A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that is low-growing in damp meadows of the Northern Hemisphere and has pinnately divided leaves and small white to rose flowers.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A plant genus of the family CRUCIFERAE.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. Some members contain CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for its peppery red root.
A plant species of the genus LEPIDIUM, family BRASSICACEAE that is a fast-growing, often weedy native of western Asia. It is widely grown, especially in its curl-leaved form, and used as a garnish
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. Member species are ornamentals grown for their numerous small white, yellow, pink, or purplish flowers.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. The common name of white mustard sometimes refers to other plants (MUSTARD PLANT).
The reproductive organs of plants.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Diseases of plants.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.

An unusual case of 'uncompetitive activation' by ascorbic acid: purification and kinetic properties of a myrosinase from Raphanus sativus seedlings. (1/314)

Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; EC 3.2.3.1) is a plant enzyme that hydrolyses glucosinolates, principally to isothiocyanates. Myrosinase was purified to homogeneity in good yield from 8-day-old seedlings of Raphanus sativus (daikon) using a four-step procedure involving chromatographies on anion exchange, hydrophobic Phenyl-Sepharose, gel filtration and concanavalin A-Sepharose. In order to stabilize the enzyme and to avoid excessive peak broadening during chromatography, 30% (v/v) glycerol was added to dialysis and chromatography buffers. The purified enzyme was eluted as a single peak from a gel-filtration sizing column with an apparent molecular mass of 120 kDa. The enzyme was resolved into two subunits with molecular masses of 61 and 62 kDa by SDS/PAGE. Ascorbic acid activated the purified enzyme more than 100-fold. The V(max) and K(m) values for the hydrolysis of allyl glucosinolate (sinigrin) were 2.06 micromol/min per mg of protein and 23 microM in the absence of ascorbate and 280 micromol/min per mg of protein and 250 microM in the presence of 500 microM ascorbate, respectively. As the ascorbate concentration was increased from 50 to 500 microM, the V(max) and K(m) values increased in parallel, and thus the V(max)/K(m) ratio remained constant. Similarly, raising the concentrations of sinigrin increased the concentration of ascorbic acid required for half-maximal activation (K(a)). At a sinigrin concentration of 250 microM, the K(a) for ascorbic acid was 55 microM. Sulphate, a reaction product, was a competitive inhibitor of activity, having a K(i) of 60 mM with respect to sinigrin and of 27 mM with respect to ascorbate. Thus activation of myrosinase from R. sativus by ascorbic acid exemplifies an unusual and possibly unique example of linear 'uncompetitive activation' (i.e. a proportionate increase in V(max) and K(m)) of an enzyme. The enzyme also had beta-glucosidase activity and hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside.  (+info)

The binding motif recognized by HU on both nicked and cruciform DNA. (2/314)

The heterodimeric HU protein, highly conserved in bacteria and involved in transposition, recombination, DNA repair, etc., shares similarity with histones and HMGs. HU, which binds DNA with low affinity and without sequence specificity, binds strongly and specifically to DNA junctions and DNA containing single-strand breaks. The fine structure of these specific complexes was studied by footprinting and HU chemically converted into nucleases. The positioning of HUalphabeta on nicked DNA is asymmetrical and specifically oriented: the beta-arm binds the area surrounding the break whereas the alpha-arm lies on the 3' DNA branch. This positioning necessitates a pronounced bend in the DNA at the discontinuous point, which was estimated by circular permutation assay to be 65 degrees. At junctions, HU is similarly asymmetrically positioned in an identical orientation: the junction point plays the role of the discontinuous point in the nicked DNA. The HU binding motif present in both structures is a pair of inclined DNA helices.  (+info)

Sugar-nucleotide-binding and autoglycosylating polypeptide(s) from nasturtium fruit: biochemical capacities and potential functions. (3/314)

Polypeptide assemblies cross-linked by S-S bonds (molecular mass>200 kDa) and single polypeptides folded with internal S-S cross-links (<41 kDa) have been detected by SDS/PAGE in particulate membranes and soluble extracts of developing cotyledons of nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.). When first prepared from fruit homogenates, these polypeptides were found to bind reversibly to UDP-Gal (labelled with [(14)C]Gal or [(3)H]uridine), and to co-precipitate specifically with added xyloglucan from solutions made with 67% ethanol. Initially, the bound UDP-[(14)C]Gal could be replaced (bumped) by adding excess UDP, or exchanged (chased) with UDP-Gal, -Glc, -Man or -Xyl. However, this capacity for turnover was lost during incubation in reaction media, or during SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions, even as the glycone moiety was conserved by autoglycosylation to form a stable 41 kDa polypeptide. Polyclonal antibodies raised to a similar product purified from Arabidopsis bound to all the labelled nasturtium polypeptides in immunoblotting tests. The antibodies also inhibited the binding of nasturtium polypeptides to UDP-Gal, the uptake of UDP-[(14)C]Gal into intact nasturtium membrane vesicles and the incorporation of [(14)C]Gal into nascent xyloglucan within these vesicles. This is the first direct evidence that these polypeptides facilitate the channelling of UDP-activated sugars from the cytoplasm through Golgi vesicle membranes to lumenal sites, where they can be used as substrates for glycosyltransferases to synthesize products such as xyloglucan.  (+info)

Rescuing activity of galactoglycerolipids from cellular lesions induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid. (4/314)

An anti-oxygen radical reagent of a bacterial metabolite, M874 monogalactoglycerolipid (di-O-12-methyl-tetradecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol ), was tested for its ability to protect two organisms against cellular lesions induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and light. In Corynebacterium flavescens ATCC 10340, extracellular uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin were the main porphyrin products. Although less than 2 mM ALA increased porphyrin synthesis, ALA levels above 3 mM inhibited the synthesis. Depending on the light intensity, the amount of porphyrin decreased and ALA-induced cytotoxicity increased. The lesion was more severe in the case of coproporphyrin than uroporphyrin. The porphyrin lesion produced in low intensity light (300 lx) was considerably reduced by 100 microM M874 glycolipid, although the reduction in intense light (3,000 lx) was restricted to a lower level. Similar results were obtained with radish (Raphanus sativus). The ALA concentration that inhibited porphyrin synthesis and stem growth was similar to that seen with C. flavescens. Although the exogenous addition of M874 glycolipid to the radish did not prevent ALA-induced cellular injury, the co-culture of radish and a glycolipid producing bacterium (Microbacterium sp. M874) resulted in a significant prevention of cellular injury. This was true only under enforced adhesion conditions through the action of a polysaccharide flocculant H12. Some species of monogalactoglycerolipids were found in Corynebacterium and radish that showed prominent oxygen radical-protecting activities similar to that of M874 glycolipid. These monogalactoglycerolipids might function in vivo as agents to prevent ALA-induced cytological lesions, although the concentrations were low in Corynebacterium and radish.  (+info)

Rapid evolution in plant chitinases: molecular targets of selection in plant-pathogen coevolution. (5/314)

Many pathogen recognition genes, such as plant R-genes, undergo rapid adaptive evolution, providing evidence that these genes play a critical role in plant-pathogen coevolution. Surprisingly, whether rapid adaptive evolution also occurs in genes encoding other kinds of plant defense proteins is unknown. Unlike recognition proteins, plant chitinases attack pathogens directly, conferring disease resistance by degrading chitin, a component of fungal cell walls. Here, we show that nonsynonymous substitution rates in plant class I chitinase often exceed synonymous rates in the plant genus Arabis (Cruciferae) and in other dicots, indicating a succession of adaptively driven amino acid replacements. We identify individual residues that are likely subject to positive selection by using codon substitution models and determine the location of these residues on the three-dimensional structure of class I chitinase. In contrast to primate lysozymes and plant class III chitinases, structural and functional relatives of class I chitinase, the adaptive replacements of class I chitinase occur disproportionately in the active site cleft. This highly unusual pattern of replacements suggests that fungi directly defend against chitinolytic activity through enzymatic inhibition or other forms of chemical resistance and identifies target residues for manipulating chitinolytic activity. These data also provide empirical evidence that plant defense proteins not involved in pathogen recognition also evolve in a manner consistent with rapid coevolutionary interactions.  (+info)

Modification of sorbitol MacConkey medium containing cefixime and tellurite for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from radish sprouts. (6/314)

A modified version of sorbitol MacConkey medium containing cefixime and tellurite (CT-SMAC medium) was produced by adding salicin and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside to CT-SMAC medium; this medium was designated CT-SSMAC medium and was used to isolate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from radish sprouts. Of 101 non-E. coli bacteria isolated from radish sprouts that produced colorless colonies similar to colonies of E. coli O157:H7 grown on CT-SMAC medium, 92 (91%) formed colonies that were red to pink or were beta-galactosidase negative and colorless on CT-SSMAC medium. On the other hand, colonies of E. coli O157:H7 strains were colorless and beta-galactosidase positive on CT-SSMAC medium. Our results suggest that CT-SSMAC medium is more selective than CT-SMAC medium for isolating E. coli O157:H7.  (+info)

Attractive and repulsive interactions between female and male gametophytes in Arabidopsis pollen tube guidance. (7/314)

Sexual reproduction in plants, unlike that of animals, requires the action of multicellular haploid gametophytes. The male gametophyte (pollen tube) is guided to a female gametophyte through diploid sporophytic cells in the pistil. While interactions between the pollen tube and diploid cells have been described, little is known about the intercellular recognition systems between the pollen tube and the female gametophyte. In particular, the mechanisms that enable only one pollen tube to interact with each female gametophyte, thereby preventing polysperm, are not understood. We isolated female gametophyte mutants named magatama (maa) from Arabidopsis thaliana by screening for siliques containing half the normal number of mature seeds. In maa1 and maa3 mutants, in which the development of the female gametophyte was delayed, pollen tube guidance was affected. Pollen tubes were directed to mutant female gametophytes, but they lost their way just before entering the micropyle and elongated in random directions. Moreover, the mutant female gametophytes attracted two pollen tubes at a high frequency. To explain the interaction between gametophytes, we propose a monogamy model in which a female gametophyte emits two attractants and prevents polyspermy. This prevention process by the female gametophyte could increase a plant's inclusive fitness by facilitating the fertilization of sibling female gametophytes. In addition, repulsion between pollen tubes might help prevent polyspermy. The reproductive isolations observed in interspecific crosses in Brassicaceae are also consistent with the monogamy model.  (+info)

Comparative evolutionary analysis of chalcone synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase loci in Arabidopsis, Arabis, and related genera (Brassicaceae). (8/314)

We analyzed sequence variation for chalcone synthase (Chs) and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) loci in 28 species in the genera Arabidopsis and Arabis and related taxa from tribe Arabideae. Chs was single-copy in nearly all taxa examined, while Adh duplications were found in several species. Phylogenies constructed from both loci confirmed that the closest relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana include Arabidopsis lyrata, Arabidopsis petraea, and Arabidopsis halleri (formerly in the genus Cardaminopsis). Slightly more distant are the North American n = 7 Arabis (Boechera) species. The genus Arabis is polyphyletic-some unrelated species appear within this taxonomic classification, which has little phylogenetic meaning. Fossil pollen data were used to compute a synonymous substitution rate of 1.5 x 10 substitutions per site per year for both Chs and Adh. Arabidopsis thaliana diverged from its nearest relatives about 5 MYA, and from Brassica roughly 24 MYA. Independent molecular and fossil data from several sources all provide similar estimates of evolutionary timescale in the Brassicaceae.  (+info)

Brassicaceae is a scientific family name in the field of botany, which includes a group of plants commonly known as the mustard family or crucifers. This family includes many economically important crops such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, brussels sprouts, turnips, radishes, and mustards. The name Brassicaceae comes from the genus Brassica, which includes many of these familiar vegetables.

Plants in this family are characterized by their flowers, which have four petals arranged in a cross-like pattern, hence the common name "crucifers." They also typically have four sepals, six stamens, and two fused carpels that form a fruit called a silique or silicle.

Brassicaceae plants are known for their production of glucosinolates, which are sulfur-containing compounds that give these plants their characteristic pungent or bitter flavors. When the plant tissues are damaged, such as during chewing, the glucosinolates are broken down into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to have potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties.

"Cardamine" is a genus of plants in the family Brassicaceae, also known as the mustard or cabbage family. It includes several species of herbaceous flowering plants that are commonly found in temperate regions around the world. Some common names for plants in this genus include cress, toothwort, and lady's smock. While some species of Cardamine may have medicinal properties, there is no widely recognized medical definition specifically associated with the term "Cardamine."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lepidium" is not a medical term. It is the genus name of a group of plants that includes garden cress, peppergrass, and other similar herbs. These plants belong to the Brassicaceae family, also known as the mustard family. They have some nutritional and potential medicinal uses, but they are not commonly used in modern medical contexts. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help with those instead!

Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants is a genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization and promotes outcrossing. It is a complex system that recognizes and rejects self-pollen, thus preventing the fusion of sperm and egg from the same plant. This ensures genetic diversity within plant populations and reduces the risk of inbreeding depression.

Self-incompatibility systems are classified into two main types: homomorphic and heteromorphic. Homomorphic SI is found in plants where all individuals have the same morphological appearance, but their pollen is rejected by genetically similar stigmas. Heteromorphic SI occurs in plants with distinct morphological differences between individuals (dimorphic or trimorphic), and pollen from one form is rejected by the stigma of another form.

The genetic basis for self-incompatibility involves a specific gene locus, called the S-locus, which contains two tightly linked genes: the pistil S gene (SP) and the pollen S gene (SR). The SP gene encodes a receptor kinase in the stigma that recognizes and interacts with the SR protein on compatible pollen grains. In self-incompatible interactions, the SP and SR proteins interact in a way that triggers a signal transduction cascade leading to the inhibition of pollen tube growth and subsequent rejection of self-pollen.

Self-incompatibility is an essential mechanism for maintaining genetic diversity and ensuring the long-term survival and adaptability of plant populations.

'Brassica' is a term used in botanical nomenclature, specifically within the family Brassicaceae. It refers to a genus of plants that includes various vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and mustard greens. These plants are known for their nutritional value and health benefits. They contain glucosinolates, which have been studied for their potential anti-cancer properties. However, it is not a medical term per se, but rather a taxonomic category used in the biological sciences.

"Capsella" is the name of a genus of plants in the family Brassicaceae, also known as the mustard family. The most common species in this genus is "Capsella bursa-pastoris," which is commonly known as shepherd's purse. This plant is native to Europe and Asia, but it has been introduced widely throughout the world and can now be found growing in many different regions.

Shepherd's purse is a small annual herb that typically grows to a height of about 20-40 centimeters (8-16 inches). It has narrow, lobed leaves and small white flowers that bloom in the spring and summer. The fruit of the plant is a small, heart-shaped pod that contains several tiny seeds.

Shepherd's purse has been used traditionally in folk medicine as a treatment for various ailments, including wounds, bleeding, and urinary tract infections. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses, and it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using any herbal remedies.

"Erysimum" is a genus of plants in the family Brassicaceae, also known as the mustard or cabbage family. These plants are commonly called wallflowers and hedge mustards. They are native to Europe, Asia, and northwestern Africa, with some species naturalized in other parts of the world.

Erysimum species are herbaceous or shrubby plants that can vary in size from a few centimeters to over a meter tall. They have alternate, simple leaves that can be entire or lobed, depending on the species. The flowers are typically four-petaled and arranged in racemes or spikes.

While "Erysimum" is a plant genus and not a medical term, some species of Erysimum do have medicinal uses. For example, Erysimum cheiri (English wallflower) has been used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory conditions such as bronchitis and asthma. However, it's important to note that the use of any plant for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

"Raphanus" is the genus name for a group of plants that include the common radish. The black radish (*Raphanus sativus* var. *niger*) and the white radish (also known as daikon or *Raphanus sativus* var. *longipinnatus*) are examples of species within this genus. These plants belong to the family Brassicaceae, which also includes vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, and kale. The roots, leaves, and seeds of Raphanus plants have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including as a digestive aid and to treat respiratory conditions. However, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using these plants or their extracts for medicinal purposes, as they can interact with certain medications and may cause side effects.

"Lepidium sativum" is the biological name for a plant species more commonly known as garden cress or pepperwort. While it is primarily used as a leaf vegetable, it has been utilized in traditional medicine in various cultures. However, it's important to note that describing 'Lepidium sativum' as a medical term isn't accurate. Medial definitions typically refer to diseases, conditions, symptoms, or procedures. 'Lepidium sativum' is a plant, and its medicinal uses would be described with terms referring to those specific applications.

"Arabis" is a term that is not typically used in medical contexts. It is a genus of flowering plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae), also known as rock cress. These plants are native to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and some species are cultivated as ornamental plants due to their showy flowers.

There is no widely recognized medical definition associated with the term "Arabis." If you have any specific concerns about this term or if it was used in a medical context, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for clarification.

Glucosinolates are naturally occurring compounds found in various plants, particularly in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and mustard greens. They are sulfur-containing glucosides that can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase when the plant tissue is damaged, leading to the formation of biologically active compounds like isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, and nitriles. These breakdown products have been shown to exhibit various health benefits, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. However, excessive intake or exposure may also cause adverse effects in some individuals.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

'Brassica rapa' is the scientific name for a species of plant that includes various types of vegetables such as turnips, Chinese cabbages, and bok choy. It is a member of the Brassicaceae family, also known as the mustard or cabbage family. The plants in this species are characterized by their broad leaves and branching stem, and they are native to Europe and Central Asia.

Turnips, which are one of the most common vegetables in this species, are cool-season root crops that are grown for their enlarged taproot. They have a white or yellowish flesh that is crisp and tender with a sweet, slightly bitter flavor. Turnips can be eaten raw or cooked and are often used in soups, stews, and casseroles.

Chinese cabbages, also known as Napa cabbages, are another type of vegetable in the 'Brassica rapa' species. They have elongated, pale green leaves that form a compact head, and they are often used in Asian cuisine. Chinese cabbages have a mild flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked.

Bok choy, also known as pak choi, is another type of vegetable in the 'Brassica rapa' species. It has dark green leaves and white stems, and it is often used in stir-fries and soups. Bok choy has a mild flavor and a crisp texture.

Overall, 'Brassica rapa' is an important species of plant that includes many nutritious and delicious vegetables that are popular around the world.

'Brassica napus' is the scientific name for a species of plant that includes both rapeseed and canola. It is a type of cruciferous vegetable that is widely cultivated for its seeds, which are used to produce oil, as well as for its leaves and stems, which are eaten as vegetables in some parts of the world.

Rapeseed oil, which is produced from the seeds of 'Brassica napus', has historically been used as a source of industrial lubricant and as a fuel for diesel engines. However, modern canola oil, which is also produced from 'Brassica napus' but has been bred to have lower levels of erucic acid and glucosinolates, is more commonly used as a food oil due to its mild flavor and high smoke point.

The leaves and stems of 'Brassica napus' are also edible and are commonly consumed in parts of Europe and Asia. They can be prepared in a variety of ways, including boiling, steaming, or stir-frying. The plant is also sometimes used as a cover crop or green manure due to its ability to improve soil health and reduce erosion.

I apologize, but "Cleome" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants commonly known as spider flowers or cleomes. These plants are not associated with any specific medical conditions or definitions. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

"Sinapis" is not a term commonly used in modern medical terminology. However, in botanical terms, "Sinapis alba" is the scientific name for white mustard, which is a plant from the Brassicaceae family. The seeds of this plant are often used as a spice or condiment, and they contain compounds that can have medicinal properties. For example, they have been used traditionally to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma and bronchitis. However, it's important to note that the use of mustard seeds in medical treatments is not well-studied and should be approached with caution.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

'Embryophyta' is a taxonomic group that includes land plants, also known as embryophytes. This group consists of the bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts), tracheophytes (vascular plants), and a few extinct plant groups. The defining characteristic of embryophytes is their alternation of generations life cycle, which includes a multicellular diploid sporophyte generation that produces spores through meiosis, and a multicellular haploid gametophyte generation that produces gametes through mitosis. The term 'Embryophyta' is used to distinguish land plants from their algal ancestors, which are classified in separate taxonomic groups.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. In the field of medicine, the term "weeds" is not typically used as a medical definition. The term "weeds" is commonly used to refer to unwanted plants that grow in a particular location, often in agricultural or gardening contexts.

If you are referring to plants that may have medicinal properties but are not typically cultivated and are instead found growing wild, they might be referred to as "wildcrafted herbs" or "weedy species," but there is no official medical definition for these terms either.

If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further!

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pollination" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Pollination is a process in biology, specifically in botany, that refers to the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ (anther) of a flower to the female reproductive organ (stigma) of the same or another flower, leading to fertilization and the production of fruits and seeds.

If you have any medical terms or concepts in mind, please provide them so I can offer an accurate definition or explanation.

In the context of medical terminology, "germination" is not typically used as a term to describe a physiological process in humans or animals. It is primarily used in the field of botany to refer to the process by which a seed or spore sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant.

However, if you are referring to the concept of germination in the context of bacterial or viral growth, then it could be defined as:

The process by which bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms become active and start to multiply, often after a period of dormancy or latency. This can occur when the microorganisms encounter favorable conditions, such as moisture, warmth, or nutrients, that allow them to grow and reproduce. In medical contexts, this term is more commonly used in relation to infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Chromosome painting is a molecular cytogenetic technique used to identify and visualize the specific chromosomes or chromosomal regions that are present in an abnormal location or number in a cell. This technique uses fluorescent probes that bind specifically to different chromosomes or chromosomal regions, allowing for their identification under a fluorescence microscope.

The process of chromosome painting involves labeling different chromosomes or chromosomal regions with fluorescent dyes of distinct colors. The labeled probes are then hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, and any excess probe is washed away. The resulting fluorescent pattern allows for the identification of specific chromosomes or chromosomal regions that have been gained, lost, or rearranged in the genome.

Chromosome painting has numerous applications in medical genetics, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer cytogenetics, and constitutional genetic disorders. It can help to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as translocations, deletions, and duplications that may contribute to disease or cancer development.

Synteny, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to the presence of two or more genetic loci (regions) on the same chromosome, in the same relative order and orientation. This term is often used to describe conserved gene organization between different species, indicating a common ancestry.

It's important to note that synteny should not be confused with "colinearity," which refers to the conservation of gene content and order within a genome or between genomes of closely related species. Synteny is a broader concept that can also include conserved gene order across more distantly related species, even if some genes have been lost or gained in the process.

In medical research, synteny analysis can be useful for identifying conserved genetic elements and regulatory regions that may play important roles in disease susceptibility or other biological processes.

"Solanaceae" is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, referring to the Nightshade family of plants. This family includes several plants that have economic and medicinal importance, as well as some that are toxic or poisonous. Some common examples of plants in this family include:

- Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
- Solanum tuberosum (potato)
- Capsicum annuum (bell pepper and chili pepper)
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
- Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
- Hyoscyamus niger (henbane)

While Solanaceae isn't a medical term itself, certain plants within this family have medical significance. For instance, some alkaloids found in these plants can be used as medications or pharmaceutical precursors, such as atropine and scopolamine from Atropa belladonna, hyoscine from Hyoscyamus niger, and capsaicin from Capsicum species. However, it's important to note that many of these plants also contain toxic compounds, so they must be handled with care and used only under professional supervision.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Polyploidy is a condition in which a cell or an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, unlike the typical diploid state where there are only two sets (one from each parent). Polyploidy can occur through various mechanisms such as errors during cell division, fusion of egg and sperm cells that have an abnormal number of chromosomes, or through the reproduction process in plants.

Polyploidy is common in the plant kingdom, where it often leads to larger size, increased biomass, and sometimes hybrid vigor. However, in animals, polyploidy is less common and usually occurs in only certain types of cells or tissues, as most animals require a specific number of chromosomes for normal development and reproduction. In humans, polyploidy is typically not compatible with life and can lead to developmental abnormalities and miscarriage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mustard Plant" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Mustard plants are actually a type of crop plant from the Brassicaceae family, which also includes vegetables like broccoli and cabbage. The seeds from these plants are often ground to make mustard condiments and spices. If you're looking for information related to potential medicinal uses or health effects of mustard plants or their derivatives, I would be happy to help with that.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

An ecotype is a population of a species that is adapted to specific environmental conditions and exhibits genetic differences from other populations of the same species that live in different environments. These genetic adaptations allow the ecotype to survive and reproduce more successfully in its particular habitat compared to other populations. The term "ecotype" was first introduced by botanist John Gregor Mendel in 1870 to describe the variation within plant species due to environmental factors.

Ecotypes can be found in various organisms, including plants, animals, and microorganisms. They are often studied in ecology and evolutionary biology to understand how genetic differences arise and evolve in response to environmental pressures. Ecotypes can differ from each other in traits such as morphology, physiology, behavior, and life history strategies.

Examples of ecotypes include:

* Desert and coastal ecotypes of the lizard Uta stansburiana, which show differences in body size, limb length, and reproductive strategies due to adaptation to different habitats.
* Arctic and alpine ecotypes of the plant Arabis alpina, which have distinct flowering times and cold tolerance mechanisms that help them survive in their respective environments.
* Freshwater and marine ecotypes of the copepod Eurytemora affinis, which differ in body size, developmental rate, and salinity tolerance due to adaptation to different aquatic habitats.

It is important to note that the concept of ecotype is not always clearly defined or consistently applied in scientific research. Some researchers use it to describe any population that shows genetic differences related to environmental factors, while others reserve it for cases where there is strong evidence of local adaptation and reproductive isolation between populations.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) refers to the genetic material present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in the cells of photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and some bacteria. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplast DNA is circular and contains a small number of genes compared to the nuclear genome. It encodes for some of the essential components required for chloroplast function, including proteins involved in photosynthesis, transcription, and translation. The majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and are imported into the chloroplast after being synthesized in the cytoplasm.

Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally in most plants, meaning that it is passed down from the maternal parent to their offspring through the egg cell. This mode of inheritance has been used in plant breeding and genetic engineering to introduce desirable traits into crops.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Seed Dispersal" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. It is a concept from botany and ecology, referring to the various methods by which plants distribute their seeds away from the parent plant. This can occur through mechanisms such as wind, water, or animal dispersal. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Tetraploidy is a genetic condition where an individual has four sets of chromosomes in their cells instead of the typical two sets (two from each parent). This means that the person has twice the normal number of chromosomes, resulting in a total of 92 chromosomes compared to the usual 46.

Tetraploidy can occur as a result of errors during cell division, such as during fertilization when two sperm fertilize a single egg, or during mitosis when an abnormal number of chromosomes are distributed unevenly between two daughter cells.

Tetraploidy is often associated with developmental delays, intellectual disability, physical abnormalities, and increased risk of certain medical conditions. However, the severity of symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific genetic makeup of the individual and the degree to which the extra chromosomes are present in different cells throughout the body.

It is important to note that tetraploidy is a rare condition, and its diagnosis typically requires specialized genetic testing and evaluation by medical professionals with expertise in genetics and developmental disorders.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

'Plant infertility' is not a standard medical term, as it is typically used in the context of agriculture and plant biology. However, I can provide you with a general definition related to this context:

Plant infertility refers to the inability of a plant to produce viable seeds, fruits, or propagules due to various factors affecting its reproductive system. These factors may include genetic disorders, environmental stressors (such as extreme temperatures, drought, or nutrient deficiencies), pathogens, pests, or poor pollination. In some cases, assisted reproduction techniques, such as hand-pollination or embryo rescue, might be employed to overcome infertility issues in plants.

Verticillium is a genus of filamentous fungi that are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil and decaying plant material. The fungi are known for their characteristic growth pattern, with branches of hyphae (thread-like structures) arising at regular intervals, giving the appearance of a whorl or verticil.

There are several species within the Verticillium genus, but two in particular are well-known for their ability to cause plant diseases: Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum. These species can infect a wide range of plants, including vegetables, fruits, flowers, and trees, causing wilting, stunting, yellowing, and necrosis of leaves and stems. The fungi enter the plant through wounds or natural openings in the roots and then colonize the water-conducting tissues, leading to a reduction in water flow and nutrient uptake.

In humans, Verticillium species are not considered primary pathogens, but there have been rare cases of infection associated with contaminated medical devices or traumatic injuries. These infections can cause localized inflammation and tissue damage, and in some cases may disseminate to other parts of the body, leading to more serious complications. However, such infections are extremely rare and not well-studied.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

... and it was suggested to assign the genera closest to the Brassicaceae to the Cleomaceae. The Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae ... Brassicaceae can be found almost on the entire land surface of the planet, but the family is absent from Antarctica, and also ... Brassicaceae have a bisymmetrical corolla (left is mirrored by right, stem-side by out-side, but each quarter is not ... Almost all Brassicaceae have C3 carbon fixation. The only exceptions are a few Moricandia species, which have a hybrid system ...
There are around 350 genera in the plant family Brassicaceae. The type genus is Brassica (cabbage and mustards). Genera with a ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Brassicaceae genera, Lists of plant genera ( ... "Update on the Brassicaceae Species Checklist". Biodiversity Data Journal. 9: e58773. doi:10.3897/BDJ.9.e58773. PMC 7952366. ... The following list includes the genera that are accepted by either the 2021 Update on the Brassicaceae species checklist or ...
... is a species of flowering plant in the genus Alyssum, family Brassicaceae, native to the Mediterranean and ... 377-8. Marhold, K (2011). "Brassicaceae. - In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant ...
Rahman, M. (2018). "Brassicaceae mustards: Traditional and agronomic uses in Australia and New Zealand". Molecules. 23 (1): 231 ... Sisymbrium erysimoides, known as smooth mustard, is a plant in the family Brassicaceae. It is found on roadsides and wasteland ... Entwisle, T.J. (1996). Brassicaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae ...
... is a species of plant in the family Brassicaceae known by the common names arctic draba, Austrian draba, and ... Brassicaceae)". Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (in German). Linz: Oberösterreichische Landesmuseen ...
Like most Brassicaceae species, A. thaliana is edible by humans in a salad or cooked, but it does not enjoy widespread use as a ... The flowers are 3 mm in diameter, arranged in a corymb; their structure is that of the typical Brassicaceae. The fruit is a ... Brassicaceae)". Journal of Biogeography. 29: 125-134. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00647.x. S2CID 84959150. Mitchell-Olds T ( ... Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small plant from the mustard family (Brassicaceae ...
7. Brassicaceae. BugwoodWiki (Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia): Coincya monensis ... Coincya monensis is a plant species in the family Brassicaceae. Coincya monensis is native to western Europe and Morocco, but ...
Brassicaceae). Turk J Bot 31:575-76. Jepson Manual Treatment Photo gallery v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Brassicaceae > Camelineae > Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis thaliana is a weed commonly found alongside roads and is frequently used ...
Brassicaceae) In:.. Novon Volume 8, No. 3, 1998, pp. 218 Ihsan Ali Al-Shehbaz, Suzanne I. Warwick. 2008. Proposal to conserve ... Teesdalia is a genus in the plant family Brassicaceae. They are herbaceous plants native mostly to Europe and to the ...
IPNI, Brassicaceae, Type. Kubitzki 2003, p. 11. POWO, Brassicaceae. Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 367-368. IPNI, ...
Diplotaxis (wall-rocket) is a genus of 32-34 species of flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), native to ... Brassicaceae, Brassiceae)". Systematics and Biodiversity. 10 (1): 57-70. doi:10.1080/14772000.2012.658881. S2CID 86153208. ... Brassicaceae genera, All stub articles, Brassicales stubs). ...
... is an annual oilseed crop of the family Brassicaceae. It is mainly cultivated due to the high levels of ... Leptocrambe (Brassicaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 133 (4): 509-524. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2000.tb01593.x ... what is typical for Brassicaceae. Mostly, these flowers are self-pollinated, but some cases of cross-pollination have been ... cultivation directly after other Brassicaceae species should be avoided. Also to be avoided is cultivation after artificial ...
Brassicaceae: APG II. Missouri Botanical Garden. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... De Lange, P.J.; Heenan, P.B.; Townsend, A.J. (2009). "Rorippa laciniata (Brassicaceae), a new addition to the flora of New ... Rorippa is a genus of flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae, native to Europe through central Asia, Africa, and North ... Brassicaceae genera, All stub articles, Brassicales stubs). ...
Brassicaceae: Sinapis arvensis; Campanulaceae: Campanula rotundifolia; Crassulaceae: Sedum rupestre; Lamiaceae: Galeopsis ...
Suzanne I. Warwick (2010). "Brassicaceae in agriculture". In Renate Schmidt; Ian Bancroft (eds.). Genetics and Genomics of the ... Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Callitrichaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Loganiaceae, Moraceae and ... Brassicaceae. Plant Genetics and Genomics. Vol. 9. Springer. pp. 33-66. ISBN 9781441971180. Alex V. Popovkin; Katherine G. ...
... is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae, preferring to grow at 750 to 2600 m on limestone slopes. It is sometimes kept ... Brassicaceae) in Iran". Phytotaxa. 356 (4): 241-266. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.356.4.1. (Articles with short description, Short ...
Brassicaceae family 5. Tovariaceae family 6. Resedaceae superorder 10. Malvanae order 1. Cistales family 1. Bixaceae family 2. ...
"Brassicaceae Cakile maritima Scop". ipni.org. Retrieved 25 November 2017.[permanent dead link] Allen J. Coombes The A to Z of ... Brassicaceae, Flora of North Africa, Flora of Algeria, Flora of the Canary Islands, Flora of Egypt, Flora of Libya, Flora of ... Brassicaceae)". Ecophysiology of High Salinity Tolerant Plants: 55-67. Münir Öztürk, Yoav Waisel, M. Ajman Khan, Güven Görk ( ... is a common plant in the mustard family Brassicaceae. It is widespread in Europe, North Africa and western Asia, especially on ...
seeds (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae). Erucin has structural analogies with sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from ...
"Brassicaceae Diplotaxis muralis DC". ipni.org. Retrieved 10 November 2017. Archibald William Smith A Gardener's Handbook of ... Diplotaxis muralis, the annual wall-rocket, is a species of flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. This plant is native to ...
Brassicaceae) Jundzillia Andrz. ex DC. Syst. Nat. Candolle 2: 529 1821 (IK), classed as a synonym of Lepidium L. ( ...
Brassicaceae, Brassicaceae genera, All stub articles, Brassicales stubs). ... Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Fl. N. Amer. 7: i - xxii, 1-797. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Isatis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae, native to the Mediterranean region east to central Asia. Its ... H. Moazzeni et al .: Phylogeny of Isatis (Brassicaceae) and allied genera based on ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA and ...
Brassicaceae) Gypsophila L. spp. (Caryophyllaceae) Silene vulgaris (Maench) Garcke var. vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae) Anthriscus ...
Genera: (Brassicaceae) Berteroa DC. (Cactaceae) Opuntia berteroi (Colla) A.E. Hoffm. (Cactaceae) Opuntia berteri (C.F. Först.) ...
Brassicaceae Arabis tilingii (Regel) Berkut. Borodinia tilingii (Regel) Berkut. Braya tilingii Regel Hesperis tilingii Kuntze ...
Brassicaceae: Brachycarpaea capensis (L.) Fourc., Heliophila cornigera Fourc. Campanulaceae: Lobelia sylvatica Fourc., ...
"Barbarea vulgaris (Yellow Rocketcress) Brassicaceae". www.lakeforest.edu. Retrieved 5 August 2023. "Barbarea orthoceras ( ...
Hedinia is a monotypic genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Brassicaceae. It only contains one known species, ... Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.; Warwick, Suzanne I. (July 2006). "A Synopsis of Smelowskia (Brassicaceae)". Harvard Papers in Botany. 11 ... Brassicaceae, Plants described in 1922, Flora of Central Asia). ...
Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.; Warwick, Suzanne I. (2005). "A Synopsis of Eutrema (Brassicaceae)". Harvard Papers in Botany. Harvard ... or Japanese horseradish is a plant of the family Brassicaceae, which also includes horseradish and mustard in other genera. The ...
... and it was suggested to assign the genera closest to the Brassicaceae to the Cleomaceae. The Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae ... Brassicaceae can be found almost on the entire land surface of the planet, but the family is absent from Antarctica, and also ... Brassicaceae have a bisymmetrical corolla (left is mirrored by right, stem-side by out-side, but each quarter is not ... Almost all Brassicaceae have C3 carbon fixation. The only exceptions are a few Moricandia species, which have a hybrid system ...
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Species- Seed plants (families)‎ , ‎A---L (families & genera)‎ , ‎B‎ , ‎Brassicaceae‎ , ‎Brassicaceae member‎ , ‎ ... Member of Brassicaceae for ID from Valley of flower : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1) ...
Boraginaceae and Brassicaceae. Click the following links for more blue flower photographs:. Apocynaceae - Asteraceae. ...
Pictures of brassicaceae wildflowers of West USA. Stem and compound leaf of descurainia pinnata: Schuerman Mountain Trail, ... Plants , Wildflowers , Brassicaceae , Descurainia Pinnata. Previous Photo. Stem and compound leaf of descurainia pinnata: ... Keywords: Brassicaceae, Descurainia Pinnata, Arizona, western tansy mustard, wildflowers, flowering plants, yellow flowers. ...
Wikipedia: Brassicaceae. Plants of the World Online: Brassicaceae. Tropicos: Brassicaceae. Home. ,. List of cultivated families ... iNaturalist: Brassicaceae. IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Brassicaceae. JSTOR Plant Science: Brassicaceae. Mansfeld ... Flora of Botswana: Brassicaceae. Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Brassicaceae. Flora of Malawi: Brassicaceae. Flora of Mozambique ... Brassicaceae. Flora of Mozambique: cultivated Brassicaceae. Flora of Zambia: Brassicaceae. Flora of Zimbabwe: Brassicaceae. ...
Herbicidal Activity of Brassicaceae Seed Meal on Wild Oat (Avena fatua), Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), Redroot Pigweed ... Interaction of Brassicaceae Seed Meal Soil Amendment and Apple Rootstock Genotype on Microbiome Structure and Replant Disease ... Field Evaluation of Reduced Rate Brassicaceae Seed Meal Amendment and Rootstock Genotype on the Microbiome and Control of Apple ... Initial Pythium species composition and Brassicaceae seed meal type influence extent of Pythium-induced plant growth ...
Mga artikulo sa kategorya na "Brassicaceae". Ang sumusunod na 9 pahina ay nasa kategoryang ito, sa kabuuang 9. ... Ang pangunahing pahina para sa kategoryang ito ay Brassicaceae.. .mw-parser-output .side-box{margin:4px 0;box-sizing:border-box ... Kinuha sa "https://tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kategorya:Brassicaceae&oldid=1734905" ...
... in all Brassicaceae (Caballero et al. 2003), which has resulted in dominance of specialist herbivores in Brassicaceae- ... Plants of Brassicaceae Lineage II are attacked by a larger number of herbivore species from a larger species pool, resulting in ... Individual plants of Brassicaceae Lineage II were attacked by a larger number of herbivore species from a larger species pool, ... Brassicaceae phylogeny inferred from phytochrome a and ndhf sequence data: Tribes and trichomes revisited. American Journal of ...
Acasă › Rezultate › Research on the antioxidant potential of selected brassicaceae vegetables representative for human ... Research on the antioxidant potential of selected brassicaceae vegetables representative for human nutrition (poster). 2020-07- ...
Self-pollen interference is absent in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, Brassicaceae), a species with sporophytic self- ... Self-pollen interference is absent in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, Brassicaceae), a species with sporophytic self- ...
Biotechnological methods in Brassicaceae crops breeding;. *Brassicaceae crops biochemical and physiological studies as a basis ... Home For main International Conference «STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES OF BREEDING RESEARCH ON BRASSICACEAE CROPS IN MODERN CONDITIONS ... The newest Brassicaceae crop entries to the VIR Global collections which reflect modern. breeding trends will be demonstrated. ... Development of technology for Brassicaceae crops seed production.. PROGRAM COMMITTEE. Co-Chairs:. - Elena K. Khlestkina, Dr. ...
All these are used as vegetables. Raphanus sativus-roots & leaves are used as vegetables. Brassica campestris (yellow mustard). The seeds yield oil, the husk of oil seeds after extraction of the oil is used in the form of cakes for cattle. B. nigra (Black mustard), B. alba (white mustard) and B.juncea (rye) are used in spice.. (B) Plants used as Medicine: Sisymbrium officinale: Stem and leaves are used for scurvy and scrofula diseases, Nasturtium indica seeds are used in asthma. Eruca satira oil is used in burns and other injuries. Lepidium sativum (garden cress) seeds are used in liver diseases.. (C) Ornamental Plants: Alyssum, Cherianthus, Ibris amara (candytuft), Mathiola.. ...
07, 2004-12) A New Variety of Stanleya Pinnata (Brassicaceae) from the Big Bend Region of Trans-Pecos, Texas. ... 07, 2004-12) A New Variety of Stanleya Pinnata (Brassicaceae) from the Big Bend Region of Trans-Pecos, Texas ...
Brassicaceae. Checklist: Brassicaceae BRASSICACEAE Introduction:. This is a checklist of taxa generated from the database. ... Exell, A.W. (1960) Brassicaceae Flora Zambesiaca 1(1) Tutin, T.G. et al. (eds) assisted by Akeroyd, J.R. & Newton, M.E. (1993) ... Brassicaceae. Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2014-23. Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., ... Flora of Botswana: Checklist: Brassicaceae. https://www.botswanaflora.com/speciesdata/utilities/utility-display-checklist.php? ...
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Cruciferae usually known as the mustard, or the cabbage family. Each flower has six stamens-four long and two short-and characteristic seed pods.
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Annuals, biennials, perennials, shrubs, or subshrubs; eglandular. Trichomes usually simple, rarely forked or dendritic [subdendritic], sometimes absent. Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile; blade base auriculate or not, margins entire, dentate, or pinnately lobed. Racemes usually ebracteate, often elongated in fruit. Flowers usually actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic; sepals erect, ascending, spreading, or reflexed, lateral pair saccate or not basally; petals white, yellow, orange, pink, lilac, lavender, purple, green, brown, or nearly black, claw present, often distinct; filaments unappendaged, not winged; pollen 3-colpate. Fruits usually siliques, rarely silicles, usually dehiscent, unsegmented, usually terete, 4-angled, or latiseptate; ovules 1-210[-numerous] per ovary; style obsolete, distinct, or absent; stigma usually entire or 2-lobed (subentire in Sibaropsis, Streptanthella). Seeds usually biseriate or uniseriate, rarely aseriate; cotyledons accumbent or incumbent. ...
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Herbs or subshrubs [shrubs or, rarely, lianas or trees], annual, biennial, or perennial; usually terrestrial, rarely submerged aquatics; with pungent watery juice; scapose or not; pubescent or glabrous, usually without papillae or tubercles (multicellular glandular papillae or tubercles present in Bunias, Chorispora, and Parrya); taprooted or rhizomatous (rarely stoloniferous), caudex simple or branched, sometimes woody, rhizomes slender or thick. Trichomes unicellular, simple, stalked, or sessile; forked, stellate, dendritic, malpighiaceous (medifixed, 2-fid, appressed), or peltate and scalelike, eglandular. Stems (absent in Idahoa, sometimes Leavenworthia) usually erect, sometimes ascending, descending, prostrate, decumbent, or procumbent; branched or unbranched. Leaves (sometimes persistent) cauline usually present, basal present or not (sometimes rhizomal present in Cardamine), rosulate or not, usually alternate (sometimes opposite or whorled in Cardamine angustata, C. concatenata, and C. ...
Herbs or subshrubs [shrubs or, rarely, lianas or trees], annual, biennial, or perennial; usually terrestrial, rarely submerged aquatics; with pungent watery juice; scapose or not; pubescent or glabrous, usually without papillae or tubercles (multicellular glandular papillae or tubercles present in Bunias, Chorispora, and Parrya); taprooted or rhizomatous (rarely stoloniferous), caudex simple or branched, sometimes woody, rhizomes slender or thick. Trichomes unicellular, simple, stalked, or sessile; forked, stellate, dendritic, malpighiaceous (medifixed, 2-fid, appressed), or peltate and scalelike, eglandular. Stems (absent in Idahoa, sometimes Leavenworthia) usually erect, sometimes ascending, descending, prostrate, decumbent, or procumbent; branched or unbranched. Leaves (sometimes persistent) cauline usually present, basal present or not (sometimes rhizomal present in Cardamine), rosulate or not, usually alternate (sometimes opposite or whorled in Cardamine angustata, C. concatenata, and C. ...
imgs/lkelly/r/Brassicaceae_Erysimum_suffrutescens_11971.html. Brassicaceae : Erysimum suffrutescens LINK TO THIS IMAGE. Image ... Fit to Window Naked Image - Image of Brassicaceae Erysimum suffrutescens TERMS OF USE IMAGES VIEWED AT FULL SIZE: 26541773 (). ...
Artikel-artikel na kategori "Brassicaceae". 4 kaca ti 4 di handap asup kana ieu kategori. ... Dicomot ti "https://su.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kategori:Brassicaceae&oldid=447193" ...
imgs/jdelaet/re/Brassicaceae_Cardamine_pentaphyllos_38920.html. Brassicaceae : Cardamine pentaphyllos LINK TO THIS IMAGE. Image ... Fit to Window Naked Image - Image of Brassicaceae Cardamine pentaphyllos TERMS OF USE IMAGES VIEWED AT FULL SIZE: 26036159 (). ...
Provides authoritative information on the flora of Western Australia
  • Brassicaceae (/ˌbræsɪˈkeɪsiːˌiː, -siˌaɪ/) or (the older) Cruciferae (/kruːˈsɪfəri/) is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pieris rapae and other butterflies of the family Pieridae are some of the best-known pests of Brassicaceae species planted as commercial crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species belonging to the Brassicaceae are mostly annual, biennial, or perennial herbaceous plants, some are dwarf shrubs or shrubs, and very few vines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that across 12 plant species in two phylogenetic lineages of the Brassicaceae, variation in realized herbivore communities reveals a phylogenetic signal in the uncertainty of attack on individual plants. (biorxiv.org)
  • Individual plants of Brassicaceae Lineage II were attacked by a larger number of herbivore species from a larger species pool, resulting in a higher uncertainty of realized antagonistic interactions compared to plants in Lineage I. We argue that uncertainty of attack in terms of realized interactions on individual plants is ecologically relevant and must therefore be considered in the evolution of plant defences. (biorxiv.org)
  • Goreta Ban, Smiljana (2023) Comprehensive Volatilome Signature of Various Brassicaceae Species . (irb.hr)
  • To investigate in detail the volatilomes of various Brassicaceae species, landraces, and accessions, and to extract specific volatile markers, volatile aroma compounds were isolated from plant samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The data obtained were subjected to uni- and multivariate statistical analysis. (irb.hr)
  • The results of this study contribute to the general knowledge about volatile composition from various Brassicaceae species, which could be exploited for their better valorization. (irb.hr)
  • Rad pod naslovom: Comprehensive Volatilome Signature of Various Brassicaceae Species, objavljen je u koautorstvu Igor Lukić, Nina Išić , Dean Ban, Branka Salopek Sondi i Smiljana Goreta Ban. (iptpo.hr)
  • Brassicaceae), a new species from the Australian Capital Territory. (mapress.com)
  • A new species of Arabas L. (Brassicaceae. (gazi.edu.tr)
  • Brassicaceae is a vast family of plants including 372 genera and 4,006 species contributing to condiments, biofuel, food, oil, and fulfilling fodder demands for the ecosystem 1 . (nature.com)
  • OBJECTIVES OF THE CONFERENCE: establishing and strengthening scientific ties between specialists involved in breeding research on Brassicaceae crops, discussing new methods and approaches, sharing relevant information on achievements in this field of research. (nw.ru)
  • Development of technology for Brassicaceae crops seed production. (nw.ru)
  • Your Daily Dose of Sabino Canyon: Boraginaceae or Brassicaceae, that is the question! (sabinocanyon.net)
  • Boraginaceae or Brassicaceae, that is the question! (sabinocanyon.net)
  • The genome size of Brassicaceae compared to that of other Angiosperm families is very small to small (less than 3.425 million base pairs per cell), varying from 150 Mbp in Arabidopsis thaliana and Sphaerocardamum spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tipos de semilla molida de Brassicaceae y de sus dosis de aplicación en la emergencia de Avena fatua , Lolium multiflorum, Lactuca serriola y Amaranthus retroflexus , las cuales son algunas de las principales malezas en los sistemas de producción de hortalizas. (cambridge.org)
  • In this study, we processed >24 Tera base pairs of RNA-seq data from >16,000 experiments to identify â ¼130,000 lincRNAs in four Brassicaceae Arabidopsis thaliana , Camelina sativa, Brassica rapa , and Eutrema salsugineum. (bvsalud.org)
  • Welcome to the Brassicaceae Family Category, a comprehensive collection of articles dedicated to exploring the diverse and fascinating world of vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family. (simplifygardening.com)
  • Whether you're seeking delectable recipes to tantalize your taste buds, valuable gardening tips to cultivate your own Brassicaceae vegetables, or simply wish to expand your knowledge about this remarkable family of vegetables, this category will provide a wealth of information to satisfy your curiosity. (simplifygardening.com)
  • So, embark on this journey through the Brassicaceae Family Category and discover the wonders and delights of these versatile and nutritious vegetables. (simplifygardening.com)
  • Brassica eruca L.) is an edible annual plant in the family Brassicaceae used as a leaf vegetable for its fresh, tart, bitter, and peppery flavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification and functional annotation of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Brassicaceae. (bvsalud.org)
  • LincRNAs with Brassicaceae -conserved putative miRNA binding motifs, small open reading frames , or abiotic-stress modulated expression are a few of the annotations that will guide functional analyses into this cryptic portion of the transcriptome . (bvsalud.org)
  • 2 to 4 cm ( 3 ⁄ 4 to 1 + 1 ⁄ 2 in) in diameter, arranged in a corymb , with the typical Brassicaceae flower structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within this category, you will discover a treasure trove of information about the numerous vegetables that fall under the Brassicaceae umbrella. (simplifygardening.com)
  • Moreover, this category will shed light on the environmental sustainability and ecological impact of Brassicaceae vegetables. (simplifygardening.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of wild oat, Italian ryegrass, prickly lettuce, and redroot pigweed, which are some of the major weeds in vegetable production systems. (cambridge.org)
  • Brassicaceae] production. (usda.gov)
  • Learn about the remarkable health benefits offered by Brassicaceae vegetables, as they are packed with essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. (simplifygardening.com)
  • A study conducted near an Arizona Superfund site found that certain families of vegetables are especially effective at accumulating arsenic from soil, with the Asteraceae (e.g., lettuces) and Brassicaceae (e.g., radishes, broccoli, cabbage, and kale) families of vegetables packing the most arsenic into their edible portions. (nih.gov)
  • Search under Brassicaceae for the Cress that most closely exemplifies your family's background and personality. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we investigate whether the molecular makeup of the Brassicaceae self-incompatibility (SI) system, and specifically dominance relationships among S-haplotypes mediated by small RNAs, could facilitate loss of SI in allopolyploid crucifers. (scilifelab.se)
  • We show that the rejection activity of this stigma-specific plasma membrane protein is effective against distantly related Brassicaceae pollen tubes and is independent of self-incompatibility. (u-tokyo.ac.jp)
  • The genome size of Brassicaceae compared to that of other Angiosperm families is very small to small (less than 3.425 million base pairs per cell), varying from 150 Mbp in Arabidopsis thaliana and Sphaerocardamum spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resolving robust phylogenetic relationships of core Brassicaceae using genome skimming data [J]. J Syst Evol, 2021, 59(3): 442-453. (jse.ac.cn)
  • pulchella (Brassicaceae) Endemic to Sicily. (nih.gov)
  • Resistance of Brassicaceae plants to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. (qld.gov.au)
  • Brassicaceae plants have the potential as part of an integrated approach to replace fumigant nematicides, providing the biofumigation response following their incorporation is not offset by reproduction of plant-parasitic nematodes on their roots. (qld.gov.au)
  • Molecular phylogeny of Solms-laubachia (Brassicaceae) s.l., based on multiple nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, and its biogeographic implications [J]. J Syst Evol, 2009, 47(5): 402-415. (jse.ac.cn)
  • For an overview of accepted genera in Brassicaceae s.s. see Al-Shehbaz (2012). (usf.edu)
  • Evolution of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase gene family: Ancestral copy number and functional divergence of BAM1 and BAM2 in Brassicaceae [J]. J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(3): 204-218. (jse.ac.cn)
  • We are combining comparative genomics with population genomics approaches to characterize the functional importance of plant noncoding regions, using the Brassicaceae. (confex.com)
  • rapa Family: Brassicaceae Origin: The wild type is native to Western Asia and Europe. (plantsam.com)
  • incana (Brassicaceae) Growing Wild in Sicily (Italy). (nih.gov)
  • pubescens (Brassicaceae) Wild from Sicily (Italy). (nih.gov)