India last 10 years. If you are worried about the size of the breast size, then you will have the best cream 5 for which you can easily grow the size of the breast. It has been proven from women that IH1 capsule and IH5 creams have a very good medicine for enlargement in breast size. Some thousands of women are using this medicine. This is a very effective medicine for breast size. With its daily use, you can increase 1 cup to 2 cups of the breast. By taking this product you can increase your breast size ...
Dr. Hartmann and her co-investigators were heartened to find convincing evidence that women with the most common, non-proliferative forms of benign findings had no increased risk of developing breast cancer -- as long as they did not have a strong family history of breast cancer. However, for proliferative and atypical types, the opposite was true, and these lesions pointed to an increased risk of a future breast cancer, even when the family history of breast cancer was negative. Dr. Hartmann and her colleagues say continued studies of this kind are necessary to help understand the process of breast cancer development.. The study population of 9,087 women was drawn from the Mayo Clinic Surgical and Pathology Indices, identifying women ages 18 to 85, who had a biopsy of a benign breast lesion during a 25-year period from Jan. 1, 1967, through Dec. 31, 1991. Family histories were obtained at time of follow-up and from Mayo medical record questionnaires.. All benign breast samples were evaluated by ...
PURPOSE: Dedicated breast CT prototypes used in clinical investigations utilize single circular source trajectory and cone-beam geometry with flat-panel detectors that do not satisfy data-sufficiency conditions and could lead to cone beam artifacts. Hence, this work investigated the glandular dose characteristics of a circle-plus-line trajectory that fulfills data-sufficiency conditions for image reconstruction in dedicated breast CT. METHODS: Monte Carlo-based computer simulations were performed using the GEANT4 toolkit and was validated with previously reported normalized glandular dose coefficients for one prototype breast CT system. Upon validation, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the normalized glandular dose coefficients as a function of x-ray source position along the line scan. The source-to-axis of rotation distance and the source-to-detector distance were maintained constant at 65 and 100 cm, respectively, in all simulations. The ratio of the normalized glandular dose
Following age, mammographic density (MD) is considered one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Despite the association between MD and breast cance...
With advances in breast reconstruction surgery, many women undergoing breast removal (mastectomy) choose to have their breast(s) rebuilt. Even though medical, surgical, and radiation therapy treatments for breast cancer have increased the number of breast-sparing procedures available, some breast cancer patients still need a mastectomy. In addition, other women have their breast(s) removed due to other diseases.. Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.. The goal of reconstructive surgery is to create a breast mound that matches the opposite breast and to achieve symmetry. If both breasts have been removed, the goal of breast reconstructive surgery is to create both breast mounds about the size of the patients natural breasts.. ...
BACKGROUND: Fluorescence spectroscopy is an evolving technology that can rapidly differentiate between benign and malignant tissues. These differences are thought to be due to endogenous fluorophores, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, and tryptophan, and absorbers such as beta-carotene and hemoglobin. We hypothesized that a statistically significant difference would be demonstrated between benign and malignant breast tissues on the basis of their unique fluorescence and reflectance properties. METHODS: Optical measurements were performed on 56 samples of tumor or benign breast tissue. Autofluorescence spectra were measured at excitation wavelengths ranging from 300 to 460 nm, and diffuse reflectance was measured between 300 and 600 nm. Principal component analysis to dimensionally reduce the spectral data and a Wilcoxon ranked sum test were used to determine which wavelengths showed statistically significant differences. A support vector machine algorithm ...
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in tumourigenesis. Expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) was reported in human breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. It was suggested that PRL may act as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Here, we addressed the role of locally synthesised PRL in breast cancer. We analysed the expression of PRL in human breast cancer tumours using qPCR analysis and in situ hybridization (ISH). PRL mRNA expression was very low or undetectable in the majority of samples in three cDNA arrays representing samples from 144 breast cancer patients and in 13 of 14 breast cancer cell lines when analysed by qPCR. In accordance, PRL expression did not reach detectable levels in any of the 19 human breast carcinomas or 5 cell lines, which were analysed using a validated ISH protocol. Two T47D-derived breast cancer cell lines were stably transfected with PRL-expressing constructs. Conditioned medium from the T47D/PRL clones promoted proliferation of ...
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a high degree of intra- and intertumoral diversity, which impedes accurate patient stratification, prognosis and optimal treatment. The mammary gland consists of a complex network of epithelial ducts which end in clusters of alveoli, called terminal ductal lobular units (TDLUs) which are the functional units of the mammary gland. Postnatal mammary gland development and homeostasis require an enormous regenerative output, suggesting the existence of tissue stem/progenitor cells and a high degree of cellular plasticity to ensure functional robustness, i.e. the production and secretion of milk during lactation. Therefore, the observed heterogeneity in breast cancer is likely the result of normal mammary gland architecture and functionality. Unfortunately, the identification and characterization of human stem/progenitor cells and the analysis of cellular plasticity are hampered by the limited applicability of currently used murine in vivo assays and the ...
Breast reduction surgery is very common and extremely effective at not only reshaping the breasts but alleviating many of the musculoskeletal symptoms from their weight. Contrary to the concerns and perceptions of some patients, every breast reduction is also a full breast lift. It is simply not possible to do a satisfying reduction without elevating the nipple position and repositioning the breast mound back up onto the chest wall at the same time. That is exactly why the breast is so measured and marked before surgery, that represents the pattern of skin removal to create the lift and the resultant inverted T or anchor scar pattern seen afterwards.. Conversely, breast lifts can and are often done without removing any breast tissue. If the patients breast volume is adequate, the excess skin is removed and tightened around the existing volume to reshape and lift the breast mound. But is some cases of breast lifts, there is a little too much volume to accomodate the amount of lifting needed. ...
Breast cancer is cancer in the breast. In the world, breast cancer is the fifth-most common cause of cancer death. The first four are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer. In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) in the world.[1] Among all women in the world, breast cancer is the most common cancer.[1] In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death in women (after lung cancer). In 2007, breast cancer caused about 40,910 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths) in the U.S.[2][3] Women in the United States have a 1 in 8 chance of getting breast cancer in their lives. They have a 1 in 33 chance of death from breast cancer.[3] There are many more people getting breast cancer since the 1970s. This is because of how people in the Western world live.[4][5] Because the breast is composed of identical tissues in males and females, breast cancer ...
RATIONALE: Lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, diet, and obesity, and hormone function may affect breast density. Screening tests, such as mammography, may help doctors find tumor cells early and plan better treatment for breast cancer.. PURPOSE: This clinical trial is studying the effect of lifestyle factors and hormone function on breast density in healthy Hispanic women who are undergoing mammography for breast cancer screening. ...
Endogenous retroviruses have several potential functional roles in their host. By analogy with mouse models of cancer, we hypothesized that proteins encoded by HERV env genes may act as tumor antigens. As a first test of this hypothesis, we used RT-PCR to examine expression of the env region of several candidate HERV genes in human breast cancer cell lines and surgical specimens. Whereas no breast tissue expression of ERV3 or HERV-E4-1 was found in our analyses, RT-PCR readily detected HERV-K transcripts in six of eight breast carcinoma cell lines and in 45% of the 55 analyzed breast tumor tissue samples. In contrast, a normal breast epithelial cell culture (HME) and multiple breast tissue samples from individuals not having breast cancer showed no detectable HERV-K env RNA. Northern blot analysis using an env probe derived from a breast tumor sample confirmed expression of HERV-K transcripts in breast cancer. Because a small percentage of samples judged to be nonmalignant by gross pathological ...
INCREASE IN QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER BREAST REDUCTION. Recent medical study shows Breast Reduction Surgery to decrease pain and significantly improve the quality of life.. Large, heavy breasts can cause much physical and psychological pain to women of all backgrounds and ages. Excessive breast size can literally weigh a woman down and throw off her center of gravity and the alignment of her spine. The result is a large array of health problems including chronic back, neck and shoulder pain, strained and overworked muscles, headaches, skin rashes, sagging breasts and stretch marks as well as low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with overall body image. Studies have also shown that women living with this type of physical pain compare their symptoms to other medical conditions with chronic pain such as arthritis, joint pain and low back pain.. Many women who suffer from these physical and emotional problems seek a breast reduction, also known as reduction mammaplasty. This common surgical procedure can ...
Breast cancer. Unless otherwise noted, BD, the BD Logo and all other trademarks are the property of Becton, Dickinson and Company or its affiliates. A Notice of Allowance was announced for this patent in February of this year. A breast biopsy is a way to evaluate a suspicious area in your breast to determine whether it is breast cancer. This holiday season, treat yourself like an executive. 12/09/2020 Summary Toggle New Clinical Trial Data Demonstrates BD Libertas™ Wearable Injector as a Drug Delivery System FRANKLIN LAKES, N.J. , Dec. 9, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- BD ( Becton, Dickinson and Company ) (NYSE: BDX), a leading global medical technology company, today announced publication of the results from a 52-subject human clinical trial with the BD Libertas™ Wearable Injector. 4.8/5. 10.1 Global Breast Biopsy Needle Market Size by Type (2015-2020) 10.1.1 Global Breast Biopsy Needle Sales by Type (2015-2020) 10.1.2 Global Breast Biopsy Needle Revenue by Type (2015-2020) 10.1.3 Global Breast ...
Study of antitumor activity in breast cell lines using silver nanoparticles produced by yeast Francisco G Ortega,1 Martín A Fernández-Baldo,2 Jorge G Fernández,2 María J Serrano,1 María I Sanz,2 Juan J Diaz-Mochón,1 José A Lorente,1 Julio Raba21GENYO, Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research: Pfizer-University of Granada, Andalusian Regional Government, PTS Granada, Avenida de Ilustración, Granada, Spain; 2INQUISAL, Departamento de Química, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis, Argentina Abstract: In the present article, we describe a study of antitumor activity in breast cell lines using silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by a microbiological method. These Ag NPs were tested for their antitumor activity against MCF7 and T47D cancer cells and MCF10-A normal breast cell line. We analyzed cell viability, apoptosis induction, and endocytosis activity of those cell lines and we observed that the effects of the
Background: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumor in young women, and its growth and metabolism may be under hormonal control. in the present paper we described the proteoglycan (PG) composition and synthesis rate of normal breast and fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle.Methods: Samples of fibroadenoma and adjacent normal breast tissue were obtained at surgery. PGs were characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis and enzymatic degradation with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) lyases, and immunolocalized by confocal microscopy. To assess the synthesis rate, PGs were metabolic labeled by S-35-sulfate.Results: the concentration of PGs in normal breast was higher during the secretory phase. Fibroadenoma contained and synthesized more PGs than their paired controls, but the PG concentrations varied less with the menstrual cycle and, in contrast to normal tissue, peaked in the proliferative phase. the main mammary GAGs are heparan sulfate (HS, 71%-74%) and dermatan sulfate (DS, 26%-29%). the ...
The female breast consists of many different types of tissues. The two main types are milk glands which makes milk, and milk ducts, or tubes, for milk to pass through to reach the nipples.. Breast tissue composition may vary, depending on functions. For example, when a woman is on breastfeeding, than her breasts will change. They may look and feel different.. The breast contains fibrous connective tissue, fatty tissue, blood vessels, and lymph nodes. Prevention from these causes may secure you from breast lumps treatment.. Each part of breast can react in many different ways to changes in body chemistry. These changes in sensations and texture of the breast, and they can affect the development of breast lumps.. ...
The breast biopsy is the common medical procedure in Los Angeles in which the breast tissues collected to check for cancers or other diseases. The procedure is done when doctors find abnormalities in the breast or when the women experience discomfort or other medical issues. Los Angeles is known for its excellence in medical science, and one can really find a plenty of clinics that offer breast biopsy in Los Angeles at the most affordable cost.. What is Breast Biopsy?. Breast biopsy is actually a process of examining any suspicious or abnormal growth in the mammary glands of the body. If a lump is seen in the breast, the tissues are collected by using suction method through a needle or through a surgical incision. The pathologist will then examine the tissue samples and identify whether it is benign or malignant. You must know that the benign tumor or group of cells is non-cancerous whereas a malignant tissue is considered cancerous and must be treated immediately. In order to treat the ...
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers found among 9/11 female first responders, downtown workers and downtown residents. Turley Hansen represents many breast cancer survivors in claims before the 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund.. About 1 in 8 U.S. women (about 12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of their lifetime. Women exposed to the toxins in downtown Manhattan have a particularly high risk of developing breast cancer. The Zadroga Act covers invasive ductal carcinomas (about 80% of all breast cancers), ductal carcinoma in situ (the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer) and male breast cancer.. Surgery, either lumpectomy or mastectomy (partial, total, modified radical), are common starting points of treatment for breast cancer. Surgery may be followed up by chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. New immunotherapy clinical trials for breast cancer patients are potentially offering new weapons to fight breast cancer.. ...
Review question. In women with metastatic breast cancer (when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body), what is the effectiveness of breast surgery (mastectomy: removal of the whole breast including nipple and areola, or lumpectomy: removal of the tumour and breast tissue around it but preserving the nipple and areola) combined with medical treatment (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) compared to medical treatment alone?. Background. Metastatic breast cancer is considered an incurable disease with poor prognosis, although some women can live for many years. It is traditionally treated only with medical treatment. Breast surgery was believed to be palliative and performed only to relieve symptoms such as local bleeding, infection, or pain. With the development of new medications, women with metastatic breast cancer are living longer, and breast surgery could benefit this group of women. Retrospective data (i.e. data from types of studies other than randomised controlled trials ...
Mammographically dense breast tissue is a strong predictor of breast cancer risk, and is influenced by both mitogens and mutagens. One enzyme that is able to affect both the mitogenic and mutagenic characteristics of estrogens is cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which is principally responsible for the metabolism of 17β-estradiol. In a cross-sectional study of 146 premenopausal and 149 postmenopausal women, we examined the relationships between CYP1A2 activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and mammographic density. In vivo CYP1A2 activity was assessed by measuring caffeine metabolites in urine. Levels of serum and urinary MDA, and MDA-deoxyguanosine adducts in DNA were measured. Mammograms were digitized and measured using a computer-assisted method. CYP1A2 activity in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women, was positively associated with mammographic density, suggesting that increased CYP1A2 activity after the menopause is a risk factor for breast cancer. In premenopausal women, but not in
If you like the way your breasts look in a bra, and want them to stay that way when the bra is off, a breast lift might be the right choice for you. Women who experience the effects of breast deflation after childbirth or rapid weight loss benefit from breast lifts to regain their optimal shape. The goal of this surgery is to improve the position of the breast on the chest wall and to make sure that the nipple is nicely centered. A breast lift does not add volume to the breast, nor does not add firmness. It is really a shaping and lifting procedure. Some patients will add a breast implant to increase breast volume or improve firmness. In my practice, my preferred operation is a vertical breast lift where the lollypop shaped incisions are placed around the areola and a line extending down at the 6 oclock position. The scars are placed on the most discreet part of your breast and can be hidden even by the tiniest Brazilian bikini. There are some women who need a little bit more skin removed ...
What is breast tomosynthesis? Breast tomosynthesis, or 3D mammography represents a significant breakthrough in breast imaging technology. A screening and diagnostic tool designed for early breast cancer detection, 3D mammography is done in conjunction with a traditional 2D digital mammogram.. Tomosynthesis uses x-rays to produce a three dimensional picture of the breast that a radiologist can view in 1-millimeter slices, making it possible to visualize breast tissue at a level of detail never before possible. The additional 3D images allow radiologists to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of a patients breast tissue during screening while reducing the need for follow-up imaging.. How are the 3D images obtained? 3D images are obtained when the x-ray beam swings in an arc over the breast, capturing multiple images in a single pass, from a variety of angles.. Who should get breast tomosynthesis? Everyone who is a candidate for 2D mammography is also a candidate for tomosynthesis. Patients ...
What is breast tomosynthesis? Breast tomosynthesis, or 3D mammography represents a significant breakthrough in breast imaging technology. A screening and diagnostic tool designed for early breast cancer detection, 3D mammography is done in conjunction with a traditional 2D digital mammogram.. Tomosynthesis uses x-rays to produce a three dimensional picture of the breast that a radiologist can view in 1-millimeter slices, making it possible to visualize breast tissue at a level of detail never before possible. The additional 3D images allow radiologists to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of a patients breast tissue during screening while reducing the need for follow-up imaging.. How are the 3D images obtained? 3D images are obtained when the x-ray beam swings in an arc over the breast, capturing multiple images in a single pass, from a variety of angles.. Who should get breast tomosynthesis? Everyone who is a candidate for 2D mammography is also a candidate for tomosynthesis. Patients ...
Some patients desiring Breast Enhancement have breast tissue that is loose and saggy. The medical term for this condition is Breast Ptosis. This may be a consequence of advancing age, pregnancy, nursing and/ or weight fluctuations. Breasts progressively hang lower on the chest with loss of upper breast projection (perkiness), elongation and flattening. In some cases, the nipples point straight down. These changes are also common in patients with naturally large breasts.. The basic problem with ptotic (saggy) breasts is that there is too much skin for the amount of breast tissue present. Additionally, the nipple may reside too low on the chest wall. With mild stages of breast ptosis, a breast implant may be all that is needed. However, in many women, the breast has fallen too far down the chest to allow an implant to give an aesthetically pleasing result. In these women, some form of breast lift (Mastopexy) is indicated. In this situation, a simple breast augmentation would result in the implant ...
Yellow-breasted chat[edit]. Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteriidae This species was historically placed in the wood-warblers ( ...
Greatest mean diameter at breast height[edit]. *General Grant - General Grant Grove - 8.8 metres (29.0 ft)[7] ... The specimen known to have the greatest diameter at breast height is the General Grant tree at 8.8 m (28.9 ft).[8] Between 2014 ...
Breast cancer[edit]. Main article: Epidemiology and etiology of breast cancer § Specific dietary fatty acids ... Hanf V, Gonder U (2005-12-01). "Nutrition and primary prevention of breast cancer: foods, nutrients and breast cancer risk". ... Lof M, Weiderpass E (February 2009). "Impact of diet on breast cancer risk". Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 21 ( ... Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and breast milk) ...
Breast cancer[edit]. Studies regarding the association of breast cancer with hormone replacement have been mixed and vary with ... Observational studies of systemic HRT after breast cancer are generally reassuring. If HRT is necessary after breast cancer, ... Includes metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer with the exception of in situ breast cancer. ... "Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 107 (1): 103-111. doi:10.1007/s10549-007-9523-x. PMC 2211383. PMID 17333341.. ...
Pregnancy and breast-feeding[edit]. Epidemiological data do not show an increased risk of major birth defects after maternal ... indicating that little amount of drug is transferred to the milk duct during breast milk formation. ...
Beginning in the early 1990s, Avon also began donating towards breast cancer research and care, through the Avon Breast Cancer ... Crusade and the Avon Walk for Breast Cancer, a series of U.S.-based charity walks.[32] Before 2003, the Walk was a function of ... "Breast Cancer Events" Archived June 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., June 2013 ...
"Melatonin and Associated Signaling Pathways that Control Normal Breast Epithelium and Breast Cancer". Journal of Mammary Gland ... Breast cancer[edit]. 13(S)-HODE stimulates the proliferation of human MCF-7 estrogen receptor positive and MBA-MD-231 estrogen ... receptor negative human breast cancer cell lines (see List of breast cancer cell lines) in culture);[72] its production appears ... Reddy, Nagi; Everhart, Angela; Eling, Thomas; Glasgow, Wayne (1997). "Characterization of a 15-Lipoxygenase in Human Breast ...
In a woman who has not developed breast cancer, removing the breasts may reduce her risk of ever being diagnosed with breast ... Male breast cancer[edit]. Men with a BRCA mutation have a dramatically elevated relative risk of developing breast cancer, but ... BRCA-related breast cancer appears at an earlier age than sporadic breast cancer.[8]:89-111 It has been asserted that BRCA- ... Women with a breast cancer associated with a BRCA mutation have up to a 40% probability of developing a new primary breast ...
Breast cancer[edit]. Docetaxel and paclitaxel have comparable efficacy metastatic breast cancer but paclitaxel has less severe ... A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cold mittens and wine coolers are placed on her hands and ... Lyseng-Williamson KA, Fenton C (2005). "Docetaxel: a review of its use in metastatic breast cancer". Drugs. 65 (17): 2513-31. ... The treatment of breast cancer with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide is enhanced by adjuvant treatment with docetaxel. ...
For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast. Here, the adjective ductal refers ... Nearly all cancers developing in the breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and colon are carcinomas. ...
Breast cancer[edit]. Main article: Breast cancer. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most ... All three cancers (lung, breast, uterus) are now declining in cancer death rates (Siegel et al. Figure 8),[121] but more women ... Despite this, breast cancer remains the commonest cancer in women in developed countries, and is one of the more important ... Lung cancer has overtaken all other types of cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women, followed by breast cancer, ...
Breast changes[edit]. 5-ARIs have a small risk of breast changes in men including breast tenderness and gynecomastia (breast ... breast tenderness, gynecomastia, depression, anxiety, self-harm, and dementia.[20][21][22] In addition, while 5-ARIs decrease ... "5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors and risk of male breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Int Braz J Urol. 44 (5): ... development/enlargement).[20] The risk of gynecomastia is about 2.8%.[20] There is no association of 5-ARIs with male breast ...
"Why do breasts sag?". Retrieved 3 February 2012.. *^ De la Torre, J. I. (2009). "Breast Mastopexy". Retrieved ... "Anatomy of Breast Ptosis - How Breasts Sag". Retrieved 4 February 2012.. *^ Lauersen, Niels H.; Stukane, Eileen (1998). The ... "Female Intelligence Agency: What causes sagging of breasts?". 007b Breast.. *^ Cawthorn, Simon (November 2000). "Bras, the Bare ... The nipple of the breast may also tend to point downward. Post-menopausal women[edit]. In post-menopausal women, breast atrophy ...
Breast changes[edit]. 5-ARIs have a small risk of breast changes in men including breast tenderness and gynecomastia (breast ... breast tenderness, gynecomastia, depression, anxiety, self-harm, and dementia.[20][21][22] In addition, while 5-ARIs decrease ... development/enlargement).[20] The risk of gynecomastia is about 2.8%.[20] There is no association of 5-ARIs with male breast ...
In the same study, it was shown that breast tumor tissue expresses lower levels of DC-SCRIPT than normal breast tissue from the ... Breast cancer[edit]. In 2010, it was shown that DC-SCRIPT can act as a coregulator of multiple nuclear receptors having ... nuclear receptor modulation and prognostic significance in primary breast cancer". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102 (1): 54-68. doi: ... same patient and that DC-SCRIPT mRNA expression is an independent prognostic factor for good survival of breast cancer patients ...
Breast feeding[edit]. In a study done in 1979, the effect of aspartame ingestion on blood and milk amino acid levels in ... with the intent to study the differences in breast milk between the two. The study resulted with the conclusion that aspartame ...
Breast cancer[edit]. The question of whether DDT or DDE are risk factors in breast cancer has not been conclusively answered. ... A 2007 case control study[82] using archived blood samples found that breast cancer risk was increased 5-fold among women who ... This study, which suggests a connection between DDT exposure and breast cancer that would not be picked up by most studies, has ... The findings "support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk ...
Breast development[edit]. See also: Breast development § Biochemistry. Estrogen, in conjunction with growth hormone (GH) and ... Haslam SZ, Osuch JR (1 January 2006). Hormones and Breast Cancer in Post-Menopausal Women. IOS Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-58603- ... Kleinberg DL (February 1998). "Role of IGF-I in normal mammary development". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 47 (3): 201- ... Estrogens are implicated in various estrogen-dependent conditions, such as ER-positive breast cancer, as well as a number of ...
Absorption spectrum for breast tissue[edit]. To define S. t. O. 2. {\displaystyle StO_{2}\,}. (tissue oxygen saturation) (or T ... Figure 5 shows a plot of transport scattering coefficient spectrum in breast tissue, which has a wavelength dependence of λ. − ... Figure 6 (c): Spectra for breast tissue (StO2 ≈ 70%). Absorption coefficient: λmin = 730 nm; NIR window = (656 - 916) nm. ... S. Nioka, S. Wen, J. Zhang, J. Du, X. Intes, Z. Zhao, and B. Chance, Simulation study of breast tissue hemodynamics during ...
Breast abscess[edit]. A breast abscess is a collection of pus that develops into the breast with different causes.[10] During ... Plugged milk duct,[3] breast engorgement,[4] breast cancer (rare)[1]. Prevention. Frequent breastfeeding with good technique[2] ... Breast abscess[edit]. An abscess (or suspected abscess) in the breast may be treated by ultrasound-guided fine-needle ... Nonpuerperal breast abscesses have a higher rate of recurrence compared to puerperal breast abscesses.[42] There is a high ...
Lymphogenic spread of breast cancer[edit]. Breast cancer typically spreads via lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes found in ...
Breast cancer[edit]. The classification of genetic breast cancer subtypes, including triple-negative and HER2-positive subtypes ... "Breast Cancer Research. 14 (1): R11. doi:10.1186/bcr3095. PMC 3496128. PMID 22247967.. ... Utilizing PDX triple negative breast cancer models, scientists found that aurora kinase inhibitors slows tumor growth rate and ... Many PDX models have been successfully established for breast, prostate, colorectal, lung, and many other cancers because there ...
Yellow-breasted chat[edit]. Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteriidae This species was historically placed in the New World ...
Breast cancer[edit]. Cryoablation for breast cancer is typically only possible for small tumors.[3] Often surgery is used ... With improvements in breast imaging and image-guided interventions, there is interest in ablative techniques for breast cancer ... Cryoablation is also currently being used to treat fibroadenomas of the breast. Fibroadenomas are benign breast tumors that are ... Sabel, MS (July 2014). "Nonsurgical ablation of breast cancer: future options for small breast tumors". Surgical oncology ...
"Breast Reconstruction: Immediate or Delayed".. *^ "Breast reconstruction using body tissue." Breast cancer , Lets Beat Cancer! ... Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women. It involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic ... "Breast cancer , Breast reconstruction using body tissue , Cancer Research UK". ... Frequently not just breast volume, but also skin surface area needs to be restored. Many patients undergoing delayed breast ...
This has been used mostly on women to screen for breast cancer, but is also used to view male breasts, and used in conjunction ... Breast implants designed to enlarge the breasts reduce the viewing ability of mammography, and require more time for imaging as ... This is because the material used in the implant is very dense compared to breast tissue, and looks white (clear) on the film. ... Projectional radiography of the breasts is called mammography. ...
Breast Cancer[edit]. BHLHE41 is thought to be a critical regulator of the metastasis of triple-negative-breast cancer (TNBC).[ ... Breast cancer tumors that show high expression of BHLHE41 and CyclinG2 are believed to have a lower metastatic risk.[37][38] ... "SHARP1 suppresses breast cancer metastasis by promoting degradation of hypoxia-inducible factors". Nature. 487 (7407): 380-4. ... "p63, Sharp1, and HIFs: master regulators of metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer". Cancer Research. 73 (16): 4978-81. ...
Silicone Breasts[edit]. Myth statement Status Notes Silicone breast implants may explode at high altitudes or low air pressure ... Will silicone breast implants explode or expand in low pressure?. Can a standard CD-ROM drive shatter a CD?. ...
Breast (MF-EIT)[edit]. EIT is being investigated in the field of breast imaging as an alternative/complementary technique to ... develops a similar solution for non-invasive detection of breast cancer and offers the T-Scan 2000ED. Zilico Limited ... Further EIT applications proposed include detection/location of cancer in skin, breast, or cervix, localization of epileptic ... Jossinet, J. (1998). "The impedivity of freshly excised human breast tissue". Physiological Measurement. 19 (1): 61-76. doi: ...
In any case, common side effects of antiandrogens in men include breast tenderness, breast enlargement, feminization, hot ... including AR-expressing triple-negative breast cancer and other types of AR-expressing breast cancer.[189][190][191][192][193] ... Breast cancer[edit]. Antiandrogens such as bicalutamide, enzalutamide, and abiraterone acetate are under investigation for the ... In males, the major side effects of antiandrogens are demasculinization and feminization.[82] These side effects include breast ...
Although breast cancer screening cannot prevent breast cancer, it can help find breast cancer early, when it is easier to treat ... Men also get breast cancer, but it is not very common. About 1 out of every 100 breast cancers diagnosed in the United States ... Fast Facts About Breast Cancer. *Each year in the United States, about 255,000 women get breast cancer and 42,000 women die ... Most breast cancers are found in women who are 50 years old or older, but breast cancer also affects younger women. ...
Learn what this kind of breast cancer is and how its treated. ... homeBreast Cancer. *Basic Informationplus icon *What Is Breast ... What Is Triple-Negative Breast Cancer?. Triple-negative breast cancer is a kind of breast cancer that does not have any of the ... Breast Cancer in Young Womenplus icon *Bring Your Brave Campaign. *Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Womenplus icon ... that may cause breast cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer. The counselor may recommend that you get a genetic test ...
Breast Cancer Care is a UK charity providing support for people living with and beyond breast cancer. Find out how to receive ... 2019 Breast Cancer Care.. Breast Cancer Care is a working name of Breast Cancer Care and Breast Cancer Now, a company limited ... Our merger with Breast Cancer Now We have united to create one charity for everyone affected by breast cancer. ... Breast Cancer Care helped me live my life when cancer was busy trying to take it away. And, for that, Ill be forever grateful ...
For advanced breast cancer: Chemo can be used as the main treatment for women whose cancer has spread outside the breast and ... See Breast Cancer Gene Expression Tests for more information. Which chemotherapy drugs are used for breast cancer?. In most ... Chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Chemo drugs useful in treating women with breast cancer that has spread include:. * ... For breast cancer patients, the central line is typically placed on the opposite side of the breast that had surgery. ...
Miami Cancer Institute provides comprehensive breast cancer care, but also the compassionate and caring support you need - all ... Irritation, redness or thickening of the nipple or breast skin. Understanding Your Breast Cancer Risk Most breast cancers are ... Breast ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of the breast.. *Fine needle biopsy allows your physician to withdraw a ... Women with dense breast tissue may benefit from 3-D mammography. *Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps physicians ...
Get information from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons about options available for breast reconstruction. ... Immediate breast tissue expander placement. The surgical process for saline breast tissue expanders and breast expanders ... Answers to common questions about breast reconstruction Michelle De Souza, MD Breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients ... The breast implant will be placed under the ADM and your own muscle. This allows the breast implant to settle in a normal ...
Encourage use of breast conserving surgery whenever possible, defer definitive mastectomy and/or reconstruction until after the ... Developed by the COVID 19 Pandemic Breast Cancer Consortium (this consortium is made up of representatives from the NAPBC, CoC ... Many women with early stage, ER positive breast cancers to not benefit substantially from chemotherapy. In general, these ... COVID-19 Guidelines for Triage of Breast Cancer Patients. Online March 24, 2020 ...
Women with bilateral breast cancer were not included in the study. Women without invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in ... In fact, breast density is perhaps the strongest but least recognized risk factor for breast cancer. Many studies have shown ... A wax pencil was used to outline the breast area and breast densities. Films, with the wax pencil marks, were digitized on a ... 11 ). A recent tamoxifen trial measured breast density as a surrogate end point for breast cancer risk and found that the most ...
Breast size and cancer risk[edit]. Some factors of breast morphology, including their density, are clearly implicated in breast ... At menopause, breast development ceases and the breasts atrophy. Breast development results in prominent and developed ... COX-2 expression has been positively associated with breast volume and inflammation in breast tissue, as well as with breast ... Jansen LA, Backstein RM, Brown MH (2014). "Breast size and breast cancer: a systematic review". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. ...
Breast implant Breast lift Breast reduction plasty Free flap breast reconstruction Nipple prosthesis Titoo Rabin, Roni Caryn ( ... "Breast Reconstruction: Immediate or Delayed". "Breast reconstruction using body tissue." Breast cancer , Lets Beat Cancer! ... Breast Reconstruction Following Breast Removal from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons National Cancer Institute breast ... Frequently not just breast volume, but also skin surface area needs to be restored. Many patients undergoing delayed breast ...
The information here can help you understand medical language you might find in a breast pathology report. ... After a breast biopsy, your doctor will get a report that gives a diagnosis for each sample taken. ... Breast Pathology. When your breast was biopsied, the samples taken were studied under the microscope by a specialized doctor ... Benign Breast Conditions. Benign (non-cancer) breast changes can include adenosis, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, ...
A Webtv friendly place for anyone touched by breast cancer to talk to others. We talk through guest books and message boards ... This page is for breast cancer survivors to talk to each other. I am a 14 year survivor of Breast Cancer and 7 year survivor of ... This page is a webtv friendly Breast cancer support group. We talk to each other by posting in a guest book. There are many ... excellent breast cancer support pages out there. I dont think I can do a better job. Its just that they seem to be getting ...
Breast Reduction in Men. The breast reduction in men has a name, is gynecomastia and ultimately is part of the most demanded by ... Male Breast Reduction. This operation, in short, removes fat and glandular tissue from the breasts. In more extreme cases it ... Diet to Reduce Male Breast Size. The men who suffer from this problem of increased breasts can follow certain dietary routines ... Like zinc, omega-3 fatty acid also helps to reduce the size of the breasts as it also helps to increase the production of ...
Breast Cancer Rates Saving Our Species From Another Mass Extinction Breast Cancer Cancer Breast Cancer Evolution ... As a breast cancer doctor who has been practicing for some 25 years, I have often wondered why the breast is the favorite place ... About 29 percent of all cancers in women start in the breast, more than any other type of cancer. Only 10 percent of breast ... Director of Breast Health Outreach & Breast Radiation Oncology, Lankenau Medical Center; President and Founder of Breastcancer. ...
One is a friend (age 32) in hospice care right now due to stage 4 breast cancer. Another is another friend (age 35) who started ... I have personal reasons for wanting everyone to see the tough new documentary about the hypethat can infest some breast-cancer- ... Funding related to breast cancer-who gets the money raised and how it is used-has been a topic on the minds of potential donors ... The issue took a dramatic turn this past winter, when the Susan G. Komen for the Cure foundation, the biggest breast cancer- ...
A breast mass is one of the most common presenting complaints evaluated by surgeons in their offices daily. Obviously, both ... Seltzer M. Breast complaints, biopsies, and cancer correlated with age in 10, 000 consecutive new surgical referrals. Breast J ... Page D, Simpson J. Benign, high-risk, and premalignant lesions of the breast. In: Bland K, Copeland E, editors. The breast: ... Larkin A.C. (2010) Breast Mass. In: Dirbas F., Scott-Conner C. (eds) Breast Surgical Techniques and Interdisciplinary ...
Whereas the phrase breast or bottle might once have implied a choice between two relative equals, human milk is now believed ... Breast or Bottle? is a kairology of breastfeeding, an analysis of the rhetorical activity that has made possible conflicting ... Breast or Bottle? is the first scholarly examination of the shift in breastfeeding recommendations occurring over the last half ...
A breast abscess is a painful collection of pus that forms in the breast. Most abscesses develop just under the skin and are ... Breast abscess A breast abscess is a painful build-up of pus in the breast caused by an infection. It mainly affects women who ... Causes of breast abscesses. A breast abscess can form if you have a breast infection (called mastitis) and its not treated ... This wont harm your baby and can help your breast heal.. Try expressing milk from your breasts with your hand or a breast pump ...
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Breast Imaging, IWDM 2016, held in Malmö, ... Breast Density Assessment Using Breast Tomosynthesis Images Pontus Timberg, Andreas Fieselmann, Magnus Dustler, Hannie ... Towards Optimization of Image Quality as a Function of Breast Thickness in Mammography: An Investigation of the Breast ... Diagnostic Usefulness of Synthetic MMG (SMMG) with DBT (Digital Breast Tomosynthesis) for Clinical Setting in Breast Cancer ...
Its hard to tell who owns and writes the Breast Care Campaigns site for this reason I ... Breast problems. BMJ 1999; 319 doi: (Published 16 October 1999) Cite this as: BMJ ...
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Scientists look for new ways to treat advanced breast cancer in clinical trials. These studies test new drugs to see if they ... Youre probably familiar with these tests from when you were diagnosed with breast cancer. Doctors take a tiny sample of tissue ... "Its very empowering for women, to help future generations of breast cancer patients," says Rita Nanda, MD, of the University ... In phase III, the study will compare the new treatment with the standard treatments for advanced breast cancer. ...
This subtype of breast cancer is associated with a good prognosis, although not as favorable as the luminal A subtype. [ NCIT. ... This subtype of breast cancer is associated with a good prognosis, although not as favorable as the luminal A subtype. ... A biologic subset of breast carcinoma defined by low to moderate expression of genes characteristic of luminal epithelial cells ... A biologic subset of breast carcinoma defined by low to moderate expression of genes characteristic of luminal epithelial cells ...
Breast cancer changed everything for these women, and for dozens of others who have been a part of Livestrong at the YMCA, a ... In counseling breast cancer patients who wish to change and improve their eating habits, Malcher points to the food plan ... A diagnosis of breast cancer often leads to a treatment plan that includes surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation and frequent ... For breast cancer patients, sometimes the best therapy is just talking about their experience with others going through the ...
Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. ... Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. ... Male breast cancer represents less than 1 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses. Scientists estimate that about 2,600 new ... In some cases, cancerous cells can invade surrounding breast tissue. In these cases, the condition is known as invasive breast ...
The growth of breast cancer can be quite variable, but there is at least an estimate of what may be happening in terms of its ... Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow uncontrollably and destroy the normal cells. When breast cancer ... Breast cancer risk may be lowered by managing controllable risk factors.. What you should know about breast cancer. *Breast ... Breast Cancer. Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms ...
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  • Implant-based breast reconstruction may be possible if the mastectomy or radiation therapy have left sufficient tissue on the chest wall to cover and support a breast implant. (
  • For patients with insufficient tissue on the chest wall, or for those who don't desire implants, breast reconstruction will require a flap technique (also known as autologous reconstruction). (
  • The most common method of tissue reconstruction uses lower abdominal skin and fat to create a breast shape. (
  • After that is done, the muscle and tissue below is elevated together to form the pocket for the breast expander at the base of the breast or the inframammary crease. (
  • The mammographic appearance of the breast depends on its composition of radiolucent fatty tissue and more radiopaque epithelial or stromal tissue. (
  • [9] GH induction of IGF-1 production and secretion occurs in almost all types of tissue in the body, but especially in the liver , which is the source of approximately 80% of circulating IGF-1, [10] as well as locally in the breasts. (
  • [5] [11] Although IGF-1 is responsible for most of the role of GH in mediating breast development, GH itself has been found to play a direct, augmenting role as well, as it increases estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast stromal (connective) tissue , while IGF-1, in contrast, has been found to not do this. (
  • This operation, in short, removes fat and glandular tissue from the breasts . (
  • For example, exposing an adolescent girl to radiation at the critical time she's building her breast tissue can lead to permanent gene mutations that increase her risk for breast cancer later in life. (
  • A breast phantom poses a unique set of challenges because the contents must correctly and reliably mimic distributions of fat and tissue. (
  • In some cases, cancerous cells can invade surrounding breast tissue. (
  • So you've been told you have dense breast tissue - now what? (
  • But for some women, another breast-related issue can make it hard to do that - dense breast tissue. (
  • This new technology supports mammography by helping to detect breast cancer in women with dense breast tissue, in those who previously had breast cancer, are BRCA positive or those with inconclusive mammography results. (
  • A newborn baby has nipples, areolas, and the beginnings of breast tissue, but most of breast development occurs in two different periods of time in a woman's life: first in puberty , then during pregnancy. (
  • When the ovaries start to secrete estrogen, fat in the connective tissue begins to accumulate causing the breasts to enlarge and the duct system begins to grow. (
  • Stage Two: Buds appear, breast and nipple are raised, fat tissue begins to form and the areola (dark area of skin that surrounds the nipple) enlarges. (
  • Stage Three: Breasts are slightly larger with glandular breast tissue present. (
  • A breast biopsy is a common procedure that uses a thin needle to remove a small amount of breast tissue to determine whether cancer is present. (
  • Breast cancer can have a number of symptoms, but the first noticeable symptom is usually a lump or area of thickened breast tissue. (
  • They do not stay inside the milk ducts or milk-producing glands but invade normal healthy tissue within and beyond the breast. (
  • You may think that only women can get breast cancer, but because all people have breast tissue, men can get breast cancer as well - but this is very rare. (
  • Breast lumps that are not cancer may be scar tissue or cysts (fluid-filled lumps or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging. (
  • In a biopsy, a small amount of breast tissue is removed with a needle or during a small operation. (
  • BSE should be performed monthly in order to discover changes in breast tissue, discharge from the nipple, or the onset of pain in the breast area. (
  • The final pressure level is applied deep into the breast tissue so that the rib cage can be felt and a minor amount of discomfort is experienced. (
  • Patients who perform BSE regularly know what their breast tissue normally feels like. (
  • Typically, there will not be any detectable anomalies in their breast tissue, unless they carry out the exam just prior to menstruation or during pregnancy when breasts may seem more lumpy and tender. (
  • Breast tissue: Women with dense breast tissue (as documented by mammogram ) have a higher risk of breast cancer. (
  • Symptoms are similar to the symptoms in women, with the most common symptom being a lump or change in skin of the breast tissue or nipple discharge . (
  • A breast biopsy is the removal of a sample of breast tissue or cells to be tested for breast cancer. (
  • 6. Why Breast Reconstructionwith abdominal tissue became popular? (
  • Breasts are predominantly made of fat and glandular tissue which you can't "train" like muscle, however, you can work the muscle underneath the breast - ie. (
  • We were among the first centers to provide free TRAM (transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous) flaps, in which muscle, fat and skin from the abdomen are used to shape the breast, and TMG (transverse myocutaneous gracilis) flap, in which tissue from the thigh is transferred to the breast. (
  • Breast cancer usually originates in the milk-carrying ducts, although it may arise in the milk-producing lobules or, more rarely, in the dense connective tissue of the breast. (
  • Invasive breast cancers -such as ductal or lobular carcinomas-can gain access to the stroma (supporting tissue) between the ducts, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. (
  • Breast tissue retains fluid and grows larger. (
  • If you had a mastectomy and had your breast reconstructed, you may get harmless lumps caused by a build-up of scar tissue or dead fat cells in the reconstructed breast. (
  • Since mastectomy and reconstruction usually removes all of the breast tissue and replaces it with other tissue and/or an implant, mammogram is not usually recommended for reconstructed breasts. (
  • The cancer cells are invading nearby tissue inside the breast. (
  • DCIS is a type of early breast cancer inside of the ductal system that has not attacked the nearby tissue. (
  • Calcifications are small deposits of calcium that show up on mammograms as bright white specks or dots on the soft tissue background of the breasts. (
  • Rather, they are a "marker" for some underlying process that is occurring in the breast tissue. (
  • If calcifications clearly are located in the skin rather than in the breast tissue itself, no further testing is required. (
  • However, the truth is that the mammary glands that secrete the milk in the breasts makes up a pretty small percentage of the overall breast tissue. (
  • Most of the average human female breast is actually adipose tissue ( fat ) and connective tissue . (
  • In practise, Brava's vacuum-induced bra stretches the breast tissue over a period of time and the tissue reciprocates by swelling and replicating until the cells multiply to accommodate the stretch force. (
  • We took tough action against the burning of medical waste and other hazardous waste -- controlling 90% of the known sources of dioxin that accumulates in human tissue and in breast milk. (
  • At the front of the chest, the breast tissue can extend from the clavicle (collarbone) to the middle of the sternum (breastbone). (
  • At the sides of the chest, the breast tissue can extend into the axilla (armpit), and can reach as far to the back as the latissimus dorsi muscle, extending from the lower back to the humerus bone (the bone of the upper arm). (
  • and glandular tissue, which affects the lactation functions of the breasts. (
  • The tissue composition ratios of the breast also vary among women. (
  • Some women's breasts have varying proportions of glandular tissue than of adipose or connective tissues. (
  • The fat-to-connective-tissue ratio determines the density or firmness of the breast. (
  • MRI is recommended as a complement to conventional mammography to detect breast cancer, particularly for women with the highest risk factors. (
  • During a breast biopsy, the radiologist uses ultrasound, mammography or MRI to guide the needle to the right spot. (
  • Pioneered at Mass General, breast tomosynthesis is our standard of care for screening mammography. (
  • Johns Hopkins dedicated breast-imaging radiologists who specialize exclusively in mammography, breast ultrasound, breast MRI and minimally invasive biopsy techniques staff our center. (
  • Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BI-RADS: Mammography. (
  • Comparison of the performance of screening mammography, physical examination, and breast US and evaluation of factors that influence them: an analysis of 27,825 patient evaluations. (
  • This might include breast screening (mammography) or a biopsy . (
  • Standard 2-D mammography takes two X-rays of each breast. (
  • Tomosynthesis 3-D mammography takes multiple X-rays of each breast, and the X-rays are taken from many angles. (
  • During both a standard 2-D and tomosynthesis 3-D mammography, a technologist will position the breast on the plate of the mammography machine. (
  • Breast cancer detection using automated whole breast ultrasound and mammography in radiographically dense breasts. (
  • 3 When detected, the cancers are shockingly large, with average diameters of 30 mm. 4 , 5 What's more, these large lumps are apparently discovered accidentally, even among women actively practising breast self-examination 6 and participating in mammography screening programs. (
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk (including blood). (
  • Another biological reality is that once the breast gland is formed, it is an immature and highly proliferative (active) organ, unable to perform its job of making milk until it goes through the comprehensive maturation process of a full-term pregnancy and breast-feeding. (
  • While providing this flexibility may have had the evolutionary purpose of ensuring milk could be produced under harsh circumstances that challenged the survival of the race, it also makes the breast more vulnerable to breast cancer in our modern-day world. (
  • Whereas the phrase 'breast or bottle' might once have implied a choice between two relative equals, human milk is now believed to possess unique health-promoting qualities. (
  • Try expressing milk from your breasts with your hand or a breast pump if breastfeeding is too painful. (
  • 3. ENLARGED PITUITARY CONDITION -- The pituitary gland in addition to producing other hormones for glands like the adrenals (ACTH), growth hormones (GH), thryoid (TSH), follicles for hair (FSH), to name a few, also produces the prolactin hormone (PRL) for breast milk growth. (
  • 5. DUCT ECTASIA in older women can increase milk secretion in the breasts. (
  • The first stage of breast development begins at about six weeks of fetal development with a thickening called the mammary ridge or the milk line. (
  • Once ovulation and menstruation begin, the maturing of the breasts begins with the formation of secretory glands at the end of the milk ducts. (
  • Estrogen, which is produced by the ovaries in the first half of the menstrual cycle, stimulates the growth of milk ducts in the breasts. (
  • In addition, the group given encouragement was far more likely to give their children only breast milk. (
  • Is Breast Milk Really Best? (
  • If you eschew the boob-either because you are physically incapable of breast feeding, don't produce enough milk, or merely prefer the convenience of lab-formulated baby sustenance-you are, willingly or not, staking out a position in the battle of the breast. (
  • In other words, modern moms have been oversold on the idea that breast milk is liquid gold-and slaves to Similac need not feel inadequate. (
  • Human breast milk is superior to modified cow's milk formulas, which may lack essential and beneficial components and are not absorbed as easily or as quickly by the infant. (
  • Bromocriptine reduces prolactin release and suppresses breast milk production after pregnancy . (
  • Sometimes the glandular cells of the breast can secrete calcium onto the ducts - after all, the job of the breasts is to make milk, even if you've never had children. (
  • A common misconception is that women have breasts so that they can feed babies by producing milk . (
  • Moreover, draining milk from both breasts at each feeding inhibits the slowing of milk production in an unused breast, and takes advantage of the higher fat and protein content of early-released milk from each breast. (
  • By contrast, baby-led breast-feeding can decondition the let-down reflex through prolonged suckling at each feed, and can gradually enhance lesser milk production by using only one breast at each feeding. (
  • A breast cup for use with a breast pump for expressing breast milk is provided. (
  • The breast cup sealingly separates the air flow from the breast milk, provides a barrier against impingement of the flexible insert by the user's breast and provides a massaging member for facilitating expression of the breast. (
  • If you've haven't already gleaned from all our coverage over the last year, breast milk is no longer just for babies. (
  • either of the pair of mammae occurring on the chest in humans and having a discrete areola around the nipple, especially the mammae of the female after puberty, which are enlarged and softened by hormonally influenced mammary-gland development and fat deposition and which secrete milk after the birth of a child: the breasts of males normally remain rudimentary. (
  • Milk exits the breast through the nipple, which is surrounded by a pigmented area of skin called the areola. (
  • The breast is an apocrine gland that produces the milk used to feed an infant. (
  • The basic units of the breast are the terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), which produce the fatty breast milk. (
  • Miami Cancer Institute is setting the standard of care for breast cancer in the region - providing innovative and tailored treatments based on your unique tumor type, personal medical history and individual goals and objectives. (
  • Case status (i.e. risk of death time frame) determination made by a multidisciplinary team, ideally in a multi-clinician setting (breast tumor board conference). (
  • Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. (
  • Breast cancer is a kind of tumor that develops in the cells of a person's breast. (
  • lumpectomy (say: lum-PEK-tuh-mee), which removes the cancerous tumor from the breast. (
  • Author: Cristofanilli M et al Circulating Tumor Cells, Disease Progression, and Survival in Metastatic Breast Cancer. (
  • Author: Braun S and Marth C Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer - Toward Individualized Treatment? (
  • 5. History Vincenz CzernyOncology, gynecology In 1895 he published the first account of a breast implant which he had carried out, by transferring a benign lipoma to 'avoid asymmetry' after removing a tumor in a patients breast. (
  • Breast tumor that is negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu proteins. (
  • In breast cancer, abnormal histone modification in combination with DNA hypermethylation is frequently associated with epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes and genomic instability. (
  • This creates a "fingerprint" of an individual tumor, detailing which of the different genes thought to be significant in breast cancer are active or quiescent. (
  • Often, patients first need to have the lump removed (a lumpectomy ) or the entire breast removed (a mastectomy ). (
  • For a mastectomy, your surgeon removes the breast and nearby lymph nodes to see if the cancer has spread. (
  • When Claire discovered that about 2/3 of women choose not to have reconstruction after mastectomy, she decided to set up her Intimate Tour of Breasts. (
  • Breast implants may also be used for breast reconstruction after mastectomy or injury. (
  • Breast reconstruction utilizes several plastic surgery techniques to restore a breast to near normal shape and appearance following mastectomy. (
  • This procedure is performed in combination with the mastectomy and results in an immediate breast mound. (
  • After the mastectomy has been performed by the breast surgeon, the plastic surgeon will place the breast implant, wrapped in a biological mesh known as acellular dermal matrix (ADM), to help the implant maintain correct anatomic position, above the pectoralis muscle. (
  • The initial portion of this procedure entails the breast surgeon performing a standard mastectomy and possible axillary dissection. (
  • Breast Reconstruction Surgery Getting breast reconstruction surgery after a mastectomy is a personal choice. (
  • mastectomy (say: ma-STEK-tuh-mee), which removes the whole breast. (
  • Sometimes, a woman who has a mastectomy may choose to have an operation to reconstruct (rebuild) the breast, so her shape will be more like it was before. (
  • Angelina Jolie started what is now referred to as the "Angelina Effect" when she shared publicly she had undergone a double mastectomy to prevent breast cancer back in May of 2013. (
  • During surgery to remove an original diagnosis of breast cancer (lumpectomy or mastectomy), the surgeon removes all the cancer that can be seen and felt. (
  • If you have local breast cancer recurrence (cancer that comes back in the same area it was originally diagnosed), and your original treatment was lumpectomy and radiation therapy, your doctor may recommend mastectomy. (
  • More than 15,000 women a year have a mastectomy for breast cancer and most of these will have breast reconstruction. (
  • More than 41,000 women in Britain are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, and at least a quarter of these have to face a mastectomy. (
  • CNN anchor Zoraida Sambolin announced in May 2013 that she had breast cancer and was getting a double mastectomy. (
  • Types include: Breast reduction surgery Augmentation mammoplasty Mastectomy Lumpectomy Breast-conserving surgery, a less radical cancer surgery than mastectomy Mastopexy, or breast lift surgery Surgery for breast abscess, including incision and drainage as well as excision of lactiferous ducts Surgical breast biopsy Microdochectomy (removal of a lactiferous duct) reference,Dr. Nariman Motamed. (
  • Mammogram is a screening test that usually detects breast cancer when it's about one-quarter inch in size or smaller. (
  • It's usually found during a mammogram and rarely shows as a breast lump. (
  • However, you should be aware that a mammogram might fail to detect some breast cancers. (
  • Tomosynthesis or digital tomosynthesis is a new type of mammogram for screening breast cancer. (
  • A mammogram is an X-ray image of the breast. (
  • In other cases, a mammogram (say: MAM-uh-gram) may find a lump in the breast that can't be felt. (
  • A mammogram is a special kind of X-ray of the breast that helps doctors see what's going on inside. (
  • BSE is an effective self-diagnostic procedure, but it must not take the place of having a mammogram and having a health care provider check the breasts for abnormal changes. (
  • The doctor may recommend a biopsy if the patient has an abnormal mammogram or a lump in the breast. (
  • If a mammogram, ultrasound or MRI reveals an area in the breast that looks suspicious, or if a lump is felt in the breast, or in a nearby lymph node, a biopsy may be recommended. (
  • Even though you may not be able to feel a tiny lump, a screening mammogram can detect breast cancer at its earliest stages when treatments are most effective. (
  • These include mammogram , breast ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan). (
  • During a mammogram, the breast is compressed between two plates for a few seconds and x-rays are taken. (
  • The doctor will examine the breasts and sometimes recommend a mammogram, an ultrasound exam and (rarely) a needle aspiration. (
  • That's someone who talks to you about any history of cancer in your family to find out if you have a higher risk for getting breast cancer. (
  • It's good for you, but it's not going to stop you from getting breast cancer. (
  • Some women choose to have breast reconstruction external icon during the same surgery. (
  • What options are available for breast reconstruction? (
  • If you've decided to have breast reconstruction, you'll still have many things to think about as you and your doctors talk about what type of reconstruction might be best for you. (
  • Take the time to learn about the breast reconstruction options and consider talking to others who have had that procedure before you make a decision. (
  • There are several techniques that can be used for implant-based breast reconstruction. (
  • Surgeons in the Breast Reconstruction Program understand the profound impact the loss of a breast or part of a breast can have on your sense of self. (
  • Our breast reconstruction experts specialize in surgically recreating natural-looking breasts to help you achieve a positive body image. (
  • Our division performs more than 500 breast reconstruction surgeries each year. (
  • Whether you are a candidate for a minimally invasive procedure or require breast reconstruction, we have carefully designed a step-by-step pathway for your preoperative and postoperative care. (
  • If you are a breast cancer patient, the plastic surgeon will collaborate with your surgical oncologist to discuss your cancer treatment plan, including postoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy, to ensure that the reconstruction options provided to you are aligned with your overall cancer treatment plan. (
  • The plastic surgeon will work with you and a team of Mass General experts from multiple specialties, including breast surgical oncologists, radiation therapists, radiologists and radiation physicians and nurses, to develop a personalized plan that helps you achieve your breast reconstruction goals. (
  • The Brava system was designed and marketed in the United States last year by Dr Roger Khouri, a plastic surgeon who devoted most of his practice to doing breast reconstruction on cancer patients. (
  • In rare cases after breast reconstruction or augmentation, late seroma may occur, defined as seroma occurring more than 12 months postoperatively. (
  • For any phase of your breast cancer journey, including expert diagnosis, personalized treatments, surgical oncology expertise, second opinions, access to groundbreaking clinical trials, genetic counseling services and prevention, our team is here to help. (
  • Our multidisciplinary breast cancer team works together as a group to facilitate and streamline diagnosis and determine the best treatment path. (
  • NCCN Clinical Practice guidelines in Oncology™ Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis Guidelines. (
  • A diagnosis of breast cancer often leads to a treatment plan that includes surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation and frequent check-ups. (
  • This website provides an interactive tutorial and a narrated presentation for teaching patients about the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. (
  • In the early 1970s, half of breast cancer patients died within five years of diagnosis. (
  • This is partially related to the often late diagnosis of male breast cancer , when the cancer has already spread. (
  • From routine mammograms to breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and recovery, Silver Cross Hospital has brought together advanced technology and highly trained specialists so area residents can receive comprehensive breast care close to home. (
  • For many women, one of the more frightening aspects of a breast cancer diagnosis is the potential impact the disease can have on an area of the body often associated with femininity and motherhood. (
  • Most of the time the diagnosis of fibrocystic breast characteristics does not require extensive testing. (
  • It's the first time she's hit a red carpet since announcing her breast cancer diagnosis in August. (
  • Jackie Collins died on Saturday of breast cancer, but her sister, actress Joan Collins, didn't know of her diagnosis until just days before she died. (
  • If you were already treated for breast cancer and now have a new diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer, your doctor may want to biopsy the area of metastasis to find out whether there have been any changes in hormone-receptor or HER2 status. (
  • To learn more about tests used to screen for recurrence, please visit the Breast Cancer Tests: Screening, Diagnosis, and Monitoring section. (
  • Our team of breast health specialists bring together a collaboration of physicians and scientists who offer expertise in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of both breast cancer and benign breast conditions. (
  • Overall, in the UK, more than 85% diagnosed with breast cancer live for at least 5 years after diagnosis. (
  • Learn about the symptoms of breast cancer and the role of early diagnosis and treatment in improving patient outcomes. (
  • Behind every breast cancer diagnosis is a personal story. (
  • This video highlights the ripple effect of a breast cancer diagnosis. (
  • Patients who have breast-cancer cells in distant sites are said to have advanced breast cancer, whether or not the cancer was detected at the distant sites at first diagnosis or later. (
  • The objective of the SABCS," the organizers state, "is to provide state-of-the-art information on the experimental biology, etiology, prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of breast cancer and pre-malignant breast disease to an international audience of academic and private physicians and researchers. (
  • Many say breast cancer is a diagnosis that no one can be truly prepare for. (
  • Has the federal government also studied the anxiety women experience when they get that dreadful diagnosis of breast cancer , and their relief from successful treatment because cancer was detected early? (
  • Since 1944, Cancer Care has provided free support services to anyone affected by any cancer diagnosis, and indeed many of the patients and caregivers who contact us each year are coping with a breast cancer diagnosis. (
  • The study was jointly led by Professor Christina Curtis, PhD at Stanford University and examined genetic changes in breast tumors from 2,000 women, following them over 20 years to see whether or not the cancer returned. (
  • This increase of the breasts can be due to a hormonal deficiency, to hepatic alterations, to tumors that change the hormonal equilibrium or due to excessive weight gain or as a consequence of aging, among others. (
  • Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts. (
  • Stage 3 breast cancer is invasive, tumors may be larger and cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, possibly to several lymph nodes. (
  • Race: White women have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, but African-American women tend to have more aggressive tumors when they do develop breast cancer. (
  • Nonmalignant cysts and tumors in the breasts. (
  • Each year, more presentations at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium have focused on the potential of what has been called the "genetic fingerprinting" of breast cancer tumors. (
  • During a breast exam, a doctor or nurse practitioner will feel a woman's breasts to check any lumps and bumps and see if there are changes since the last exam. (
  • As you grow and develop, you will probably notice small lumps and other changes in your breasts. (
  • Infections also can cause breast lumps. (
  • Most breast lumps are nothing to worry about, but it always helps to talk to a doctor or nurse about what to expect as your breasts grow. (
  • Most breast lumps aren't cancerous, but it's always best to have them checked by your doctor. (
  • If women examine their breasts monthly, they can help find lumps or other changes that a doctor should examine. (
  • Most breast lumps are not cancer, but all lumps should be checked out by a doctor to be sure. (
  • Women should consult with their physician if they notice dimpling of the skin, any change in outline or shape of their breasts, unusual lumps, areas of thickening, or pain during the palpation of the breasts. (
  • Still, your doctor needs to know about any lumps you feel in your breast so they can be monitored for any change in size or tenderness. (
  • Your doctor can monitor any new lumps on a reconstructed breast by performing a clinical breast exam. (
  • Women are taught using plastic breast models to detect lumps (tumours) that are extremely small - from 5 mm to 10 mm in diameter. (
  • We have already proven that we know how to teach the technique of breast self-examination and I believe we now know what to teach women to look for: not tiny lumps that are rarely cancers, but the bigger, easier-to-detect lumps more likely to be malignant. (
  • Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women. (
  • Each year in the United States, about 255,000 women get breast cancer and 42,000 women die from the disease. (
  • Treatments for breast cancer have improved dramatically in recent years, but unfortunately for some women, their breast cancer returns and spreads, becoming incurable. (
  • Chemo can be used as the main treatment for women whose cancer has spread outside the breast and underarm area, either when it is diagnosed or after initial treatments. (
  • There are tests available, such as Oncotype DX and Mammoprint, that can help determine which women will most likely benefit from chemo after breast surgery. (
  • While our team has the expertise to take care of any stage of breast cancer, we work hard to teach women about cancer prevention. (
  • Many women with early stage, ER positive breast cancers to not benefit substantially from chemotherapy. (
  • Applying strict validation criteria to qualify readers to quantify mammographic breast density for research studies will enhance the chance of accurately assessing breast density and discriminating women at high and low risk of breast cancer. (
  • Despite the apparent necessity of GH/IGF-1 signaling in pubertal breast development however, women with Laron syndrome , in whom the growth hormone receptor (GHR) is defective and insensitive to GH and serum IGF-1 levels are very low, puberty, including breast development, is delayed, although full sexual maturity is always eventually reached. (
  • [15] [16] The relatively large breasts in women with Laron syndrome have been suggested to be due to increased secretion of prolactin (which is known to produce breast enlargement) caused by a drift phenomenon from somatomammotrophic cells in the pituitary gland with a high GH secretion. (
  • Breast atrophy commonly occurs in women during menopause when estrogen levels decrease. (
  • In the treatment of gynecomastia in males and macromastia in women, and in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for trans men , [10] breast atrophy may be a desired effect. (
  • About 29 percent of all cancers in women start in the breast, more than any other type of cancer. (
  • Morrow M, Wong S, Venta L. The evaluation of breast masses in women younger than forty years of age. (
  • Long-term risk of breast cancer in women with fibroadenoma. (
  • It's very empowering for women, to help future generations of breast cancer patients," says Rita Nanda, MD, of the University of Chicago. (
  • Jolie carries a variant of a gene called BRCA1 that makes women highly likely to develop breast and ovarian cancer . (
  • A number of studies have shown that bilateral risk-reducing mastectomies (the official term) do indeed reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with the BRCA1 mutation. (
  • As a result, women who carry BRCA mutations have a 40 to 85 percent risk of developing breast cancer during their lifetime. (
  • Breast cancer changed everything for these women, and for dozens of others who have been a part of Livestrong at the YMCA, a free 12 -week exercise, wellness and nutrition program for anyone who has had cancer. (
  • Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. (
  • Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. (
  • About one in eight women in the United States will develop invasive breast cancer in her lifetime. (
  • Researchers estimate that more than 276,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in U.S. women in 2020. (
  • These genes are described as "high penetrance" because they are associated with a high risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer and a moderate risk of developing pancreatic cancer and a type of skin cancer called melanoma in women who have mutations. (
  • The new Comprehensive Breast Center at Middlesex Hospital's cancer center in Middletown is now open, and is specifically aimed at improving care and detection for women at high risk for breast cancer. (
  • Most women, however, have non-cancerous breast health concerns as well. (
  • Some women are more prone to yeast infections during pregnancy, and sore breasts and/or nipples is a sign of pregnancy. (
  • These hormones are believed to be responsible for the cyclical changes such as the swelling, pain , and tenderness that many women experience in their breasts just before menstruation. (
  • Many women also experience changes in breast texture, with breasts feeling particularly lumpy. (
  • Researchers from the University of Buffalo have found that women who regularly consume onions and garlic could be reducing their risk of developing breast. (
  • Breast cancer affects hundreds of thousands of women in the United States each year, and much research has been done on risk factors that influence breast. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that women who do not have health problems exclusively breast-feed their infants for at least the first six months, with it continuing at least through the first year as other foods are introduced. (
  • More than a million older women will be living with breast cancer within a generation, say campaigners who warn today that the NHS is ill-prepared to take care of them. (
  • He continued: "We can no longer tolerate the present situation where too many cancer doctors are making assumptions based on age which often result in older women receiving inadequate care for their breast cancer. (
  • Lots of girls and women have something called fibrocystic breast changes. (
  • Carolinas Breast Friends (CBF) is nonprofit organization that provides a caring and positive environment for women diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • Most women diagnosed with breast cancer are over 50, but younger women can also get breast cancer. (
  • About one in eight women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime. (
  • For this reason, it's vital that women check their breasts regularly for any changes and always get any changes examined by their GP. (
  • Women with a higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer may be offered screening and genetic testing for the condition. (
  • As the risk of breast cancer increases with age, all women who are 50 to 70 years old are invited for breast cancer screening every three years. (
  • In a small proportion of women, breast cancer is discovered after it's spread to other parts of the body (metastatic breast cancer). (
  • In the United States, around 12 percent of women, which is about 1 in every 8 women, will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. (
  • The number of women who die from breast cancer has been decreasing since 1989, due, in part, to early detection through screening and improved treatment. (
  • Women of all ages should be informed of the benefits, limitations, and potential harms of breast cancer screening. (
  • As women get older, they are more at risk for breast cancer. (
  • Teens - as well as women in their twenties and thirties - are less likely to get breast cancer. (
  • Women who smoke , eat high-fat diets, drink alcohol , and don't get enough exercise may be more at risk for developing breast cancer. (
  • Family history: The risk of breast cancer is higher among women who have relatives with the disease. (
  • Women diagnosed with certain benign breast conditions have an increased risk of breast cancer. (
  • Being overweight or obese increases the risk of breast cancer both in pre- and postmenopausal women but at different rates. (
  • The study was of a test which detects tumour cells in the bloodstream - in this case in women with breast cancer which had spread to distant parts of the body. (
  • Women with advanced breast cancer don't all take the same course. (
  • Where it's needed most is in women with early breast cancer to help decide who might need more aggressive therapy when they're first diagnosed. (
  • Most women, when first diagnosed with breast cancer, focus on becoming cancer free as quickly as possible. (
  • More women are diagnosed with breast cancer than any other cancer. (
  • That's why, within a few weeks of beginning chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer, many women report losing some or all of their hair. (
  • Breast cancer, the growth of malignant cells in the breast, is the most common cancer among women. (
  • In American women, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer, after skin cancers, and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. (
  • Approximately 10% of women with breast cancer have a positive family history. (
  • Women who have at least 2 first degree relatives with breast cancer that was diagnosed before the age of 50, or ovarian cancer diagnosed at any age, may have inherited one of two breast cancer genes, increasing their risk of both breast and ovarian cancer. (
  • Women who have no children, have their first child in their 30s, or have never breastfed may be more susceptible to breast cancer. (
  • Having fibrocystic breasts does not place women at a higher or lower risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • Atypical hyperplasia is associated with a fivefold increase in breast cancer risk and is found in an estimated 4 to 10 percent of women with lumpy breasts. (
  • This type of breast cancer is typically found in women aged 50 and above. (
  • 90% of the women who experience these symptoms have an underlying breast cancer. (
  • A breast cancer clinic at Harris Health Smith Clinic, organized and staffed by physicians from the Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center at Baylor Medicine, has been established to improve breast care for Houston's underserved women. (
  • Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. (
  • Women with small breasts can nurse a baby just as well as women with large breasts . (
  • The real evolutionary purpose of women having breasts is to attract the male of the species . (
  • The number of women dying from breast cancer has gone down significantly in the last 20 years in the UK mainly because of efficient and early screening and detection of the cancer. (
  • HER2-positive cancer usually occurs in younger women and is more quickly-growing and aggressive than other types of breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women with approximately 1.67 million new cases diagnosed worldwide each year. (
  • Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. (
  • According to the National Breast Cancer Foundation, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. (
  • The goal of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, founded in 1991 by breast cancer survivor Janelle Hail, is to educate women of the importance of early detection and the availability of support services. (
  • Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and affects more than 41,000 women in the UK every year. (
  • Tens of thousands of women develop breast cancer every year and great strides have been taken to tackle the disease. (
  • Breast cancer affects one in every eight women. (
  • All that's set to change, however: In what must surely be the most uplifting news for small-breasted women in a long time, an American plastic surgeon has developed a suction system called Brava that can help women increase their bust size without surgery or pain. (
  • The managing director of Brava Systems (M) Sdn Bhd explains: "Brava is for women who want bigger breasts without having to resort to silicone. (
  • He first stumbled onto the idea of using this non-surgical method for breast enhancement almost a decade ago and began developing prototypes for women to try out. (
  • Nearly 200,000 American women will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer this year. (
  • Most women who get treated for breast cancer will not have a recurrence. (
  • We expanded research into breast cancer, ovarian cancer, osteoporosis, and other serious diseases that afflict women. (
  • But experts say much of what women think they know about breast cancer could be wrong. (
  • But first, to health care here in the U.S. Women here know they face a threat from breast cancer, but much of what they think they know is wrong, according to a new survey commissioned by the National Breast Cancer Coalition. (
  • MARTIN: Doctor, I think you've probably heard that, apparently, a lot of people believe that most women at risk for breast cancer have a family history of the disease. (
  • Most women who have breast cancer have no relatives who have breast cancer, or no family history of breast cancer. (
  • It would be unfortunate if the women of Long Island declined screening for breast cancer based on this editorial. (
  • It is likely that the women screened annually were considered to be at higher risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • If the groups are comparable, which is unlikely, these results suggest that breast cancers did not grow over the extra year among women in this trial. (
  • We have also partnered with the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Foundation to assist and support women with triple-negative breast cancer. (
  • Women with Medicare coverage who are coping with metastatic breast cancer may be eligible for co-payment assistance through the Cancer Care Co-Payment Assistance Foundation . (
  • Preventive health care, 2001 update: Should women be routinely taught breast self-examination to screen for breast cancer? (
  • Effect of preoperative therapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50 to 59 years. (
  • The dimensions and weight of the breast vary widely among women. (
  • Complicated breast cysts on sonography: is aspiration necessary to exclude malignancy? (
  • Instead, they can show benign changes in the breast such as fibrous growths, cysts, calcium deposits or old scars. (
  • This is when small fluid-filled cysts in the breasts change size based on where a girl is in her menstrual cycle . (
  • During these times, hormone level changes often cause the breast cells to retain fluid and develop into nodules or cysts (sacs filled with fluid), which feel like a lump when touched. (
  • The nodules or cysts can spread throughout the breast, may be located in one general area or simply appear as one or more large cysts. (
  • Multiple small cysts and an increasing level of breast pain commonly develop when a woman hits her 30s. (
  • Mammograms are the best way to find breast cancer early, when it is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. (
  • Regular mammograms can help an individual detect breast cancer in early stages. (
  • It's no secret that breast cancer is a widespread medical issue, and one that is often best fought through regular mammograms and early detection. (
  • Diagnostic mammograms can also check for breast cancer when there are signs and symptoms, such as a lump. (
  • From mammograms to personal hygiene, learn the truth about these deadly breast cancer rumors. (
  • The information here is meant to help you understand medical language you might find in the pathology report from a breast biopsy, such as a needle biopsy or an excision biopsy. (
  • A comparison of aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in the evaluation of breast lesions. (
  • Garg S, Mohan H, Bal A, Attri AK, Kochhar S. A comparative analysis of core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of palpable and mammographically detected suspicious breast lesions. (
  • What is a breast biopsy? (
  • A physician may advise a breast biopsy if there are changes in the nipple, such as any dimpling, thickening, scaling, or crusting of the skin. (
  • What happens in a breast biopsy? (
  • There are several ways of doing a breast biopsy. (
  • This is also known as image-guided stereotactic breast biopsy. (
  • You'll have an ultrasound scan of your breast to check for an abscess. (
  • One must keep in mind that the breast flattens against the chest wall during ultrasound, so an oblique needle path carries a risk of injury to underlying muscles or even the pleura and lungs . (
  • Dempsey, P. J. The history of breast ultrasound. (
  • Berg WA, Bandos AI, Mendelson EB, Lehrer D, Jong RA, Pisano ED. Ultrasound as the Primary Screening Test for Breast Cancer: Analysis From ACRIN 6666. (
  • The image quality and lesion characterization of breast using automated whole-breast ultrasound: A comparison with handheld ultrasound. (
  • The Practice of Breast Ultrasound. (
  • Dominique A. Lobar Ultrasound of the Breast. (
  • Rochira D, Cavalcanti P, Ottaviani A, Tambasco D. Longitudinal Ultrasound Study of Breast Implant Rupture Over a Six-Year Interval. (
  • WFUMB guidelines and recommendations for clinical use of ultrasound elastography: Part 2: breast. (
  • Advances in Breast Ultrasound. (
  • Ultrasound can be used to distinguish between seroma, hematoma, and edema in the breast. (
  • Beverley Nash was devastated when she was diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with breast cancer, or has concerns about a breast-related symptom or personal risk factors, our team is here for you. (
  • You're probably familiar with these tests from when you were diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • Macmillan Cancer Research says the health service faces a "timebomb", with the number of over 65s who have been diagnosed with breast cancer at some point in their lives due to almost quadruple by 2040. (
  • In rare cases, men can also be diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • Personal history: Having been diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast increases the risk of cancer in the other breast or the chance of an additional cancer in the original breast. (
  • Casey Maurer of Emmaus was diagnosed with breast cancer at 34. (
  • Shannen Doherty, star of the original 90210, talked with Dr. Mehmet Oz earlier this week about what she has endured since she was diagnosed with breast cancer in March of 2015. (
  • The numbers below come from the National Cancer Data Base, and are based on people who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2001 and 2002. (
  • I was diagnosed with breast cancer ten years ago and that kind of lead me to want to build something for Mount Sinai because I was being treated at Mount Sinai and they didn't have it and I thought that it was hard for me to go through this, but how about someone who didn't have the medical background who wasn't able to coordinate things? (
  • Good Morning America anchor Robin Roberts, 52, made a name for herself interviewing athletes, actors, and other newsworthy personalities, but in 2007, she turned the camera on herself to announce she'd been diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • The biggest problem I had is was when I have a patient - and this doesn't happen very often, but it happened enough - when I have patient that I diagnosed with breast cancer, and they'll look at me and say, well, doctor, what I'm going to do is change my diet and I'm going to eat right so that I don't need that chemotherapy and radiation. (
  • LBBC was founded in 1991 by a radiation oncologist who discovered there weren't many resources for those diagnosed with breast cancer, and facing treatment. (
  • In these cases, the condition is known as invasive breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer at this stage is invasive, but it remains small and near the primary site. (
  • Stage 2 breast cancers are invasive. (
  • non-invasive breast cancer (carcinoma in situ) - found in the ducts of the breast (ductal carcinoma in situ, DCIS) and hasn't developed the ability to spread outside the breast. (
  • invasive breast cancer - usually develops in the cells that line the breast ducts (invasive ductal breast cancer) and is the most common type of breast cancer. (
  • Most breast cancers are invasive. (
  • Roughly 95% of all breast cancers are invasive. (
  • Individuals may develop one, the other, or a combination of invasive and noninvasive breast cancer. (
  • This is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma. (
  • This is rare type of invasive breast cancer that rarely spreads to the lymph nodes. (
  • They may be associated with the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) , an early-stage cancer that remains inside the duct, or even invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) that has spread to the surrounding breast tissues. (
  • The HER2 marker is present in about 20% of cases of invasive breast cancer. (
  • Many others disagree with the new guidelines, including the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. "Every day we discover invasive breast cancer in a woman age 40-50," said Sandhya Pruthin, director of Mayo's Breast Clinic. (
  • Carcinoma is a term used to describe a cancer that starts in the lining layer (epithelial cells) of organs like the breast. (
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a type of in-situ carcinoma of the breast, but it is not considered a pre-cancer. (
  • A biologic subset of breast carcinoma defined by low to moderate expression of genes characteristic of luminal epithelial cells including estrogen receptor (ER), and high expression of GGH, LAPTM4B, and CCNE1. (
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ is a form of stage 0 breast cancer. (
  • The most common types of breast cancer are ductal carcinoma (in the lining of the breast duct) and lobular carcinoma (in the breast lobule). (
  • This is called metastatic breast cancer. (
  • Let's start by defining metastatic breast cancer. (
  • EST) and Living with Metastatic Breast Cancer (October 27, 2016 at 1:30 p.m. (
  • Genetic risk factors: The most common causes are mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (breast cancer and ovarian cancer genes). (
  • Register for our upcoming workshops, Coping with the Stresses of Caregiving When Your Loved One has Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (October 26, 2016 at 1:30 p.m. (
  • If there is swelling or pain in the breast, or if you notice nipple discharge in one or both breasts, one should see a doctor immediately. (
  • There are different symptoms of breast cancer, and some people have no symptoms at all. (
  • Learn how to check for the signs and symptoms of breast cancer. (
  • Our team helps you understand the type and complexity of your breast cancer, while managing your symptoms. (
  • These can be symptoms of a breast infection or abscess. (
  • In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. (
  • Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer. (
  • What are the initial signs and symptoms of breast cancer? (
  • Read more about the symptoms of breast cancer . (
  • The cause of fibrocystic breast change is not known, but the symptoms and signs are linked to a woman's hormone patterns. (
  • It's simple to use, completely free and full of helpful information about the signs and symptoms of breast cancer. (
  • Breast cancer has developed in other areas of the body outside the breast and lymph nodes, often in the bones, lungs , brain or liver . (
  • It's possible for breast cancer to spread to other parts of the body, usually through the bloodstream or the axillary lymph nodes. (
  • The cancer leads to blockage of the lymph vessels in the skin of the breast. (
  • Breast cancer that has spread outside of the breast is often found in the lymph nodes under the arm. (
  • The most important distinction is whether the breast-cancer cells are confined to the breast and lymph nodes (this is sometimes referred to as early-stage breast cancer) or if they are in distant sites-such as the bone, liver, lungs. (
  • The combined effects of radiation and breast cancer surgery can in particular lead to complications such as breast fibrosis, secondary lymphoedema (which may occur in the arm, the breast or the chest, in particular after axillary lymph node dissection), breast asymmetry, and chronic/recurrent breast cellulitis, each of these having long-term effects. (
  • The odds ratios associated with breast cancer when films with mammographic breast density of 50% or greater are considered "dense" ranged from 3.1 to 3.9 or a 1.9-2.4-per-population-SD increase in percentage density. (
  • Different radiological grading schemes like the density/pattern classification by Wolfe (1) , or relative dense area assessment, show a strong association with subsequent development of breast cancer. (
  • A new lump in the breast or underarm. (
  • A lump in the breast or underarms is often the first sign. (
  • For breast cancer patients, the central line is typically placed on the opposite side of the breast that had surgery. (
  • If your treatment plan includes surgery, you will have a team of skilled surgical breast specialists, including plastic and reconstructive surgical expertise. (
  • Tear-drop implants indicate the anatomic contour of all breast lift without surgery in chennai implants strictly than implants that are round. (
  • Other studies test drugs that haven't been used together before, or check on how well radiation or surgery treat advanced breast cancer. (
  • Surgery has long been an option to treat breast cancer, but new research suggests that it could make the disease worse in some cases.Findings published. (
  • Studies show that older breast cancer patients are less likely to receive breast conserving surgery than those who are younger. (
  • Radiotherapy affects the heart, for instance, while breast cancer surgery can weaken the upper arms. (
  • It might also increase your chances of having extra tests and interventions, including surgery, even if you're not affected by breast cancer. (
  • The type of surgery and the treatment you have afterwards will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. (
  • A woman usually has this surgery when the cancer is found early and when the lump is small and in only one part of the breast. (
  • This surgery is done when cancer cells have spread through the breast or into other parts of the body. (
  • We also offer breast reduction and enhancement surgery, as well as other cosmetic procedures. (
  • Our approach to your care centers on your personal preferences and goals for reconstructive breast surgery. (
  • After breast cancer surgery and radiation, the entire breast area can be swollen and red for as long as a few months. (
  • So when three sisters were told they carried the breast cancer gene, all three decided to have radical surgery and remove both their breasts. (
  • Dr. Kenneth Davis, the CEO of Mount Sinai Medical Center, and Dr. Elisa Port, MD, FACS, the Chief of Breast Surgery and Co-Director of the Dubin Breast Center. (
  • Want bigger breasts without the fuss of surgery? (
  • Breast surgery is a form of surgery performed on the breast. (
  • There is preliminary evidence suggesting that negative-pressure wound therapy may be useful in healing complicated breast wounds resulting from surgery. (
  • Postoperative pain is common following breast surgery. (
  • Regional anaesthesia is superior compared to general anaesthesia for the prevention of persistent postoperative pain three to 12 months after breast cancer surgery. (
  • Essentials of Breast Surgery. (
  • If your family has a strong history of breast cancer, your specific DNA may include some of the genes or abnormal cells that may lead to cancer. (
  • Hyperplasia is a term used when there is an abnormal pattern of growth of cells within the ducts and/or lobules of the breast that is not cancer. (
  • It is important that BSEs are performed routinely so that a woman knows what her breasts normally feel and look like, resulting in quicker identification of anything abnormal. (
  • These include atypical hyperplasia, a condition in which there is abnormal proliferation of breast cells but no cancer has developed. (
  • Breast development results in prominent and developed structures on the chest known as breasts in primates, which serve primarily as mammary glands . (
  • So can an injury to the breast - like getting hit in the chest while playing sports. (
  • This includes cells in the breasts, the two rounded areas on the front of the chest. (
  • Exposure to previous chest radiation or use of diethylstilbestrol increases the risk of breast cancer. (
  • A breast cancer recurrence, or "recurrent breast cancer," is cancer that has come back in the same or opposite breast or chest wall after a period of time when the cancer couldn't be detected. (
  • thus, the breasts cover much of the chest area and the chest walls. (
  • In DCIS the cancer cells are present within the ducts of the breast. (
  • If your nipples hurt or you have tender breasts it just means that your boobs are growing and you are getting ready to start your period or have your next period, in other words it is perfectly normal. (
  • First, with the arms down to the sides, look at the color, shape, outline, and direction of the breasts and nipples, taking note of anything atypical. (
  • During a clinical breast examination, the health care provider examines the breasts (including the nipples and areola) for retractions, skin changes, and discharge. (
  • Breasts, especially the nipples, are an erogenous zone. (
  • How can we detect breast cancer in the early stage? (
  • A new study conducted by researchers at the National Cancer Research Institute found that a routine blood test could detect breast cancer in patients up to. (
  • Your breasts fit into a hollow depression in the table, which contains coils that detect magnetic signals. (
  • This procedure can also restore breast volume lost after weight reduction or pregnancy, achieve a more rounded breast shape or improve natural breast size asymmetry. (
  • Breast tenderness is as a sign of pregnancy. (
  • From a mild tingling in the breasts, a gentle swelling, or an aching soreness, the breasts go through changes in response to the shifting hormones in your body that are an early sign of pregnancy. (
  • Only pregnancy brings about the fullness of breast growth and development. (
  • This, too, is related to the glands in the breast enlarging in preparation for a possible pregnancy. (
  • If pregnancy does not occur, the breasts return to normal size. (
  • Breast development in other primate females generally only occurs with pregnancy. (
  • During pregnancy, the breast responds to a complex interaction of hormones, including estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, that mediate the completion of its development, namely lobuloalveolar maturation, in preparation of lactation and breastfeeding. (
  • Early detection of breast cancer: large-section and subgross thick-section histologic correlation with mammographic appearances. (
  • Breast density as a predictor of mammographic detection: comparison of interval- and screen-detected cancers. (
  • Mammographic density and the risk and detection of breast cancer. (
  • Breast Cancer Detective is an interactive learning module that tests your knowledge of breast cancer detection. (
  • Mahoney L, Csima A. Efficiency of palpation in clinical detection of breast cancer. (
  • It is hoped that stratifying breast cancer patients in this more detailed way could lead to better personalized medicine approaches, reducing the number of people who relapse as well as reassuring those with a very low risk of relapse. (
  • The team is currently developing an affordable test for use in hospitals and investigating better personalized treatment options for breast cancer patients based on their findings. (
  • Breast augmentation, sometimes referred to as a 'boob job' by patients, involves using breast implants or fat transfer to increase the size of your breasts. (
  • In counseling breast cancer patients who wish to change and improve their eating habits, Malcher points to the food plan recommended by the American Institute for Cancer Research. (
  • For breast cancer patients, sometimes the best therapy is just talking about their experience with others going through the same thing - and that can take place either in a hospital conference room, or while fly-fishing. (
  • However, the rise in the number of breast cancer patients is expected to grow faster than most. (
  • It is already struggling to provide adequate care for older breast cancer patients. (
  • We need to change the way we care for older breast cancer patients now - so that we are prepared for such a dramatic increase in numbers. (
  • Researchers at King's College London predict that the number of breast cancer patients over 65 will increase at almost double the rate as those in younger age groups between now and 2040. (
  • Franciscan Health hospitals and clinics can help ease the anxiety associated with breast cancer concerns by offering a full range of diagnostic and treatment services that quickly can assess patients' needs and provide solutions in a timely manner. (
  • Health care practitioners often teach patients how to perform breast self-examination while doing a clinical examination. (
  • Jill Conley, a breast cancer sufferer who began a non-profit in her final years to help other breast cancer patients and their families, died Tuesday morning. (
  • Celebrating the health care professionals across Africa providing safe, quality breast cancer care and supporting patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • Breast cancer treatment can involve many steps and different patients will have different treatment pathways. (
  • Breast Cancer Care is a charity which provides support for patients as well as ideas for fundraising and how to donate. (
  • [ 2 , 3 ] Understanding the mechanisms of dysregulation of histone tail post-translational modifications and their contribution to breast tumorigenesis is critically important in the development of novel targeted therapy for breast cancer patients. (
  • Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius tried to dispel concerns Wednesday that new guidelines on breast-cancer screening threaten insurance coverage for the procedure amid a growing debate about the guidelines among patients, medical professionals and legislators. (
  • Seltzer M. Breast complaints, biopsies, and cancer correlated with age in 10, 000 consecutive new surgical referrals. (
  • Most results of breast biopsies are not cancer. (
  • Breast imaging navigators ensure rapid scheduling of biopsies and timely reporting of results. (
  • Furthermore, if a breast has already undergone irradiation (as in radiation therapy for treating breast cancer), there is a heightened risk of complications (e.g. reactive inflammation, occurrence of a chronic draining wound, etc.) for breast biopsies or other interventions to the breast, even those often considered "minor" surgeries. (
  • Fibrocystic breast changes are nothing to worry about and don't need any kind of medical treatment. (
  • Also called fibrocystic condition, fibrocystic change or cystic mastitis, fibrocystic breast disease is more a characteristic of the breast than a disease. (
  • Fibrocystic breast disease is usually diagnosed when a patient goes to her doctor for a checkup or seeks help for pain, tenderness or a lump that was probably discovered during breast self-examination. (
  • There are no specific treatments for fibrocystic breast disease, other than those to minimize discomfort. (
  • This is where high-energy radiation is given to your breast to kill any remaining cancer cells. (
  • Only 10 percent of breast cancers are due to specific inherited high risk genes, while 90 percent are mostly triggered by environmental and lifestyle factors. (
  • Somatic mutations in many different genes have been found in breast cancer cells. (
  • In people with germline mutations, changes in other genes, together with environmental and lifestyle factors, also influence whether a person will develop breast cancer. (
  • Some breast cancers that cluster in families are associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 . (
  • Men with mutations in these genes also have an increased risk of developing several forms of cancer, including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer , and melanoma. (
  • This apparently critical gene is the most important of only a few genes clearly associated with sporadic, rather than hereditary, breast cancer, says Masaaki Hamaguchi of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, who led the work. (
  • And mutations in DBC2 were more frequent in breast cancer cells than mutations in other tumour suppressor genes previously linked to the disease. (
  • Hamaguchi and his colleagues have worked for many years on genes involved in breast cancer. (
  • [ 10-14 ] Pruitt and colleagues demonstrated that inhibition of class III HDAC SIRT1 using a pharmacologic inhibitor, splitomicin, or siRNA reactivates epigenetically silenced SFRP1 , SFRP2 , E- cadherin , and CRBP1 genes in human breast cancer cells. (
  • A new study has identified that breast cancer can be several genetically distinct diseases, each with a different risk of coming back after treatment. (
  • In this study, we've delved deeper into breast molecular subtypes so we can more accurately identify who might be at risk of relapsing and uncover new ways of treating them,' said Caldas. (
  • Adjuvant chemo can lower the risk of breast cancer coming back. (
  • Mammographic density is a major risk factor for breast cancer. (
  • In fact, breast density is perhaps the strongest but least recognized risk factor for breast cancer. (
  • Although, breast density has been shown to be a power indicator of cancer risk, there is no generalized method for training and validating individuals to perform the measure. (
  • A secondary goal of the study was to demonstrate the association of quantitative PD measurement with the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Less commonly, gene mutations present in essentially all of the body's cells increase the risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • A significantly increased risk of breast cancer is also a feature of several rare genetic syndromes. (
  • While recent studies have focused on breast cancer risk factors like diet and weight loss, a new study found that popular hair treatments could also pose a. (
  • Quantitative assessment of mammographic breast density: relationship with breast cancer risk. (
  • However, there are certain factors known to increase the risk of breast cancer. (
  • A man's lifetime risk of breast cancer is 1 in every 1,000 men. (
  • Some of the breast cancer risk factors can be modified (such as alcohol use) while others cannot be influenced (such as age). (
  • Having no children or the first child after age 30 increases the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Breastfeeding for one and a half to two years might slightly lower the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Use of oral contraceptives in the last 10 years increases the risk of breast cancer slightly. (
  • Using combined hormone therapy after menopause increases the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Alcohol use increases the risk of breast cancer, and this seems to be proportional to the amount of alcohol used. (
  • A recent study reviewing the research on alcohol use and breast cancer concluded that all levels of alcohol use are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. (
  • Exercise seems to lower the risk of breast cancer. (
  • Inheriting a mutated gene from a parent means that one has a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • In 90% of cases, only one breast is affected, although those who have had cancer in one breast are at increased risk of eventually developing it in the other. (
  • The risk of breast cancer increases progressively with age. (
  • A lump or swelling, usually painless, anywhere in the breast or underarm area (but most commonly in the upper and outer region of the breast). (
  • Edward-Elmhurst Health is first health system in the Chicago area to acquire the latest in breast imaging technology - Molecular Breast Imaging or MBI. (
  • In this short video, Dr. Pouneh Razavi, director of breast imaging, talks about what you need to know about screening for breast cancer. (
  • Recognized by the American College of Radiology as a Center of Excellence for breast imaging, the Sullivan Center provides unparalleled expertise and expedient, compassionate care. (
  • Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Atlas (BI-RADS® Atlas). (
  • Imaging in Breast Implant Rupture. (
  • Breast Cancer Imaging: A Multidisciplinary, Multimodality Approach. (
  • Nine readers (three radiologists, two non-radiology physicians, and four nonphysicians) assessed breast density on 144 digitized films (60 contralateral films of breast cancer cases and 84 controls) on a computer workstation with custom software. (
  • At Mass General, only specially trained breast radiologists do these procedures. (
  • We investigated whether individuals with and without backgrounds in radiology or medicine can achieve sufficient accuracy when compared with an expert (gold standard) reader of mammographic breast density. (
  • The blood flow stimulates the glands of the breasts. (
  • The breasts and duct system continue to grow and mature with the development of many glands and lobules. (
  • During the examination of the lump sample, the pathologist might see excessive fibrous growth between the breast glands or cyst formation within the glands. (
  • This video introduces Talk to Someone: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, external icon an interactive conversation with the virtual triple-negative breast cancer survivor, Linda. (
  • Triple-negative breast cancer is a kind of breast cancer that does not have any of the receptors that are commonly found in breast cancer. (
  • But if you have triple-negative breast cancer, it means those three locks aren't there. (
  • How Is Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treated? (
  • For example, triple-negative breast cancer, which has one of the worst prognoses, can actually be considered to be two different types of breast cancer. (
  • New research published in the journal Nature shows that breast cancer is 11 genetically distinct diseases, and each has a different prognosis and chance of coming back after treatment. (
  • Effective breast cancer treatment requires a personalized, targeted approach. (
  • Examples of treatment options for breast atrophy, depending on the situation/when appropriate, can include estrogens, antiandrogens , and proper nutrition or weight gain . (
  • Also, there's just a reassurance understanding that as a result of the breast enlargement in chennai essence of the salt water treatment, it's simpler to find a silicone or dilemma together with implants. (
  • Your GP will refer you to hospital for treatment if they think you have a breast abscess. (
  • In phase III, the study will compare the new treatment with the standard treatments for advanced breast cancer. (
  • Follow-Up Care After breast cancer treatment, follow-up care is a must. (
  • Nutrition and Exercise Regardless of the type of breast cancer treatment you are receiving, this is a time to take care of yourself by eating right, getting enough rest, and, if possible, exercising. (
  • A year after ending her breast-cancer treatment, Amy Bizzarri hightails it to Weeki Wachee Springs State Park for a weekend at mermaid camp. (
  • Treatment for breast cancer usually depends on the type of cancer and whether the cancer has spread outside of the breast to other parts of the body. (
  • A test that detects tumour cells in the bloodstream may one day offer a better way of assessing a woman's prognosis with breast cancer and allow better decisions to be made about her treatment. (
  • Recently published findings, if correct, may one day offer a better way of assessing a woman's prognosis with breast cancer and allow better decisions to be made about her treatment. (
  • Over years, with the development of medicines and surgical procedures for breast cancer treatment the outlook for breast cancer has continued to improve. (
  • Learn about the different stages of early breast cancer treatment and the roles and goals of each. (
  • So far IL-2, IFNalpha, IFNbeta and occasionally IFNgamma, IL-6, IL-12 have been the cytokines used for anti tumour treatment of advanced breast cancer either to induce or increase hormone sensitivity and/or to stimulate cellular immunity. (
  • 1. [nternt/ionul.lournu/ of'Mtrlitina/ Mushroon:, Vol. 7, pp. 1'+1-155 (2005) Potential Role of Medicinal Mushrooms in Breast Cancer Treatment: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives Roumyana D. Petroa,a,l'2 Solomon P Wasser,l JamalA. (
  • We address the needs of those who are newly diagnosed, in treatment, in recovery, living with a history of breast cancer, or living with metastatic (stage IV) breast cancer, as well as caregivers and healthcare professionals. (
  • Breast abscess can occur as post-surgical complication, for example after cancer treatment or reduction mammaplasty. (
  • Then they have chemotherapy treatments to target any cancer cells that can't be seen-cells remaining in the breast or that may have spread into other parts of the body. (
  • Another is another friend (age 35) who started her initial chemo treatments for breast cancer on the exact day that I started mine four years ago, at a similar stage and with a similar pathology, who's now suffering from the effects of the disease's spread to her liver. (
  • Where Breast Cancer Spreads: 5 most common places. (
  • When breast cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it is called metastasized cancer . (
  • Which chemotherapy drugs are used for breast cancer? (
  • Scientists look for new ways to treat advanced breast cancer in clinical trials. (
  • Breast phantoms from the first production run are now in use, and are employed in a large, multisite clinical trial. (
  • Make sure to schedule an annual clinical breast examination with a licensed medical care provider to supplement the BSE. (
  • The Breast Care Center at Baylor College of Medicine provides access to National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials. (
  • Dr Cheong, however, remains clinical amidst all this hoorah about life-long new breasts: "I'd be more comfortable using the word 'long-lasting' rather than 'permanent'," he insists. (
  • All breast cancers these days are tested for expression, or detectable effect, of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu proteins. (
  • About 75% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive, or ER+). (
  • [ 8 , 9 ] In estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells, inhibition of HDAC activity by specific HDAC inhibitors reactivates ERα and progesterone receptor (PR) gene expression, which are known to be aberrantly silenced. (