Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.4.2.1.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.
A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.
Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.
An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.
Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
An enzyme catalyzing the formation of AMP from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. EC 2.4.2.7.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate from ATP and ribose-5-phosphate. EC 2.7.6.1.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.
Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An enzyme, involved in the early steps of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, that catalyzes the formation of 5-phosphoribosylamine from glutamine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.14.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from N10-formyltetrahydrofolate to N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide to yield N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide and tetrahydrofolate. It plays a role in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide to 5-formyl-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide in the purine de novo synthesis pathway. It requires the cofactor N(10)-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE as the formyl donor.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The breakdown of DNA and RNA is occurring continuously in the cell. Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides can either be degraded to ... The conversion of a nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) to a nucleoside-triphosphate (NTP) is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate ... The other purine nucleoside, guanosine, is cleaved to form guanine. Guanine is then deaminated via guanine deaminase to form ... Purine degradation takes place mainly in the liver of humans and requires an assortment of enzymes to degrade purines to uric ...
Purines are biologically synthesized as nucleosides (bases attached to ribose). Accumulation of modified purine nucleotides is ... Defects in enzymes that control purine production and breakdown can severely alter a cell's DNA sequences, which may explain ... In addition to in vivo synthesis of purines in purine metabolism, purine can also be created artificially. Purine (1) is ... Purine also gives its name to the wider class of molecules, purines, which include substituted purines and their tautomers. ...
The endogenous agonist for these receptors is adenosine, which is a purine nucleoside that is important for processes such as ... Methylxanthines such as caffeine inhibit the action of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, which normally acts to break down ...
... is possibly best viewed as a ribosyl purine analogue with an incomplete purine 6-membered ring. This structural ... which suggests that the drug functions only as an RNA nucleoside mimic, and never a DNA nucleoside mimic. Ribavirin 5'- ... Serious side effects include red blood cell breakdown, liver problems, and allergic reactions. Use during pregnancy results in ... It is a guanosine (ribonucleic) analog used to stop viral RNA synthesis and viral mRNA capping, thus, it is a nucleoside ...
Chemically, it mimics the nucleoside adenosine. However, unlike adenosine it is relatively resistant to breakdown by the enzyme ... The most important subtype of this group appears to be 5NCT1A, which is cytosolically active and specific for purine analogues ... Unlike adenosine, cladribine has a chlorine molecule at position 2, which renders it partially resistant to breakdown by ... As a purine analogue, it is taken up into rapidly proliferating cells like lymphocytes to be incorporated into DNA synthesis. ...
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNPase) Nucleotidyltransferases (EC 2.7.7) Enzymes that have phosphorolytic 3' to 5' ... glycogen phosphorylase starch phosphorylase maltodextrin phosphorylase Enzymes that break down nucleosides into their ... The phosphorylases fall into the following categories: Glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4) Enzymes that break down glucans by ...
In a nucleoside, the anomeric carbon is linked through a glycosidic bond to the N9 of a purine or the N1 of a pyrimidine. ... whereby nucleotidases break down nucleotides (such as the thymidine monophosphate) into nucleosides (such as thymidine) and ... While a nucleoside is a nucleobase linked to a sugar, a nucleotide is composed of a nucleoside and one or more phosphate groups ... Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group. A nucleoside consists simply of ...
... is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP. It involves the ... ATP and its extracellular breakdown product adenosine. The signalling effects of uridine triphosphate (UTP) and uridine ... Nucleoside transporters (NTs) are a group of membrane transport proteins which transport nucleoside substrates including ... There are two types of NTs: Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs): Na+-dependent symporters Equilibrative nucleoside ...
Purine metabolites: Nucleotides (e.g., ATP) and nucleosides (e.g., adenosine) that have reached the extracellular space can ... which help break down food and regulate the immune system. Without being inhibited by DNA, the gut would detect these ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uric acid, which are purine metabolites, activate NLR family, pyrin domain containing (NLRP) 3 ...
... s participate in local and long-distance signalling, with the same transport mechanism as purines and nucleosides. ... Cytokinins have been shown to slow aging of plant organs by preventing protein breakdown, activating protein synthesis, and ...
Purines are synthesized as nucleosides (bases attached to ribose). Both adenine and guanine are made from the precursor ... Steroids are also broken down by some bacteria in a process similar to beta oxidation, and this breakdown process involves the ... Individual nucleosides are made by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose sugar. These bases are heterocyclic rings containing ... Once inside, the major route of breakdown is glycolysis, where sugars such as glucose and fructose are converted into pyruvate ...
... purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, genetic polymorphism Blood cell dysfunction - aplastic anemia Infectious diseases ... "Leukocyte also known as macrophagesfunctions and percentage breakdown". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York: ...
Ribavirin is a purine nucleoside analogue that is generally used as an anti-viral medication. However, it has also been shown ... structural changes of endothelium and its perivascular cell associations after blood-brain barrier breakdown and repair." ... Olomoucine, a purine derivative, is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. CDK is a cell-cycle promoting protein, which ...
... refers to the metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines that are present in many organisms. ... strictly regioselective prebiotic purine nucleoside formation pathway. Science. 2016 May 13;352(6287):833-6. doi: 10.1126/ ... Modulation of purine metabolism has pharmacotherapeutic value. Purine synthesis inhibitors inhibit the proliferation of cells, ... Apparently the archaeal species unable to synthesize purines are able to acquire exogenous purines for growth., and are thus ...
... form of extracellular signaling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP) and permeability to ... Lysosomes are able to break down the proteins of the connexon because they contain specific enzymes that are made specifically ...
showed how pyrimidine nucleosides can be synthesized from small molecules and ribose, driven soley by wet-dry cycles. Purine ... Nucleotides undergo breakdown such that useful parts can be reused in synthesis reactions to create new nucleotides. The ... With all three joined, a nucleotide is also termed a "nucleoside monophosphate", "nucleoside diphosphate" or "nucleoside ... The atoms that are used to build the purine nucleotides come from a variety of sources: The de novo synthesis of purine ...
Folic acid is needed for the de novo synthesis of the nucleoside thymidine, required for DNA synthesis. Also, folate is ... and breakdown of the skin inside the mouth. Other side effects may include liver disease, lung disease, lymphoma, and severe ... including the inhibition of enzymes involved in purine metabolism, leading to accumulation of adenosine; inhibition of T cell ... essential for purine and pyrimidine base biosynthesis, so synthesis will be inhibited. Methotrexate, therefore, inhibits the ...
Some breakdown of the purine ring may also occur, forming uric acid. Structural modifications of vidarabine have proven ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)93816-5. Ranganathan R (1975). "A novel purine nucleoside synthesis: 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine ... Sulfinate of Purine Nucleosides as Intermediates". Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan. 48 (11): 3243-3245. doi:10.1246/ ... It is a nucleoside analog and therefore has to be phosphorylated to be active. This is a three-step process in which vidarabine ...
In 1947 he published three papers on purine metabolism enzymes, all of which were highly cited (3,200 citations in 2006). ... 1 May 1945). "Enzymatic synthesis of a nucleoside". J. Biol. Chem. 158 (3): 723-724. Singleton 2007b Kalckar, H.M.; Shafran, ... The biochemical community was in the process of demonstrating the chemical reactions involved in breakdown of foodstuffs ... Kalckar, H.M.; Bessmann, Alice N. (1947b). "Differential Spectrophotometry of Purine Compounds by Means of Specific Enzymes: II ...
... the biochemical pathways leading to the extracellular breakdown of released nucleotides to their respective nucleosides. This ... 2008 he was elected president of the German Purine Club. After his retirement (2010) he continued as emeritus in the Department ... a nucleoside diphosphatase and novel member of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family". Biochem. J. 351 (3 ... Zimmermann, H.; Dowdall, M.J.; Lane, D.A. (1979). "Purine salvage at the cholinergic nerve endings of the Torpedo electric ...
Below is an example of the use of Stille coupling to build complexity on heterocycles of nucleosides, such as purines. Aryl ... Breakdown of this adduct results in the loss of R3Sn-X and a trivalent palladium complex with R1 and R2 present in a cis ... purines, uracil, cytosines, pyrimidines, and more (See below for table of heterocycles; halogens can be substituted at a ...
The rapid breakdown of cancer cells causes the release of chemicals from the inside of the cells. Following this, high levels ... These are required for thymidylate and purine production, which are both essential for DNA synthesis and cell division. ... Anti-metabolites resemble either nucleobases or nucleosides (a nucleotide without the phosphate group), but have altered ... Pemetrexed is another anti-metabolite that affects purine and pyrimidine production, and therefore also inhibits DNA synthesis ...
The rapid breakdown of cancer cells causes the release of chemicals from the inside of the cells. Following this, high levels ... The nucleobases are divided into purines (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Anti-metabolites ... resemble either nucleobases or nucleosides (a nucleotide without the phosphate group), but have altered chemical groups.[37] ... These are required for thymidylate and purine production, which are both essential for DNA synthesis and cell division.[3]:55- ...
A nucleotidase is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a nucleotide into a nucleoside and a phosphate. A ... Nucleotidases have an important function in digestion in that they break down consumed nucleic acids. They can be divided into ... 5'-Nucleotidases are involved in varied functions like cell-cell communication, nucleic acid repair, purine salvage pathway for ... nucleotide + H2O = a nucleoside + phosphate For example, it converts adenosine monophosphate to adenosine, and guanosine ...
... purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, genetic polymorphism ... also known as macrophagesfunctions and percentage breakdown". ...
... nucleoside diphosphate and nucleoside triphosphate are all nucleotides (not simply phosphate-lacking nucleosides). ... Glucose is mainly metabolized by a very important ten-step pathway called glycolysis, the net result of which is to break down ... either a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.[47] ... A similar process is used to break down proteins. It is first hydrolyzed into its component amino acids. Free ammonia (NH3), ...
... consists of two nucleosides joined by a pair of bridging phosphate groups. The nucleosides ... Because of the importance of this enzyme in purine metabolism, these compounds may be useful as anti-cancer, anti-viral, or ... similar compounds are produced by reactions that break down the structure of NAD, providing a salvage pathway that "recycles" ... Franchetti P, Grifantini M (1999). "Nucleoside and non-nucleoside IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors as antitumor and antiviral ...
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of the superoxide anion into ... Sautin YY, Johnson RJ (June 2008). "Uric acid: the oxidant-antioxidant paradox". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 ( ... and is an intermediate product of purine metabolism. In almost all land animals, urate oxidase further catalyzes the oxidation ... Glutathione peroxidase is an enzyme containing four selenium-cofactors that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and ...
... is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of urine. High blood ... "Kinetic Model of Oxidation Catalyzed by Xanthine Oxidase-The Final Enzyme in Degradation of Purine Nucleosides and Nucleotides ... In humans and higher primates, uric acid (actually hydrogen urate ion) is the final oxidation (breakdown) product of purine ... In humans, purines are metabolized into uric acid which is then excreted in the urine. Consumption of some types of purine-rich ...
... purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, genetic polymorphism ... also known as macrophagesfunctions and percentage breakdown". ...
"Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 608-19. doi:10.1080/15257770802138558. PMC 2895915 . PMID 18600514.. ... Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of the superoxide anion into ... and is an intermediate product of purine metabolism.[86] In almost all land animals, urate oxidase further catalyzes the ... cofactors that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides. There are at least four different ...
One of the primary sources of acetyl-CoA is from the breakdown of sugars by glycolysis which yield pyruvate that in turn is ... The GTP that is formed by GDP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase may be utilized by nucleoside-diphosphate kinase to form ATP (the ... to form the purines that are used as the bases in DNA and RNA, as well as in ATP, AMP, GTP, NAD, FAD and CoA.[37] ... The total energy gained from the complete breakdown of one (six-carbon) molecule of glucose by glycolysis, the formation of 2 ...
The ten-step catabolic pathway of glycolysis is the initial phase of free-energy release in the breakdown of glucose and can be ... Animals use the energy released in the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to convert ADP to ATP, which can then be used ... The enzymes necessary to break down glucose are found in the cytoplasm, the viscous fluid that fills living cells, where the ... Purines. *Purinergic signalling. *Pyrophosphates. Hidden categories: *Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs ...
Franchetti P, Grifantini M (1999). "Nucleoside and non-nucleoside IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors as antitumor and antiviral ... Because of the importance of this enzyme in purine metabolism, these compounds may be useful as anti-cancer, anti-viral, or ... Similar compounds are released by reactions that break down the structure of NAD. These preformed components then pass through ... The nucleosides each contain a ribose ring, one with adenine attached to the first carbon atom (the 1' position) and the other ...
... and breakdown of the skin inside the mouth.[1] Other side effects may include liver disease, lung disease, lymphoma, and severe ... Folic acid is needed for the de novo synthesis of the nucleoside thymidine, required for DNA synthesis.[28] Also, folate is ... including the inhibition of enzymes involved in purine metabolism, leading to accumulation of adenosine; inhibition of T cell ... essential for purine and pyrimidine base biosynthesis, so synthesis will be inhibited. Methotrexate, therefore, inhibits the ...
The breakdown of DNA and RNA is occurring continuously in the cell. Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides can either be degraded to ... The conversion of a nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) to a nucleoside-triphosphate (NTP) is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate ... The other purine nucleoside, guanosine, is cleaved to form guanine. Guanine is then deaminated via guanine deaminase to form ... Purine catabolism[edit]. Purine degradation takes place mainly in the liver of humans and requires an assortment of enzymes to ...
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate. UniProt ...
... with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate. ... Catalyzes the reversible phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, ... Catalyzes the reversible phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with ... IPR018016, Nucleoside_phosphorylase_CS. IPR000845, Nucleoside_phosphorylase_d. IPR035994, Nucleoside_phosphorylase_sf. ...
... with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate. ... Catalyzes the reversible phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, ... Catalyzes the reversible phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with ... IPR018016, Nucleoside_phosphorylase_CS. IPR000845, Nucleoside_phosphorylase_d. IPR035994, Nucleoside_phosphorylase_sf. ...
A purine NUCLEOSIDE consisting of one molecule of adenine and one molecule of d-ribose. It is formed in the body by the ... The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored ... aden·o·sine/ (ah-den´o-sēn) a purine nucleoside consisting of adenine and ribose; a component of RNA. It is also a cardiac ... A nucleoside, C10H13N5O4, composed of adenine linked to ribose, that is a component of nucleic acids and of ADP, AMP, and ATP, ...
... purine nucleoside (CAS 961-07-9), with ,98% purity. Join researchers using our high quality biochemicals. ... Purine nucleoside that upon sequential phosphoylation forms dGTP which is used by DNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases to ... Full event breakdown with abstracts, speakers, registration and more. View global event calendar ...
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... UPurine nucleoside phosphorylase. Not Available. Humans. Absorption. Not Available. Volume of distribution. Not Available. ... Purines and purine derivatives. Direct Parent. Hypoxanthines. Alternative Parents. 6-oxopurines / Pyrimidones / ... These are compounds containing the purine derivative 1H-purin-6(9H)-one. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a ...
Increased purine nucleoside and nucleotide pools will subsequently produce increased purine degradation, the end product of ... Probably act to scavenge peroxynitrite and breakdown products and may also act more directly to help restore BH4; dosage and ... More specifically, this means using agents that lower peroxynitrite and/or its breakdown products on the one hand; it also ... Each of these three agents will raise levels of purine nucleotides in the body, including the adenine nucleotides that comprise ...
... a purine nucleoside triphosphate. Join researchers using high quality 5-dGTP Na3 from Abcam and achieve your mission, faster. ... Purine nucleoside triphosphate used in many molecular biology applications such as DNA sequencing, PCR and other DNA polymerase ... Full event breakdown with abstracts, speakers, registration and more. View global event calendar ... 2-deoxyguanosine-5-triphosphate-dgtp-trisodium-salt-aqueous-purine-nucleoside-triphosphate-ab146559.pdf ...
It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It ... A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. ... The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... Nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues. Class. Purine nucleosides. Sub Class. Not Available. Direct Parent. Purine nucleosides ...
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... 2. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. General function:. Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity. Specific function: ... Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. ... Also phosphorylates anti-viral and anti-cancer nucleoside analogs. Gene Name:. TK2. Uniprot ID:. O00142 Molecular weight:. ...
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... 6. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. General function:. Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity. Specific function: ... ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate. Gene Name:. PNP. ...
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... 2. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. General function:. Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity. Specific function: ... Involved in nucleoside metabolic process. Specific function:. Not Available. Gene Name:. UPRT. Uniprot ID:. Q96BW1 Molecular ... Shows substrate specificity and accept uridine, deoxyuridine, and thymidine as well as the two pyrimidine nucleoside analogs 5- ...
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleoside triphosphate, a compound consisting of a ... purine base linked to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on the sugar.. Taxonomy/Path:. GO : nucleoside ...
As a breakdown product of ATP, adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that modulates many physiological processes in all ... Breakdown of the pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) barrier is one of the hallmarks of these lung diseases. The results can be ... Mediation of cannabidiol anti-inflammation in the retina by equilibrative nucleoside transporter and A2A adenosine receptor. ...
Purines are biologically synthesized as nucleosides (bases attached to ribose). Accumulation of modified purine nucleotides is ... Defects in enzymes that control purine production and breakdown can severely alter a cells DNA sequences, which may explain ... In addition to in vivo synthesis of purines in purine metabolism, purine can also be created artificially. Purine (1) is ... Purine also gives its name to the wider class of molecules, purines, which include substituted purines and their tautomers. ...
The purine nucleoside adenosine is an endogenous signaling molecule, and its extracellular levels rapidly increase in septic ... patients owing to the increased breakdown of adenine nucleotides (ATP and ADP) in ischemic, injured, and inflamed tissues (4). ... Concentration of purine compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants suffering from sepsis, convulsions and hydrocephalus. J ...
Adenosine, an endogenous, rapidly metabolized, purine nucleoside, was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration for ... because of rapid cellular uptake and enzymatic breakdown (6). This brevity of action is an advantage, because adverse effects ...
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... 9. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. General function:. Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity. Specific function: ... Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency *Wevers RA, Engelke UF, Moolenaar SH, Brautigam C, de Jong JG, Duran R, de Abreu RA ... Deoxyguanosine is found to be associated with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, which is an inborn error of ...
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... PNP (Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PNP include Purine Nucleoside ... pathogenic, Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179]. ...
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy) ... R&D Systems Antibodies for PNP (Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase/PNP). *R&D Systems Proteins and Enzymes for PNP (Purine ...
... extracellular adenosine inactivation via adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase reactions and/or nucleoside ... nucleotide breakdown by membrane-bound and soluble nucleotidases, including the enzymes of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate ... Nucleotide- and nucleoside-converting ectoenzymes: Important modulators of purinergic signalling cascade.. Yegutkin GG1. ... In contrast to traditional paradigms that focus on purine-inactivating mechanisms, it has now become clear that "classical" ...
The ligands sensed by subtypes 2 c and 2d, which are associated with genes encoding nucleoside diphosphate linked to X (NUDIX) ... The formation of a 1-5 phosphodiester linkage in the spontaneous breakdown of 5-phosphoribosyl-alpha-1-pyrophosphate * AL ... These associated genes, which are either related to the production of purines or are regulated by a purine, suggested to us ... either through de novo purine biosynthesis or the purine salvage pathway (Figure 1B). If true, then why is it necessary to form ...
... in endothelial cells due in part to the high activity of purine nucleoside phosphorylase.173 This suggests that ATP breakdown ... Purine and Pyrimid ine Cycle in Oxidative Stress de novo de novo PAGE 24. Carbon Fiber Ultrami croelectrodes in vitro in vivo ... Detection of purine metabolites was achieved using HPLC-UV and fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSV) at nanostructured carbon ... Detection of purine metabolites was achieved using HPLC-UV and fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSV) at nanostructured carbon ...
Many organisms utilize metabolic pathways in order to synthesize and break down purines. Biologically, purines are synthesized ... A purine is a nucleotide (a nucleoside + phosphate group) that is amine based and planar, aromatic, and heterocyclic. The ... 6-amino and 2-amino-6-oxy purine[edit]. One derivative form of purine, adenine (A), is also commonly known as 6-amino purine. ... Another derivative form of purine, guanine (G), is also known as 2-amino-6-oxy purine. The 2-amino-6-oxy purine contains an ...
... purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides synthesis, 19; regulatory functions, 7; replication (DNA degradation, ... The organism in question, Mycoplasma genitalium, contains, 471 coding genes [45]. These breakdown into the following functions ...
Further conversion of inosine nucleoside leads to hypoxanthine, which can either enter a non-reversible pathway to uric acid or ... Most adenosine derives from endogenous breakdown of ATP and degradation of RNA, or is taken up exogenously by ubiquitously ... Autoimmune dysregulation and purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase deficiency.. Sauer AV1, Brigida I, Carriglio N, Aiuti A. ... ADA is an enzyme of the purine salvage pathway, which catalyzes the irreversible deamination of adenosine and 2′-deoxyadenosine ...
... chemical structure.png ImageSize= 345px ImageFile2= IUPACName=7H purine OtherNames= Section1= Chembox Identifiers CASNo= ... 120 73 0 PubChem=1044 ChemSpiderID = 1015 SMILES=C1=C2C(=NC=N1)N=CN2 MeSHName=Purine Section2=… ... s to synthesize and break down purines.. Purines are biologically synthesized as nucleoside. s (bases attached to ribose. ).. ... synthesis of purines in purine metabolism. , purine can also be created artificially.. Purine (1) is obtained in good yield ...
What is the difference between adenine and adenosine? Adenosine is considered a purine nucleoside and a type of ... Inhibiting lipolysis (the breakdown of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis, which releases fatty acids into the bloodstream) ... It also forms due to the breakdown/metabolism of ATP, which our cells use for energy, and by biosynthesis in the liver. ... 2) It captures chemical energy following the breakdown of molecules from food and uses this energy to fuel cellular processes. ...
... deficiency leads to an accumulation of toxic purine degradation by-products, most potently affecting lymphocytes, leading to ... With purine nucleoside phosphorylase, it forms an essential component of the purine salvage pathway, responsible for the ... Adenosine primarily derives from breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and RNA, and 2deoxyadenosine from breakdown of DNA ... Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a key enzyme of the purine salvage pathways and deficiency caused by mutations in the ADA gene ...
  • Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified as purines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purine nucleotide bases are guanine (G) and adenine (A) which distinguish their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides (deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine) and ribonucleotides (adenosine, guanosine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the crucial roles of purines (adenine and guanine) in DNA and RNA, purines are also significant components in a number of other important biomolecules, such as ATP, GTP, cyclic AMP, NADH, and coenzyme A. Purine (1) itself, has not been found in nature, but it can be produced by organic synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds. (hmdb.ca)
  • The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine. (hmdb.ca)
  • Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, EC 2.4.2.8) is a purine salvage enzyme that catalyses the conversion of hypoxanthine and guanine to their respective mononucleotides. (hmdb.ca)
  • Tandem guanine-PRPP aptamers can bind the target ligands, either independently or in combination, to approximate the function expected for an IMPLY Boolean logic gate to regulate transcription of messenger RNAs for de novo purine biosynthesis in bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
  • Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) are examples of purines which are involved in the construction of the backbone of the DNA and RNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • Two of the bases found in both DNA and RNA, adenine (A) and guanine (G), are derivatives of purine. (wikibooks.org)
  • Another derivative form of purine, guanine (G), is also known as 2-amino-6-oxy purine . (wikibooks.org)
  • The quantity of naturally occurring purines produced on earth is enormous, as 50 % of the bases in nucleic acid s, adenine ( 2 ) and guanine ( 3 ), are purines. (academic.ru)
  • The major purine components of nucleic acids are adenine and guanine residues. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
  • The total cardiac purine metabolome includes all of the adenine and guanine nucleoside and nucleosides and related molecules involved throughout the intracellular and extracellular compartments and various cell types in the heart. (elsevier.com)
  • Nucleoside, a structural subunit of nucleic acids, the heredity-controlling components of all living cells, consisting of a molecule of sugar linked to a nitrogen-containing organic ring compound.In the most important nucleosides, the sugar is either ribose or deoxyribose, and the nitrogen-containing compound is either a pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine, or uracil) or a purine (adenine or guanine). (sinoshipnews.com)
  • There is a functional link between purine nucleotides and the dopamine system that involves guanine, the precursor of GTP. (concresul.net)
  • bases attached to ribose 5-phosphate.Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is the first compound in the pathway to have a completely formed purine ring system. (concresul.net)
  • In a comprehensive mutant analysis involving single and multiple mutants of urate oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, nucleoside hydrolases, guanosine deaminase, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, we demonstrate that purine nucleotide catabolism in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) mainly generates xanthosine, but not inosine and hypoxanthine, and that xanthosine is derived from guanosine deamination and a second source, likely xanthosine monophosphate dephosphorylation. (plantcell.org)
  • Additionally, purines, which could either be adenosine and guanine, are crucial in energy production and acceleration of many biochemical processes needed by the body. (hubpages.com)
  • The two purine bases found in both DNA and in RNA are guanine (G) and adenine (A). The two pyrimidine bases found in DNA are cytosine (C) and thymine (T), and the two pyrimidine bases found in RNA are cytosine and uracil (U). The only difference between thymine and uracil is the presence of a methyl group in thymine that is lacking in uracil. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mounting evidence suggests that the guanine-based purines stand out as key player in cell metabolism and in several models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. (unich.it)
  • Guanosine (GUO) and guanine (GUA) are extracellular signaling molecules derived from the breakdown of the correspondent nucleotide, GTP, and their intracellular and extracellular levels are regulated by the fine-tuned activity of two major enzymes, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and guanine deaminase (GDA). (unich.it)
  • During purine metabolism, guanosine monophosphate (GMP) is split into the base guanine and ribose . (diff.org)
  • AMP = adenosine monophosphate, APRT = adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, GMP = guanosine monophosphate, HGPRT = hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, IMP = inosine monophosphate, NP = nucleoside phosphorylase, PPriboseP = 5-phosphorylribose-1-pyrophosphate. (diff.org)
  • guanylate), containing the purine bases adenine and guanine respectively. (tempsite.ws)
  • After blocking and washing the 'blot' with buffer, the blots were probed by incubating with rabbit anti-rat UCP antiserum at a dilution of 1:1000 for 1 h at 4 °C. 8 words related to purine: alkali, base, adenine, A, guanine, G, alkali, base. (tempsite.ws)
  • The observations suggest that purine salvage is a major contributor to increased purine excretion and that the purine catabolic pathway responds differently to an increased substrate load in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • There are four purine bases, namely adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine.Purine nucleotides may be synthesized de novo from simpler precursors, or they may be derived from exogenous purine nucleosides and bases by the salvage pathways. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • Uric acid, which is a breakdown product of guanine, is NOT very soluble in water and can form crystals, causing the disease known as gout. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Mono, di, and triphosphates of the purine nucleotides (containing adenine or guanine) feedback inhibit several steps in the pathway leading to their synthesis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Guanine-based purines (GBPs) have been recently proposed to be not only metabolic agents but also extracellular signaling molecules that regulate important functions in the central nervous system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Guanine-based purines (GBPs), including the nucleotides guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP) and guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP), the nucleoside guanosine (GUO) and the nucleobase guanine (GUA) have been traditionally characterized as modulators of intracellular processes, especially considering their role in G protein dependent signal transduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • The most common nitrogen bases are the pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine , and uracil), the purines (adenine and guanine), and the pyridine nicotinamide. (britannica.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Purine metabolism . (genecards.org)
  • Purines can be created artificially, too, and not just through vivo synthesis in purine metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Autoimmune dysregulation and purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to in vivo synthesis of purines in purine metabolism , purine can also be created artificially. (academic.ru)
  • In humans and higher primates, uric acid is the final oxidation (breakdown) product of purine metabolism and is excreted in urine. (xkcd.com)
  • It also forms due to the breakdown/metabolism of ATP, which our cells use for energy, and by biosynthesis in the liver. (draxe.com)
  • Adenosine deaminase (ADA) - ADA is involved in purine metabolism, is needed for turnover of nucleic acids in tissues, and supports development and maintenance of the immune system by converting toxic deoxyadenosine into lymphocytes. (draxe.com)
  • This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. (springer.com)
  • Start studying Unit 3: Purine & Pyrimidine Metabolism. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • 7. Purine metabolism refers to the metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines that are present in many organisms. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • Disorders resulting from abnormalities in purine catabolism include: (1) muscle adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase … Chapter 14 Amino Acid Metabolism Margaret E. Brosnan, PhD and John T. Brosnan, DPhil, DSc∗ This discussion of amino acid metabolism focuses on the metabolism of the 20 α-amino (or -imino, in the case of proline) α-carboxylic acids that are the precursors for protein synthesis. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • Inborn errors of purine metabolism exhibit broad neurological, immunological, haematological and renal manifestations. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • Lipid metabolism antibodies may be used by epigenetic researchers investigating the synthesis of lipids from acetyl-CoA, known as lipogenesis, and the breakdown of lipids to produce energy, called lipolysis. (epigentek.com)
  • Protein metabolism antibodies can help researchers study the synthesis of amino acids and proteins as well as the breakdown of proteins. (epigentek.com)
  • The end product of purine metabolism in humans is uric acid (2,6,8-trioxypurine). (concresul.net)
  • The biosynthesis of both purine and pyrimidine (thymidylate) nucleotides requires cofactors generated through 1C-metabolism pathways. (kasinokamu.com)
  • Adenine nucleotide metabolism and synthesis via the purine salvage pathway. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Purine Nucleotide Metabolism Anabolism There are two pathways of synthesis of purine nucleotides : 1.the De Novo synthesis pathway and the 2.Salvage pathway. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Purine Nucleotide Metabolism Anabolism There are two pathways of synthesis of purine nucleotides from free purine bases which. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Adenosine Receptors Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that serves as a link between energy metabolism and cell signaling. (inpst.net)
  • In humans uric acid is the final oxidation (breakdown) product of purine metabolism . (diff.org)
  • Biochemical pathway of purine metabolism. (diff.org)
  • The remainder of the adenine nucleotide, 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide, is an intermediate in purine biosynthesis (Fig. Purine metabolism can be divided into three pathways (see Figure 95-1 ): When this occurs, PRPP amidotransferase will be completely inhibited and no purine … [8][9] He synthesized it for the first time in 1898. (tempsite.ws)
  • Lesson on the purine synthesis and metabolism pathway, and the purpose, regulation and importance of the pathway in human physiology and health. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • In recent years, a substantial body of evidence has emerged demonstrating that purine and pyrimidine synthesis and metabolism play major roles in controlling embryonic and fetal development and organogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on the above-mentioned and other literature evidence, it is now increasingly clear that any defect altering the tight regulation of purinergic transmission and of purine and pyrimidine metabolism during pre- and post-natal brain development may translate into functional deficits, which could be at the basis of severe pathologies characterized by mental retardation or other disturbances. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we determined the effect of exogenous purine nucleotide administration on purine nucleotide metabolism in the brains of heroin-dependent rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nucleosides themselves rarely participate in cell metabolism . (britannica.com)
  • Cyclic AMP , another nucleotide, is involved in regulating many aspects of cellular metabolism, such as the breakdown of glycogen. (britannica.com)
  • Nucleotides can be separated into purines and pyrimidines . (wikipedia.org)
  • This regulation helps to keep the purine/pyrimidine amounts similar, which is beneficial because equal amounts of purines and pyrimidines are required for DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purines and pyrimidines make up the two groups of nitrogenous bases, including the two groups of nucleotide bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to perform these essential cellular processes, both purines and pyrimidines are needed by the cell, and in similar quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purines and pyrimidines make up the two groups of nitrogenous bases . (academic.ru)
  • There are mainly two groups of nitrogenous bases such as purines and pyrimidines. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • Because of their nitrogen content, the bases are called nitrogenous bases, and are further classified as either purines or pyrimidines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Purine structures have two rings, while pyrimidines have one. (encyclopedia.com)
  • generate purines and pyrimidines 2. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • synthesis of pyrimidines and purines follows two different pathways. (agilesolutionsgroup.com)
  • Purines and pyrimidines are the two kinds of nitrogen-containing bases. (thegoutkiller.com)
  • NUCLEOTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS Bio-synthesis of Purines & Pyrimidines e-mail: [email protected] [email protected] www.easybiologyclass.com www.easybiologyclass.com 2. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • These bases are heterocyclic rings containing nitrogen, classified as purines or pyrimidines. (medicalinc.org)
  • It provides balance between purines and pyrimidines, since it is activated by a purine (ATP) and inactivated by a pyrimidine (CTP). (oregonstate.edu)
  • The pyrimidine synthesis is a similar process than that of Purines(Purines Synthesis).In the de novo synthesis of Pyrimidines, the ring is synthesized first and then it is attached to a ribose-phosphate to for a pyrimidine nucleotide.Pyrimidine rings are assembled from bicarbonate, aspartate, and Ammonia. (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • In this review, we have provided a critical analysis of what is currently known on the pathophysiological role of purines and pyrimidines during brain development with the aim of unveiling new future strategies for pharmacological intervention in different neurodevelopmental disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. (drugbank.ca)
  • Uric acid, the purine end-product of inosine catabolism, is excreted in the urine. (drugbank.ca)
  • Uric acid is a product formed from the breakdown of purines. (wikibooks.org)
  • Further conversion of inosine nucleoside leads to hypoxanthine, which can either enter a non-reversible pathway to uric acid or salvaged back into other mononucleosides. (nih.gov)
  • Other notable purines are hypoxanthine ( 4 ), xanthine ( 5 ), theobromine ( 6 ), caffeine ( 7 ), uric acid ( 8 ) and isoguanine ( 9 ). (academic.ru)
  • Purines are catabolized and the end product is uric acid. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
  • Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides. (xkcd.com)
  • Uric acid is a by-product of certain products, especially those containing purine. (gout-remedies.net)
  • Food items containing high purine level is found to increase the production of uric acid in the human body. (gout-remedies.net)
  • Unlike the low solubility of uric acid formed by catabolism of purines, the end-products of pyrimidine catabolism (carbon dioxide, ammonia, β-alanine, and γ-aminoisobutyrate) are highly water soluble. (concresul.net)
  • Uric Acid is a metabolic waste product created from the breakdown of purines. (hubpages.com)
  • When the level of uric acid in the bloodstream becomes too high because of huge amount of purine synthesized by the body itself or purine coming from the food consumed. (hubpages.com)
  • All of the purine degraded into uric acid is not being excreted fast enough, or perhaps not at all, by the kidney through urine. (hubpages.com)
  • Uric acid is the final product of all purine bases. (diff.org)
  • Uric acid is the breakdown product of purine nucleotide. (agilesolutionsgroup.com)
  • When the body breaks down either type of purine, the by-product is uric acid. (thegoutkiller.com)
  • Gout cures that attempt to limit uric acid production by avoiding purine-rich foods, or by fooling the body with xanthine oxidase inhibitors like allopurinol, can only partially address the gout-causing purine issue in the body. (thegoutkiller.com)
  • Pathways of synthesis and breakdown of purines Uric acid is the endpoint of purine catabolism. (clinsci.org)
  • 11. Purine breakdown (catabolism) goes through the intermediate Xanthine, which is broken down to uric acid and ultimately to glyoxylate and urea. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Because uric acid is a breakdown product of purine, high-purine foods should be either avoided or consumed only in moderation. (medscape.com)
  • A drug, frequently prescribed for gout, that acts to reduce the levels of uric acid formed from turnover of purines in the body. (pumpa.org.uk)
  • Extracellular hydrolysis of ingested nucleic acids occurs through the actions of endonucleases, phosphodiesterases and nucleoside Some of the commonly consumed alcoholic drinks like beer and wine promote breakdown of purines at a faster rate, leading to excess production of uric acid. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • Organisms in all three domains of life, eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, are able to carry out de novo biosynthesis of purines. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nearly complete, or complete, set of genes required for purine biosynthesis was determined to be present in 58 of the 65 archaeal species studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis of nucleic acid purines. (springer.com)
  • Figure 83-1 Early steps in the biosynthesis of the purine ring. (concresul.net)
  • Here we show that lack of arginylation renders cells vulnerable to purine nucleotide synthesis inhibitors and affects the related glycine and serine biosynthesis pathways. (kasinokamu.com)
  • HHS Purine and Pyrimidine Biosynthesis Course no. (kasinokamu.com)
  • 2. Purine Biosynthesis. (kasinokamu.com)
  • Ate1 knockout cells are sensitive to purine biosynthesis inhibitors, Figure 2. (kasinokamu.com)
  • Regulatory Control of Purine Nucleotide Biosynthesis. (kasinokamu.com)
  • DE NOVO BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS (building the bases from simple building blocks) The biosynthesis of purine (A and G) begins with the synthesis of the ribose-phosphate Ribose phosphate pyrophospho-KINASE Pentose phosphate The supply of purines is provided by two pathways: the salvage pathway and de novo synthesis. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Aspartate, which is converted from oxaloacetate (OAA) by aspartate aminotransferase, is considered an important precursor for purine salvage and pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis, and is thus indispensable for the growth of Plasmodium parasites at the asexual blood stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The increasing de novo purine biosynthesis during TMZ therapy helps GBM cells reduce the recycling of nucleotides via the salvage pathway that have been modified as a result of TMZ alkylation. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • Nucleosides and free bases generated by DNA and RNA breakdown are converted back to nucleotide monophosphates, allowing them to re-enter the pathway of purine biosynthesis and interconversiohn. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleoside triphosphate, a compound consisting of a purine base linked to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on the sugar. (nextbio.com)
  • Many organisms have metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review summarizes recent advances in this rapidly evolving field, with particular emphasis on the nucleotide-releasing and purine-converting pathways in the vasculature. (nih.gov)
  • 2010). Salvage pathways for Purine and Pyrimidine synthesis. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • Catabolism of Purine Nucleotides The synthesis of nucleotides from the purine bases and purine nucleosides takes place in a series of steps known as the salvage pathways. (concresul.net)
  • We have isolated numerous mutants containing mutations in the salvage pathways of purine synthesis. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • In addition to constituting a backbone of DNA and RNA, purines play roles in many metabolic pathways, such as energy utilization, regulation of enzyme activity, and cell signaling. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • The net formation of purine nucleotides is performed by the de novo pathway, but rapid turnover of nucleic acids, especially RNA, is required for nucleotide production by the salvage pathways. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Sources and tissue breakdown the supply of purines is provided by two pathways of synthesis purine. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Reutilization of bases from dietary or catabolic sources ) 1 two pathways purine. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • There are two pathways for the synthesis of the purine nucleotides. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • Purine synthesis can be explained in two different pathways. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • In salvage pathways, the breakdown products of nucleotides i.e. (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • Thus two opposite, ATP-generating and ATP-consuming, pathways coexist on the cell surface, where basal ATP release, re-synthesis of high-energy phosphoryls, and selective ecto-protein phosphorylation are counteracted by stepwise nucleotide breakdown with subsequent adenosine inactivation. (biochemj.org)
  • Unlike in purine synthesis, the sugar/phosphate group from PRPP is not added to the nitrogenous base until towards the end of the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • A purine is a nucleotide (a nucleoside + phosphate group) that is amine based and planar, aromatic, and heterocyclic. (wikibooks.org)
  • A nucleotide without the phosphate group is known as a nucleoside. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
  • In polymers of RNA and DNA, the backbone is composed of â ¦ Nucleotide definition is - any of several compounds that consist of a ribose or deoxyribose sugar joined to a purine or pyrimidine base and to a phosphate group and that are the basic structural units of nucleic acids (such as RNA and DNA). (sinoshipnews.com)
  • Nucleosides are built of a nitrogenous base and a sugar, however, without the phosphate group when it comes to chemical composition. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • The key difference between nucleotide and nucleoside is that the nucleotide has a phosphate group while nucleoside lacks that. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • The difference between nucleosides vs. nucleotides involves the presence or absence of a phosphate group. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • The naturally occurring nucleosides represent a unique starting point for drug design due to their involvement in numerous critical biological processes as well as the … Thus a nucleoside plus a phosphate group yields a nucleotide. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • Nucleosides go through the process of phosphorylation, bonding with phos… Nucleotide has three components namely a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group while nucleoside has two components namely pentose sugar and a nitrogenous base. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • A nucleoside has a chemical composition that consists of a sugar and a base without the phosphate group. (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • The NAs work mainly by i … Nucleotide: Nucleoside: The chemical composition of nucleotide consists of a phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogenous base. (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • At least presence of single phosphate group is necessary for a nucleotide which makes it nucleotide from nucleoside. (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • A nucleoside monophosphate is a molecule formed by a purine or pyrimidine binding to a carbohydrate (forming a nucleoside) which is bound to a phosphate group. (sprintlab.com.br)
  • A nucleotide is, thus, a nucleoside with a phosphate group. (biologyonline.com)
  • Depending on the number of phosphate groups attached to the sugar moiety, a nucleotide may be called nucleoside monophosphate (if with only one phosphate group), nucleoside diphosphate (with two phosphate groups), or nucleoside triphosphate (when with three phosphate groups). (biologyonline.com)
  • Nucleosides are similar to nucleotides except that they lack the phosphate group. (britannica.com)
  • When purines are formed, they inhibit the enzymes required for more purine formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in enzymes that control purine production and breakdown can severely alter a cell's DNA sequences, which may explain why people who carry certain genetic variants of purine metabolic enzymes have a higher risk for some types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to traditional paradigms that focus on purine-inactivating mechanisms, it has now become clear that "classical" intracellular ATP-regenerating enzymes, adenylate kinase, nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase and ATP synthase can also be co-expressed on the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • The purinergic signalling system consists of transporters, enzymes and receptors responsible for the synthesis, release, action, and extracellular inactivation of (primarily) ATP and its extracellular breakdown product adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleoside kinases are enzymes which catalyse the transfer of γâ phosphate from adenosine triphosphate to nucleosides leading to formation of nucleosideâ 5' â monophosphates. (kasinokamu.com)
  • Studies speciï¬ c to enzymes found in the de novo purine synthesis pathway have shown that absence of key enzymes in the pathway can directly affect growth rates and virulence in Bacillusanthracis (35), Y. pestis (9), S. Typhimurium (48), and Streptococcus pneu-moniae (56). (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Dynamic and time-dependent changes in the expression of purine metabolizing enzymes (such as ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase) represent a key checkpoint for the correct sequential generation of the different signaling molecules, that in turn activate their specific membrane receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Increased levels of endogenous adenosine near a specific subtype can lead to its activation, constituting an indirect receptor targeting approach either by inhibition of NT or, alternatively, by increasing the activity of enzymes responsible for ATP breakdown. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, purine nucleotide administration alleviated the effect of heroin on purine nucleotide content, activity of essential purine nucleotide metabolic enzymes, and transcript levels of these genes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purine bases also play an essential role in many metabolic and signalling processes within the compounds guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The study demonstrated a significantly higher concentration of ATP in the erythrocytes of trained subjects which, in part, may be explained by higher metabolic activity on the purine re-synthesis pathway (significantly higher PRPP-S, APRT and HGPRT activities). (springer.com)
  • Involved in nucleoside metabolic process. (pathbank.org)
  • Purines provide the basic coenzymes (NAD, NADH) for metabolic regulation and play a major role in signal transduction (GTP, cAMP, cGMP). (concresul.net)
  • A metabolic route for ddI clearance is its breakdown by purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the extracellular compartment, the purinergic nucleotide ATP and its metabolic offspring-the nucleoside adenosine-are known to function as signaling molecules. (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • In purine synthesis, PRPP is turned into inosine monophosphate , or IMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADA is an enzyme of the purine salvage pathway, which catalyzes the irreversible deamination of adenosine and 2′-deoxyadenosine into inosine and 2′-deoxyinosine, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • With purine nucleoside phosphorylase, it forms an essential component of the purine salvage pathway, responsible for the irreversible deamination of adenosine and 2'deoxyadenosine into inosine and 2'deoxyinosine respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synthesis of the purine nucleotides begins with PRPP and leads to the first fully formed nucleotide, inosine 5â ²-monophosphate (IMP). (kasinokamu.com)
  • In the current widely accepted model of plant purine nucleotide catabolism, xanthine can be generated in various ways involving either inosine and hypoxanthine or guanosine and xanthosine as intermediates. (plantcell.org)
  • Adenosine and its own main metabolite inosine 860-79-7 supplier are ubiquitous nucleosides that may be released from ischemic or reperfused cells [2]. (acmbcb.org)
  • Inosine is definitely a naturally happening purine formed in the break down of adenosine by adenosine deaminase (11). (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • The term "purinergic system" usually refers to a complex system composed by purines bases, such as adenine (ADA) and GUA, their corresponding nucleotides adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and GTP, adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) and GDP, adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) and GMP, and nucleosides adenosine (ADO), inosine (INO) and GUO. (frontiersin.org)
  • Explain purine catabolism and its disorders 3. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • What disease state is associated with excess purine catabolism and/or … Escherichia coli is not known to utilize purines, other than adenine and adenosine, as nitrogen sources. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • 1. Pyrimidine catabolism, or breakdown of pyrimidine in man on the other hand, is ammonia, carbon dioxide, and beta-amino acids. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • The end product of purine catabolism varies amongst vertebrates and is a consequence of independent gene inactivation events that have truncated the purine catabolic pathway. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • Trim back the vesical opening in the breakdown (catabolism) of cell regulatory systems that are distinguished (cf. (hemsleyandhemsley.com)
  • Catabolism of purines 1. (concresul.net)
  • The catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides, like that of purine nucleotides (Chapter 10), involves dephosphorylation, deamination, and glycosidic bond cleavage. (concresul.net)
  • However, in contrast to purine catabolism, the pyrimidine bases in most organisms are subjected to reduction rather than oxidation. (concresul.net)
  • Our data lead to an altered model of purine nucleotide catabolism that includes an NSH heterocomplex as a central component. (plantcell.org)
  • Current Model of Purine Nucleotide Catabolism in Arabidopsis. (plantcell.org)
  • Purines may be synthesized de novo or recycled by a salvage pathway from normal catabolism. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. (medicalinc.org)
  • 4. Breakdown of amino acids (catabolism) is divided into those amino acids whose carbon backbone forms intermediates in ketone body formation ( acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA = ketogenic - Note - in class, I incorrectly called ketogenic acids as those going through the citric acid cycle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • ABSTRACT Heroin is known to enhance catabolism and inhibit anabolism of purine nucleotides, leading to purine nucleotide deficiencies in rat brains. (bvsalud.org)
  • While a nucleoside is a nucleobase linked to a sugar, a nucleotide is composed of a nucleoside and one or more phosphate groups. (sinoshipnews.com)
  • A nucleoside consists simply of a nucleobase (also termed a nitrogenous base) and a five-carbon sugar (ribose or 2'-deoxyribose) whereas a nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • Also, depending on the nucleobase component, the nucleosides may be grouped into either the "double-ringed" purine or the "single-ringed" pyrimidine. (biologyonline.com)
  • General outline of nucleic acid degradation for purines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some factors influencing nucleic acid purine reneval in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Utilization of purines for nucleic acid synthesis in bone marrow slices. (springer.com)
  • Formation of nucleic acid purines from hypoxanthine and formate in bone marrow slices. (springer.com)
  • Both nucleoside and nucleotide are commonly used terms since they are the building block of nucleic acid. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are essential precursors for nucleic acid synthesis, but their functions are not limited to this. (frontiersin.org)
  • A firmly established central intermediate is the purine base xanthine. (plantcell.org)
  • Any of various compounds, such as adenosine or guanosine, that consist of a sugar, usually ribose or deoxyribose, linked to a purine or pyrimidine base. (sinoshipnews.com)
  • Definition of nucleoside : a compound (such as guanosine or adenosine) that consists of a purine or pyrimidine base combined with deoxyribose or ribose and is found especially in DNA or RNA Examples of nucleoside in a Sentence For example, DNA contains two such chains spiraling round each other in the famous double helix shape. (sprintlab.com.br)
  • A sulfate salt form of abacavir, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor analog of guanosine. (cancer.gov)
  • Most adenosine derives from endogenous breakdown of ATP and degradation of RNA, or is taken up exogenously by ubiquitously expressed nucleoside transporters. (nih.gov)
  • Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to an accumulation of toxic purine degradation by-products, most potently affecting lymphocytes, leading to adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Key enzyme in purine degradation. (pathbank.org)
  • Salvage pathway (recycle pathway): used to recover bases and nucleosides formed during the degradation of RNA and DNA In plant cells, purine bases and nucleosides originate from the intercellular breakdown of nucleic acids and nucleotides, as well as other reactions which release purine bases and nucleosides. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Recycling of purines formed by the degradation of nucleotides is possible. (agilesolutionsgroup.com)
  • Included are those involved in chemotaxis, outer membrane channel function, degradation of aromatic ring compounds, and the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources, in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. (pnas.org)
  • Nucleoside monophosphates are converted to nucleoside diphosphates by base specific monophosphate kinases. (rapidlearningcenter.com)
  • Breakdown of purine nucleotides starts with nucleoside monophosphates, which can be produced by breakdown of an RNA, for example, by a nuclease (Figure 6.196). (concresul.net)
  • In Escherichia coli , the nucleosidase PpnN (YgdH) regulates purine homeostasis by cleaving nucleoside monophosphates and specifically binds (p)ppGpp. (genengnews.com)
  • 10. Conversion of nucleoside monophosphates (such as AMP) to nucleoside diphosphates (such as ADP) is catalyzed by specific kinases, such as AMP kinase. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The main nucleoside monophosphates are AMP and GMP (purine nucleotides) and CMP, UMP and TMP (pyrimidine nucleotides). (sprintlab.com.br)
  • The purine nucleoside adenosine is an endogenous signaling molecule, and its extracellular levels rapidly increase in septic patients owing to the increased breakdown of adenine nucleotides (ATP and ADP) in ischemic, injured, and inflamed tissues ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The 6-amino purine molecule contains an amine group attached to the carbon atom at position 6 double bonded to the nitrogen atom at position 1 and single-bonded the carbon atom at position 5. (wikibooks.org)
  • The purine nucleoside molecule is converted to a monophosphate by viral thymidine kinases. (tempsite.ws)
  • Upon stimulation by secretagogues in particular, the acid-secreting pump (H + -K + -ATPase) transits from the intracellular tubulovesicles, where it is stored, towards the apical surface of the cell, and remains there throughout the active acid secretory phase, allowing for the secretion of a proton in exchange for a potassium cation consuming the energy equivalent to one ATP molecule breakdown ( 53 ). (physiology.org)
  • Nucleoside is a structural sub-unit of nucleic acids, the heredity-controlling component of all living cells, consisting of a molecule of sugar linked to a nitrogen-containing organic ring compound.Nucleosides are usually obtained by chemical or enzymatic decomposition of nucleic acids. (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • Meaning and definition of nucleoside : An organic molecule consisting of a nitrogenous base joined to a five-carbon sugar. (sprintlab.com.br)
  • A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule formed by a purine or pyrimidine binding to a carbohydrate (forming a nucleoside) bound to three phosphate groups, each of which are connected to each other by two pyrophosphate bonds. (sprintlab.com.br)
  • A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar. (sprintlab.com.br)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide or nucleoside triphosphate molecule consisting of adenine nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a triphosphate. (sprintlab.com.br)
  • Adenosine is a naturally occurring endogenous purine nucleoside composed of an adenine molecule attached to a ribose sugar moiety 3) (ribofuranose) via a beta-N9-glycosidic bond (6-amino-9-β-d-ribofuranosyl-9-H-purine). (healthjade.com)
  • It is the nucleoside base of both adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (healthjade.com)
  • This gene encodes an enzyme which reversibly catalyzes the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides. (genecards.org)
  • The results show that the enzyme opens up when the stress hormone is present, and thus functions much more efficiently because the nucleotides can more easily access the active site where the breakdown process takes place. (genengnews.com)
  • The process of purine salvage can be … Enzyme kinetics and structural data have been included to provide a thorough knowledge on which to base the search for compounds with biological activity. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • The enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) may be involved in these drug-drug interactions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) bind to and block HIV reverse transcriptase (an HIV enzyme). (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • Adenosine deaminase - an enzyme that recycles purines within the cell. (pumpa.org.uk)
  • Abbreviation for an enzyme involved in making purines in the cell: patients with defects are very rare. (pumpa.org.uk)
  • Adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase, an enzyme that carries out a reaction to recycle purine nucleotides in the body. (pumpa.org.uk)
  • and finally, (v) extracellular adenosine inactivation via adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase reactions and/or nucleoside uptake by the cells. (nih.gov)
  • Purinergic signalling (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of NTs: Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs): Na+-dependent symporters Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs): Na+-independent passive transporters The extracellular concentration of adenosine can be regulated by NTs, possibly in the form of a feedback loop connecting receptor signaling with transporter function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates are substrates of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPPs) and alkaline phosphatases (APs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular AMP is hydrolyzed to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) as well as by APs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleosides are also removed from the extracellular space into neurons and glia by transporter systems. (tempsite.ws)
  • Extracellular purines are important signalling molecules in the vasculature that are regulated by a network of cell surface ectoenzymes. (biochemj.org)
  • As a breakdown product of ATP, adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that modulates many physiological processes in all cells of the body. (physiology.org)
  • Adenosine, an endogenous, rapidly metabolized, purine nucleoside, was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration for intravenous use in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. (annals.org)
  • Endogenous purines are made within the cells of the body. (thegoutkiller.com)
  • Endogenous purines are the type that the body itself makes in the cells. (thegoutkiller.com)
  • The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate. (rcsb.org)
  • Purine also gives its name to the wider class of molecules, purines, which include substituted purines and their tautomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oro, Orgel and co-workers have shown that four molecules of HCN tetramerize to form diaminomaleodinitrile ( 12 ), which can be converted into almost all important natural occurring purines. (academic.ru)
  • 2 ) It captures chemical energy following the breakdown of molecules from food and uses this energy to fuel cellular processes. (draxe.com)
  • In considering purines as molecules involved in autocrine and paracrine communication, effective interstitial concentrations of the nucleoside adenosine, or purine metabolites, are of greatest interest. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of purine-containing molecules in survival meant that the body has to rapidly and efficiently synthesize sufficient amount of purine using materials found in the body such as glucose, as well as a purine-rich diet. (hubpages.com)
  • Purines are essential molecules for all forms of life. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Lysine was exceptional, in that its synthesis decreased much more than other amino acids when Trypticase or amino acids were added to the medium, suggesting that lysine synthesis might limit â ¦ Thus, de novo pathway of purine nucleotide synthesis refers to the process that utilizes small molecules such as ribose sugar, amino acids, CO 2, one carbon unit, etc. (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate, a purine -containing compound that is needed in all cells to store chemical energy for the conversion of small molecules into other material, and for the contraction of muscle. (pumpa.org.uk)
  • Salvage pathway involves synthesis of purine nucleotides from free purine bases, which are salvaged from dietary sources and tissue breakdown. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Purines are found in a number of other important biomolecules, such as ATP, GTP, cyclic AMP, NADH, and coenzyme A. This salvages free purine bases which can be reused to make new nucleic acids. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir for treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults with virological failure of a standard first-line ART regimen (SECOND-LINE): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study. (leonlloyd.co.uk)
  • The combination of decreased purine reutilization and increased purine synthesis results in increased As a result, GPAT (the regulated step in purine synthesis) has excess substrate and decreased inhibitors available, and de novo purine synthesis is increased. (legiophotosvii.es)
  • Nucleoside analog inhibitors are dNTPs or rNTPs that lack 3'-OH group. (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors are two types of antiretroviral drugs that help to treat AIDS and other retroviral infections. (xixonspanishrestaurant.com)
  • c) Non-Nucleoside RT Inhibitors. (sprintlab.com.br)
  • Methionine, on the other hand, is needed in the diet because while it can be â ¦ de novo synthesis of pyrimidine bases de novo synthesis of purines bases Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides Regulation of nucleotide synthesis Introductions. (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • In this De novo synthesis of purines, each atom in the purine nucleotide came from different sources as mentioned above structure and data. (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • Are involved in this de novo synthesis of pyrimidine bases de novo synthesis of purines, each in. (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • The addition of one to three phosphate groups generates a nucleotide, also known as a nucleoside monophosphate, nucleoside diphosphate, or nucleoside triphosphate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Adenosine, FORMATION: Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is formed within cells from the breakdown of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which, in turn, is formed from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in the course of utilizing energy for cellular functions. (inpst.net)
  • Hypoxia in vitro and in vivo decreased purine oxidation and enhanced purine salvage reactions in human and mouse red blood cells, which was partly explained by decreased adenosine monophosphate deaminase activity. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • Diseases associated with PNP include Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency and Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency . (genecards.org)
  • Purine nucleotide levels are balanced by the combined regulation of PRPP amidotransferase , IMP dehydrogenase, adenylosuccinate synthetase and the nucleotides AMP and GMP. (tempsite.ws)
  • 4'-O-β-D-Glucosyl-9-O-(6''-deoxysaccharosyl)olivil, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nucleoside&oldid=995784742, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 21:44. (sinoshipnews.com)
  • Purines are biologically synthesized as nucleosides (bases attached to ribose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of these bases are derivatives of purine. (tempsite.ws)
  • The network for 'purine nucleoside triphosphate catabolic process' in your query organism is displayed on the left, if relationships are supported by the integrated data. (princeton.edu)
  • Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of two rings (pyrimidine and imidazole). (wikipedia.org)
  • These are aromatic heterocyclic compounds containing a purine moiety, which is formed a pyrimidine-ring ring fused to an imidazole ring. (hmdb.ca)
  • Purine ( 1 ) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound , consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. (academic.ru)
  • The nitrogen-containing bases of nearly all nucleotides are derivatives of three heterocyclic compounds: pyrimidine, purine, and pyridine. (tempsite.ws)
  • In two of these steps, single carbon units are acquired from Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of two rings. (tempsite.ws)
  • Nucleoside hydrolase 1 (NSH1) is known to be essential for xanthosine hydrolysis, but the in vivo function of a second cytosolic nucleoside hydrolase, NSH2, is unclear. (plantcell.org)
  • 1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d -ribose and adenine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • phosphate esters of a pentose sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose) in which a purine or pyrimidine base is linked to C1 of the sugar. (kasinokamu.com)
  • Depending on the pentose sugar component, a nucleoside may be a ribonucleoside or a deoxyribonucleoside. (biologyonline.com)
  • The nucleoside is a pentose sugar backbone with a purine base adenine attached to it (at the 1′ carbon). (biologyonline.com)
  • A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. (drugbank.ca)
  • Purines form bonds with pentoses exclusively through the 9th Nitrogen atom. (wikibooks.org)
  • The purine is the most widely distributed nitrogen-containing heterocycle in nature. (academic.ru)
  • A nucleoside is composed of a deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogen base. (kasinokamu.com)
  • Purines are made up of a six-membered and a five-membered nitrogen-containing ring that are fused together. (thegoutkiller.com)
  • The amino group of aspartic acid becomes the first nitrogen of the purine ring. (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • Group of aspartic acid becomes the first nitrogen of the purine nucleotide came from different as! (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • Nitrogen of the purine nucleotide came from different sources as mentioned above and! (absolutetravelspecialists.com)
  • Adenine is one of the nitrogen-containing bases, or purines , that occur in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) found in nearly all cells. (pumpa.org.uk)
  • PNP (Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Moderate intake of purine-rich vegetables or protein is not associated with an increased risk of gout. (xkcd.com)
  • This protein can degrade all purine nucleosides except adenosine and deoxyadenosine. (pathbank.org)
  • Despite becoming a vegetarian ten years ago meaning my protein and purine intake is pretty low I still suffer from (though not as severe ) gout attacks. (thegoutkiller.com)
  • Purines are found in all protein foods. (medscape.com)
  • Some legumes, including lentils and black eye peas, are considered to be high purine plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • other co-morbid factors such as hypertension, alcohol intake, obesity, and high purine intake increase the risk in an additive manner. (freethesaurus.com)
  • 2. Describe the role of HGPRT and APRT in recycling purines. (tempsite.ws)
  • ATP , a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of pyrimidine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purine Synthesis & Pyrimidine Synthesis in Cells Lecture Notes. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • These are compounds containing the purine derivative 1H-purin-6(9H)-one. (drugbank.ca)
  • Adenosine, also known as adenocard or ade-rib, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine nucleosides. (bovinedb.ca)
  • Purine nucleosides are compounds comprising a purine base attached to a ribosyl or deoxyribosyl moiety. (bovinedb.ca)
  • 1. Thus, nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell on the sugar's primary alcohol group (-CH2-OH) to produce nucleotides. (sprintlab.com.br)
  • Changes in the concentrations of purine metabolites released from endothelial cells of the pulmonary artery (PAECs) and aorta (AECs) exposed to oxidative stress were studied to identify possible stress markers. (ufl.edu)
  • Foods that are known to contain large concentrations of purine include: sardines, anchovies, liver, brains, dried peas and beans. (gout-remedies.net)
  • Coadministration of tenofovir, GCV, or Allo decreased the amounts of intracellular ddI breakdown products in CEM cells, while they increased the ddI concentrations (twofold increase with each drug at approximately 20 μM). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HPLC was performed to detect the absolute concentrations of purine nucleotides in the rat brain cortices. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a nucleoside phosphate comprised of a ribonucleoside and two phosphate groups. (biologyonline.com)
  • Deamination of purine bases can result in accumulation of such nucleotides as ITP, dITP, XTP and dXTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative injury or impairment of the antioxidant capacity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient red blood cells enhances purine deamination. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • A) Purine salvage and deamination reactions are catalyzed…, Oxidative injury or impairment of the antioxidant capacity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient red blood…, Tracing experiments reveal hypoxic inhibition…, Tracing experiments reveal hypoxic inhibition of purine deamination, rather than hypoxic increases in…, Proposed mechanism of the effect of hypoxia on the purine salvage pathway. (marrisdesigns.com)
  • Note that the conversion of nucleotides and nucleosides can also be catalyzed by phosphotransferases (data not shown) transferring phosphate from a donor mononucleotide onto an acceptor nucleoside. (plantcell.org)
  • The various nucleotides are first converted to nucleosides by intracellular nucleotidases. (gogreencleanersfairlawn.com)
  • This nucleoside is a product of enzymatic breakdown of extra and intracellular adenine nucleotides and also of S-adenosylhomocysteine. (mdpi.com)
  • Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside that forms from the breakdown of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). (herbalzym.com)
  • A nucleoside is composed of a purine or a pyrimidine base and a ribose or a deoxyribose sugar. (sinoshipnews.com)
  • A compound of a sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose) with a purine or pyrimidine base. (sinoshipnews.com)
  • Purine is a nitrogenous compound produced through cell turnover, or cell death, and is an extremely important component of a nucleoside, which combines with either deoxyribose, or ribose, and becoming a building block of DNA or RNA. (hubpages.com)
  • A deoxyribonucleoside is a nucleoside with a deoxyribose sugar. (biologyonline.com)
  • Oxo- and amino-substituents on the purine ring are highlighted in red and blue, respectively. (plantcell.org)