Eructation: The ejection of gas or air through the mouth from the stomach.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Foot Orthoses: Devices used to support or align the foot structure, or to prevent or correct foot deformities.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Cholestanones: CHOLESTANES substituted with any number of keto groups.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.TriazolesGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Eugenia: A genus in the family Myrtaceae sometimes known as "stoppers" in FOLK MEDICINE. Many species of the genus SYZYGIUM have synonymous names that begin with the Eugenia genus name.Cordyline: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains spirostanol & furostanol SAPONINS.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Tolnaftate: A synthetic antifungal agent.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.

The Arabidopsis dwarf1 mutant is defective in the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. (1/215)

Since the isolation and characterization of dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1) from a T-DNA insertion mutant population, phenotypically similar mutants, including deetiolated2 (det2), constitutive photomorphogenesis and dwarfism (cpd), brassinosteroid insensitive1 (bri1), and dwf4, have been reported to be defective in either the biosynthesis or the perception of brassinosteroids. We present further characterization of dwf1-1 and additional dwf1 alleles. Feeding tests with brassinosteroid-biosynthetic intermediates revealed that dwf1 can be rescued by 22alpha-hydroxycampesterol and downstream intermediates in the brassinosteroid pathway. Analysis of the endogenous levels of brassinosteroid intermediates showed that 24-methylenecholesterol in dwf1 accumulates to 12 times the level of the wild type, whereas the level of campesterol is greatly diminished, indicating that the defective step is in C-24 reduction. Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of DWF1 shows significant similarity to a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain conserved in various oxidoreductases, suggesting an enzymatic role for DWF1. In support of this, 7 of 10 dwf1 mutations directly affected the flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain. Our molecular characterization of dwf1 alleles, together with our biochemical data, suggest that the biosynthetic defect in dwf1 results in reduced synthesis of bioactive brassinosteroids, causing dwarfism.  (+info)

BAS1: A gene regulating brassinosteroid levels and light responsiveness in Arabidopsis. (2/215)

The Arabidopsis bas1-D mutation suppresses the long hypocotyl phenotype caused by mutations in the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). The adult phenotype of bas1-D phyB-4 double mutants mimics that of brassinosteroid biosynthetic and response mutants. bas1-D phyB-4 has reduced levels of brassinosteroids and accumulates 26-hydroxybrassinolide in feeding experiments. The basis for the mutant phenotype is the enhanced expression of a cytochrome P450 (CYP72B1). bas1-D suppresses a phyB-null allele, but not a phyA-null mutation, and partially suppresses a cryptochrome-null mutation. Seedlings with reduced BAS1 expression are hyperresponsive to brassinosteroids in a light-dependent manner and display reduced sensitivity to light under a variety of conditions. Thus, BAS1 represents one of the control points between multiple photoreceptor systems and brassinosteroid signal transduction.  (+info)

Auxin regulates the initiation and radial position of plant lateral organs. (3/215)

Leaves originate from the shoot apical meristem, a small mound of undifferentiated tissue at the tip of the stem. Leaf formation begins with the selection of a group of founder cells in the so-called peripheral zone at the flank of the meristem, followed by the initiation of local growth and finally morphogenesis of the resulting bulge into a differentiated leaf. Whereas the mechanisms controlling the switch between meristem propagation and leaf initiation are being identified by genetic and molecular analyses, the radial positioning of leaves, known as phyllotaxis, remains poorly understood. Hormones, especially auxin and gibberellin, are known to influence phyllotaxis, but their specific role in the determination of organ position is not clear. We show that inhibition of polar auxin transport blocks leaf formation at the vegetative tomato meristem, resulting in pinlike naked stems with an intact meristem at the tip. Microapplication of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the apex of such pins restores leaf formation. Similarly, exogenous IAA induces flower formation on Arabidopsis pin-formed1-1 inflorescence apices, which are blocked in flower formation because of a mutation in a putative auxin transport protein. Our results show that auxin is required for and sufficient to induce organogenesis both in the vegetative tomato meristem and in the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem. In this study, organogenesis always strictly coincided with the site of IAA application in the radial dimension, whereas in the apical-basal dimension, organ formation always occurred at a fixed distance from the summit of the meristem. We propose that auxin determines the radial position and the size of lateral organs but not the apical-basal position or the identity of the induced structures.  (+info)

Perception of brassinosteroids by the extracellular domain of the receptor kinase BRI1. (4/215)

An assay was developed to study plant receptor kinase activation and signaling mechanisms. The extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and transmembrane domains of the Arabidopsis receptor kinase BRI1, which is implicated in brassinosteroid signaling, were fused to the serine/threonine kinase domain of XA21, the rice disease resistance receptor. The chimeric receptor initiates plant defense responses in rice cells upon treatment with brassinosteroids. These results, which indicate that the extracellular domain of BRI1 perceives brassinosteroids, suggest a general signaling mechanism for the LRR receptor kinases of plants. This system should allow the discovery of ligands for the LRR kinases, the largest group of plant receptor kinases.  (+info)

Involvement of brassinosteroids in the gravitropic response of primary root of maize. (5/215)

Exogenously applied brassinolide (BL, 10(-9)-10(-5) M) increased gravitropic curvature in maize (Zea mays) primary roots. The BL-enhanced gravitropic curvature was clearly promoted in the presence of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 10(-10)-10(-8) M), indicating that BL is interactive with IAA during the gravitropic response. The interactive effect between BL and IAA was completely diminished by treatment of p-chlorophenoxy isobutric acid, an auxin action antagonist. The activation of the gravitropic response by BL in the absence and in the presence of IAA was nullified by application of 2, 3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. The data indicate that brassinosteroids (BRs) might be involved in auxin-mediated processes for the gravitropic response. Gas chromotography-selected ion-monitoring analysis revealed that maize primary roots contained approximately 0.3 ng g(-1) fresh weight castasterone as an endogenous BR. Exogenously applied castasterone also increased the gravitropic response of maize roots in an IAA-dependent manner. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, for occurrence and gravitropic activity of BRs in plant roots.  (+info)

Biosynthetic pathways of brassinolide in Arabidopsis. (6/215)

Our previous studies on the endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in Arabidopsis have provided suggestive evidence for the operation of the early C6-oxidation and the late C6-oxidation pathways, leading to brassinolide (BL) in Arabidopsis. However, to date the in vivo operation of these pathways has not been fully confirmed in this species. This paper describes metabolic studies using deuterium-labeled BRs in wild-type and BR-insensitive mutant (bri1) seedlings to establish the intermediates of the biosynthetic pathway of BL in Arabidopsis. The first evidence for the conversion of campestanol to 6-deoxocathasterone and the conversion of 6-deoxocathasterone to 6-deoxoteasterone is provided. The later biosynthetic steps (6-deoxoteasterone --> 3-dehydro-6-deoxoteasterone --> 6-deoxotyphasterol --> 6-deoxocastasterone --> 6alpha-hydroxycastasterone --> castasterone --> BL) were demonstrated by stepwise metabolic experiments. Therefore, these studies complete the documentation of the late C6-oxidation pathway. The biosynthetic sequence involved in the early C6-oxidation pathway (teasterone --> 3-dehydroteasterone --> typhasterol --> castasterone --> BL) was also demonstrated. These results show that both the early and late C6-oxidation pathways are functional in Arabidopsis. In addition we report two new observations: the presence of a new branch in the pathway, C6 oxidation of 6-deoxotyphasterol to typhasterol, and increased metabolic flow in BR-insensitive mutants.  (+info)

Loss of function of a rice brassinosteroid insensitive1 homolog prevents internode elongation and bending of the lamina joint. (7/215)

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant growth-promoting natural products required for plant growth and development. Physiological studies have demonstrated that exogenous BR, alone or in combination with auxin, enhance bending of the lamina joint of rice. However, little is known about the function of endogenous BR in rice or other grass species. We report here the phenotypical and molecular characterization of a rice dwarf mutant, d61, that is less sensitive to BR compared to the wild type. We cloned a rice gene, OsBRI1, with extensive sequence similarity to that of the Arabidopsis BRI gene, which encodes a putative BR receptor kinase. Linkage analysis showed that the OsBRI1 gene is closely linked to the d61 locus. Single nucleotide substitutions found at different sites of the d61 alleles would give rise to amino acid changes in the corresponding polypeptides. Furthermore, introduction of the entire OsBRI1 coding region, including the 5' and 3' flanking sequences, into d61 plants complemented the mutation to display the wild-type phenotype. Transgenic plants carrying the antisense strand of the OsBRI1 transcript showed similar or even more severe phenotypes than those of the d61 mutants. Our results show that OsBRI1 functions in various growth and developmental processes in rice, including (1) internode elongation, by inducing the formation of the intercalary meristem and the longitudinal elongation of internode cells; (2) bending of the lamina joint; and (3) skotomorphogenesis.  (+info)

Brassinosteroid levels increase drastically prior to morphogenesis of tracheary elements. (8/215)

As the first step toward understanding the involvement of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in cytodifferentiation, we analyzed biosynthetic activities of BRs in zinnia (Zinnia elegans L. cv Canary Bird) cells differentiating into tracheary elements. The results of feeding experiments suggested that both the early and late C6-oxidation pathways occur during tracheary element differentiation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that five BRs, castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol, and 6-deoxoteasterone, actually existed in cultured zinnia cells and culture medium. Quantification of endogenous BRs in each stage of tracheary element differentiation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry exhibited that they increased dramatically prior to the morphogenesis, which was consistent with the idea that BRs are necessary for the initiation of the final stage of tracheary element differentiation. Moreover, the proportion of each BR in culture medium was quite different from that in cells, suggesting that specific BRs are selectively secreted into medium and may function outside the cells.  (+info)

*Brassinosteroid

"Role of Brassinosteroids on Horticultural Crops". In Hayat S, Ahmad A. Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone. Dordrecht, ... In all Type of brassinosteroids 28-homoBL is the most effective type of brassinosteroids. (sandeep kumar et al. 2010 Jour. of ... The yield of brassinosteroids from 230 kg of Brassica napus pollen was only 10 mg. Since their discovery, over 70 BR compounds ... Brassinosteroids are recognized at the cell membrane, although they are membrane-soluble. BRs have been shown to be involved in ...

*Dihydroxylation

Brassinosteroids are a class of steroids shown to regulate plant growth and has been shown to have agricultural activity as an ... Bishop, G.; Koncz, Csaba (2002). "Brassinosteroids and Plant Steroid Hormone Signaling". Amer. Soc. Plant Bio. 14: S97-110. ... Brosa, C.; Nusimovich, S; Peracaula, R (1994). "Synthesis of new brassinosteroids with potential activity as antiecdysteroids ...

*ATP citrate lyase

... brassinosteroids); malonyl and acyl-derivatives (d-amino acids, malonylated flavonoids, acylated, prenylated and malonated ...

*Auxin

Mendipweb Nature of auxin Hardtke CS (November 2007). "Transcriptional auxin-brassinosteroid crosstalk: who's talking?". ...

*Acetyl-CoA

In plants, these include sesquiterpenes, brassinosteroids (hormones), and membrane sterols. Steroid synthesis: Acetyl-CoA ...

*Expansin

August 2005). "Brassinosteroid regulates fiber development on cultured cotton ovules". Plant Cell Physiol. 46 (8): 1384-91. doi ... ethylene and brassinosteroids. A subset of the β-expansins are also the major group-1 allergens of grass pollens. So far, two ...

*Diazirine

The discovery of a brassinosteroid receptor for brassinosteroid plant hormones by Kinoshita et al. Researchers used a plant ... "Binding of brassinosteroids to the extracellular domain of plant receptor kinase BRI1". Nature. 433 (7022): 167-171. doi: ...

*BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1

The decrease in responses to PAMPs is not due to reduced sensitivity to brassinosteroids. In vivo FLS2 and BAK1 form a complex ... BAK1 is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase has been reported to regulate the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1. It is ...

*Phytosterol

De Bruyne, L; Höfte, M; De Vleesschauwer, D (2014). "Connecting growth and defense: The emerging roles of brassinosteroids and ...

*5-Dehydroepisterol

... is a sterol and an intermediate in steroid biosynthesis, particularly synthesis of brassinosteroids. It is ...

*Jiayang Li

Hu, Y; Bao, F; Li, J (2000). "Promotive effect of brassinosteroids on cell division involves a distinct CycD3-induction pathway ...

*Joanne Chory

"A Putative Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinase Involved in Brassinosteroid Signal Transduction". Cell. 90 (5): 929-938. doi: ...

*12-oxophytodienoate reductase

OPR3 is shown to be induced by touch, wind, UV light, application of detergent, wounding, and brassinosteroids. In wound ...

*Plant hormone

Brassinosteroids have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones, which stimulate cell elongation and division, ... Brassinolide was the first identified brassinosteroid and was isolated from extracts of rapeseed (Brassica napus) pollen in ... Other identified plant growth regulators include: Brassinosteroids - are a class of polyhydroxysteroids, a group of plant ...

*Steroid

Plant steroids include steroidal alkaloids found in Solanaceae, the phytosterols, and the brassinosteroids (which include ...

*3-Epi-6-deoxocathasterone 23-monooxygenase

"C-23 hydroxylation by Arabidopsis CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 reveals a novel shortcut in brassinosteroid biosynthesis". Plant Cell. 18 ... H2O 3-Epi-6-deoxocathasterone 23-monooxygenase takes part in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Ohnishi, T.; Szatmari, A.M.; ...

*Srinivas Aluru

"A brassinosteroid transcriptional network revealed by genome-wide identification of BESI target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana ...

*Dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase

6 mannosyltransferase inhibit endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of defective brassinosteroid receptors in ...

*Silene viscaria

Extract from L. viscaria contains a relatively high amount of brassinosteroids, which have a proven positive effect on the ...

*Theseus1

Additionally, both THE1 and HERK1 function in coordination with the brassinosteroid pathway with a slight regulatory overlap ... the brassinosteroid pathway. In addition, Theseus1 has the ability to detect changes in cell wall integrity and could possibly ...

*Systemin

Holton N, Caño-Delgado A, Harrison K, Montoya T, Chory J, Bishop GJ (May 2007). "Tomato BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 is ... "The tomato brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 increases binding of systemin to tobacco plasma membranes, but is not involved in ...

*C-5 sterol desaturase

1999). "The Arabidopsis dwf7/ste1 mutant is defective in the delta 7 sterol C-5 desaturation step leading to brassinosteroid ... in a pathway thought to lead to a variety of membrane components as well as a class of hormones called brassinosteroids. Based ...

*Brassinolide

The first isolated brassinosteroid, it was discovered when it was shown that pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus) could ...

*Plant senescence

If gibberellin, brassinosteroid and ethylene are known to inhibit root growth it takes just a little imagination to assume they ... brassinosteroids and strigolactone as also being involved. Cytokinins help to maintain the plant cell and expression of ... but neglect gibberellin and brassinosteroid which inhibits root growth if not causing actual root pruning. This is perhaps ...

*Specialized metabolism in Oryza

Naringenin Ethylene Salicylate Jasmonate Auxins Cytokinins Gibberelins Abscisic acids Brassinosteroids Strigolactones (e.g.: 2 ...
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones with potent plant growth promoting activity. Because BR-deficient mutants of rice exhibit altered plant architecture and important agronomic traits, we conducted a systemic search for specific inhibitors of BR biosynthesis to manipulate the BR levels in plant tissues. Although previous studies have been conducted with BR biosynthesis inhibitors in dicots, little is known regarding the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition in monocot plants. In this work, we used potent inhibitors of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and we performed a hydroponic culture of rice seedlings to evaluate the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition. Among the test compounds, we found that 1-[[2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4-(phenoxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole (1) is a potent inhibitor that could induce phenotypes in rice seedlings that were similar to those observed in brassinosteroid deficient plants. The IC50 value for the retardation of plant growth in rice
The main interest of the group is the signal transduction pathway that plant cells use to respond to the growth promoting hormones, brassinosteroids. Brassinosteroids are ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom sterol derivatives. Brassinosteroid deficient mutants display dramatic developmental defects including dwarfism, male sterility, delayed flowering, reduced apical dominance, and a light-grown morphology when grown in dark. Like their animal counterparts, brassinosteroids regulate the expression of numerous genes, impact the activity of complex metabolic pathways, contribute to the regulation of cell division and differentiation, and help control overall development. Brassinosteroids regulate photomorphogenesis, etiolation and cell expansion. Brassinosteroids have a broad spectrum of activities that have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of crops and they increase plant resistance to stress and pathogens ...
Steroids are important hormones in both animals and plants. Brassinosteroids regulate many aspects of growth and development in plants. Mutants deficient in brassinosteroids are often stunted and infertile. Brassinosteroids are similar in many respects to animal steroids, but appear to function very differently at the cellular level. Animal cells usually respond to steroids using internal receptor molecules within the cell nucleus, whereas in plants the receptors, called receptor-like kinases, are anchored to the outside surface of the cell membranes. For over a decade, scientists have tried to understand how the signal is passed from the cell surface to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. The final gaps were bridged in the study published in the advanced on-line issue of Nature Cell Biology September 6, 2009 ...
Plant growth and development are coordinated by several groups of small-molecule hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs). Physiological and molecular studies have suggested the existence of crosstalk between BR and GA signaling. We report that BZR1, a key transcription factor activated by BR signaling, interacts in vitro and in vivo with REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), a member of the DELLA family of transcriptional regulators that inhibits the GA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses of plants with mutations in the genes encoding RGA and BZR1 revealed that RGA suppressed root and hypocotyl elongation of the gain-of-function mutant bzr1-1D. Ectopic expression of proteins of the DELLA family reduced the abundance and transcriptional activity of BZR1. Reporter gene analyses further indicated that BZR1 and RGA antagonize each others transcriptional activity. Our data indicated that BZR1 and RGA served as positive and negative regulators, respectively, of ...
TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:1954389 ID - pug01:1954389 LA - eng TI - Plants grow on brassinosteroids PY - 2011 JO - (2011) CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY SN - 1369-5266 PB - 2011 AU - Gudesblat, Gustavo AU - Russinova, Eugenia WE09 801002090510 0000-0002-0569-1977 AB - Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones known mainly for promoting organ growth through their combined effect on cell expansion and division. In addition, BRs regulate a broad spectrum of plant developmental and physiological responses, including plant architecture, vascular differentiation, male fertility, flowering, senescence, photomorphogenesis and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recently, a complete core BR signaling pathway was defined in which BR signals are conveyed from the cell surface to the nucleus through sequential signaling modules. A major challenge now is to understand precisely how this signaling pathway controls the different BR-regulated actions. The current ...
Autor: Svatos, Ales et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2004; Keywords: Biosynthesis|br/|Ionization|br/|Enzymes|br/|Plants.|br/|Spectroscopy/Instrumentation/Analytical Sciences in Current|br/|Contents(R)/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences.; Titel: Determination of brassinosteroids in the sub-femtomolar range using dansyl-3-aminophenylboronate derivatization and electrospray mass spectrometry
Detail záznamu - Brassinosteroids cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Arabidopsis BKI1 protein: a BRI1-interacting protein, BKI1,which is a negative regulator of brassinosteroid signaling is reported; BKI1 is a substrate of BRI1 kinase & limits interaction of BRI1 with its proposed coreceptor, BAK1, suggesting that BKI1 prevents activation of BRI1
Plants must constantly adjust their growth and defense responses to deal with the wide variety of stresses they encounter in their environment. Among phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important group of plant steroid hormones involved in numerous aspects of the plant lifecycle including growth, development, and responses to various stresses including insects. Here, we show that BRs regulate glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis and function in insect herbivory. Preference tests and larval feeding experiments using the generalist herbivore, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), revealed that the larvae of this moth prefer to feed on Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (bri1-5) plants than on wild-type Ws-2 or BRI1-Flag (bri1-5 background) transgenic plants, which leads an increase in larval weight ...
Scientists have known for some time how important plant steroids called brassinosteroids are for regulating plant growth and development. But until now, they did not know how extensive their reach is. Now researchers, including ...
The phenotypes of the dwf12 mutants can be summarized by the statement that all organs are reduced in size. The specific characteristics examined in this research, such as plant height and the length of pedicels, siliques, petioles, hypocotyls, and roots, all are significantly shorter than wild type (Table I; Figs. 1 and 2). These morphological alterations are typical of BR biosynthetic or signaling mutants (Figs. 1 and 2). Thus, it is likely that the dwf12mutants are defective in BR biosynthesis or signaling. One interesting exception in dwf12 is a typical leaf curling in the abaxial direction. Downward curling leaves are often found in mutants that are defective in auxin signaling, such as axr1 andaxr2 (Lincoln et al., 1990; Timpte et al., 1992). These shared phenotypes between dwf12 and auxin mutants suggest that DWF12 also plays a role in auxin signaling in specific cell types.. Two lines of evidence strongly suggest that the dwf12mutants are BR insensitive. First, a BR biosynthetic ...
Researchers think that brassinosteroids, since they dont work through the androgen cell receptor, may instead interact with an as yet unidentified steroid hormone receptor. Although the effects of brassinosteroids appear very promising, dont expect to
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Helen Mawdsley.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Sainsbury Laboratory Seminars series.. ...
Researchers from Tubingen resolve how a plant steroid hormone makes plants grow. If one wants to better understand how plants grow, one must analyze the chemistry of life in its molecular detail. Michael Hothorn from the Friedrich-Miescher-Laboratory of the Max Planck Society in Tübingen and his team are doing just that. Their latest work now reveals that a plant membrane receptor requires a helper protein to sense a growth-promoting steroid hormone and to transduce this signal across the cell membrane.. Every cell is surrounded by a greasy cell membrane. Signals from other cells and from the environment must be sensed at the cell surface, transduced across this membrane and translated into a specific response inside the cell. All organisms have evolved membrane receptor proteins to get these complex tasks done, but plant membrane receptors look drastically different from the well-studied players in animals and bacteria. The plant steroid receptor BRI1, which can sense a small steroid hormone ...
Fàbregas, N.; Lozano-Elena, F.; Blasco-Escámez, D.; Tohge, T.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Albacete, A.; Osorio, S.; Bustamante, M.; Riechmann, J. L.; Nomura, T. et al.; Yokota, T.; Conesa, A.; Alfocea, F. P.; Fernie, A. R.; Caño-Delgado, A. I.: Overexpression of the vascular brassinosteroid receptor BRL3 confers drought resistance without penalizing plant growth. Nature Communications 9 (1), 4680 (2018 ...
[tabs titles=Recently, 2013 ~, 2000 ~ 2012, ~ 1999] [tab] 2017 Plant Physiology Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is modulated via a transcription factor cascade of COG1, PIF4 and PIF5 Zhuoyun Wei, Tong Yuan, Danuše Tarkowská, Jeongsik Kim, Hong Gil Nam, Ondřej Novák, Kai He, Xiaoping Gou, and Jia Li 174(2):1260-1273 [toggle title=Abstra...
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ABSTRACTBrassinosteroids (BRs) regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. We previously showed that GSK2, the central negative regulator of BR signaling, targets DLT, the GRAS family protein, to regulate BR responses. Here, we identified Ovate Family Protein 1 (OFP1) as a DLT interacting protein. OFP1 was ubiquitously expressed and the protein was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of OFP1 led to enlarged leaf angles, reduced plant height, and altered grain shape, largely resembled DLT overexpression plants. Genetic analysis showed that the regulation of plant architecture by OFP1 depends on DLT function. In addition, we found OFP1 was greatly induced by BR treatment, and OsBZR1, the critical transcription factor of BR signaling, was physically associated with the OFP1 promoter. Moreover, we showed that gibberellin synthesis was greatly repressed in OFP1
Total RNA was isolated from seedlings by the acid-guanidinium-phenol-chloroform method (Sambrook et al., 1989). Polyadenylated RNA was purified with the Oligotex-dT30 kit (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis) and converted into double-stranded cDNA with the use of a Super Script Choice cDNA Synthesis kit (Invitrogen) and with an oligo(dT)24 primer containing a T7 polymerase promoter site at its 3′ end (Amersham Biosciences AB, Uppsala). Biotin-labeled cRNA was generated from the double-stranded cDNA using the BioArray High Yield RNA transcript labeling kit (Enzo Diagnostics, New York) and was then purified with the use of the RNeasy RNA purification kit (Qiagen USA, Valencia, CA). Each cRNA sample (20 μg) was fragmented by incubation for 35 min at 94°C in fragmentation buffer (40 mm Tris-acetate [pH 8.1], 100 mmpotassium acetate, and 30 mm magnesium acetate). The hybridization mixture comprised 15 μg of fragmented cRNA in 300 μL of a solution containing 100 mm MES, 1 m[Na+], 20 mm EDTA, 0.01% ...
Nuestros resultados muestran como los Brassinosteroides (BRs), hormonas esteroides de plantas, mantienen la homeostasis de las células madre. Mediante un abordaje micro genómico hemos identificado a BRAVO (Brassinosteroids at Vascular and Organizing Centre), un componente especifico de las células madre. BRAVO es un factor de transcripción R2R3 de la familia MYB, que actúa como interruptor molecular que controla las divisiones de las células madre.. REFERENCIA DEL GRUPO INVESTIGADOR. Our laboratory investigates how Brassinosteroid (BR) hormones control plant growth and development. In particular, we are focused in understanding the spatial regulation of BR signalling in the vascular and stem cells. By using the root as a model organ we have uncovered a key role for BRs in stem cell function and cell cycle progression at the root meristem development necessary for normal root growth and development. These studies opened new avenues to study the role of plant stem cells on a mechanistic ...
Read "24-Epibrassinolide alleviates organic pollutants-retarded root elongation by promoting redox homeostasis and secondary metabolism in Cucumis sativus L, Environmental Pollution" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2 ...
Knowles, CL and Koutoulis, A and Reid, JB (2004) Microtubule Orientation in the Brassinosteroid Mutants lk, lka and lkb of Pea. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 23. pp. 146-155. ISSN 0721-7595 ...
In BR biosynthesis, Fujioka and Sakurai (1997b) have demonstrated that there are at least two branched biochemical pathways to the end product BL (Figure 1; Fujioka and Sakurai, 1997a, 1997b; Sakurai and Fujioka, 1997). Depending on the oxidation state of C-6, they are referred to as the early or late C-6 oxidation pathways. In the early pathway, the C-6 is oxidized to a ketone at campestanol (CN), whereas in the late pathway it is oxidized at 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS). Otherwise, the two pathways share equivalent reactions. Our results from the experiments with the available BR intermediates clearly demonstrate that dwf4 is defective in the 22α-hydroxylation steps in each of the pathways. Application of all 22α-hydroxylated intermediates in these pathways, such as CT and 6-deoxoCT, cause dramatic elongation of dwf4 plants, but compounds not hydroxylated at C-22 had no effect. This result also suggests that DWF4 recognizes at least two substrates: CN and 6-oxoCN. It seems reasonable to ...
Light and brassinosteroids (BRs) have been proved to be crucial in regulating plant growth and development; however, the mechanism of how they synergistically function is still largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms in photomorphogenesis, genome-wide analyses were carried out through examining the gene expressions of the dark-grown WT or BR biosynthesis-defective mutant det2 seedlings in the presence of light stimuli or exogenous Brassinolide (BL). Results showed that BR deficiency stimulates, while BL treatment suppresses, the expressions of light-responsive genes and photomorphogenesis, confirming the negative effects of BR in photomorphogenesis. This is consistent with the specific effects of BR on the expression of genes involved in cell wall modification, cellular metabolism and energy utilization during dark-light transition. Further analysis revealed that hormone biosynthesis and signaling-related genes, especially those of auxin, were altered under BL treatment or light ...
Supplementary Materialsijms-20-02339-s001. protection [12] and main development [13,14]. The mutants got brief origins and shown faulty polar distribution of PIN2 and PIN1, influencing PIN-mediated auxin transportation for body organ advancement and gravitropism [4,15]. However, whether and how BIG5 and other members of BIG subfamily take part in plant growth and gravitropic response remain unknown. Brassinosteroids […]. ...
For a long time, bilirubin (BR) has been considered a waste molecule with potential toxic effects especially on the central nervous system. Later, it was found that BR exhibited cytoprotective effects and mildly elevated BR levels showed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, however, exact mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory actions of BR have not been fully understood yet. The main aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of BR using experimental in vivo and in vitro models in relation to inflammation and oxidative stress. Partial goal was to establish validated analytical method for determination of BR and lumirubin. Gunn and heterozygous rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 6 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle (saline). After 12 hours, blood and organs were collected for analyses of inflammatory and hepatic injury markers. Primary rat hepatocytes were treated with BR and TNF-α, HepG2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines were treated with BR and chenodeoxycholic acid. ...
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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are endogenous plant hormones and are essential for normal plant growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) of Arabidopsis thaliana are involved in mediating cell proliferation in leaves, stress tolerance, and root development. The specifics of BR mechanisms involving miRNAs are unknown. Using customized miRNA array analysis, we identified miRNAs from A. thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0) regulated by 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a highly active BR). We found that miR395a was significantly up-regulated by EBR treatment and validated its expression under these conditions. miR395a was over expressed in leaf veins and root tissues in EBR-treated miR395a promoter::GUS plants. We integrated bioinformatics methods and publicly available DNA microarray data to predict potential targets of miR395a. GUN5-a multifunctional protein involved in plant metabolic functions such as chlorophyll synthesis and the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway-was identified as a possible target. ABI4 and ABI5, both genes
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POSTDOCTORAL POSITION AVAILABLE Plant Molecular Biology/Biotechnology (PMBB) Group/ Horticulture and Crop Science The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio USA A postdoctoral position is available to investigate the sugar sensing and signal transduction pathway in higher plants. Using a combination of biochemical, genetic and molecular approaches, we have identified the first plant sugar sensor, hexokinase (Plant Cell 6, 1665-1679; Plant Cell 9, 5-19; Trends in Plant Science 2, 208-214). Future projects include: the characterization of transgenic Arabidopsis with aberrant levels of hexokinase, the identification of other components that are involved in the sugar signal transduction pathway and the investigation of interactions between sugar and other signaling pathways. A second project to study plant steroid hormones is also available. We have identified several classes of Arabidopsis mutants that are involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis/signaling pathway. A T-DNA tagged brassinolide ...
Professor Gendron has 17 years of experience studying the genetic and molecular basis of how organisms react to environmental cues. He performed his Ph.D. in Dr. Zhi-Yong Wangs lab at Stanford University/ Carnegie Institution for Science where he studied the brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis with an emphasis on discovering and mechanistically describing signaling pathway components. In addition, he described how brassinosteroids control growth and organogenesis. He performed his post-doctoral research in Dr. Steve Kays lab at the University of California, San Diego and University of Southern California where he investigated transcriptional networks in the circadian clock of Arabidopsis. He was funded by a Ruth L. Kirchstein NRSA award from the NIH. Furthermore, he spent one year as a visiting scholar in the laboratory of Dr. Eric Bennett at University of California, San Diego studying mammalian protein degradation mechanisms and learning mass spectrometry techniques and ...
Professor Gendron has 17 years of experience studying the genetic and molecular basis of how organisms react to environmental cues. He performed his Ph.D. in Dr. Zhi-Yong Wangs lab at Stanford University/ Carnegie Institution for Science where he studied the brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis with an emphasis on discovering and mechanistically describing signaling pathway components. In addition, he described how brassinosteroids control growth and organogenesis. He performed his post-doctoral research in Dr. Steve Kays lab at the University of California, San Diego and University of Southern California where he investigated transcriptional networks in the circadian clock of Arabidopsis. He was funded by a Ruth L. Kirchstein NRSA award from the NIH. Furthermore, he spent one year as a visiting scholar in the laboratory of Dr. Eric Bennett at University of California, San Diego studying mammalian protein degradation mechanisms and learning mass spectrometry techniques and ...
Abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and productivity. The phytohormones regulate key physiological events under normal and stressful conditions for plant development. Accumulative research efforts have discovered important roles of phytohormones and their interactions in regulation of plant adaptation to numerous stressors. Intensive molecular studies have elucidated various plant hormonal pathways; each of which consist of many signaling components that link a specific hormone perception to the regulation of downstream genes. Signal transduction pathways of auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and ethylene have been thoroughly investigated. More recently, emerging signaling pathways of brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylic acid and strigolactones offer an exciting gateway for understanding their multiple roles in plant physiological processes.At the molecular level, phytohormonal crosstalks can be antagonistic or synergistic or additive in actions. ...
Arabidopsis TRIP-1 protein: expression is regulated by brassinosteroids and required for normal plant development; sequence similarity to animal TGF-beta receptor interacting protein
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...Stanford CA Plants are very sensitive to light conditions because lig...It was previously known that a plant hormone called brassinosteroid is...The teams findings on interactions between brassinosteroid and light ...While under the soils surface in the dark plant seedlings grow in a...,Unlocking,the,secrets,of,a,plant s,light,sensitivity,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
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Supplemental Methods are available online with this article; https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI87583DS1. Mouse care and models. Mice were housed under normal conditions. E2f1-/-, E2f3a-/-, E2f3b-/-, E2f3a1KI, E2F3a3bKI, Lys-Cre, and Alb-Cre mouse lines were described previously (31, 32, 40, 41). The backgrounds of the E2f1-/-, E2f3a-/-, and E2f3b-/- mice were FVB/NT fifth, fifth, and seventh generations, respectively. The E2f3a1KI and E2F3a3bKI mice were on a mixed background (FVB/NT, 129v/Sv, and C57BL/Swiss). Genotyping was performed on tail or liver DNA using standard PCR techniques. Primer sets used are listed in Supplemental Table 19. Dissected livers were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C for further analysis or fixed in 10% formalin (Fisher Scientific) for histologic analyses. For DEN (Sigma-Aldrich) treatment, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of DEN (20 mg/1 kg body mass) at 20 days of age (33, 51).. Histology and diagnosis of HCC. Formalin-fixed mouse tissues were ...
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Postdoctoral position available Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Cloning and characterization of brassinosteroid gulliver mutants Applications are invited for an initially 2-year Postdoc position to study brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction pathways that control BR biosynthesis. Our laboratory is primarily interested in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and its regulation in Arabidopsis and rice. We have isolated several new loci that are associated with BR biosynthesis and signaling from Arabidopsis and rice. The candidate will perform research on one of these mutants using molecular genetic and biochemical approaches. The successful candidate is highly motivated and has a strong interest and demonstrated expertise in molecular genetics. Previous experience with molecular techniques is essential. Prior experience with Arabidopsis is desirable, but not essential. The laboratory is located in the Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University. The department is recently ...
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Apical growth in both shoots and roots is a defining feature of vascular plants (Graham et al., 2000). Generative apices, established early in embryonic development, sustain polar growth and generate radial patterns of tissues along the body axes. Production of new cells is ensured by groups of stem cells located in the meristems. These cells have a low proliferative activity and divide asymmetrically. Although one of the daughter cells takes over the role of the stem cell, the other sets off into a proliferation and differentiation program that progresses as its lineage leaves the meristematic region. Thus, net growth is the outcome of a balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and elongation.. The primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana is a favourite developmental model because of its simple and stereotyped organization of cell types (Dolan et al., 1993; Wildwater et al., 2005; Sarkar et al., 2007). Root tips provide the most easily accessible group of stem cells in the plant body and ...
Pine plant pollen can be a potent herbal extracted from a pine plant. A lot of people and corporations make your natural powder out of the plant pollen. This makes it easier for customers to bring it. There are numerous advantages that include pine pollen.. A couple of the favorite Phyto-androgens are Gibberellins and brassinosteroids. Gibberellins are exactly like androgenic hormone or testosterone in construction and they are greatly used in the first stages of germination. Professionals have realized out that Gibberellins mirror testosterone as a result activate the creation of androgen. The Phyto androgens have also been found to regulate the activity on the prostate. The sterol element of gibberellins oversees the size of the prostate. In case the prostate is way too large, it decreases and the other way around. The brassinosteroids aid in taking away xenobiotic materials in the liver hence maintaining you far healthier.. The merchandise is not only well suited for gentlemen-its also ...
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Ef-ter tio mil-jo-ner till-ver-ka-de hy-brid-bi-lar från Toyo-ta lan-se-ras fjär-de ge-ne-ra-tio-nens Pri-us nu som ladd-hy-brid. Och den nya ver-sio-nen lo-var gott.
Shuhaila Ahmad, Norzilawati Mohd Naim, Harlina Harlizah Siraj, Rohana Jaafar, Shareena Ishak, Roslan Harun, Abd Rahman Abd Jamal, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah & Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria ...
br பிரேசிலின் அதியுயர் ஆள்கள இணைய நாட்டுக் குறியீடு (ccTLD) ஆகும். 2005 வரை இதனை பிரேசிலிய இணைய வழிநடத்துக் குழு (Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil) மேலாண்மை செய்து வந்துள்ளது. 2005இலிருந்து இதன் மேலாண்மையை பிரேசிலிய பிணையத் தகவல் மையம் (Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto br) செய்து வருகின்றது. எந்தவொரு பதிவிற்கும் உள்ளூர் தொடர்பு தேவையான ஒன்று. போர்த்துக்கேய எழுத்துருக்களுடன் கூடிய ஆள்களப் பெயர்களும் ஏற்றுக் ...
Pine pollen can be a potent herbal taken from a pine plant. Many people and companies make the natural powder out from the pollen. It is then simple for men and women to accept it. There are many advantages that come with pine pollen powder.. Two of the popular Phyto-androgens are Gibberellins and brassinosteroids. Gibberellins are like testosterone in framework and therefore are greatly employed in the very first stages of germination. Professionals have found out that Gibberellins imitate male growth hormone thus stimulate the creation of androgen. The Phyto androgens have been found to control the measures in the prostate. The sterol element of gibberellins oversees how big the prostate. In case the prostate is just too large, it shrinks and viceversa. The brassinosteroids help with removing xenobiotic materials in the liver therefore maintaining you more healthy.. The product is not merely suitable for men-its also well suited for women. Industry experts have found out that the Eurycoma ...
Pine pollen is surely an intense natural herb acquired coming from a pine shrub. Some people and businesses make your natural powder out of your pine pollen tablet. This makes it basic for people to adopt it. There are numerous pros who go with pollen natural powder.. A pair of the well known Phyto-androgens are Gibberellins and brassinosteroids. Gibberellins are exactly like male growth hormone in structure and they are vigorously utilized as an element of the primary stages of germination. Professionals have found that Gibberellins replicate androgenic hormone or testosterone in this manner animate the roll-out of androgen. The Phyto androgens have moreover been discovered to handle the action on the prostate. The sterol section of gibberellins controls the measure of the prostate. On the off of possibility how the prostate is just too enormous, it psychologists and the opposite. The brassinosteroids assistance in expelling xenobiotic materials from your liver organ following trying to keep ...
Transmembrane leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptors are commonly used innate immune receptors in plants and animals but can also sense endogenous signals to regulate development. BAK1 is a plant LRR-receptor-like kinase (RLK) that interacts with several ligand-binding LRR-RLKs to positively regulate their functions. BAK1 is involved in brassinosteroid-dependent growth and development, innate immunity, and cell-death control by interacting with the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1, immune receptors, such as FLS2 and EFR, and the small receptor kinase BIR1, respectively.. ...
p,The heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) acts as a chaperone by ensuring proper maturation and folding of its client proteins. The HSP90 capacitor hypothesis holds that interactions with HSP90 allow proteins to accumulate mutations while maintaining function. Following this logic, HSP90 clients would be predicted to show relaxed selection compared with nonclients. In this study, we identify a new HSP90 client in the plant steroid hormone pathway: the transcription factor BES1. Its closest paralog, BZR1, is not an HSP90 client. This difference in HSP90 client status in two highly similar proteins enabled a direct test of the capacitor hypothesis. We find that BES1 shows relaxed selection compared to BZR1, hallmarks of neo- and subfunctionalization, and dynamic HSP90 client status across independent evolutionary paths. These results suggested that HSP90's influence on gene evolution may be detectable if we compare gene duplicates because duplicates share most other properties influencing ...
EC 1.3.1.22. Accepted name: 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenase (NADP+). Reaction: a 3-oxo-5α-steroid + NADP+ = a 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid + NADPH + H+. Other name(s): cholestenone 5α-reductase; testosterone Δ4-5α-reductase; steroid 5α-reductase; 3-oxosteroid Δ4-dehydrogenase; 5α-reductase; steroid 5α-hydrogenase; 3-oxosteroid 5α-reductase; testosterone Δ4-hydrogenase; 4-ene-3-oxosteroid 5α-reductase; reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5α-oxidoreductase; 4-ene-5α-reductase; Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5α-oxidoreductase; cholest-4-en-3-one 5α-reductase; testosterone 5α-reductase; 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenase. Systematic name: 3-oxo-5α-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase. Comments: The enzyme catalyses the conversion of assorted 3-oxo-Δ4 steroids into their corresponding 5α form. Substrates for the mammalian enzyme include testosterone, progesterone, and corticosterone. Substrates for the plant enzyme are brassinosteroids such as campest-4-en-3-one and ...
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Clinical Trial Aimed to Supplement Current Research Findings on the
Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer


TORONTO, Nov. 14 /CNW/ -- Prostate Cancer Treatment Centre Receives Funding for Clinical Trials
.
|p style=text-align: justify;|What is the most important information I should know about valtrex?|br /|Take all of the valtrex that has been prescribed for you even if you begin to feel better. Your symptoms may start to improve before the infection is completely treated.|br /|Treatment with valtrex should be started as soon as possible after the first appearance of symptoms (e.g. tingling, burning, blisters).|br /|Herpes infections are contagious and you can infect other people, even during treatment. Avoid letting infected areas come into contact with other people. Wash your hands frequently to prevent transmission.|br /|Valtrex is not a cure for herpes virus infections.|br /|What is valtrex?|br /|Valtrex is an antiviral drug. It slows the growth and spread of the herpes virus so that the body can fight off the infection. Valtrex lessens the symptoms of these infections and shortens the length of time you are sick.|br /|Valtrex is used in the treatment and suppression of genital herpes, shingles,
Analiza złożonych próbek żywności/wody dla leków, pestycydów, mykotoksyn itp. Możliwe zastosowanie również dla analizy próbek moczu ludzkiego lub zwierzęcego dla trucizn i leków. TargetScreener HR to wydajne rozwiązanie oparte na dokładnej analizie mas i dobrze dobranych bazach danych (ponad 2000 związków) w celu zminimalizowania zgłaszania fałszywych trafień (lub wyników fałszywie negatywnych). Uzyskanie bardzo dokładnych danych ilościowych jest również zapewnione dzięki TargetScreener HR. TargetScreener HR jest kompletnym rozwiązaniem obejmującym analizę leków, pestycydów, itp. PCP, które można znaleźć w różnych złożonych matrycach, takich jak próbki żywności, śliny, moczu, surowicy lub próbek środowiskowych. Rozwiązanie opiera się na dokładnych pomiarach masy z systemem Bruker QTOF znajdującym się w sercu urządzenia. Do systemu spektrometru masowego dołączono wszystkie komponenty i zintegrowane algorytmy oprogramowania, metody, kolumny i ...
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Expired: Paralegal - Technical Recoveries with DWF LLP in Leeds. Check out Simply Law Jobs for 1000s of the latest legal jobs and vacancies.
Tåteflasken Anti-Colic fra Twistshake er en tåteflaske som forenkler din hverdag. Flasken fungerer perfekt å bruke sammen med amming og i hver shake inngår en praktisk pulverbeholder slik at du kan forberede måltidene hjemme. Det inngår også en blande-sil som forhindrer at det dannes klumper. Det unike anti-kolikk-systemet TwistFlow hjelper til å motivrke kolikk og bidrar til en jevn sugestrøm. Flasken har et grepvennlig design med tykk plast som holder varmen bra og siden flasken har en bred hals er den enkel å vaske for hånd. Selvsagt er flasken BPS-fri.|br||br|OBS! Skal du varme vesken i mikrobølgeovn er det viktig at du gjør dette uten skuremekanismen og lokk.|br||br|Mål: 70 x 70 x 222 mm.|br|Størrelse: Rommer 330 ml.|br|Tåtesmokk: Størrelse M (4+ måneder).|br||br||br|Materiale: |br|Flaske: Polypropen.|br|Tåtesmokk: Silikon.|br||br|Farge: Grå.
I uppsatsen redogörs för hur kunskapsföretag kompletterar årsredovisningen med information om det intellektuella kapitalet. Vidare redovisas vilka krav och behov analytiker har på informationen för att kunna göra en trovärdig värdering av dessa företag och slutligen varför det föreligger ett sk informationsgap.. ...
Det er per i dag ikke etablert noen sikker årsaksrettet sammenheng mellom bruken av bisfosfonater og kjevebensnekrose, men flere publikasjoner siden de første kom i 2003 og frem til i dag antyder at det er en assosiasjon ...
LA 기반의 떠오르는 스트릿웨어 브랜드 RHUDE 콜라보레이션.|br|레트로 감성에서 영감을 받은 플랫한 브림 쉐잎이 특징.|br| 뒷면에 플라스틱 버클이 있어 사이즈를 착장자에 맞게 조절이 가능함.|br| 자수처리 된 아일릿 디테일이 있어 통기성이 좋음.|br|
Im not looking for a cure (if one exists), Im just wondering what causes it.

Basically, as Im nodding off, I periodically shudd...
Expansin refers to a family of closely related nonenzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall, with important roles in plant cell growth, fruit softening, abscission, emergence of root hairs, pollen tube invasion of the stigma and style, meristem function, and other developmental processes where cell wall loosening occurs. Expansins were originally discovered as mediators of acid growth, which refers to the widespread characteristic of growing plant cell walls to expand faster at low (acidic) pH than at neutral pH. Expansins are thus linked to auxin action. They are also linked to cell enlargement and cell wall changes induced by other plant hormones such as gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene and brassinosteroids. A subset of the β-expansins are also the major group-1 allergens of grass pollens. So far, two large families of expansin genes have been discovered in plants, named alpha-expansins (given the gene symbol EXPA) and beta-expansins (EXPB). Both families of expansins have been ...
Gołąbki are also referred to as golombki, golumpki, golabki, golumpkies, golumpkis, gluntkes, or gwumpki.[1][2][4] Similar variations are called holubky (Slovak), töltött káposzta (Hungarian), holubtsi (Ukrainian), golubtsy (Russian), balandėliai (Lithuanian), Kohlrouladen German (or sarma a Turkish loan-word, commonly applied to some South Slavic versions, particularly in the Balkan region), kåldolmar (Sweden, from the Turkish dolma). In Yiddish, holipshes, goleptzi golumpki and holishkes or holep are very similar dishes.[5] They are also referred to as "piggies in a blanket" among the Slavic people who settled in the mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.. In the United States, the terms are commonly Anglicized by second- or third-generation Americans to "stuffed cabbage", "stuffed cabbage leaves", or "cabbage casserole".[1][2][4][3]. ...
The lab is split between investigating the molecular and genetic mechansims that isolate populations and species and modifying high throughput genomic technology to assess gene function in "orphan" organisms. During my postdoc, with Luca Comai at the UC Davis Genome Center, I began looking at how genome organization can affect plant reproduction and survival. Long term interests include the roles of dosage-sensitivity in plant evolution, the contributions of maternal and paternal effects to seed development, and the molecular basis of hybrid vigor. In the past, I worked on the control of the cell cycle control during maize endosperm development with Brian Larkins at The University of Arizona. That was great too. Even deeper in the past I worked on genes that influence cell elongation and brassinosteroid biosynthesis with such luminaries as Burkhard Schulz (also found here), Malcolm Bennet, SungHwa Choe and Kenneth A. Feldmann (now here again). ...
Shop Leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
On Friday 24th March it was announced that Asons Solicitors had ceased trading. The announcement came the very week that DWF had threatened to wind the company up. It later transpired that Asons…. Read more ...
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The installation of a new Armfield HTST/UHT unit in our pilot plant means that we can flash pasteurise products prior to carbonating and filling. Read more...
Noter til Etik for psykologer - J.D. Rendtorff (2011) Etikkens grundlag Etikkens udgangspunkt er menneskets forestilling om det gode liv, siger Ricoeur. Men det går ud over dette, og omhandler også forholdet til andre mennesker i forhold til individets tilhørselsforhold til samfundet. Det psykologisk arbejde overskrider modsætningen mellem det private og det offentlig, fordi det…
hm ill try editing a theme.. ;D,br,,br,try this; paste it to your application support/ chimera / profiles/ .. / prefs.js :,br,,br,user_pref(network.http.pipelining, true);,br,user_pref(network.http.proxy.pipelining, true);,br,,br,it makes it faster:D,br,,br,,br,,br,Giaguara,br ...
re|



reQall 2.0 improves memory for todays connected, but forgetful
individuals


MOFFETT FIELD, Calif., March 6 /CNW/ -- reQall 2.0: Making it Easier to Remember
.
[email protected] FEniCS]$ yum install -y redhat-lsb bzr bzrtools subversion \ libxml2-devel gcc gcc-c++ openmpi-devel openmpi numpy swig wget \ boost-devel vtk-python atlas-devel suitesparse-devel blas-devel \ lapack-devel cln-devel ginac-devel python-devel cmake \ ScientificPython mpfr-devel armadillo-devel gmp-devel CGAL-devel \ cppunit-devel flex bison valgrind- ...
... Date: November 17 2011 8:34am Subject: bzr push into mysql-5.1-telco-7.0 branch (jonas.oreland:4671 to 4672) List-Archive: http://lists.mysql.com/commits/142007 Message-Id ...
... Date: January 18 2012 1:44pm Subject: bzr push into mysql-5.1-telco-7.1 branch (jonas.oreland:4417 to 4418) List-Archive: http://lists.mysql.com/commits/142476 Message-Id ...
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Bank BCA KCU Tasikmalaya. No. Rekening : 054.063.9132. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. =======================================. Bank Mandiri KCP Tasikmalaya Mustofa. No. Rekening : 131-00-1034177-6. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. =======================================. Bank BRI 4371 Unit Singaparna Timur. No.Rekening : 4371-01-000197-50-9. Atas Nama : Sapnudin. ======================================= ...
説題Aはソピソミリピリゲリミヵゲトミリヵソはは 遼伟孑は閜連すゆ興呫淰ぃ 有甯は白球ビソ㄀ヵは斱つは終吇ゑすゑ見つぎ凼すェピリゲ㄀ソミヵゑ勛雇すほす》


ゲヵピリは遼伟孑はト㄀ソソトトは 吇䷾は白甤杢仳 旨呠挷勐は吇す晁刿 椓牨は吇す郫佌はぎぃは白球すゆ 公はは遼伟孑ゑ吨ほほす》 禾遐は於はは 遼伟孑白球は怣賭(侎. 苜ぃ椓牨は葊は終繘は髜ぃ白球释ゑ礹す)ゑ見つぎは 橡胾DNA酏刓ゑ掜す凼すは 亻巡ピリミ㄀ソトソェヵば仜ぎ劣ぎゆ JavaScript閜敮ゆCADリ㄀ゲピリ㄀は基末皈はソトトゑ揓侙すほす》



禾遐は 忠勛すゆつピリゲェヵ閜敮ゑ 斱見怣 侃ぃ昕す 実裃於泚は基つぃは詓侤すほす》ソ㄀ソミリビトトリ㄀ゲゑ利甯すゆ亄は 叄劣耉吇壮は閜敮はピリゲリミヵゲはつぃは譳諘す
코트 안과 밖 어느 곳에서나 당신을 완벽하게 만들 스포츠를 위한 맞춤형 캡.|br|언스트럭처드 버크럼과 곡선 바이저의 6패널 베이스볼 캡 쉐입.|br|자수 아일렛.|br|마이크로파이버 스웨트 밴드.|br|앤틱 메탈 버클이 달린 메인 원단과 동일한 원단의 어드저스터.|br|전면 중앙에 우븐 PUMS Taylored for Sports라벨.|br|후면에 자수 처리된 Since 1948 로고.|br|
Norges største realfaglige forskning- og utdanningsinstitusjon. Astrofysikk, biologi, farmasi, fysikk, geologi, informatikk, kjemi, matematikk, molekylær biovitenskap og teknologi.
In this study, the response of pollens obtained from inflorescences of table grape cultivars Italia and Cardinal to different plant growth regulators added to the medium in Petri dishes was evaluated. Statistical analysis showed that pollen germination of cv. Italia was not influenced (p≥0.05) by the plant growth regulators (Table 1). Pollens not treated with any plant growth regulators (control) showed 26.08% germination, while the highest ratio was obtained from 0.001 mg L-1 EBR treatment (44.40%). The lowest percentage of germination was obtained from the application of 0.1 mg L-1 HBR (17.85%). Although no significant differences were observed, it was seen in the mean values of the applications that as the amount of GA3 in the combination treatments increased, the mean ratio of pollen germination slightly decreased. In addition, homobrassinolide yielded higher germination compared to epibrassinolide. Pollens of cv. Cardinal, on the other hand, responded significantly (p≤0.01) ...
ОБЈАВЉЕНИ САМО АПСТРАКТИ:. 140. V. Dragičević, B. Nikolić, S. Živković, H. Waisi, S. Đurović, V. Jovanović, N. Kravić, D. Dodig: The effect of non-standard foliar fertilizers on harvest and quality of grain of barley, 5th International Symposium on Agricultural Sciences "AgroReS 2016", February 29 - March 3, 2016, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Publisher: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Banja Luka, ISBN 978-99938-93-37-0, Book of Abstracts, p.65, 2016.. 141. H. Waisi, B. Nikolić, B. Lalević, V. Raičević, L. Đukanović, M. Milojković, D. Kovačević: The effect of 24-epibrassinolide on seed vigour of two maize hybrids, 5th International Symposium on Agricultural Sciences "AgroReS 2016", February 29 - March 3, 2016, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Publisher: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Banja Luka, ISBN 978-99938-93-37-0, Book of Abstracts, p. 164, 2016.. 142. H. Waisi, B. Nikolić, B. Lalević, V. Raičević, V. Dragičević, M. ...
Tickets for events at BZR, Nottingham. Venue and events information for BZR - Gigantic Tickets, an authorised ticket agent for BZR
Acetylcholine Receptors. Acetylcholinesterase.. Aflatoxin.. Agricultural Hygiene.. Agrocin 84.. Analysis, Instrumentation and Techniques.. Animal Health Products.. Antibiotic Resistance.. Antibiotics.. Auxins, indole auxins.. Avian Repellants.. Avian Species.. Bactericide.. Bacteriocin.. Bioassays, Phytotoxicity to Succeeding Crops.. Biodegradability, Assessment.. Biodegradation in Soil.. Biological Control, Survey.. Biological Control of Plant Diseases.. Biological Control of Weeds.. Biomass, Soil Microbial Biomass.. Biopesticides.. Brassinosteroids.. Capillary Electrophoresis.. Chemical Activators of Disease Resistance.. Chemical Properties Estimation.. Chemotherapy.. Chirality and Chiral Pesticides.. Chitin Biosynthesis Inhibitors.. Chlorocarbons and Chlorohydrocarbons-Toxic Aromatics.. Chromatography, HPLC.. Chromatography, TLC.. CIPAC.. Controlled Release Formulations of Pesticides.. Dibenzo-p Dioxins: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p Dioxin, Reid Disinfection.. Disinfestation.. Economic Issues ...

Anticancer Potential of Brassinosteroids | SpringerLinkAnticancer Potential of Brassinosteroids | SpringerLink

... it was shown that brassinosteroids (BS) exert their effects not only on plants but also on animals and man. Eventually, some of ... Brassinosteroids Cancer Cell Viability Intracellular ROS Level Procarcinogen Activation This is a preview of subscription ... Hayat, S., & Ahmad, A. (2011). Brassinosteroids: A class of plant hormone. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... In recent years, it was shown that brassinosteroids (BS) exert their effects not only on plants but also on animals and man. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-6058-9_14

Semisystematic nomenclature of brassinosteroids | SpringerLinkSemisystematic nomenclature of brassinosteroids | SpringerLink

The assignment of the trivial name to new isolated or detected brassinosteroid is based on the trivial names of seven different ... brassinosteroids, with names assigned according to the plant source... ... Brassinosteroids (BS) in nature. In: Khripach V.A., Zhabinskii V.N. and De Groot A.E. (eds), Brassinosteroids-a new class of ... Natural occurrences of brassinosteroids. In: Cutler H.G., Yokota T. and Adam G. (eds), Brassinosteroids-Chemistry, Bioactivity ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FB%3AGROW.0000014898.30414.33

Brassinosteroid Wholesale, Home Suppliers - AlibabaBrassinosteroid Wholesale, Home Suppliers - Alibaba

A wide variety of brassinosteroid options are available to you, such as powder, liquid. ... Alibaba.com offers 170 brassinosteroid products. About 87% of these are plant growth regulator, 13% are insecticide, and 2% are ... Tags: Brassinosteroids 0.1%sp , Plant Hormones 90%tc 0.1%sp Brassinosteroid , Brassinosteroid 24-epibrassinolide , View larger ... Tags: Brassinosteroid Brassinolide , Plant Growth Regulator Brassinosteroid , Brassinosteroid 90%tc , View larger image ...
more infohttp://www.alibaba.com/showroom/brassinosteroid.html

Brassinosteroid - WikipediaBrassinosteroid - Wikipedia

"Role of Brassinosteroids on Horticultural Crops". In Hayat S, Ahmad A. Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone. Dordrecht, ... In all Type of brassinosteroids 28-homoBL is the most effective type of brassinosteroids. (sandeep kumar et al. 2010 Jour. of ... The yield of brassinosteroids from 230 kg of Brassica napus pollen was only 10 mg. Since their discovery, over 70 BR compounds ... Brassinosteroids are recognized at the cell membrane, although they are membrane-soluble. BRs have been shown to be involved in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassinosteroid

Brassinosteroids, Bioactivity and Crop Productivity by Shamsul Hayat | 9781402017100 | BooktopiaBrassinosteroids, Bioactivity and Crop Productivity by Shamsul Hayat | 9781402017100 | Booktopia

Buy a discounted Hardcover of Brassinosteroids online from Australias leading online bookstore. ... Booktopia has Brassinosteroids, Bioactivity and Crop Productivity by Shamsul Hayat. ... Brassinosteroids promote seed germination. p. 119. Brassinosteroid-driven modulation of stem elongation and apical dominance: ... Brassinosteroids and brassinosteroid analogues inclusion complexes in cyclodextrins. p. 171. New practical aspects of ...
more infohttps://www.booktopia.com.au/brassinosteroids-shamsul-hayat/prod9781402017100.html

Brassinosteroid signal transduction: still casting the actors.  - PubMed - NCBIBrassinosteroid signal transduction: still casting the actors. - PubMed - NCBI

Brassinosteroid signal transduction: still casting the actors.. Schumacher K1, Chory J. ... Significant advances in the genetic dissection of brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling have been made during the past few ... These studies provide the basic framework for future analysis of brassinosteroid signaling. ... the most active brassinosteroid. In addition, several models have been put forward for the perception of brassinolide by its ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10679450%5BPMID%5D

https://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:1954389https://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:1954389

Plants grow on brassinosteroids. ISSN:. 1369-5266. Author:. Gudesblat, Gustavo WE09 biblio. Russinova, Eugenia WE09 biblio ... Plants grow on brassinosteroids Gustavo Gudesblat, Eugenia Russinova (2011) CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY ... a Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones known mainly for promoting organ growth through their combined effect on ... "Plants Grow on Brassinosteroids." CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY 14.5 (2011): 530-537. Print. ...
more infohttps://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:1954389

Brassinosteroid-Regulated Gene Expression | Plant PhysiologyBrassinosteroid-Regulated Gene Expression | Plant Physiology

1984) A brassinosteroid-cytokinin interaction on ethylene production by etiolated mung bean segments. Physiol Plant 60:347-350. ... 2000) A putative role for the tomato gene DUMPY and CURL-3 in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and response. Plant Physiol 122:85- ... 1982) Brassinosteroid-induced bending of the leaf lamina of dwarf rice seedlings: an auxin-mediated phenomenon. Plant Cell ... 2001) Brassinosteroid levels increase drastically prior to morphogenesis of tracheary elements. Plant Physiol 125:556-563. ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/129/3/1241?ijkey=3733cd4d2130a1c14fa4e9b271e27fba1caeec33&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Brassinosteroid-Regulated Gene Expression | Plant PhysiologyBrassinosteroid-Regulated Gene Expression | Plant Physiology

Patterns of Dwarf expression and brassinosteroid accumulation in tomato reveal the importance of brassinosteroid synthesis ... Heat shock response in tomato brassinosteroid mutants indicates that thermotolerance is independent of brassinosteroid ... Brassinosteroids control AtEXPA5 gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Chan Ho Park, Tae-Wuk Kim, Seung-Hyun Son, Jung-Yun ... Brassinosteroid Enhances Resistance to Fusarium Diseases of Barley. Shahin S. Ali, G. B. Sunil Kumar, Mojibur Khan, Fiona M. ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/129/3/1241/tab-article-info

SPEECHLESS integrates brassinosteroid and stomata signalling pathways.SPEECHLESS integrates brassinosteroid and stomata signalling pathways.

... Author(s). Gudesblat, G.E.; Schneider-Pizon, J.; Betti ... Here, we show that in addition to MAPKs, SPCH activity is also modulated by brassinosteroid (BR) signalling. The GSK3/SHAGGY- ...
more infohttp://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/427649

Genetic Background Influences Brassinosteroid-Related Mutant Phenotypes in RiceGenetic Background Influences Brassinosteroid-Related Mutant Phenotypes in Rice

Three newly isolated brassinosteroid-insensitive mutants (d61-1N, d61-11, and d61-12) derived from a Nipponbare mutant library ... Similar trends were seen for phenotypes caused by mutants of d2, a brassinosteroid biosynthesis gene. Consistent with these ... is misregulated in wild-type Nipponbare and in brassinosteroid-related mutants in a Nipponbare genetic background. Although ... Nipponbare is a model rice genotype, it can be categorized as an OsBRI1 mutant that has reduced sensitivity to brassinosteroid. ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=27753

Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone ebook | Weltbild.atBrassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone ebook | Weltbild.at

Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone von Shamsul Hayat und viele weitere eBooks jetzt schnell und einfach auf Ihren eBook ... Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone (eBook / PDF). Shamsul Hayat Aqil Ahmad ... Kommentare zu "Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone". Keine Kommentare vorhanden. Jetzt ersten Kommentar schreiben!. ... Produktinformationen zu „Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone (eBook / PDF)". The entire range of the developmental ...
more infohttps://www.weltbild.at/artikel/ebook/brassinosteroids-a-class-of-plant-hormone_16857736-1

GSK3-Like Kinases Integrate Brassinosteroid Signaling and Stomatal Development | Science SignalingGSK3-Like Kinases Integrate Brassinosteroid Signaling and Stomatal Development | Science Signaling

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that regulate cell expansion, cell division, and photomorphogenesis. A key regulator ... GSK3-Like Kinases Integrate Brassinosteroid Signaling and Stomatal Development Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... in BR signaling, the GSK3- and SHAGGY-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2, regulates two distinct steps in the stomatal ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/5/233/pe30

Regulation of Brassinosteroid Signaling by a GSK3/SHAGGY-Like Kinase | ScienceRegulation of Brassinosteroid Signaling by a GSK3/SHAGGY-Like Kinase | Science

Regulation of Brassinosteroid Signaling by a GSK3/SHAGGY-Like Kinase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Here we show that the Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2(BIN2) gene encodes a GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinase. Gain-of-function ... mutations within its coding sequence or its overexpression inhibit brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, resulting in plants that ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/295/5558/1299?ijkey=0a73af0f86f54d24e6746dd937aaa4d0a7209271&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

RD26 mediates crosstalk between drought and brassinosteroid signalling pathwaysRD26 mediates crosstalk between drought and brassinosteroid signalling pathways

Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant growth and stress responses via the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which ... "RD26 mediates crosstalk between drought and brassinosteroid signalling pathways." Nature Communications 8 (1): 14573. doi: ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/32071914

Plants | Free Full-Text | New Compounds Induce Brassinosteroid Deficient-like Phenotypes in RicePlants | Free Full-Text | New Compounds Induce Brassinosteroid Deficient-like Phenotypes in Rice

... is a potent inhibitor that could induce phenotypes in rice seedlings that were similar to those observed in brassinosteroid ... Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones with potent plant growth promoting activity. Because BR-deficient mutants ... Keywords: brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor; plant hormone; azole derivatives brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor; ... New Compounds Induce Brassinosteroid Deficient-like Phenotypes in Rice. Tadashi Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Yamada, Ikuko Iwasaki, Yuko ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2223-7747/2/3/521/xml

Frontiers | The Role of Gibberellins and Brassinosteroids in Nodulation and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Associations | Plant ScienceFrontiers | The Role of Gibberellins and Brassinosteroids in Nodulation and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Associations | Plant Science

One emerging area of research is the role of two plant hormone groups, the gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs), in ... One emerging area of research is the role of two plant hormone groups, the gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs), in ... Brassinosteroids. Brassinosteroids Promote Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses. Brassinosteroids are a family of growth promoting ... Brassinosteroids Influence Nodulation. Most of the early studies into the role of brassinosteroids in nodulation were based on ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.00269/full

Brassinosteroids control meristem size by promoting cell cycle progression in Arabidopsis roots | DevelopmentBrassinosteroids control meristem size by promoting cell cycle progression in Arabidopsis roots | Development

2002). Nuclear-localized BZR1 mediates brassinosteroid-induced growth and feedback suppression of brassinosteroid biosynthesis ... 2002). Brassinosteroids control the proliferation in leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 43, 239-244. ... 1996). A brassinosteroid-insensitive mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits multiple defects in growth and development. Plant ... 2007). An essential role for 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Dev. Cell 13, 177-189. ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/138/5/849

Transcription of the Arabidopsis CPD gene, encoding a steroidogenic cytochrome P450, is negatively controlled by...Transcription of the Arabidopsis CPD gene, encoding a steroidogenic cytochrome P450, is negatively controlled by...

Repression of CPD transcription by brassinosteroids is sensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, indicating a ... is negatively controlled by brassinosteroids.. Mathur J1, Molnár G, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Sakurai A, Yokota T, Adam G, Voigt ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9675902?dopt=Abstract

Brassinosteroid Signaling: A Paradigm for Steroid Hormone Signaling from the Cell Surface | ScienceBrassinosteroid Signaling: A Paradigm for Steroid Hormone Signaling from the Cell Surface | Science

Brassinosteroid Signaling: A Paradigm for Steroid Hormone Signaling from the Cell Surface ... Brassinosteroid Signaling: A Paradigm for Steroid Hormone Signaling from the Cell Surface ... Brassinosteroid Signaling: A Paradigm for Steroid Hormone Signaling from the Cell Surface ... Brassinosteroid Signaling: A Paradigm for Steroid Hormone Signaling from the Cell Surface ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/314/5804/1410/tab-e-letters

Brassinosteroids and plant function: some clues, more puzzles. - Semantic ScholarBrassinosteroids and plant function: some clues, more puzzles. - Semantic Scholar

The role of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant function has been intensively studied in the last few years. Mutant analysis has ... Physiological Roles of Brassinosteroids in Early Growth of Arabidopsis: Brassinosteroids Have a Synergistic Relationship with ... Nuclear-localized BZR1 mediates brassinosteroid-induced growth and feedback suppression of brassinosteroid biosynthesis.. *Zhi ... Microarray analysis of brassinosteroid-regulated genes in Arabidopsis.. *Hideki Goda, Yukihisa Shimada, Tadao Asami, Shozo ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Brassinosteroids-and-plant-function%3A-some-clues%2C-Haubrick-Assmann/5aa88961473ac1279e2dfa8329c1ae9cac50cce9

Vacuole Integrity Maintained by DUF300 Proteins Is Required for Brassinosteroid Signaling RegulationVacuole Integrity Maintained by DUF300 Proteins Is Required for Brassinosteroid Signaling Regulation

Brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signaling controls multiple processes during plant growth and development and is initiated at the ... brassinosteroid signaling, vacuole integrity, DUF300 proteins, tonoplast, Arabidopsis National Category Cell Biology ... Vacuole Integrity Maintained by DUF300 Proteins Is Required for Brassinosteroid Signaling Regulation. Liu, Qinsong ... plasma membrane through the receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) together with co-receptors such as BRI1- ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:1223911

An Interaction Between BZR1 and DELLAs Mediates Direct Signaling Crosstalk Between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins in...An Interaction Between BZR1 and DELLAs Mediates Direct Signaling Crosstalk Between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins in...

Plant growth and development are coordinated by several groups of small-molecule hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs) and ... An Interaction Between BZR1 and DELLAs Mediates Direct Signaling Crosstalk Between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins in ... An Interaction Between BZR1 and DELLAs Mediates Direct Signaling Crosstalk Between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins in ... An Interaction Between BZR1 and DELLAs Mediates Direct Signaling Crosstalk Between Brassinosteroids and Gibberellins in ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/5/244/ra72?rss=1

DIGITAL.CSIC: Abscisic acid signal transduction: Regulation by HAB1 and interaction with brassinosteroids mediated by BRXDIGITAL.CSIC: Abscisic acid signal transduction: Regulation by HAB1 and interaction with brassinosteroids mediated by BRX

Abscisic acid signal transduction: Regulation by HAB1 and interaction with brassinosteroids mediated by BRX. ... which has been implicated in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway as well as regulation of auxin-responsive gene expression. ...
more infohttps://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/18827

Frontiers | Brassinosteroids Regulate OFP1, a DLT Interacting Protein, to Modulate Plant Architecture and Grain Morphology in...Frontiers | Brassinosteroids Regulate OFP1, a DLT Interacting Protein, to Modulate Plant Architecture and Grain Morphology in...

ABSTRACT Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size ... 2009). BRASSINOSTEROID UPREGULATED1, encoding a Helix-Loop-Helix protein, is a novel gene involved in brassinosteroid signaling ... 2003). A rice brassinosteroid-deficient mutant, ebisu dwarf (d2), is caused by a loss of function of a new member of cytochrome ... 2012). Dynamics of brassinosteroid response modulated by negative regulator LIC in rice. PLOS Genet. 8:e1002686. doi: 10.1371/ ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2017.01698/full
  • Three newly isolated brassinosteroid-insensitive mutants ( d 61 - 1 N , d 61 - 11, and d 61 - 12) derived from a Nipponbare mutant library were found to be alleles of d 61 , which represent defects in the OsBRI1 gene. (scirp.org)
  • However, in this book, the information about the most recent group of phytohormones (Brassinosteroids) has been compiled by us. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are integrated in a complex signaling network and numerous BR effects appear to be mediated via a modulation of levels and sensitivities of other phytohormones. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of phytohormones playing important roles in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mediante un abordaje micro genómico hemos identificado a BRAVO (Brassinosteroids at Vascular and Organizing Centre), un componente especifico de las células madre. (sebbm.es)
  • This was followed by large-scale scientific programmes in U. S. , Japan, China, Germany and erstwhile U. S. S. R. , after the isolation of the brassinosteroids. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Application of brassinosteroids to cucumbers was demonstrated to increase the metabolism and removal of pesticides, which could be beneficial for reducing the human ingestion of residual pesticides from non-organically grown vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) were discovered as plant cell elongation and division stimulants. (biologists.org)
  • of Indian bot society) Brassinosteroids increased tolerance to high temperature in Brassica juncea L. (Kumar S. 2010) The ability of 28-homobrassinolide to confer resistance to stress in Brassica juncea L. has also established (sandeep kumar). (wikipedia.org)
  • The yield of brassinosteroids from 230 kg of Brassica napus pollen was only 10 mg. (wikipedia.org)
  • This volume includes a selection of newly written, integrated, illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of Brassinosteroids and aims to describe them at the present time. (weltbild.at)
  • Here, we show that in addition to MAPKs, SPCH activity is also modulated by brassinosteroid (BR) signalling. (wur.nl)
  • Aghdam MS, Asghari M, Farmani B, Mohayeji M, Moradbeygi H (2012) Impact of postharvest brassinosteroids treatment on PAL activity in tomato fruit in response to chilling stress. (springer.com)
  • Involvement of brassinosteroids in the gravitropic response of primary root of maize. (brillonline.com)
  • New developments in brassinosteroid research. (springer.com)
  • the book might be interesting to scientists and students working in fundamental and applied research since it provides a comprehensive overview of the practical feasibility of brassinosteroid application, which is not readily accessible elsewhere. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Ectopic BRAVO expression restricts overall root growth and ceases root regeneration upon damage of the stem cells, demonstrating the role of BRAVO in counteracting Brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated cell division in the QC cells. (sebbm.es)