Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
CHOLESTANES substituted with any number of keto groups.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.

The Arabidopsis dwarf1 mutant is defective in the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. (1/215)

Since the isolation and characterization of dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1) from a T-DNA insertion mutant population, phenotypically similar mutants, including deetiolated2 (det2), constitutive photomorphogenesis and dwarfism (cpd), brassinosteroid insensitive1 (bri1), and dwf4, have been reported to be defective in either the biosynthesis or the perception of brassinosteroids. We present further characterization of dwf1-1 and additional dwf1 alleles. Feeding tests with brassinosteroid-biosynthetic intermediates revealed that dwf1 can be rescued by 22alpha-hydroxycampesterol and downstream intermediates in the brassinosteroid pathway. Analysis of the endogenous levels of brassinosteroid intermediates showed that 24-methylenecholesterol in dwf1 accumulates to 12 times the level of the wild type, whereas the level of campesterol is greatly diminished, indicating that the defective step is in C-24 reduction. Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of DWF1 shows significant similarity to a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain conserved in various oxidoreductases, suggesting an enzymatic role for DWF1. In support of this, 7 of 10 dwf1 mutations directly affected the flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain. Our molecular characterization of dwf1 alleles, together with our biochemical data, suggest that the biosynthetic defect in dwf1 results in reduced synthesis of bioactive brassinosteroids, causing dwarfism.  (+info)

BAS1: A gene regulating brassinosteroid levels and light responsiveness in Arabidopsis. (2/215)

The Arabidopsis bas1-D mutation suppresses the long hypocotyl phenotype caused by mutations in the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). The adult phenotype of bas1-D phyB-4 double mutants mimics that of brassinosteroid biosynthetic and response mutants. bas1-D phyB-4 has reduced levels of brassinosteroids and accumulates 26-hydroxybrassinolide in feeding experiments. The basis for the mutant phenotype is the enhanced expression of a cytochrome P450 (CYP72B1). bas1-D suppresses a phyB-null allele, but not a phyA-null mutation, and partially suppresses a cryptochrome-null mutation. Seedlings with reduced BAS1 expression are hyperresponsive to brassinosteroids in a light-dependent manner and display reduced sensitivity to light under a variety of conditions. Thus, BAS1 represents one of the control points between multiple photoreceptor systems and brassinosteroid signal transduction.  (+info)

Auxin regulates the initiation and radial position of plant lateral organs. (3/215)

Leaves originate from the shoot apical meristem, a small mound of undifferentiated tissue at the tip of the stem. Leaf formation begins with the selection of a group of founder cells in the so-called peripheral zone at the flank of the meristem, followed by the initiation of local growth and finally morphogenesis of the resulting bulge into a differentiated leaf. Whereas the mechanisms controlling the switch between meristem propagation and leaf initiation are being identified by genetic and molecular analyses, the radial positioning of leaves, known as phyllotaxis, remains poorly understood. Hormones, especially auxin and gibberellin, are known to influence phyllotaxis, but their specific role in the determination of organ position is not clear. We show that inhibition of polar auxin transport blocks leaf formation at the vegetative tomato meristem, resulting in pinlike naked stems with an intact meristem at the tip. Microapplication of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the apex of such pins restores leaf formation. Similarly, exogenous IAA induces flower formation on Arabidopsis pin-formed1-1 inflorescence apices, which are blocked in flower formation because of a mutation in a putative auxin transport protein. Our results show that auxin is required for and sufficient to induce organogenesis both in the vegetative tomato meristem and in the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem. In this study, organogenesis always strictly coincided with the site of IAA application in the radial dimension, whereas in the apical-basal dimension, organ formation always occurred at a fixed distance from the summit of the meristem. We propose that auxin determines the radial position and the size of lateral organs but not the apical-basal position or the identity of the induced structures.  (+info)

Perception of brassinosteroids by the extracellular domain of the receptor kinase BRI1. (4/215)

An assay was developed to study plant receptor kinase activation and signaling mechanisms. The extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and transmembrane domains of the Arabidopsis receptor kinase BRI1, which is implicated in brassinosteroid signaling, were fused to the serine/threonine kinase domain of XA21, the rice disease resistance receptor. The chimeric receptor initiates plant defense responses in rice cells upon treatment with brassinosteroids. These results, which indicate that the extracellular domain of BRI1 perceives brassinosteroids, suggest a general signaling mechanism for the LRR receptor kinases of plants. This system should allow the discovery of ligands for the LRR kinases, the largest group of plant receptor kinases.  (+info)

Involvement of brassinosteroids in the gravitropic response of primary root of maize. (5/215)

Exogenously applied brassinolide (BL, 10(-9)-10(-5) M) increased gravitropic curvature in maize (Zea mays) primary roots. The BL-enhanced gravitropic curvature was clearly promoted in the presence of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 10(-10)-10(-8) M), indicating that BL is interactive with IAA during the gravitropic response. The interactive effect between BL and IAA was completely diminished by treatment of p-chlorophenoxy isobutric acid, an auxin action antagonist. The activation of the gravitropic response by BL in the absence and in the presence of IAA was nullified by application of 2, 3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. The data indicate that brassinosteroids (BRs) might be involved in auxin-mediated processes for the gravitropic response. Gas chromotography-selected ion-monitoring analysis revealed that maize primary roots contained approximately 0.3 ng g(-1) fresh weight castasterone as an endogenous BR. Exogenously applied castasterone also increased the gravitropic response of maize roots in an IAA-dependent manner. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, for occurrence and gravitropic activity of BRs in plant roots.  (+info)

Biosynthetic pathways of brassinolide in Arabidopsis. (6/215)

Our previous studies on the endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in Arabidopsis have provided suggestive evidence for the operation of the early C6-oxidation and the late C6-oxidation pathways, leading to brassinolide (BL) in Arabidopsis. However, to date the in vivo operation of these pathways has not been fully confirmed in this species. This paper describes metabolic studies using deuterium-labeled BRs in wild-type and BR-insensitive mutant (bri1) seedlings to establish the intermediates of the biosynthetic pathway of BL in Arabidopsis. The first evidence for the conversion of campestanol to 6-deoxocathasterone and the conversion of 6-deoxocathasterone to 6-deoxoteasterone is provided. The later biosynthetic steps (6-deoxoteasterone --> 3-dehydro-6-deoxoteasterone --> 6-deoxotyphasterol --> 6-deoxocastasterone --> 6alpha-hydroxycastasterone --> castasterone --> BL) were demonstrated by stepwise metabolic experiments. Therefore, these studies complete the documentation of the late C6-oxidation pathway. The biosynthetic sequence involved in the early C6-oxidation pathway (teasterone --> 3-dehydroteasterone --> typhasterol --> castasterone --> BL) was also demonstrated. These results show that both the early and late C6-oxidation pathways are functional in Arabidopsis. In addition we report two new observations: the presence of a new branch in the pathway, C6 oxidation of 6-deoxotyphasterol to typhasterol, and increased metabolic flow in BR-insensitive mutants.  (+info)

Loss of function of a rice brassinosteroid insensitive1 homolog prevents internode elongation and bending of the lamina joint. (7/215)

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant growth-promoting natural products required for plant growth and development. Physiological studies have demonstrated that exogenous BR, alone or in combination with auxin, enhance bending of the lamina joint of rice. However, little is known about the function of endogenous BR in rice or other grass species. We report here the phenotypical and molecular characterization of a rice dwarf mutant, d61, that is less sensitive to BR compared to the wild type. We cloned a rice gene, OsBRI1, with extensive sequence similarity to that of the Arabidopsis BRI gene, which encodes a putative BR receptor kinase. Linkage analysis showed that the OsBRI1 gene is closely linked to the d61 locus. Single nucleotide substitutions found at different sites of the d61 alleles would give rise to amino acid changes in the corresponding polypeptides. Furthermore, introduction of the entire OsBRI1 coding region, including the 5' and 3' flanking sequences, into d61 plants complemented the mutation to display the wild-type phenotype. Transgenic plants carrying the antisense strand of the OsBRI1 transcript showed similar or even more severe phenotypes than those of the d61 mutants. Our results show that OsBRI1 functions in various growth and developmental processes in rice, including (1) internode elongation, by inducing the formation of the intercalary meristem and the longitudinal elongation of internode cells; (2) bending of the lamina joint; and (3) skotomorphogenesis.  (+info)

Brassinosteroid levels increase drastically prior to morphogenesis of tracheary elements. (8/215)

As the first step toward understanding the involvement of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in cytodifferentiation, we analyzed biosynthetic activities of BRs in zinnia (Zinnia elegans L. cv Canary Bird) cells differentiating into tracheary elements. The results of feeding experiments suggested that both the early and late C6-oxidation pathways occur during tracheary element differentiation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that five BRs, castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol, and 6-deoxoteasterone, actually existed in cultured zinnia cells and culture medium. Quantification of endogenous BRs in each stage of tracheary element differentiation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry exhibited that they increased dramatically prior to the morphogenesis, which was consistent with the idea that BRs are necessary for the initiation of the final stage of tracheary element differentiation. Moreover, the proportion of each BR in culture medium was quite different from that in cells, suggesting that specific BRs are selectively secreted into medium and may function outside the cells.  (+info)

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones with potent plant growth promoting activity. Because BR-deficient mutants of rice exhibit altered plant architecture and important agronomic traits, we conducted a systemic search for specific inhibitors of BR biosynthesis to manipulate the BR levels in plant tissues. Although previous studies have been conducted with BR biosynthesis inhibitors in dicots, little is known regarding the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition in monocot plants. In this work, we used potent inhibitors of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and we performed a hydroponic culture of rice seedlings to evaluate the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition. Among the test compounds, we found that 1-[[2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4-(phenoxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole (1) is a potent inhibitor that could induce phenotypes in rice seedlings that were similar to those observed in brassinosteroid deficient plants. The IC50 value for the retardation of plant growth in rice
The main interest of the group is the signal transduction pathway that plant cells use to respond to the growth promoting hormones, brassinosteroids. Brassinosteroids are ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom sterol derivatives. Brassinosteroid deficient mutants display dramatic developmental defects including dwarfism, male sterility, delayed flowering, reduced apical dominance, and a light-grown morphology when grown in dark. Like their animal counterparts, brassinosteroids regulate the expression of numerous genes, impact the activity of complex metabolic pathways, contribute to the regulation of cell division and differentiation, and help control overall development. Brassinosteroids regulate photomorphogenesis, etiolation and cell expansion. Brassinosteroids have a broad spectrum of activities that have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of crops and they increase plant resistance to stress and pathogens ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Brassinosteroids by people in this website by year, and whether Brassinosteroids was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Steroids are important hormones in both animals and plants. Brassinosteroids regulate many aspects of growth and development in plants. Mutants deficient in brassinosteroids are often stunted and infertile. Brassinosteroids are similar in many respects to animal steroids, but appear to function very differently at the cellular level. Animal cells usually respond to steroids using internal receptor molecules within the cell nucleus, whereas in plants the receptors, called receptor-like kinases, are anchored to the outside surface of the cell membranes. For over a decade, scientists have tried to understand how the signal is passed from the cell surface to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. The final gaps were bridged in the study published in the advanced on-line issue of Nature Cell Biology September 6, 2009 ...
Brassinosteroids control many aspects of plant development. Their receptors constitutively cycle between the cell surface and the internal membranes. Wu et al. now show that degradation of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 is stimulated by dephosphorylation of activated receptors and that the dephosphorylation is specified by methylation of a phosphatase, which causes the phosphatase to accumulate in membranes where it would encounter BRI1. These results provide insight into a regulatory mechanism controlling the abundance of receptors that constitutively cycle and suggest that cells can discriminate between unphosphorylated receptors that have not been activated (continue to cycle) and activated receptors that were subsequently dephosphorylated (become degraded).. ...
Plant growth and development are coordinated by several groups of small-molecule hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs). Physiological and molecular studies have suggested the existence of crosstalk between BR and GA signaling. We report that BZR1, a key transcription factor activated by BR signaling, interacts in vitro and in vivo with REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), a member of the DELLA family of transcriptional regulators that inhibits the GA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses of plants with mutations in the genes encoding RGA and BZR1 revealed that RGA suppressed root and hypocotyl elongation of the gain-of-function mutant bzr1-1D. Ectopic expression of proteins of the DELLA family reduced the abundance and transcriptional activity of BZR1. Reporter gene analyses further indicated that BZR1 and RGA antagonize each others transcriptional activity. Our data indicated that BZR1 and RGA served as positive and negative regulators, respectively, of ...
TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:1954389 ID - pug01:1954389 LA - eng TI - Plants grow on brassinosteroids PY - 2011 JO - (2011) CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY SN - 1369-5266 PB - 2011 AU - Gudesblat, Gustavo AU - Russinova, Eugenia WE09 801002090510 0000-0002-0569-1977 AB - Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones known mainly for promoting organ growth through their combined effect on cell expansion and division. In addition, BRs regulate a broad spectrum of plant developmental and physiological responses, including plant architecture, vascular differentiation, male fertility, flowering, senescence, photomorphogenesis and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recently, a complete core BR signaling pathway was defined in which BR signals are conveyed from the cell surface to the nucleus through sequential signaling modules. A major challenge now is to understand precisely how this signaling pathway controls the different BR-regulated actions. The current ...
Autor: Svatos, Ales et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2004; Keywords: Biosynthesis|br/|Ionization|br/|Enzymes|br/|Plants.|br/|Spectroscopy/Instrumentation/Analytical Sciences in Current|br/|Contents(R)/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences.; Titel: Determination of brassinosteroids in the sub-femtomolar range using dansyl-3-aminophenylboronate derivatization and electrospray mass spectrometry
Detail záznamu - Brassinosteroids cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroidal hormones that regulate plant growth and development. An Arabidopsis dwarf mutant, shrink1-D (shk1-D), was isolated and the phenotype was shown to be caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene. CYP72C1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene fami …
Arabidopsis BKI1 protein: a BRI1-interacting protein, BKI1,which is a negative regulator of brassinosteroid signaling is reported; BKI1 is a substrate of BRI1 kinase & limits interaction of BRI1 with its proposed coreceptor, BAK1, suggesting that BKI1 prevents activation of BRI1
Plants must constantly adjust their growth and defense responses to deal with the wide variety of stresses they encounter in their environment. Among phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important group of plant steroid hormones involved in numerous aspects of the plant lifecycle including growth, development, and responses to various stresses including insects. Here, we show that BRs regulate glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis and function in insect herbivory. Preference tests and larval feeding experiments using the generalist herbivore, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), revealed that the larvae of this moth prefer to feed on Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (bri1-5) plants than on wild-type Ws-2 or BRI1-Flag (bri1-5 background) transgenic plants, which leads an increase in larval weight ...
Scientists have known for some time how important plant steroids called brassinosteroids are for regulating plant growth and development. But until now, they did not know how extensive their reach is. Now researchers, including ...
The phenotypes of the dwf12 mutants can be summarized by the statement that all organs are reduced in size. The specific characteristics examined in this research, such as plant height and the length of pedicels, siliques, petioles, hypocotyls, and roots, all are significantly shorter than wild type (Table I; Figs. 1 and 2). These morphological alterations are typical of BR biosynthetic or signaling mutants (Figs. 1 and 2). Thus, it is likely that the dwf12mutants are defective in BR biosynthesis or signaling. One interesting exception in dwf12 is a typical leaf curling in the abaxial direction. Downward curling leaves are often found in mutants that are defective in auxin signaling, such as axr1 andaxr2 (Lincoln et al., 1990; Timpte et al., 1992). These shared phenotypes between dwf12 and auxin mutants suggest that DWF12 also plays a role in auxin signaling in specific cell types.. Two lines of evidence strongly suggest that the dwf12mutants are BR insensitive. First, a BR biosynthetic ...
Researchers think that brassinosteroids, since they dont work through the androgen cell receptor, may instead interact with an as yet unidentified steroid hormone receptor. Although the effects of brassinosteroids appear very promising, dont expect to
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Helen Mawdsley.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Sainsbury Laboratory Seminars series.. ...
Researchers from Tubingen resolve how a plant steroid hormone makes plants grow. If one wants to better understand how plants grow, one must analyze the chemistry of life in its molecular detail. Michael Hothorn from the Friedrich-Miescher-Laboratory of the Max Planck Society in Tübingen and his team are doing just that. Their latest work now reveals that a plant membrane receptor requires a helper protein to sense a growth-promoting steroid hormone and to transduce this signal across the cell membrane.. Every cell is surrounded by a greasy cell membrane. Signals from other cells and from the environment must be sensed at the cell surface, transduced across this membrane and translated into a specific response inside the cell. All organisms have evolved membrane receptor proteins to get these complex tasks done, but plant membrane receptors look drastically different from the well-studied players in animals and bacteria. The plant steroid receptor BRI1, which can sense a small steroid hormone ...
Fàbregas, N.; Lozano-Elena, F.; Blasco-Escámez, D.; Tohge, T.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Albacete, A.; Osorio, S.; Bustamante, M.; Riechmann, J. L.; Nomura, T. et al.; Yokota, T.; Conesa, A.; Alfocea, F. P.; Fernie, A. R.; Caño-Delgado, A. I.: Overexpression of the vascular brassinosteroid receptor BRL3 confers drought resistance without penalizing plant growth. Nature Communications 9 (1), 4680 (2018 ...
Fàbregas, N.; Lozano-Elena, F.; Blasco-Escámez, D.; Tohge, T.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Albacete, A.; Osorio, S.; Bustamante, M.; Riechmann, J. L.; Nomura, T. et al.; Yokota, T.; Conesa, A.; Alfocea, F. P.; Fernie, A. R.; Caño-Delgado, A. I.: Overexpression of the vascular brassinosteroid receptor BRL3 confers drought resistance without penalizing plant growth. Nature Communications 9 (1), 4680 (2018 ...
[tabs titles=Recently, 2013 ~, 2000 ~ 2012, ~ 1999] [tab] 2017 Plant Physiology Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is modulated via a transcription factor cascade of COG1, PIF4 and PIF5 Zhuoyun Wei, Tong Yuan, Danuše Tarkowská, Jeongsik Kim, Hong Gil Nam, Ondřej Novák, Kai He, Xiaoping Gou, and Jia Li 174(2):1260-1273 [toggle title=Abstra...
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Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling has long been reported to have an effect on xylem development, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear, especially in tree species. In this study, we find PdC3H17, which was demonstrated to mediate xylem formation driven by auxin in our previous report, is also involved in BR-promoted xylem development. Y1H analysis, EMSA, and transcription activation assay confirmed that PdC3H17 was directly targeted by PdBES1, which is a key transcriptional regulator in BR signaling. Tissue specificity expression analysis and in situ assay revealed that PdC3H17 had an overlapping expression profile with PdBES1. Hormone treatment examinations verified that xylem phenotypes in PdC3H17 transgenic plants, which were readily apparent in normal condition, were attenuated by treatment with either brassinolide or the BR biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole. The subsequent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses further revealed that BR converged with PdC3H17 to
Brassinolide is a plant steroid that promotes cell elongation and cell devision and thus regulates plant growth and development. Buy Others inhibitor Brassinolide (Brassin lactone) from AbMole BioScience.
ABSTRACTBrassinosteroids (BRs) regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. We previously showed that GSK2, the central negative regulator of BR signaling, targets DLT, the GRAS family protein, to regulate BR responses. Here, we identified Ovate Family Protein 1 (OFP1) as a DLT interacting protein. OFP1 was ubiquitously expressed and the protein was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of OFP1 led to enlarged leaf angles, reduced plant height, and altered grain shape, largely resembled DLT overexpression plants. Genetic analysis showed that the regulation of plant architecture by OFP1 depends on DLT function. In addition, we found OFP1 was greatly induced by BR treatment, and OsBZR1, the critical transcription factor of BR signaling, was physically associated with the OFP1 promoter. Moreover, we showed that gibberellin synthesis was greatly repressed in OFP1
Total RNA was isolated from seedlings by the acid-guanidinium-phenol-chloroform method (Sambrook et al., 1989). Polyadenylated RNA was purified with the Oligotex-dT30 kit (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis) and converted into double-stranded cDNA with the use of a Super Script Choice cDNA Synthesis kit (Invitrogen) and with an oligo(dT)24 primer containing a T7 polymerase promoter site at its 3′ end (Amersham Biosciences AB, Uppsala). Biotin-labeled cRNA was generated from the double-stranded cDNA using the BioArray High Yield RNA transcript labeling kit (Enzo Diagnostics, New York) and was then purified with the use of the RNeasy RNA purification kit (Qiagen USA, Valencia, CA). Each cRNA sample (20 μg) was fragmented by incubation for 35 min at 94°C in fragmentation buffer (40 mm Tris-acetate [pH 8.1], 100 mmpotassium acetate, and 30 mm magnesium acetate). The hybridization mixture comprised 15 μg of fragmented cRNA in 300 μL of a solution containing 100 mm MES, 1 m[Na+], 20 mm EDTA, 0.01% ...
Nuestros resultados muestran como los Brassinosteroides (BRs), hormonas esteroides de plantas, mantienen la homeostasis de las células madre. Mediante un abordaje micro genómico hemos identificado a BRAVO (Brassinosteroids at Vascular and Organizing Centre), un componente especifico de las células madre. BRAVO es un factor de transcripción R2R3 de la familia MYB, que actúa como interruptor molecular que controla las divisiones de las células madre.. REFERENCIA DEL GRUPO INVESTIGADOR. Our laboratory investigates how Brassinosteroid (BR) hormones control plant growth and development. In particular, we are focused in understanding the spatial regulation of BR signalling in the vascular and stem cells. By using the root as a model organ we have uncovered a key role for BRs in stem cell function and cell cycle progression at the root meristem development necessary for normal root growth and development. These studies opened new avenues to study the role of plant stem cells on a mechanistic ...
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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2 ...
Knowles, CL and Koutoulis, A and Reid, JB (2004) Microtubule Orientation in the Brassinosteroid Mutants lk, lka and lkb of Pea. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 23. pp. 146-155. ISSN 0721-7595 ...
In BR biosynthesis, Fujioka and Sakurai (1997b) have demonstrated that there are at least two branched biochemical pathways to the end product BL (Figure 1; Fujioka and Sakurai, 1997a, 1997b; Sakurai and Fujioka, 1997). Depending on the oxidation state of C-6, they are referred to as the early or late C-6 oxidation pathways. In the early pathway, the C-6 is oxidized to a ketone at campestanol (CN), whereas in the late pathway it is oxidized at 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS). Otherwise, the two pathways share equivalent reactions. Our results from the experiments with the available BR intermediates clearly demonstrate that dwf4 is defective in the 22α-hydroxylation steps in each of the pathways. Application of all 22α-hydroxylated intermediates in these pathways, such as CT and 6-deoxoCT, cause dramatic elongation of dwf4 plants, but compounds not hydroxylated at C-22 had no effect. This result also suggests that DWF4 recognizes at least two substrates: CN and 6-oxoCN. It seems reasonable to ...
Light and brassinosteroids (BRs) have been proved to be crucial in regulating plant growth and development; however, the mechanism of how they synergistically function is still largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms in photomorphogenesis, genome-wide analyses were carried out through examining the gene expressions of the dark-grown WT or BR biosynthesis-defective mutant det2 seedlings in the presence of light stimuli or exogenous Brassinolide (BL). Results showed that BR deficiency stimulates, while BL treatment suppresses, the expressions of light-responsive genes and photomorphogenesis, confirming the negative effects of BR in photomorphogenesis. This is consistent with the specific effects of BR on the expression of genes involved in cell wall modification, cellular metabolism and energy utilization during dark-light transition. Further analysis revealed that hormone biosynthesis and signaling-related genes, especially those of auxin, were altered under BL treatment or light ...
Supplementary Materialsijms-20-02339-s001. protection [12] and main development [13,14]. The mutants got brief origins and shown faulty polar distribution of PIN2 and PIN1, influencing PIN-mediated auxin transportation for body organ advancement and gravitropism [4,15]. However, whether and how BIG5 and other members of BIG subfamily take part in plant growth and gravitropic response remain unknown. Brassinosteroids […]. ...
For a long time, bilirubin (BR) has been considered a waste molecule with potential toxic effects especially on the central nervous system. Later, it was found that BR exhibited cytoprotective effects and mildly elevated BR levels showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, however, exact mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory actions of BR have not been fully understood yet. The main aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of BR using experimental in vivo and in vitro models in relation to inflammation and oxidative stress. Partial goal was to establish validated analytical method for determination of BR and lumirubin. Gunn and heterozygous rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 6 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle (saline). After 12 hours, blood and organs were collected for analyses of inflammatory and hepatic injury markers. Primary rat hepatocytes were treated with BR and TNF-α, HepG2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines were treated with BR and chenodeoxycholic acid. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - BAK1, an Arabidopsis LRR receptor-like protein kinase, interacts with BRI1 and modulates brassinosteroid signaling. AU - Li, Jia. AU - Wen, Jiangqi. AU - Lease, Kevin A.. AU - Doke, Jason T.. AU - Tax, Frans E.. AU - Walker, John C.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank S. Zhang, B. Sonderman, members of the University of Missouri-Columbia Molecular Cytology Core Facility (J. Wagner, S. Bailes, and M. Sivaguru), and members of the University of Wisconsin Arabidopsis knockout facility for their excellent technical assistance. We also thank members of the Walker laboratory for aid and discussion. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grants MCB 9809884, MCB 0112278, DBI 9975808 (J.C.W.), and IBN 0132554 (J.L. and J.C.W.) and by the University of Missouri Food for the 21 st Century Program.. PY - 2002/7/26. Y1 - 2002/7/26. N2 - Brassinosteroids regulate plant growth and development through a protein complex that includes the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein ...
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are endogenous plant hormones and are essential for normal plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) of Arabidopsis thaliana are involved in mediating cell proliferation in leaves, stress tolerance, and root development. The specifics of BR mechanisms involving miRNAs are unknown. Using customized miRNA array analysis, we identified miRNAs from A. thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0) regulated by 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a highly active BR). We found that miR395a was significantly up-regulated by EBR treatment and validated its expression under these conditions. miR395a was over expressed in leaf veins and root tissues in EBR-treated miR395a promoter::GUS plants. We integrated bioinformatics methods and publicly available DNA microarray data to predict potential targets of miR395a. GUN5-a multifunctional protein involved in plant metabolic functions such as chlorophyll synthesis and the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway-was identified as a possible target. ABI4 and ABI5, both genes
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Author: Muessig, C. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006; Keywords: Arabidopsis/genetics/*physiology|br/|Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics/physiology|br/|*Gene Expression Regulation, Plant|br/|Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/genetics/physiology|br/|Plant Growth Regulators/genetics/*physiology|br/|Steroids/*physiology; Title: Molecular analysis of brassinosteroid action
POSTDOCTORAL POSITION AVAILABLE Plant Molecular Biology/Biotechnology (PMBB) Group/ Horticulture and Crop Science The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio USA A postdoctoral position is available to investigate the sugar sensing and signal transduction pathway in higher plants. Using a combination of biochemical, genetic and molecular approaches, we have identified the first plant sugar sensor, hexokinase (Plant Cell 6, 1665-1679; Plant Cell 9, 5-19; Trends in Plant Science 2, 208-214). Future projects include: the characterization of transgenic Arabidopsis with aberrant levels of hexokinase, the identification of other components that are involved in the sugar signal transduction pathway and the investigation of interactions between sugar and other signaling pathways. A second project to study plant steroid hormones is also available. We have identified several classes of Arabidopsis mutants that are involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis/signaling pathway. A T-DNA tagged brassinolide ...
Professor Gendron has 17 years of experience studying the genetic and molecular basis of how organisms react to environmental cues. He performed his Ph.D. in Dr. Zhi-Yong Wangs lab at Stanford University/ Carnegie Institution for Science where he studied the brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis with an emphasis on discovering and mechanistically describing signaling pathway components. In addition, he described how brassinosteroids control growth and organogenesis. He performed his post-doctoral research in Dr. Steve Kays lab at the University of California, San Diego and University of Southern California where he investigated transcriptional networks in the circadian clock of Arabidopsis. He was funded by a Ruth L. Kirchstein NRSA award from the NIH. Furthermore, he spent one year as a visiting scholar in the laboratory of Dr. Eric Bennett at University of California, San Diego studying mammalian protein degradation mechanisms and learning mass spectrometry techniques and ...
Professor Gendron has 17 years of experience studying the genetic and molecular basis of how organisms react to environmental cues. He performed his Ph.D. in Dr. Zhi-Yong Wangs lab at Stanford University/ Carnegie Institution for Science where he studied the brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis with an emphasis on discovering and mechanistically describing signaling pathway components. In addition, he described how brassinosteroids control growth and organogenesis. He performed his post-doctoral research in Dr. Steve Kays lab at the University of California, San Diego and University of Southern California where he investigated transcriptional networks in the circadian clock of Arabidopsis. He was funded by a Ruth L. Kirchstein NRSA award from the NIH. Furthermore, he spent one year as a visiting scholar in the laboratory of Dr. Eric Bennett at University of California, San Diego studying mammalian protein degradation mechanisms and learning mass spectrometry techniques and ...
The expression of TTL genes is induced by BRs and TTL3 shows its highest expression at the root elongation zone and at the hypocotyl, areas of high BR activity (González-García et al., 2011; Bernardo-García et al., 2014). Individual ttl1, ttl3, and ttl4, and particularly the triple ttl134 mutants, are hyposensitive to BR in root growth assays and show reduced hypocotyl elongation. Further lines of genetic evidence supporting the function of TTL genes in BR signaling come from phenotypic analyses of the quadruple mutants of ttl genes with either bri1-301 or bes1-D. At the molecular level, ttl134 shows increased expression of BR-repressed genes, whereas BR-induced dephosphorylation of the transcription factor BES1 is strongly reduced. At the cellular level, a functional TTL3-GFP shows a dual localization in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane in untreated seedlings. Treatment with eBL caused TTL3-GFP relocalization from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane, while treatment with a BR biosynthesis ...
Abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and productivity. The phytohormones regulate key physiological events under normal and stressful conditions for plant development. Accumulative research efforts have discovered important roles of phytohormones and their interactions in regulation of plant adaptation to numerous stressors. Intensive molecular studies have elucidated various plant hormonal pathways; each of which consist of many signaling components that link a specific hormone perception to the regulation of downstream genes. Signal transduction pathways of auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and ethylene have been thoroughly investigated. More recently, emerging signaling pathways of brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylic acid and strigolactones offer an exciting gateway for understanding their multiple roles in plant physiological processes.At the molecular level, phytohormonal crosstalks can be antagonistic or synergistic or additive in actions. ...
Abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and productivity. The phytohormones regulate key physiological events under normal and stressful conditions for plant development. Accumulative research efforts have discovered important roles of phytohormones and their interactions in regulation of plant adaptation to numerous stressors. Intensive molecular studies have elucidated various plant hormonal pathways; each of which consist of many signaling components that link a specific hormone perception to the regulation of downstream genes. Signal transduction pathways of auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and ethylene have been thoroughly investigated. More recently, emerging signaling pathways of brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylic acid and strigolactones offer an exciting gateway for understanding their multiple roles in plant physiological processes.At the molecular level, phytohormonal crosstalks can be antagonistic or synergistic or additive in actions. ...
Arabidopsis TRIP-1 protein: expression is regulated by brassinosteroids and required for normal plant development; sequence similarity to animal TGF-beta receptor interacting protein
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...Stanford CA Plants are very sensitive to light conditions because lig...It was previously known that a plant hormone called brassinosteroid is...The teams findings on interactions between brassinosteroid and light ...While under the soils surface in the dark plant seedlings grow in a...,Unlocking,the,secrets,of,a,plant s,light,sensitivity,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
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Supplemental Methods are available online with this article; https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI87583DS1. Mouse care and models. Mice were housed under normal conditions. E2f1-/-, E2f3a-/-, E2f3b-/-, E2f3a1KI, E2F3a3bKI, Lys-Cre, and Alb-Cre mouse lines were described previously (31, 32, 40, 41). The backgrounds of the E2f1-/-, E2f3a-/-, and E2f3b-/- mice were FVB/NT fifth, fifth, and seventh generations, respectively. The E2f3a1KI and E2F3a3bKI mice were on a mixed background (FVB/NT, 129v/Sv, and C57BL/Swiss). Genotyping was performed on tail or liver DNA using standard PCR techniques. Primer sets used are listed in Supplemental Table 19. Dissected livers were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C for further analysis or fixed in 10% formalin (Fisher Scientific) for histologic analyses. For DEN (Sigma-Aldrich) treatment, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of DEN (20 mg/1 kg body mass) at 20 days of age (33, 51).. Histology and diagnosis of HCC. Formalin-fixed mouse tissues were ...
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ISO 3166-2:BR - стандарт ISO, який визначає геокоди для Бразилії. Він є частиною стандарту ISO 3166-2. Перша частина коду - код ISO 3166 для Бразилії (BR), друга частина - двоцифровий код регіону. ...
Brassinosteroids are a class of steroids shown to regulate plant growth and has been shown to have agricultural activity as an ... Bishop, G.; Koncz, Csaba (2002). "Brassinosteroids and Plant Steroid Hormone Signaling". The Plant Cell. 14: S97-110. doi: ... Brosa, C.; Nusimovich, S; Peracaula, R (1994). "Synthesis of new brassinosteroids with potential activity as antiecdysteroids ...
Brassinosteroids are growing in agricultural and gardening importance. The Brassicaceae also includes ornamentals, such as ...
Brassinazole is Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Inhibitor. Benzotriazole is used in chemical photography as a restrainer and fog ...
BAK1 binds to the brassinosteroid receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) and this then triggers a phosphorylation ... Brassinosteroid is a major plant hormone that has many roles and is often associated with cell elongation. ... Belkhadir Y, Jaillais Y (April 2015). "The molecular circuitry of brassinosteroid signaling". The New Phytologist. 206 (2): 522 ... interacts with BRI1 and modulates brassinosteroid signaling". Cell. 110 (2): 213-22. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(02)00812-7. PMID ...
Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Mockler, Todd C.; Chory, Joanne (2004-08-24). "Interdependency of Brassinosteroid and Auxin Signaling ...
The most common auxin found in plants is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Brassinosteroids are a class of polyhydroxysteroids, the ... Brassinosteroids control cell elongation and division, gravitropism, resistance to stress, and xylem differentiation. They ... Brassinolide was the first identified brassinosteroid and was isolated from extracts of rapeseed (Brassica napus) pollen in ... This list was later expanded, and brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylic acid, and strigolactones are now also considered ...
Brassinosteroids are a class of polyhydroxysteroids, the only example of steroid based hormones in plants. Brassinosteroids ... Brassinolide was the first identified brassinosteroid and was isolated from extracts of rapeseed (Brassica napus) pollen in ... This list was later expanded and brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylic acid and strigolactones are now considered as major ...
Some other phytohormones that promote growth of trichomes include brassinosteroids, ethylene, and salicylic acid. This was ...
... is a sterol and an intermediate in steroid biosynthesis, particularly synthesis of brassinosteroids. It is ...
Hu, Y; Bao, F; Li, J (2000). "Promotive effect of brassinosteroids on cell division involves a distinct CycD3-induction pathway ...
BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) is another important RLK with a lot of similarities to FLS2. Despite share many of the ...
"A brassinosteroid transcriptional network revealed by genome-wide identification of BESI target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
"The Arabidopsis dwf7/ste1 mutant is defective in the delta7 sterol C-5 desaturation step leading to brassinosteroid ...
In Arabidopsis, the protein DWF1 plays an enzymatic role in the biosynthesis of brassinosteroids, steroid hormones in plants ...
A C4 protein related to the SPLCV interacts with brassinosteroid-intensive 2 (ABtBIN2) in the plasma membrane of host cells. ... Bi, Huiping; Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Peng (2017-09-27). "C4 Protein of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus Regulates Brassinosteroid ...
1999). "The Arabidopsis dwf7/ste1 mutant is defective in the delta 7 sterol C-5 desaturation step leading to brassinosteroid ... in a pathway thought to lead to a variety of membrane components as well as a class of hormones called brassinosteroids. Based ...
The ability of PRRs to recognize various pathogenic components relies on a regulatory protein called brassinosteroid ...
A large portion of the soil has been affected by over salinity and it has been known to limit the growth of many plants. Globally, the total area of saline soil was 397,000,000 ha and in continents like Africa, it makes up 2 percent of the soil.[34] The amount of soil salinization has reached 19.5% of the irrigated land and 2.1% of the dry-land agriculture around the world.[35] Soil salinization affects the plants using osmotic potential by net solute accumulation. The osmotic pressure in the plant is what maintains water uptake and cell turgor to help with stomatal function and other cellular mechanisms.[35] Over generations, many plant genes have adapted, allowing plants' phenotypes to change and built different mechanisms to counter salinity effects. The plant hormone ethylene is a combatant for salinity in most plants. Ethylene is known for regulating plant growth and development and adapted to stress conditions. Central membrane proteins in plants, such as ETO2, ERS1 and EIN2, are used for ...
... the phytosterols and the brassinosteroids (which include several plant hormones). In prokaryotes, biosynthetic pathways exist ...
Naringenin Ethylene Salicylate Jasmonate Auxins Cytokinins Gibberelins Abscisic acids Brassinosteroids Strigolactones (e.g.: 2 ...
If gibberellin, brassinosteroid and ethylene are known to inhibit root growth it takes just a little imagination to assume they ... brassinosteroids and strigolactone as also being involved. Cytokinins help to maintain the plant cell and expression of ... but neglect gibberellin and brassinosteroid which inhibits root growth if not causing actual root pruning. This is perhaps ...
http://citrusindustry.net/2019/06/19/update-on-brassinosteroids-for-hlb-management/ https://portal.nifa.usda.gov/web/ ...
Brassinosteroids: Essential regulaors of plant growth and development. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 49: 427 - 451 ... பிராசினோஸ்டீராய்டுகள் (Brassinosteroids) ஒரு தனித்துவமிக்க தாவர வளரூக்கியாகும். இது தாவரத்தின் இயல்பான வளர்ச்சிக்கு ... Biosynthesis and metabolism of brassinosteroids. Physiologia Plantarum 100:710-15. *↑ Clouse SD, JM Sasse.1998. ... A putative leucine rich repeat receptor kinase involved in brassinosteroid signal transduction. Cell 90:929-38 ...
... by up-regulating auxin-related and brassinosteroid-response genes which promote growth. Auxin signalling is also essential to ...
Kang YY, Guo SR (2011). "Role of Brassinosteroids on Horticultural Crops". In Hayat S, Ahmad A (eds.). Brassinosteroids: A ... The yield of brassinosteroids from 230 kg of Brassica napus pollen was only 10 mg. Since their discovery, over 70 BR compounds ... Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxysteroids that have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones and may ... These brassinosteroids were first explored during the 70s, when Mitchell et al. reported promotion in stem elongation and cell ...
Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1) is the major receptor of the plant hormone brassinosteroid. It plays very important roles ... Ye Q, Zhu W, Li L, Zhang S, Yin Y, Ma H, Wang X (March 2010). "Brassinosteroids control male fertility by regulating the ... An atypical LRR within this domain acts as the brassinosteroid binding site. Next to the LRR domain there is a single-pass ... Both BRL1 and BRL3 are able to bind brassinosteroids and act as receptors. A fourth BRI1-family protein, BRL2 cannot bind ...
The first inroads into the understanding of GAs were developments from the plant pathology field, with studies on the bakanae, or "foolish seedling" disease in rice. Foolish seedling disease causes a strong elongation of rice stems and leaves and eventually causes them to topple over.[4] In 1926, Japanese scientist Eiichi Kurosawa identified that foolish seedling disease was caused by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi.[4] Later work at the University of Tokyo (notable from Yabuta, Sumiki and Hayashi) showed that a substance produced by this fungus triggered the symptoms of foolish seedling disease and they named this substance "gibberellin".[1][4] The increased communication between Japan and the west following World War II enhanced the interest in gibberellin in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US).[1] Workers at Imperial Chemical Industries in the UK and the Department of Agriculture in the US both independently isolated gibberellic acid [4] (with the Americans originally referring ...
Brassinosteroid insensitive-1. *BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1. *BRICHOS family. *BRN-3 ...
... brassinosteroids (hormones), and membrane sterols. ...
Kang YY, Guo SR (2011). "Role of Brassinosteroids on Horticultural Crops". In Hayat S, Ahmad A (eds.). Brassinosteroids: A ... The yield of brassinosteroids from 230 kg of Brassica napus pollen was only 10 mg. Since their discovery, over 70 BR compounds ... Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxysteroids that have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones and may ... These brassinosteroids were first explored during the 70s, when Mitchell et al. reported promotion in stem elongation and cell ...
Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1) is the major receptor of the plant hormone brassinosteroid. It plays very important roles ... Ye Q, Zhu W, Li L, Zhang S, Yin Y, Ma H, Wang X (March 2010). "Brassinosteroids control male fertility by regulating the ... An atypical LRR within this domain acts as the brassinosteroid binding site. Next to the LRR domain there is a single-pass ... Both BRL1 and BRL3 are able to bind brassinosteroids and act as receptors. A fourth BRI1-family protein, BRL2 cannot bind ...

No data available that match "brassinosteroids"


  • This detailed volume compiles state-of-the-art methodologies for the study of brassinosteroid hormones, contributed by recognized researchers in the field, in order to bring together different experimental and theoretical biology techniques for addressing the questions of how brassinosteroids function in Arabidopsis and other agriculturally valuable species, such as rice and sorghum. (springer.com)
  • BAK1, an Arabidopsis LRR receptor-like protein kinase, interacts with BRI1 and modulates brassinosteroid signaling. (nature.com)
  • Heterodimerization and endocytosis of Arabidopsis brassinosteroid receptors BRI1 and AtSERK3 (BAK1). (nature.com)
  • Brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis thaliana . (springer.com)
  • Transcription of the Arabidopsis CPD gene, encoding a steroidogenic cytochrome P450, is negatively controlled by brassinosteroids. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that the Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 ( BIN2 ) gene encodes a GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinase. (sciencemag.org)
  • We describe the identification of 18 Arabidopsis dwarf mutants that are unable to respond to exogenously added brassinosteroid, a phenotype that might be expected for brassinosteroid signaling mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear protein phosphatases with Kelch-repeat domains modulate the response to brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Microarray analysis of brassinosteroid-regulated genes in Arabidopsis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Arabidopsis brassinosteroid-insensitive dwarf12 mutants are semidominant and defective in a glycogen synthase kinase 3beta-like kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The sax1 dwarf mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana shows altered sensitivity of growth response to abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellins and ethylene and is partially rescued by exogenous brassinosteroid. (brillonline.com)
  • The sax1 mutation defines a new locus involved in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. (brillonline.com)
  • BIN2, a new brassinosteroid-insensitive locus in Arabidopsis. (brillonline.com)
  • Brassinosteroid, gibberellin and phytochrome impinge on a common transcription module in Arabidopsis. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of transcript levels of the Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 genes involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Diurnal regulation of the brassinosteroid-biosynthethic CPD gene in Arabidopsis. (springer.com)
  • Arabidopsis lateral organ boundaries negatively regulates brassinosteroid accumulation to limit growth in organ boundaries. (springer.com)
  • Arabidopsis thaliana RALF1 opposes brassinosteroid effects on root cell elongation and lateral root formation. (springer.com)
  • Brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling pathways have been studied in model species such as Arabidopsis, rice and maize, but not in sorghum. (iastate.edu)
  • Three Arabidopsis thaliana GSK3s are shown to be related to brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. (ugent.be)
  • Chemical inhibition of a subset of Arabidopsis thaliana GSK3-like kinases activates brassinosteroid signaling," CHEMISTRY & BIOLOGY , vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 594-604, 2009. (ugent.be)
  • Here, we identified a R2R3-MYB transcription factor, BRAVO (BRASSINOSTEROIDS AT VASCULAR AND ORGANIZING CENTER), acting as a cell-specific repressor of QC divisions in the primary root of Arabidopsis. (sebbm.es)
  • Brassinosteroid-mediated Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis Shows Interac" by Uday K. Divi, Tawhidur Rahman et al. (uwo.ca)
  • Extensive studies in Arabidopsis have shown that brassinosteroids are important in the regulation of reproductive growth ( Kang and Guo, 2011 ). (oeno-one.eu)
  • Brassinosteroids modulate ABA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. (plantae.org)
  • Transcription factor HAT1 is phosphorylated by BIN2 kinase and mediates brassinosteroid repressed gene expression in Arabidopsis. (qxmd.com)
  • The GSK3-like kinase BIN2 phosphorylates and destabilizes BZR1, a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. (qxmd.com)
  • Arabidopsis MYB30 is a direct target of BES1 and cooperates with BES1 to regulate brassinosteroid-induced gene expression. (qxmd.com)
  • Arabidopsis IWS1 interacts with transcription factor BES1 and is involved in plant steroid hormone brassinosteroid regulated gene expression. (qxmd.com)
  • Modulation of brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression by Jumonji domain-containing proteins ELF6 and REF6 in Arabidopsis. (qxmd.com)
  • BRs are perceived at the cell membrane by a co-receptor complex, comprising brassinosteroid insensitive-1 (BRI1) and BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1). (wikipedia.org)
  • When BR binds to the BRI1:BAK1 complex, BKI1 is released, and a phosphorylation cascade is triggered which results in the de-activation of another kinase, brassinosteroid insensitive 2 (BIN2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1) is the major receptor of the plant hormone brassinosteroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of brassinosteroid, BRI1 is held in an inactive state by another protein, BRI1 kinase inhibitor 1 (BKI1). (wikipedia.org)
  • When brassinosteroid binds to BRI1, it reduces the stability of the BRI1:BKI1 complex and promotes the binding of BRI1 to another membrane protein, BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the BRI1:BAK1 complex, both BRI1 and BAK1 make contact with the brassinosteroid molecule and for this reason they are considered a co-receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated kinase domain of BRI1 phosphorylates several receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs), notably the brassinosteroid signalling kinase (BSK) and constituitive differential growth 1 (CDG1) families. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fourth BRI1-family protein, BRL2 cannot bind brassinosteroid and its function is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perception of brassinosteroids requires an active complex of BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) and BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). (nature.com)
  • Recognized by the extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of BRI1, brassinosteroids induce a phosphorylation-mediated cascade to regulate gene expression. (nature.com)
  • Together, our results define the molecular mechanisms by which BRI1 recognizes brassinosteroids and provide insight into brassinosteroid-induced BRI1 activation. (nature.com)
  • Wang, X. & Chory, J. Brassinosteroids regulate dissociation of BKI1, a negative regulator of BRI1 signaling, from the plasma membrane. (nature.com)
  • Perception of brassinosteroids by the extracellular domain of the receptor kinase BRI1. (nature.com)
  • Binding of brassinosteroids to the extracellular domain of plant receptor kinase BRI1. (nature.com)
  • now show that degradation of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 is stimulated by dephosphorylation of activated receptors and that the dephosphorylation is specified by methylation of a phosphatase, which causes the phosphatase to accumulate in membranes where it would encounter BRI1. (sciencemag.org)
  • These mutants carried a mutation in the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 ( BRI1 ) gene, which codes for a membrane-anchored leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) ( Li and Chory, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Brassinosteroids, which control plant growth and development, are sensed by the membrane receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). (nih.gov)
  • Brassinosteroid binding to the BRI1 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain induces heteromerisation with a SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SERK)-family co-receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signaling controls multiple processes during plant growth and development and is initiated at the plasma membrane through the receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) together with co-receptors such as BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1). (diva-portal.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) trigger an intracellular signaling cascade through its receptors BR INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), BRI1-LIKE 1 (BRL1) and BRL3. (biologists.org)
  • The key discovery was the isolation of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a receptor kinase that triggers an intracellular signaling cascade upon extracellular BR perception ( Li and Chory, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) is a BR receptor, and database searches and additional genomic sequencing identified five maize homologs including duplicate copies of BRI1 itself. (ugent.be)
  • Also known as BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (AtBAK1) (BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1) (Protein ELONGATED) (Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 3) (AtSERK3) (Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 3). (mybiosource.com)
  • Brassinosteroids regulate plant growth and development through a protein complex that includes the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1). (elsevier.com)
  • BRs signal through plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1), BRI1-associated receptor kinase (BAK1), and several intermediates to regulate the protein levels, cellular localizations, and/or DNA binding of BRI1-EMS suppressor 1 (BES1)/brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors. (qxmd.com)
  • Li, J. & Chory, J. A putative leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase involved in brassinosteroid signal transduction. (nature.com)
  • Li, J. & Nam, K. H. Regulation of brassinosteroid signaling by a GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinase. (nature.com)
  • A key regulator in BR signaling, the GSK3- and SHAGGY-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2, regulates two distinct steps in the stomatal development signaling pathway to either enhance or inhibit this process. (sciencemag.org)
  • BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2), which is the kinase of BES1, was found to phosphorylate and stabilize RD26 to enhance the drought responses. (iastate.edu)
  • Below are the list of possible BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated receptor kinase products. (mybiosource.com)
  • OST1 Activation by the Brassinosteroid-Regulated Kinase CDG1-Like 1 in Stomatal Closure. (plantae.org)
  • When brassinosteroid levels are low, the GSK3-like kinase BIN2 phosphorylates and in activates the BZR1 transcription factor to inhibit growth in plants. (hanyang.ac.kr)
  • This study reveals a crucial function for PP2A in dephosphorylating and activating BZR1 and completes the set of core components of the brassinosteroid-signalling cascade from cell surface receptor kinase to gene regulation in the nucleus. (hanyang.ac.kr)
  • Moreover, MYBL2 is a substrate of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-like kinase brassinosteroid-insensitive 2 (BIN2), which has been well established as a negative regulator in the BR pathway by phosphorylating and inhibiting the functions of BES1/BZR1. (qxmd.com)
  • Transcription factors involved in brassinosteroid repressed gene expression and their regulation by BIN2 kinase. (qxmd.com)
  • Two separate eliciting GPA-derived fractions trigger induced resistance to GPA that is dependent on the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1)/SOMATIC-EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3, which is a key regulator of several leucine-rich repeat-containing PRRs. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Biosynthesis of brassinosteroids in cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus . (springer.com)
  • Significant advances in the genetic dissection of brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling have been made during the past few years. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic and biochemical data have helped to elucidate the pathways of biosynthesis of brassinolide, the most active brassinosteroid. (nih.gov)
  • Similar trends were seen for phenotypes caused by mutants of d 2, a brassinosteroid biosynthesis gene. (scirp.org)
  • We identified phenotypic traits, including sturdy culm, specific for deficiencies in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling in semidwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare). (lu.se)
  • Catalyzes the C6-oxidation step in brassinosteroids biosynthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein is involved in the pathway brassinosteroid biosynthesis, which is part of Plant hormone biosynthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway brassinosteroid biosynthesis and in Plant hormone biosynthesis . (uniprot.org)
  • Thus, our results demonstrated that PMM1 determines the inflorescence architecture by controlling brassinosteroid biosynthesis in rice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kim, T. W. & Wang, Z. Y. Brassinosteroid signal transduction from receptor kinases to transcription factors. (nature.com)
  • Brassinosteroid signal transduction: still casting the actors. (nih.gov)
  • Involved in brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction. (mybiosource.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxysteroids that have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones and may have utility as an anticancer drug for endocrine-responsive cancers to induce apoptosis and inhibit growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. (apsnet.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones with potent plant growth promoting activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that regulate cell expansion, cell division, and photomorphogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones known mainly for promoting organ growth through their combined effect on cell expansion and division. (ugent.be)
  • TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:1954389 ID - pug01:1954389 LA - eng TI - Plants grow on brassinosteroids PY - 2011 JO - (2011) CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY SN - 1369-5266 PB - 2011 AU - Gudesblat, Gustavo AU - Russinova, Eugenia WE09 801002090510 0000-0002-0569-1977 AB - Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones known mainly for promoting organ growth through their combined effect on cell expansion and division. (ugent.be)
  • Plant growth and development are highly regulated processes that are coordinated by hormones including the brassinosteroids ( BRs ), a group of steroids with structural similarity to steroid hormones of mammals. (plantcell.org)
  • In the past 50 years had accepted that plant steroid hormones , called brassinosteroids, control plant growth by inducing cell growth. (scienceknowledge.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important group of plant steroidal hormones that are actively involved in a myriad of key growth and developmental processes from germination to senescence. (springer.com)
  • Plants steroid hormones, brassinosteroids: Current highlights of molecular aspects on their synthesis/metabolism, transport, perception and response. (springer.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BR) are steroid hormones that control different aspects of plant growth and development. (iastate.edu)
  • Our laboratory investigates how Brassinosteroid (BR) hormones control plant growth and development. (sebbm.es)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are sterol-derived hormones that control plant growth and development. (altmetric.com)
  • Lin, Hong‐Hui 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth‐promoting plant hormones that play a crucial role in biotic stress responses. (deepdyve.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth‐promoting plant hormones that play a crucial role in biotic stress responses. (deepdyve.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones involved in various growth and developmental processes. (ugent.be)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting hormones that occur endogenously across the plant kingdom. (benthamscience.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxylated steroidal phytohormones in plants with similar structures to animals' steroid hormones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What are the plant steroid hormones brassinosteroids? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting plant hormones that play a role in abiotic stress responses, but molecular modes that enable this activity remain largely unknown. (ist.ac.at)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroid hormones regulating plant growth and development. (meta.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are endogenous plant hormones and are essential for normal plant growth and development. (mdpi.com)
  • Brassinosteroid as one of steroid hormones has an integral role in controlling plants physiological process especially in response to biological and non-biological stress. (ac.ir)
  • The maximum amount of lipoxygenase was related to concentration of 10 -10 , and genotype G2 and the minimum amount was related to null concentration of brassinosteroid hormones and genotype G1. (ac.ir)
  • CYP734A50 encodes an enzyme that breaks down plant hormones called brassinosteroids, which normally promote growth. (elifesciences.org)
  • Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), play important roles in plants. (qxmd.com)
  • Three newly isolated brassinosteroid-insensitive mutants ( d 61 - 1 N , d 61 - 11, and d 61 - 12) derived from a Nipponbare mutant library were found to be alleles of d 61 , which represent defects in the OsBRI1 gene. (scirp.org)
  • BRX encodes a key regulator of cell proliferation and elongation in the root, which has been implicated in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway as well as regulation of auxin-responsive gene expression. (csic.es)
  • Consistent with these phenotypes, the expression of brassinosteroid-responsive genes was lower in the Nippon bare - derived mutants. (scirp.org)
  • Based on these results, we conclude that the expression of OsBRI 1 , especially its feed-forward up-regula tion, is misregulated in wild-type Nipponbare and in brassinosteroid-related mutants in a Nipponbare genetic back ground. (scirp.org)
  • Gain-of-function mutations within its coding sequence or its overexpression inhibit brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, resulting in plants that resemble BR-deficient and BR-response mutants. (sciencemag.org)
  • This observation was at the basis of many genetic screens that led to the identification of mutants impaired in the perception of growth regulators, such as auxins and brassinosteroids (BRs). (biologists.org)
  • Short brassinosteroid (BR) mutants lk, lka and lkb of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy to elucidate the role of brassinosteroids in cell elongation via an effect on the microtubules (MTs). (edu.au)
  • As a part of our analysis of brassinosteroid catabolic enzymes, we generated a genetic triple-mutant from a cross between the bas1-2 sob7-1 double-null (T-DNA exonic insertion mutants of phy B -4 A CTIVATION TAGGED S UPPRESSOR 1 and S UPPRESSOR O F phy B -4 7 ) and ben1-1 . (g3journal.org)
  • These mutants show elevated sensitivity to brassinosteroids in the light but not in the dark. (uba.ar)
  • The roc1 and roc1-D mutants show altered patterns of phosphorylation of the transcription factor BES1, a known point of control of sensitivity to brassinosteroids, which correlate with the expression levels of genes directly targeted by BES1. (uba.ar)
  • Two putative BIN2 substrates are nuclear components of brassinosteroid signaling. (qxmd.com)
  • Application of brassinosteroids to cucumbers was demonstrated to increase the metabolism and removal of pesticides, which could be beneficial for reducing the human ingestion of residual pesticides from non-organically grown vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brassinosteroids promote metabolism of pesticides in cucumber. (quintadaserradinha.com)
  • Brassinolide was the first isolated brassinosteroid in 1979, when pollen from Brassica napus was shown to promote stem elongation and cell divisions, and the biologically active molecule was isolated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) were discovered as plant cell elongation and division stimulants. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, an intact brassinosteroid system is an absolute requirement for cell elongation. (plantcell.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are the steroids hormone widely found in many plant species, which play important roles in many aspects of plant life, including cell elongation, leaf development, root growth, abiotic and biotic stress responses, reproduction and fruit development. (iastate.edu)
  • Brassinosteroids are essential phytohormones that have crucial roles in plant growth and development. (nature.com)
  • However, in this book, the information about the most recent group of phytohormones (Brassinosteroids) has been compiled by us. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are integrated in a complex signaling network and numerous BR effects appear to be mediated via a modulation of levels and sensitivities of other phytohormones. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of phytohormones playing important roles in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • These studies provide the basic framework for future analysis of brassinosteroid signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Gudesblat G, Russinova E. Plants grow on brassinosteroids. (ugent.be)
  • In two cases, mutations in the same brassinosteroid-related genes caused different phenotypes in japonica varieties Nipponbare and Taichung 65. (scirp.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant growth and stress responses via the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which regulate the expression of thousands of downstream genes. (harvard.edu)
  • Analyses of F2 and M2 populations, allelic crosses, and modeling of nonsynonymous amino acid exchanges in protein crystal structures gave a further understanding of the control of barley plant architecture and sturdiness by brassinosteroid-related genes. (lu.se)
  • Genetic studies of brassinosteroid signaling and of its interplay with endocytosis are hampered by gene redundancy, the very dynamic nature of endomembrane trafficking and the high degree of lethality of the genes encoding endomembrane components. (ugent.be)
  • Mutations at brassinosteroid signalling genes and the application of a brassinosteroid synthesis inhibitor eliminated the roc1 and roc1-D phenotypes. (uba.ar)
  • Clouse, S. D. & Sasse, J. M. BRASSINOSTEROIDS: essential regulators of plant growth and development. (nature.com)
  • as this book summarizes a large part of the vast amount of knowledge on brassinosteroids, it is highly relevant for researchers interested in this new plant growth regulator. (booktopia.com.au)
  • S. D. Clouse and J. M. Sasse, "Brassinosteroids: Essential Regulators of Plant Growth and Development," Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 49, 1998, pp. 427-451. (scirp.org)
  • Major brassinosteroid (BR) effects such as BR-induced growth are mediated through genomic pathways because RNA synthesis inhibitors and protein synthesis inhibitors interfere with these processes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Brassinosteroids are a class of growth-promoting regulators that play a key role throughout plant development. (nih.gov)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in plant growth and development. (biologists.org)
  • Ectopic BRAVO expression restricts overall root growth and ceases root regeneration upon damage of the stem cells, demonstrating the role of BRAVO in counteracting Brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated cell division in the QC cells. (sebbm.es)
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of two brassinosteroid compounds, epibrassinolide and 22S,23S-homobrassinolide, along with the other growth regulator group, gibberellins, on in vitro pollen germination and growth of grapevine cultivars. (oeno-one.eu)
  • Brassinosteroids have been implicated in the differentiation of vascular cell types in herbaceous plants, but their roles during secondary growth and wood formation are not well defined. (usda.gov)
  • Here we pharmacologically and genetically manipulated brassinosteroid levels in poplar trees and assayed the effects on secondary growth and wood formation. (usda.gov)
  • Brassinosteroids regulate a wide range of physiological processes including plant growth, development and immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brassinosteroid promotes growth by inducing dephosphorylation of BZR1, but the phosphatase that dephosphorylates BZR1 has remained unknown. (hanyang.ac.kr)
  • Interaction with MSBP1 stimulates the endocytosis of BAK1 and suppresses brassinosteroid signaling. (mybiosource.com)
  • Overexpression of BAK1 results in elongated organ phenotypes, while a null allele of BAK1 displays a semidwarfed phenotype and has reduced sensitivity to brassinosteroids (BRs). (elsevier.com)
  • Functions of OsBZR1 and 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signaling in rice. (springer.com)
  • These findings provide novel insights into understanding the molecular mechanisms by which DS1 integrates auxin and brassinosteroid signaling in rice. (springeropen.com)
  • 28-Homotyphasterol, a new natural brassinosteroid from rice ( Oryza sativa ) bran. (springer.com)
  • T. Sakamoto, H. Kitano and S. Fujioka, "Genetic Background Influences Brassinosteroid-Related Mutant Phenotypes in Rice," American Journal of Plant Sciences , Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 212-221. (scirp.org)
  • Among the test compounds, we found that 1-[[2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4-(phenoxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1 H -1,2,4-triazole ( 1 ) is a potent inhibitor that could induce phenotypes in rice seedlings that were similar to those observed in brassinosteroid deficient plants. (mdpi.com)
  • Oh, K. New Compounds Induce Brassinosteroid Deficient-like Phenotypes in Rice. (mdpi.com)
  • Matsumoto T, Yamada K, Iwasaki I, Yoshizawa Y, Oh K. New Compounds Induce Brassinosteroid Deficient-like Phenotypes in Rice. (mdpi.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size. (frontiersin.org)
  • gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) are the most widely investigated factors affecting plant height in rice. (springeropen.com)
  • Repression of CPD transcription by brassinosteroids is sensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, indicating a requirement for de novo synthesis of a regulatory factor. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that BIM1 , a gene encoding a bHLH protein involved in brassinosteroid signaling and embryonic patterning, functions redundantly with SPL8 in its requirement for male fertility. (mdpi.com)
  • A BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1-yellow fluorescent protein (BES1-YFP) transgenic line was developed that showed BR-inducible BES1-YFP accumulation in the nucleus, which was decreased in zmbriI-RNAi. (ugent.be)
  • Genetic analyses demonstrated a positive role for PP2A in brassinosteroid signalling an BZR1 dephosphorylation. (hanyang.ac.kr)
  • Synthesis of fluorinated brassinosteroids based on alkene cross-metathesis and preliminary biological assessment. (springer.com)
  • Brassinosteroids - structures, analysis and synthesis (J. Schmidt et al. ). (indigo.ca)
  • Both BRL1 and BRL3 are able to bind brassinosteroids and act as receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms and networks for brassinosteroid regulated gene expression. (qxmd.com)
  • With it, the work of Mary-Paz González and Josep Vilarrasa in his lab has been central to characterize the role of brassinosteroids. (scienceknowledge.org)
  • The role of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant function has been intensively studied in the last few years. (semanticscholar.org)
  • So, there is both a lack of information and contradicting results about the effects of brassinosteroids on pollen germination. (oeno-one.eu)
  • In recent years, it was shown that brassinosteroids (BS) exert their effects not only on plants but also on animals and man. (springer.com)
  • Recent advances in brassinosteroid molecular genetics. (springer.com)
  • Brassinosteroid signalling and its integration with other signalling pathways have been investigated thoroughly at the molecular level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemistry and molecular biology of brassinosteroids. (indigo.ca)
  • SPEECHLESS integrates brassinosteroid and stomata signalling pathways. (wur.nl)
  • Authoritative and practical, Brassinosteroids: Methods and Protocols assesses a wide range of appealing methodologies for experts as well as researchers with a general interest in hormone signaling in plants. (springer.com)
  • Occurrence of three new brassinosteroids: Brassinone, (24 S )-24-ethylbrassinone and 28-norbrassinolide in higher plants. (springer.com)
  • The chemical characteristic and distribution of brassinosteroids in plants. (springer.com)
  • Chapter 1 of this book (which embodies a total of 10 chapters), gives a comprehensive survey of the hitherto known brassinosteroids, isolated from lower and higher plants. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The results of the study, the cover of the March 1 edition of the journal Development, show that an increase in brassinosteroid signal ends in cells resulting in premature differentiation and accelerated to the point that plants fail growing. (scienceknowledge.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) have remarkable ability to increase stress tolerance in plants. (uwo.ca)
  • By measuring the effect of EBL on leaf malformations during their unfolding in plants exposed to 150 mM NaCl, it is shown that treatments with brassinosteroids (BR) enable modification of initiation, duration, and intensity of this critical period of reorganization. (brillonline.com)
  • 1. Brassinosteroids-occurrence and chemical structures in plants, Andrzej Bajguz 2. (buchfreund.de)
  • Q&A: what are brassinosteroids and how do they act in plants? (biomedcentral.com)
  • What parts of plants are brassinosteroids usually found in? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brassinosteroids: functional purposes in Agriculture and Human future health presents a entire evaluate at the sensible purposes of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant biology (including pressure tolerance, development and improvement) and human future health (anticancer, antiviral and anti inflammatory activity). (quintadaserradinha.com)
  • summary: Brassinosteroids: functional functions in Agriculture and Human future health presents a accomplished review at the functional purposes of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant biology (including tension tolerance, progress and improvement) and human overall healthiness (anticancer, antiviral and anti inflammatory activity). (quintadaserradinha.com)
  • Biological activities of novel brassinosteroid analogues in breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • To avoid some observed mistakes in assigning trivial names to these compounds and the impractical constant usage of their systematic names, we propose a semisystematic nomenclature of brassinosteroids, in which (22 R ,23 R )-2α,3α,22,23-tetrahydroxy-5α-campestane, the trivial name of which is 6-deoxocastasterone, is considered the functional parent compound and is named brassinostane or brassinane. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the effects of two brassinosteroid compounds, epibrassinolide and 22S,23S-homobrassinolide, and gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) on in vitro pollen germination of two table grape cultivars, 'Italia' and 'Cardinal' ( Vitis vinifera L.), were determined. (oeno-one.eu)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate diverse physiological processes during plant life cycle. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in plant development and also promote tolerance to a range of abiotic stresses. (uwo.ca)
  • Li, J. Brassinosteroid signaling: from receptor kinases to transcription factors. (nature.com)
  • Involvement of brassinosteroids in the gravitropic response of primary root of maize. (brillonline.com)
  • Mediante un abordaje micro genómico hemos identificado a BRAVO (Brassinosteroids at Vascular and Organizing Centre), un componente especifico de las células madre. (sebbm.es)
  • Here, we identify the Primula CYP734A50 gene, encoding a putative brassinosteroid-degrading enzyme, as the G locus that determines the style-length dimorphism. (elifesciences.org)
  • Brassinosteroids: Practical Applications in Agriculture and Human Health provides a comprehensive overview on the practical applicatio. (benthamscience.com)