Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Gluconacetobacter xylinus: A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.DNA Breaks, Single-Stranded: Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Glycoside HydrolasesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.DextrinsClostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.PolysaccharidesPsyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 126.96.36.199 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 188.8.131.52 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 184.108.40.206 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 220.127.116.11 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.TetrosesTechnology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Starch is then broken down and absorbed. Subsequently, pectin and cellulose are digested. Finally, waxes are degraded and ... Then the newly broken down nutrients can be absorbed by the cells nearby. Humans use extracellular digestion when they eat. ... The hydra uses its tentacles to push the prey further into the cavity, where enzymes are secreted to break down the food. Once ... Their teeth grind the food, enzymes and acid in the stomach liquefy it, and additional enzymes in the small intestine break the ...
Cellulose chains can be broken into glucose molecules by cellulase enzymes. This reaction occurs at body temperature in the ... In the hydrolysis of cellulose (that is, cellulolysis), these chains are broken down to free the sugar before it is fermented ... The gasification process does not rely on chemical decomposition of the cellulose chain (cellulolysis). Instead of breaking the ... One example is Clostridium thermocellum, which uses a complex cellulosome to break down cellulose and synthesize ethanol. ...
Brown-rot fungi break down hemicellulose and cellulose that form the wood structure. Cellulose is broken down by hydrogen ... White-rot fungi break down the lignin in wood, leaving the lighter-colored cellulose behind; some of them break down both ... White rots break down lignin and cellulose and commonly cause rotted wood to feel moist, soft, spongy, or stringy and appear ... Soft-rot fungi secrete cellulase from their hyphae, an enzyme that breaks down cellulose in the wood. This leads to the ...
Dissolved gas analysis
The solid insulation is commonly constructed of cellulose material. The solid insulation breaks down naturally but the rate ... The gas was then collected and measured in a graduated tube by breaking the vacuum with a mercury piston. The gas was removed ... Once the bonds are broken these elements quickly reform the fault gases. The energies and rates at which the gases are formed ... When an electrical fault occurs it releases energy which breaks the chemical bonds of the insulating fluid. ...
Essentially at the core of the plant material is cellulose, which can be broken down into simple carbohydrate sugars. After ... Then enzymes are used to break down cellulose into glucose. This glucose is then fermented and distilled. The pretreatment step ... which is the extra processing needed to break down the tough cellulose and hemicellulose within the walls of the cell to ... Rather, the cellulose in wood must be separated from the encapsulating hemicellulose and lignin. There are three types of ...
The white liquor breaks the bonds between lignin and cellulose. It is called white liquor due to its white opaque colour. White ... The Kraft cooking liquor (white) is used to extract the lignin and break down the cellulose composition of wood chips into ... It is used in the first stage of the Kraft process in which lignin and hemicellulose are separated from cellulose fiber for the ...
Black Ivory Coffee
Soil organic matter
The break down of the organic compounds is done at very different rates, depending on their nature. The ranking, from fast to ... Proteins Hemicelluloses Cellulose Lignins and fats. The reactions that take place can be included in one of three groups: ... This process by which organic compounds are broken down and transformed into mineral (inorganic) compounds is also referred to ... and range in complexity from rather simple sugars to the big molecules of cellulose. Fats consist of glycerids of fatty acids, ...
... it breaks down to form dextrins, also called "pyrodextrins" in this context. This break down process is known as dextrinization ... The glucose is used to make cellulose fibers, the structural component of the plant, or is stored in the form of starch ... Textile chemicals from starch: warp sizing agents are used to reduce breaking of yarns during weaving. Starch is mainly used to ... Synthetic amylose made from cellulose has a well-controlled degree of polymerization. Therefore, it can be used as a potential ...
In these anaerobic environments, protozoa break down plant cellulose to obtain energy. This process releases hydrogen as a ... Methanogens also play a critical role in the carbon cycle, breaking down organic carbon into methane, which is also a major ... Acetic acid is also broken down into methane and carbon dioxide directly, by acetotrophic archaea. These acetotrophs are ... mutualism is the interaction between protozoa and methanogenic archaea in the digestive tracts of animals that digest cellulose ...
Cellulose and hemicellulose, which are broken down more slowly, are "moderately labile". Compounds which are more resistant to ... By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by ... They also produce enzymes which break down lignin, which allows them access to both cell contents and to the nitrogen in the ... The carbon and nutrients in dead organic matter are broken down by a group of processes known as decomposition. This releases ...
... leaving partially degraded cellulose as a residue. Brown rot species break down the cellulose fibres, leaving a brittle, brown ... Wood is composed of primarily three types of tissue: lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. White rot species of Polyporales ... chrysosporium gene expression data identified common CAZymes encoding gene expression profiles involved in cellulose and ...
Many organisms can easily break down starches into glucose; most organisms, however, cannot metabolize cellulose or other ... Glycogen is a carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles (as animal source). Cellulose in the cell wall of all plant tissue is ... Long-chain fatty acids cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, but the liver can break these down to produce ketones. However, ... The most abundant carbohydrate, cellulose, is a structural component of the cell wall of plants and many forms of algae. Ribose ...
Law-breaking liquid defies the rules Archived 2011-04-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Physicsworld.com (September 24, 2004 ) George ... Strength of nylon and cellulose fibres. Wool, being a protein fibre, is held together by hydrogen bonds, causing wool to recoil ... Owing to the difficulty of breaking these bonds, water has a very high boiling point, melting point, and viscosity compared to ... Hydrogen bonds are also important in the structure of cellulose and derived polymers in its many different forms in nature, ...
It is able to break down the lignin and cellulose components of leaf litter. Grown in axenic culture in the laboratory, the ... When broken it exudes a white milk-like liquid. The variety candida is similar in appearance to the main variety, except its ... The stem will ooze a whitish latex if it is injured or broken. The variety nigra has a dark gray cap, while the variety candida ... It is especially adept at attacking cellulose and lignin, the latter of which is the second most abundant renewable organic ...
... as non-digestible cellulose). Fresh fruit bodies have a moisture content of 84.4%. The mushrooms are a good source of the ... acquiring nutrients from breaking down decaying organic matter. The fungus, however, is only found with trees known to form ... roughly spherical initially but breaking up into a series of five to ten raylike projections, which give the fruit body the ...
Marine biologists suggest they may contribute to the break down of cellulose from the wood. Interestingly, the species of wood ... In aerobic terrestrial environments, a majority of cellulose breakdown is broken down by wood-decay fungi commonly and ... Complex enzymes are secreted by the various fungi, converting cellulose into a carbon form that can be utilized by the fungus, ... Leschine SB (1995) Cellulose degradation in anaerobic environments. Annu Rev Microbiol 49: 399-426. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi. ...
The koala's cecum enables it to host bacteria that specifically help to break down cellulose. Human ancestors may have also ... As people began to eat more easily digested foods, they may have become less reliant on cellulose-rich plants for energy. As ... house mutualistic bacteria and ingested small stones that help animals digest the cellulose molecules found in plants. It is ...
Its main purpose is to absorb carbohydrates which were broken down from cellulose in the cecum. Due to its many twists and ... to break down the cellulose. In practical terms, horses prefer to eat small amounts of food steadily throughout the day, as ... On the other hand, hay pellets and cubes can be soaked until they break apart into a pulp or thick slurry, and in this state ... However, unlike humans, they also have to utilize plant fiber (largely cellulose) that comes from grass and hay. Ruminants like ...
The adults break out of the pupae and chew their way to the surface leaving behind circular holes. The little wisps of sawdust ... They feed on the starchy content of the wood as they are unable to digest cellulose. Young larvae chew their way along the ... They may come near to the surface but do not break through. When the larvae are ready to pupate, they build pupal chambers ...
The process breaks down almost all materials that are fed into it. TDP even efficiently breaks down many types of hazardous ... The data on the outputs for the various feedstocks, except for cellulose, is taken from Brad Lemley (May 2003). Anything Into ... The process can break down organic poisons, due to breaking chemical bonds and destroying the molecular shape needed for the ... The process only breaks long molecular chains into shorter ones, so small molecules such as carbon dioxide or methane cannot be ...
Breaking Down Cellulose Without Blasting Lignin - Redorbit
... gene families involved in the mechanisms by which brown rot break down cellulose and white rot fungi break down both cellulose ... what genes are absolutely necessary to break down cellulose," he said. "Part of that is the machinery to break down wood became ... This brown rot fungus capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department ... "For example, if you go back far enough in time to the period when trees were developing, there was no way to break ...
Breaking down stubborn cellulose in time lapse
The plant component cellulose is an extremely resistant, water-insoluble polymer that is difficult to break down. This makes ... Breaking down stubborn cellulose in time lapse. New perspectives for applications in industrial biorefineries. ... "Our analyses prove that cellulosomes are extremely efficient in breaking down cellulose. They could therefore play a central ... Cellulose degradation in nature. In nature, the biological breakdown of cellulose occurs either through cellulases or through ...
Fungal Enzymes Team Up to More Efficiently Break Down Cellulose - DOE Joint Genome Institute
Fungal Enzymes Team Up to More Efficiently Break Down Cellulose. Collaborative science initiative enables resolution of fungal ... Home › News Releases › Fungal Enzymes Team Up to More Efficiently Break Down Cellulose ... One of the biggest barriers in the commercial production of sustainable biofuels is to cost-effectively break down the ... "There are protein complexes in bacteria called cellulosomes that pack together the enzymes to break down plant biomass," said ...
US4260696A - Process for the production of polyurethane silicate foams and resinous products utilizing aldehyde-broken down...
Organic polyisocyanates are reacted chemically with aldehyde-broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate polymers to produce ... a) aldehyde-broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate copolymer said broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate being ... acetaldehyde-broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate copolymer; benzaldehyde-broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate ... furfural-broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate copolymer; paraformaldehyde-broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate ...
Cellulose Gum - Breaking the Vicious Cycle
Search Results cellulose : Biofuels Digest
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Oxford Instruments MQC-23 Measures Both Oil And Moisture In Cellulose Acetate | Textile World
Breaking News. Supreme Laundry, El Paso, Retains Clean Green Certification. March 23, 2018. ... a cellulose acetate fiber sample. Cellulose acetate fibers are lubricated with spin finish oils to facilitate their processing ... measure both spin finish oil and moisture content simultaneously in cellulose acetate fibers. The. company reports the single ... Oxford Instruments MQC-23 Measures Both Oil And Moisture In Cellulose Acetate. February 15, 2011. ...
Cellulose (in supplements) - Breaking the Vicious Cycle
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From Biomass to Biofuels: Breaking the Cellulose Barrier. Archived Webinar. Oct 5, 2011 ... Cellulose found in almost all plant cell wall, making it one of the most abundant renewable and sustainable natural resource on ... The Role of Cellulose Accessibility On Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocelluloses. Conference Presentation ... Degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose is considered an important factor to effect on the conversion of Lignocellulose. The ...
Research shows how cellulose breaks down to create bio-oils - Kenya Engineer
Research from North Carolina (NC) State University has provided molecular-level insights into how cellulose breaks down in wood ... Much of the energy that can be extracted from wood exists in the cellulose found in cell walls. Cellulose itself is a stiff, ... The calculations in the paper show that although the decomposition products and rates differ in glucose and cellulose, the ...
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The Subtleties of Dissolution and Regeneration of Cellulose: Breaking and Making Hydrogen Bonds. Lindman, Björn ... Cellulose dissolution and regeneration are old topics that have recently gained renewed attention. This is reflected in both ... Cellulose, Dissolution, Regeneration, Hydrophobic interactions, Hydrogen bonds, Entropy Nationell ämneskategori Kemiteknik ... on the balance between hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions in controlling the solution behavior of cellulose. Some of ...
Breaking down stubborn cellulose in time lapse Researchers at Graz Unversity of Technology in Austria have for the first time ... The plant component cellulose is an extremely resistant, water-insoluble polymer that is difficult to break down. This makes ... as it degrades crystalline cellulose. The fundamental insights thus obtained could support sustainable concepts of cellulose ...
The human body is incapable of digesting cellulose because it lacks the necessary enzymes. Cellulose is only broken down by the ... Cellulose: is dietary fibre found in plants and it is the undigestible part of plant foods. Cellulose is similar to starch but ... It is stored in the liver and muscles, and is broken down into glucose when energy is required. The structure of glycogen is ... It is also obtained from glycogen which is stored in the liver and muscles, and is broken down into glucose when energy is ...
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Table of Contents - May 27, 2016, 352 (6289) | Science
What does the cows rumen do - Answers
Can human digest cellulose of plant cell. ?. No, cannot break one of the beta bonds connecting the units of cellulose. ... What are the enzymes which enable cows to digest cellulose. ?. Cellulase is the enzyme used to digest cellulose, which is ... The rumen is responsible for the first stage of break down of forages. Bacteria or microflora in the rumen aid in the digestion ... Partially digested material is burped up and chewed again as cud, with enzymes in the cows saliva further breaking down ...
FibersLigninStarchGlucoseNanocrystalsCellulaseHemicelluloseSugarsMicrocrystalline celluloseEnzymePolymerBreakdownPure celluloseNatural cellulosePercent celluloseMoleculesBiomassDegradeDigestCrystallineHydrogen BondsGlycogenBehaviorGumsMethylPectinMade from celluloseSources of celluloseAddition of celluloseStructure of celluloseDegradation of celluloseBacteria breakPlantDissolutionContains celluloseHumansRuminantsFungiInsightsPolymersPolysaccharidesElongationEthanolDigestibleLinkagesStructuralRenewableDigestiveMicrobialStructurallyPropionateCell walls of plantsProteinInsulationDerivativesEsterSodiumEnzymes breakAcid hydrolysisOrganicCellulosomesCarbohydrateMechanical Properties
- Oxford Instruments Magnetic Resonance, a business unit of United Kingdom-based Oxford Instruments, has developed a method by which its MQC-23 benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyzer can measure both spin finish oil and moisture content simultaneously in cellulose acetate fibers. (textileworld.com)
- Cellulose acetate fibers are lubricated with spin finish oils to facilitate their processing for end-use applications including fabrics, membranes and filters. (textileworld.com)
- Cellulose is ideal as a structural material since its fibers give strength and toughness to a plant's leaves, roots, and stems. (encyclopedia.com)
- Examined under a powerful microscope, fibers of cellulose are seen to have a meshed or criss-cross pattern that looks as if it were woven much as cloth. (encyclopedia.com)
- The cell wall has been likened to the way reinforced concrete is made, with the cellulose fibers acting as the rebars or steel rods do in concrete (providing extra strength). (encyclopedia.com)
- The major sources of cellulose are plant fibers (cotton, hemp, flax, and jute are almost all cellulose) and, of course, wood (about 42 percent cellulose). (encyclopedia.com)
- Award-winning center console carrier employs PP composite reinforced with cellulose and glass fibers. (plasticstoday.com)
- International Paper creates innovative, sustainable and recyclable products that help our customers achieve their objectives," said Russell Anawalt, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Global Cellulose Fibers. (plasticstoday.com)
- Improved cellulose semipermeable hollow fibers useful in detoxifying blood during hemodialysis or hemofiltration treatments. (google.com)
- The cellulose fibers are fine, capillary fibers that are made by melt extrusion of certain cellulose ester polyol melt spin compositions into self-supporting gelled fibers. (google.com)
- The cellulose ester gelled fibers are subsequently chemically converted into cellulose fibers by deacetylation, in aqueous alkali solution. (google.com)
- The product fibers exhibit improved wet intrinsic tensile strength and higher water permeability characteristics than heretofore known cellulose fibers made from cellulose ester spin compositions. (google.com)
- This invention relates to cellulose semipermeable hollow fibers of the type useful in dialysis, osmosis or ultrafiltration type separatory cells, and more particularly cells useful in the detoxification of blood by hemodialysis or hemofiltration. (google.com)
- Cellulose helps prevent constipation by providing the required fibers in the diet. (reference.com)
- The addition of cellulose fibers (30%) and lignin (40%) to the polyurethane matrix has caused an increase of the stiffness in the resulting composite when compared with the pure matrix. (scientific.net)
- The presence of lignin or cellulose fibers in polyurethane matrix seems to increase mechanical properties of the composite, and also introduce better thermal stability than the pure matrix. (scientific.net)
- Some enzymes cut the long cellulose fibers, and then others begin devouring the ends. (rochester.edu)
- The layer-by-layer (LbL) technology was used to adsorb polyelectrolyte multilayers consisting of cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) and anionic sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) onto cellulose fibers in order to enhance the flame-retardancy and tensile strength of paper sheets made from these fibers. (springer.com)
- The adsorption of a low (LM w ) and a high molecular weight (HM w ) PEI onto cellulose fibers and carboxymethylated (CM) cellulose fibers was investigated using polyelectrolyte titration. (springer.com)
- Thermal gravimetric analysis of LbL-treated fibers showed that the onset temperature for cellulose degradation was lowered and that the amount of residue at 800 °C increased. (springer.com)
- Papers prepared from both cellulose fibers and CM-cellulose fibers treated with HM w -PEI/SHMP LbL-combination self-extinguished in a horizontal configuration despite the rather low amounts of adsorbed polymer which form very thin films (wet thickness of ca. 17 nm). (springer.com)
- The tensile properties of handsheets showed that 3.5 BL of HM w -PEI and SHMP increased the stress at break by 100% compared to sheets prepared from untreated cellulose fibers. (springer.com)
- It has also been shown that the saturation adsorption of weak cationic polyelectrolytes used in paper making, such as polyethylenimine (PEI), onto cellulose fibers and silica is significantly affected by the molecular weight, concentration of solution, pH and salt concentration used during the adsorption (Alince et al. (springer.com)
- The focus of the article is the critical discussion of different shaping processes to obtain a variety of cellulose products, from commercially available viscose fibers to advanced and functionalized materials still at the research level. (degruyter.com)
- Insoluble fibers, found in the cell walls of plants, include cellulose, hemicellulose and lignins. (nytimes.com)
- The best known source of these fibers is wheat bran, which is almost pure cellulose. (nytimes.com)
- The brown rots evolved later from a white rot ancestry and, because they circumvent the lignin and go straight for the hemicellulose and cellulose, they are considered more efficient and is probably why they have been able to dominate boreal forests in more recent times. (redorbit.com)
- The analyses of the 48.2-million nucleotide genome of S. lacrymans not only allowed the team to compare the gene families involved in the mechanisms by which brown rot break down cellulose and white rot fungi break down both cellulose and lignin, but also how these processes differ within each category. (redorbit.com)
- Part of that is the machinery to break down wood became simpler since brown rot fungi are not breaking down lignin. (redorbit.com)
- The brown rot fungi have somehow circumvented that step to more efficiently get at the cellulose instead of blasting lignin, and it has evolved multiple times in different white rot lineages. (redorbit.com)
- The broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate polymer is soluble in water, alcohols, polyols and other organic solvents and is a thick liquid above 150° C. and a brown solid below 150° C. The broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate polymer has lost a carbon dioxide radical from each molecule and the lignin-cellulose bond appears to be intact. (google.com)
- When a plant product (cellulose) with the lignin removed is used in the production of broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate polymer, a dark brown to black colored water soluble polymer is produced. (google.com)
- Made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin polymers, these parts of the plant evolved to protect and preserve the integrity of plant structures, so they are difficult to break down. (technologyreview.com)
- In Winter's process, the cellulose is first purified in the laboratory as substances such as wax and gluey lignin are removed from the biomass. (netcomposites.com)
- Using castor oil polyurethane as matrix for composites reinforced with lignin and cellulose from sugarcane straw is in tune with economical and environmental interests. (scientific.net)
- The objective of this work was the evaluation of the changes on the structure and thermal behavior of castor oil polyurethane composites reinforced with lignin and cellulose from sugarcane straw. (scientific.net)
- The cellulose and lignin were extracted from the straw by acid hydrolysis and then they were milled. (scientific.net)
- Reinforcement of the matrix was done changing the concentration of cellulose and lignin. (scientific.net)
- Cellulose may exist in a rather pure form, e.g. in seed hairs of cotton where the cellulose content reaches above 90 wt%, but most often cellulose occurs together with lignin, other polysaccharides such as hemicelluloses (polyoses) and pectins, as well as relatively small amounts of organic compounds, i.e. extractives [ 4 ]. (degruyter.com)
- It turned out that it included were cellulose, lignin and other biopolymers. (livescience.com)
- Starch is stored in granules of plants and is broken down to glucose for use as energy. (angelfire.com)
- Cellulose is similar to starch but is structurally and nutritionally different because of the way the glucose molecules are joined together. (angelfire.com)
- While studying different types of wood, Payen obtained a substance that he knew was not starch (glucose or sugar in its stored form), but which still could be broken down into its basic units of glucose just as starch can. (encyclopedia.com)
- Thermoplastic starch-polyvinyl alcohol composite films were prepared by casting method with cellulose nanofibers as reinforcement agent and glycerol as plasticizer. (hindawi.com)
- This process happens by breaking hydrogen bonds between the starch macromolecules, coinciding with a partial depolymerization of starch backbone [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Thermoplastic cassava starch was reinforced with cassava baggase cellulose nanofibrils [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Cellulose microfibrils from potato tuber cell waxy starch cellulose nanocrystals were also added to TPS films [ 2 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Cellulose is a chain of D-glucose, unlike starch, in cellulose the glucose units are bound to each other by beta(1-4) bond. (madsci.org)
- On depletion of primary sources of glucose, enzymes to degrade more complex molecules such as cellulose and starch, are then released. (wikipedia.org)
- Starch is then broken down and absorbed. (wikipedia.org)
- Cellulose is far tougher to break down than starch. (redorbit.com)
- An additional complication is that while the fermentation reaction that breaks down corn starch needs just one enzyme, the degradation of cellulose requires a whole suite of enzymes, or cellulases, working in concert. (redorbit.com)
- Contains a source of alpha-Amylase for breaking down starch. (drugs.com)
- It is my hypothesis that at the point of the branches in the molecule is a chemical link called alpha 1-6 isomaltose which we cannot digest (cannot break two glucose molecules attached with that link). (breakingtheviciouscycle.info)
- Cellulose itself is a stiff, rod-like substance consisting of chains of a specific type of a simple sugar called glucose. (co.ke)
- The calculations in the paper show that although the decomposition products and rates differ in glucose and cellulose, the various elementary steps appear to be the same but altered in their relative importance to each other,' Westmoreland said. (co.ke)
- Enzymes produced by extremophile archaeabacteria can catalyze the breakdown of cellulose to glucose because they continue to function even under extremely hot, salty conditions. (asknature.org)
- The enzyme is able to catalyze the breakdown of cellulose to glucose at high temperatures (above 100 degrees C), and function under a wide range of harsh conditions including the presence of detergents, high salinity, and high ionic content. (asknature.org)
- It is stored in the liver and muscles, and is broken down into glucose when energy is required. (angelfire.com)
- A plant uses glucose to make cellulose when it links many simple units of glucose together to form long chains. (encyclopedia.com)
- 2. The cellulose dope according to claim 1 , wherein, in the NMR analysis of the cellulose dope, the 6-position carbon atoms of the glucose units of the cellulose exhibit a longitudinal relaxation time (τc) of from 10 to 400 ms, and the 1-position carbon atoms of the glucose units of the cellulose exhibit a longitudinal relaxation time (τc) of from 200 to 10,000 ms. (google.com)
- Cellulose is a structural glucose polysaccharide component of the plant cell wall, along with hemicellulose and pectins. (wikibooks.org)
- However, breaking down the cellulose to get the glucose is difficult and requires an extensive enzyme system. (wikibooks.org)
- Once one breaks the cellulose to its D-glucose units it is easily digestible by any organism. (madsci.org)
- Glucose has a large number of bonds that can be broken down, it's used to make ATP. (prezi.com)
- For instance, the formation of cellulose is repressed by high concentrations of glucose in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
- In the absence of glucose, detection of cellulose, for instance, induces the expression of celluloses. (wikipedia.org)
- Now scientists are eyeing the process as one way to satiate our future energy demands: The breakdown of cellulose into simpler, useful materials such as cellobiose and glucose is one step in the conversion of biomass materials like trees, waste paper and crops into renewable energy products such as ethanol. (rochester.edu)
- Both fungi and bacteria use a concoction of several cellulase enzymes to break down cellulose, long chains of glucose bound tightly together by hydrogen bonds, like a group of pencils bound tightly with rubber bands. (rochester.edu)
- Glycogen is broken down at these nonreducing ends by the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase to release glucose for energy. (encyclopedia.com)
- Like α -amylose, cellulose is a linear polysaccharide composed entirely of glucose. (encyclopedia.com)
- However, in cellulose the glucose residues occur in β (1 → 4) linkage rather than α (1 → 4) (see Figure 1). (encyclopedia.com)
- The glucose molecules in cellulose are alternately inverted (every other one inverted) such that each chain has a highly extended and rigid conformation. (encyclopedia.com)
- The consequent roughening of the surface leads to efficient degradation of cellulose nanocrystals," explains Bernd Nidetzky. (analytica-world.com)
- A unit of CNC-1 CRM consists of a bottle containing approximately 1 g of spray-dried cellulose nanocrystals. (gc.ca)
- This illustration depicts structural details of cellulose nanocrystals. (purdue.edu)
- This transmission electron microscope image shows cellulose nanocrystals, tiny structures that give trees and plants their high strength, light weight and resilience. (purdue.edu)
- The findings represent a milestone in understanding the fundamental mechanical behavior of the cellulose nanocrystals. (purdue.edu)
- The cellulose nanocrystals represent a potential green alternative to carbon nanotubes for reinforcing materials such as polymers and concrete. (purdue.edu)
- The key is pulling nanocrystals of cellulose out of natural materials, ranging from trees and willow shrubs to orange pulp and the pomace left behind after apple cider production, and mixing them with plastics. (netcomposites.com)
- The cellulose nanocrystals will break down quickly in a landfill. (netcomposites.com)
- The cellulose is shredded into tiny particles under high pressure, rendering nanocrystals, so-called because they are so miniscule they are measured in nanometers, or billionths of a meter. (netcomposites.com)
- When hemicellulose is removed from wood for fermentation into ethanol, it leaves behind cellulose that can be treated with enzymes and reduced to the nanocrystals Winter uses in his lab. (netcomposites.com)
- Cellulase is the enzyme used to digest cellulose, which is produced by the microflora in a cow's rumen. (answers.com)
- In order to break this down, the enzymes cellulase, hemicellulase, and pectinase need to work in conjunction with one another. (wikibooks.org)
- Cellulase which can break down cellulose. (iherb.com)
- Wu's team and an MIT group headed by renowned industrial microbiologist Arnold Demain discovered that a protein called CipA in the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum organizes several cellulase enzymes into a cohesive unit which it leads to the cellulose material, like a platoon of soldiers following its commander. (rochester.edu)
- Contains a source of Cellulase for breaking down cellulose. (drugs.com)
- Cellulase (Trichoderma longibrachiatum) not less than 160,000 cellulase units (CU) (CU is the amount of activity that will produce a relative fluidity change of 1 in 5 minutes in a defined carboxymethyl cellulose substrate under the conditions of the assay at 40°C. (drugs.com)
- In Canada, Fortress Paper Ltd. announced a strategic supplement to the already announced birch usage project at the Fortress Specialty Cellulose Mill aimed at extracting hemicellulose from underutilized species such as birch. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- The plant cell wall contains cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins. (wikibooks.org)
- The cellulose crystals are more difficult to break down into sugars to make liquid fuel. (purdue.edu)
- However breaking down the cellulose into sugars that can be converted to ethanol is difficult. (autoblog.com)
- It uses recombinant DNA-produced enzymes to break apart cellulose to produce sugars. (highbeam.com)
- Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and world-leading gene-synthesis company DNA2.0 have taken an important step toward the development of a cost-efficient process to extract sugars from cellulose--the world's most abundant organic material and cheapest form of solar-energy storage. (redorbit.com)
- In a paper published this week in the early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Frances H. Arnold, the Dick and Barbara Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering and Biochemistry at Caltech, and her colleagues report the construction of 15 new highly stable fungal enzyme catalysts that efficiently break down cellulose into sugars at high temperatures. (redorbit.com)
- The invention provides an extended release coated granule comprising a granule having a particle size ranging from 0.2 to 2 mm, a friability lower than or equal to 1% and comprising metoprolol succinate as active ingredient in an amount ranging from 10 to 75% by weight of the granule and at least one binder selected from microcrystalline cellulose and methylcellulose, coated with a film-former coating agent. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 6. The coated granule according to claim 1, wherein microcrystalline cellulose and methylcellulose are used as binders. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The biodegradable composite films were prepared from corn stalk microcrystalline cellulose as filler and poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) as polymeric matrix. (scientific.net)
- Corn stalk microcrystalline cellulose was distributed in PVA films as the crystalline state. (scientific.net)
- The results show that the tensile properties and thermal properties were improved with the addition of corn stalk microcrystalline cellulose. (scientific.net)
- When corn stalk microcrystalline cellulose mass fraction was 10%, both temperature of initial decomposition and maximum weight loss rate of composite film were raised by 19.25°C and 17.17°C, and the tensile strength increased by 37.91%, and the elongation at break increased by 58.93% compared to those of pure PVA. (scientific.net)
- By exploiting the different mechanisms of action of enzyme complexes in the form of a cellulosome and free enzymes, cellulose degradation can be carried out faster, more completely and with less enzyme requirement. (analytica-world.com)
- Cellulosomes known as the proficient nanomachine in nature are cell bound multi-enzyme complexes that break down cellulose and hemicelluloses. (wikibooks.org)
- They produce an enzyme called celluse which is capable of breaking down the cellulose. (reference.com)
- Amylopectin and α -amylose are broken down by the enzyme amylase. (encyclopedia.com)
- The plant component cellulose is an extremely resistant, water-insoluble polymer that is difficult to break down. (analytica-world.com)
- This invention relates to a process for the production of polyurethane silicate foams and resinous products utilizing aldehyde-broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate polymer. (google.com)
- Aldehyde broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate polymers are produced by reacting an aldehyde with a broken down water soluble cellulose silicate polymer. (google.com)
- The broken down water soluble cellulose silicate polymer is produced by heating a mixture of 3 parts by weight of a cellulose-containing plant, 2 to 5 parts by weight of an alkali metal hydroxide and 1 to 2 parts by weight of an oxidated silicon compound to 150° to 220° C. with agitating for 5 to 60 minutes. (google.com)
- For instance, nature chose the same stable six-carbon carbohydrate to store energy both in our livers (in the form of the polymer called glycogen) and in trees (in the form of the polymer cellulose). (scientificamerican.com)
- Cellulose, a major component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant natural polymer on Earth . (encyclopedia.com)
- As a main component in the cell walls of higher plants, cellulose is the most abundant and highly important organic polymer. (degruyter.com)
- It has such an aggressive form of cellulose breakdown," said study first author Dan Eastwood of Swansea University. (redorbit.com)
- In nature, the biological breakdown of cellulose occurs either through cellulases or through cellulosomes. (analytica-world.com)
- As a consequence, fungi specifically target the breakdown of the cellulose in their environment, and do not waste energy on the unnecessary formation of enzymes for degradation of molecules that may not be present. (wikipedia.org)
- The source of power for these fuel cells comes from the breakdown of cellulose by a variety of bacteria in rumen fluid, the microbe-rich fluid found in a cow's rumen, the largest chamber of a cow's stomach. (scienceblog.com)
- Ruminants have special stomachs, and the bacteria generally breakdown cellulose. (freerepublic.com)
- It is because of these long molecules that cellulose is insoluble or does not dissolve easily in water. (encyclopedia.com)
- Liquid - molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other which are continuously making and breaking as they move around. (prezi.com)
- During extracellular digestion, food is broken down outside the cell either mechanically or with acid by special molecules called enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
- Molecules of polymers can be broken without destroying the chemical integrity. (environmentalchemistry.com)
- Only when there are sustainable and cost-efficient approaches for the degradation of cellulose will we start to produce fuels, chemicals and materials on a large scale from plant biomass," explains Bernd Nidetzky, biotechnologist and head of the Institute of Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering at TU Graz. (analytica-world.com)
- Cellulases active above 100 °C may assist in biofuel production from lignocellulosic feedstocks by hydrolysing cellulose under conditions typically employed in biomass pretreatment. (asknature.org)
- Ruminants (e.g. cows, sheep) can however digest cellulose in their rumen, not themselves but because of the complex microorganisms living in their rumen. (answers.com)
- Nevertheless there are insects that do digest cellulose, such as termites. (madsci.org)
- You won't be able to digest cellulose effectively just by introducing the appropriate bacteria to your gut. (halfbakery.com)
- The decay of cellulose stands behind everything from the transformation of the compost heap to fertilizer, to cows' ability to digest grass and mushrooms' ability to grow in the forest. (rochester.edu)
- Most animals, including humans, lack the enzymes necessary to dissolve α (1 → 4) linkages and so cannot digest cellulose. (encyclopedia.com)
- Humans have a single chamber stomach, and cannot digest cellulose (even fat people). (freerepublic.com)
- Researchers at TU Graz in Austria have for the first time ever succeeded in visualizing at the single-molecule level the processes involved in a biological nanomachine, known as the cellulosome, as it degrades crystalline cellulose. (analytica-world.com)
- Compared to cellulases, which detach material when sliding along crystalline cellulose surfaces, cellulosomes remain locally bound for minutes and remove the underlying material. (analytica-world.com)
- Here we describe a consortium of three hyperthermophilic archaea enriched from a continental geothermal source by growth at 90 °C on crystalline cellulose. (asknature.org)
- Glycogen and cellulose differ mainly in the handedness of a single carbon atom, which forms when the carbohydrate polymerizes, or forms a chain. (scientificamerican.com)
- Having many reducing ends, glycogen is more readily broken down in cases in which an animal needs a sudden burst of energy. (encyclopedia.com)
- There is a current discussion in the literature on the balance between hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions in controlling the solution behavior of cellulose. (diva-portal.org)
- In addition to modifying the behavior of water, cellulose gum is useful in modifying flow, adding texture and enhancing mouthfeel. (ashland.com)
- Fiberstar, Inc. Introduces a Natural Citrus Fiber System to Replace Methyl Cellulose in Plant-based Meat Alternatives to Clean Up Foo. (bio-medicine.org)
- Yet, to make these meat alternatives comparable to their animal-meat counterparts, product developers use a thermogelling and emulsifying ingredient such as methyl cellulose. (bio-medicine.org)
- Formulators heavily rely upon methyl cellulose to provide functional benefits that make plant-based meats convincing. (bio-medicine.org)
- Because of this, we have received numerous requests from plant-based meat manufacturers for a clean label technology replacing methyl cellulose. (bio-medicine.org)
- Read the full story at https://www.prweb.com/releases/fiberstar_inc_introduces_a_natural_citrus_fiber_system_to_replace_methyl_cellulose_in_plant_based_meat_alternatives_to_clean_up_food_labeling/prweb16483663.htm . (bio-medicine.org)
Made from cellulose2
Sources of cellulose1
Addition of cellulose3
- The addition of cellulose nanofibers until 3 wt% increased tensile strength and crystallinity of the composite films. (hindawi.com)
- The addition of cellulose nanofibers as reinforcement agent into TPS production has been studied by some researchers. (hindawi.com)
- All results showed that the addition of cellulose nanofibers increases the mechanical performance of TPS films. (hindawi.com)
Structure of cellulose3
- In Washington state, researchers at Washington State University Tri-Cities and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to define the molecular structure of cellulose, which could lead to cheaper and more efficient ways to make a variety of crucial bioproducts. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- Calculations using precise models based on the atomic structure of cellulose show the crystals have a stiffness of 206 gigapascals, which is comparable to steel, said Pablo D. Zavattieri , a Purdue University assistant professor of civil engineering. (purdue.edu)
- This article will briefly introduce the structure of cellulose and some common cellulose derivatives, as well as the formation of cellulosic materials in the micro- and nanoscale range. (degruyter.com)
Degradation of cellulose3
- Cellulases are enzymes that differ in their specificity and mode of action and are synergistically involved in the degradation of cellulose from woody plants such as trees or shrubs. (analytica-world.com)
- In concrete terms, the researchers document the degradation of cellulose using a cellulosome from the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. (analytica-world.com)
- Next, the researchers plan to use the structure-guided recombination process to perfect each of the half-dozen or so cellulases that make up the soup of enzymes required for the industrial degradation of cellulose. (redorbit.com)
- Thus while some of the food that a plant makes when it converts light energy into chemical energy (photosynthesis) is used as fuel and some is stored, the rest is turned into cellulose that serves as the main building material for a plant. (encyclopedia.com)
- Since cellulose is insoluble in water, it is easily separated from the other constituents of a plant. (encyclopedia.com)
- Cellulose is a major component of plant and has played an important role in maintaining structure of plant cell walls. (hindawi.com)
- In anaerobic bacteria, research has shown that there is a multienzyme complex called cellulosome which contains all three enzymes, and which breaks down the plant cell wall most effectively. (wikibooks.org)
- Penn State researchers have identified the major steps in the process as well as the tools that plant cells use to create cellulose, including proteins that transport critical components to the location where cellulose is made. (org.vn)
- Gu said that it has been known that cellulose is synthesized in the plasma membrane that surrounds plant cells called the cellulose synthase complex, and that the main component of this complex is a unique cargo protein called cellulose synthase. (org.vn)
- Each Aspergillus species is known to contain more than 250 carbohydrate active enzymes (CAzymes), which break down plant cell walls and are of interest to Department of Energy (DOE) researchers working on the industrial production of sustainable alternative fuels using candidate bioenergy feedstock crops. (phys.org)
- These materials are largely composed of cellulose, the chief component of plant-cell walls. (redorbit.com)
- Humans obtain cellulose by ingesting plant material. (reference.com)
- Cellulose is the chief component of the cell walls in plant cells. (reference.com)
- Cellulose is Botanically Derived From Plant Pulp. (influenster.com)
- together, they carry the essential enzymatic energy factors to break down the fibrous nature of plant cell walls and unlock the valuable nutrition. (chiroeco.com)
- The main source is plant fiber, where cellulose acts as a structural element, providing wood and other plants with strength. (degruyter.com)
- Fiber is that portion of plant foods that human digestive enzymes cannot break down. (nytimes.com)
- For humans, cellulose is also a major source of needed fiber in our diet. (encyclopedia.com)
- What happens to ingested cellulose in humans? (reference.com)
- Since humans are not ruminants and do not harbor bacteria that are capable of breaking down the cellulose structure, the ingested cellulose tends to be excreted. (reference.com)
- While cellulose is of very little nutritional value to humans, it provides the fiber necessary for the process of defecation. (reference.com)
- Because humans don't have enzymes to break cellulose down into its basic carbohydrate, we cannot utilize it as food. (scientificamerican.com)
- Yes, raw foods do contain great enzymes, but raw vegetables also contain cellulose.Cellulose is a fiber that is poorly digested by humans. (lifehack.org)
- Humans don't use bacterial processes to break down food. (freerepublic.com)
- The analysis not only allowed researchers to understand the chemical reactions involved in the mechanism by which Serpula breaks down cellulose, it also sheds light on the role of brown rot fungi in the development of the largest terrestrial ecosystem "" the subarctic cool climate boreal forest "" and therefore the fungi's role in the global carbon cycle. (redorbit.com)
- He pointed out that the ability of wood-decaying fungi in general to break down lignocellulose is linked to the co-evolution of boreal forests and fungi. (redorbit.com)
- When the fungi figured out how to break down lignocellulose, the coevolution of the fungi and trees kick-started the carbon cycle again. (redorbit.com)
- Study senior author Sarah Watkinson of the University of Oxford emphasized the role of brown rot fungi in the global carbon cycle, noting that a third of the carbon sequestered in the soil of boreal forests are composed of the wood residues after the fungi break down the cellulose. (redorbit.com)
- Fungi and other decomposers utilize nutrients derived from breaking down the substrate they grow on. (wikipedia.org)
- The orderliness is a contrast to the slower process in fungi, where enzymes randomly attach and attack a cellulose surface. (rochester.edu)
- Perhaps we can learn from these efficient bacteria and use genetic engineering to endow fungi with the same advantage, so that we'd have both a high volume and a high efficiency of cellulose degradation in one organism. (rochester.edu)
- Nature offers many sources for cellulose, including trees and annual plants, animals, fungi, algae, and bacteria as shown in Figure 1 . (degruyter.com)
- The fundamental insights thus obtained could support sustainable concepts of cellulose utilization to make a breakthrough in industrial biotechnology. (analytica-world.com)
- They were able to visualize a cellulosome at the single-molecule level during cellulose degradation by means of time-lapse atomic force microscopy and thus gain insights into its mode of operation. (analytica-world.com)
- Research from North Carolina (NC) State University has provided molecular-level insights into how cellulose breaks down in wood to create bio-oils that can be refined into liquid transportation fuel. (co.ke)
- Organic polyisocyanates are reacted chemically with aldehyde-broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate polymers to produce polyurethane products. (google.com)
- The production of aldehyde broken down alkali metal cellulose silicate polymers is outlined in U.S. Patent Application No. 029,202, filed Apr. (google.com)
- One function of cellulosomes is breaking down plant's structural polysaccharides. (wikibooks.org)
- In contrast, it decreased their elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate. (hindawi.com)
- Meanwhile, the addition of glycerol increased elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate of film matrix but lowers tensile strength of composite films. (hindawi.com)
- The tensile strength, elongation at break, thermal stability and permeability of the cellulose composites films as a function of the content of modified nano-SiO 2 were studied. (scientific.net)
- As the chief constituent (or main ingredient) of the cell walls of plants, cellulose performs a structural or skeletal function. (encyclopedia.com)
- This is important for the design of novel cellulose-based materials as other research groups are considering them for a huge variety of applications, ranging from electronics and medical devices to structural components for the automotive, civil and aerospace industries. (purdue.edu)
- Some carbohydrates are for structural purposes, such as cellulose (which composes plants' cell walls) and chitin (a major component of insect exoskeletons). (wikibooks.org)
- The primary structural homopolysaccharides are cellulose and chitin. (encyclopedia.com)
- This change in linkage has profound effects on the chemical and structural properties of cellulose. (encyclopedia.com)
- Cellulose, one of the three major components of plants, is showing great promise as a renewable source for many convenience products. (mcgill.ca)
- With this in mind, cellulose nanomaterials are inherently renewable, sustainable, biodegradable and carbon-neutral like the sources from which they were extracted," Moon said. (purdue.edu)
- These fixated organic carbons in the cellulose structure provide valuable energy that researches today hope to tap into as a renewable fuel source. (wikibooks.org)
- Calabrese also found that while designers knew Eastman for its plastic, they didn't know as much about the other products, like its Tenite cellulose , which is made from renewable woods, is naturally warm to the touch, and can be easily bent. (fastcompany.com)
- Cellulose has also been considered as a major component of biofuels , and the knowledge of cellulose synthesis could help optimize its use as a renewable energy resource. (org.vn)
- Further development and effective utilization of cellulose is beneficial for a more sustainable society with renewable raw materials and "green" production processes. (degruyter.com)
- Message ID Number: 874412425.Bc The stability of paper and wood is a result of the inevailability of cellulose to the enzymes in most animal digestive tracts. (madsci.org)
- The ingested cellulose passes through the digestive system and is released through defecation. (reference.com)
- Due to the complexity and rigidity of its structure, cellulose cannot be broken down by the human digestive tract. (reference.com)
- the human digestive system does not have enzymes to break down fiber, thus nutrients may be locked within the cellular structure of the foods consumed and remain unused as they pass through the digestive tract. (chiroeco.com)
- Unfortunately, because the pouch is at the end of the digestive tract, the broken-down celulose is release d as waste s before the nutrients can be fully absorbed. (everything2.com)
- The broken-down cellulose goes through the rabbit's digestive system again, and all of the nutrients are fully absorbed. (everything2.com)
- It plays an important role in regulating microbial cellulose production and biofilm formation, which affects a number of environments, including plants, soil, and the gut. (doe.gov)
- Rismani-Yazdi is the lead author of a new study of cellulose-based microbial fuel cells. (scienceblog.com)
- To create power, researchers fill one compartment of a microbial fuel cell with cellulose and rumen fluid. (scienceblog.com)
Cell walls of plants1
- A cellulosome, on the other hand, is a protein complex, an ordered and physically interconnected collection of enzymes necessary for cellulose degradation. (analytica-world.com)
- The researchers showed that a protein called cellulose synthase interactive 1 (CSI1) interacts with the cellulose synthase complex before synthesis and may help mark the site at the plasma membrane where synthesis occurs. (org.vn)
- Engineers have shown that a protein vital to the ability of certain bacteria to break down cellulose, one of the most widespread biochemical processes on earth, speeds up the process by corralling enzymes together and ushering them into action. (rochester.edu)
- Fungal organisms are considered to be major players in cellulose degradation, but that's because they produce so much more protein. (rochester.edu)
- Pound for pound, certain bacteria are the real giants of the cellulose-degradation world: They can be 50 times as effective at breaking down cellulose per protein base, says Wu, associate professor of chemical engineering and microbiology and immunology at the University of Rochester. (rochester.edu)
- The protein then anchors itself to the cellulose, and the well organized enzymes begin their work. (rochester.edu)
- If you've always wondered how paper cellulose insulation was manufactured, then check out this interesting "How it's Made" segment. (techeblog.com)
- How Do You Install Cellulose Insulation? (reference.com)
- After the cellulose insulation is dry, it may have expanded beyond the stud cavity. (reference.com)
- There are specific guidelines regulating cellulose insulation in both methods. (reference.com)
- For example, cellulose insulation generally should not cover recessed lights. (reference.com)
- Also, cellulose insulation should be at least 2 inches away from attic chimneys that lack insulation with a mineral wool batt, according to SF Gate. (reference.com)
- provide] new options for formulators of inks, adhesives, tapes and labels, and coatings that require food contact compliance," said Landon Davis, cellulose ester product manager, Coatings and Inks, Additives and Functional Products. (coatingsworld.com)
- 3. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein said ester consists essentially of cellulose diacetate. (google.com)
- Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxyethylcellulose (CMC), from Ashland is widely used as a cost-effective thickener and stabilizer in food and beverages. (ashland.com)
- Cellulose Gum", accepted as a common or usual name for purified sodium carboxymethylcellulose, may be used in food label ingredient statements. (ashland.com)
- A cellulose dope comprising an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and cellulose dissolved in the solution, wherein the cellulose dope has a sodium hydroxide concentration (CNa) of from 6.5 to 11% by weight, a cellulose content (Cc) of from 5 to 10% by weight, a viscosity average degree of polymerization. (google.com)
- Bernd Nidetzky and his team have set themselves the task of better understanding and visualising cellulosomes as essentially cellulose-degrading biological nanomachines. (analytica-world.com)
- Our analyses prove that cellulosomes are extremely efficient in breaking down cellulose. (analytica-world.com)
- Although most bacteria integrate themselves into cellulosomes, Anaerocellum thermophilum, an efficient cellulose-degrading bacterium does not. (wikibooks.org)