A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.

Selective expression of purinoceptor cP2Y1 suggests a role for nucleotide signalling in development of the chick embryo. (1/438)

Responses to extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, etc.) have been demonstrated in a number of embryonic cell types suggesting they may be important signalling molecules during embryonic development. Here the authors describe for the first time the expression of a G-protein-coupled receptor for extracellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1), during embryonic development of the chick. During the first 10 days of embryonic development, cP2Y1 is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in the limb buds, mesonephros, brain, somites, and facial primordia, suggesting that this receptor may have a role in the development of each of these systems.  (+info)

Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (2/438)

Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb.  (+info)

Regulation of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest cells involves members of the AP-2 family. (3/438)

Hoxa2 is expressed in cranial neural crest cells that migrate into the second branchial arch and is essential for proper patterning of neural-crest-derived structures in this region. We have used transgenic analysis to begin to address the regulatory mechanisms which underlie neural-crest-specific expression of Hoxa2. By performing a deletion analysis on an enhancer from the Hoxa2 gene that is capable of mediating expression in neural crest cells in a manner similar to the endogenous gene, we demonstrated that multiple cis-acting elements are required for neural-crest-specific activity. One of these elements consists of a sequence that binds to the three transcription factor AP-2 family members. Mutation or deletion of this site in the Hoxa2 enhancer abrogates reporter expression in cranial neural crest cells but not in the hindbrain. In both cell culture co-transfection assays and transgenic embryos AP-2 family members are able to trans-activate reporter expression, showing that this enhancer functions as an AP-2-responsive element in vivo. Reporter expression is not abolished in an AP-2(alpha) null mutant embryos, suggesting redundancy with other AP-2 family members for activation of the Hoxa2 enhancer. Other cis-elements identified in this study critical for neural-crest-specific expression include an element that influences levels of expression and a conserved sequence, which when multimerized directs expression in a broad subset of neural crest cells. These elements work together to co-ordinate and restrict neural crest expression to the second branchial arch and more posterior regions. Our findings have identified the cis-components that allow Hoxa2 to be regulated independently in rhombomeres and cranial neural crest cells.  (+info)

Chick Barx2b, a marker for myogenic cells also expressed in branchial arches and neural structures. (4/438)

We have isolated a new chicken gene, cBarx2b, which is related to mBarx2 in sequence, although the expression patterns of the two genes are quite different from one another. The cBarx2b gene is expressed in craniofacial structures, regions of the neural tube, and muscle groups in the limb, neck and cloaca. Perturbation of anterior muscle pattern by application of Sonic Hedgehog protein results in a posteriorization of cBarx2b expression.  (+info)

The role of SF/HGF and c-Met in the development of skeletal muscle. (5/438)

Hypaxial skeletal muscles develop from migratory and non-migratory precursor cells that are generated by the lateral lip of the dermomyotome. Previous work shows that the formation of migratory precursors requires the c-Met and SF/HGF genes. We show here that in mice lacking c-Met or SF/HGF, the initial development of the dermomyotome proceeds appropriately and growth and survival of cells in the dermomyotome are not affected. Migratory precursors are also correctly specified, as monitored by the expression of Lbx1. However, these cells remain aggregated and fail to take up long range migration. We conclude that parallel but independent cues converge on the migratory hypaxial precursors in the dermomyotomal lip after they are laid down: a signal given by SF/HGF that controls the emigration of the precursors, and an as yet unidentified signal that controls Lbx1. SF/HGF and c-Met act in a paracrine manner to control emigration, and migratory cells only dissociate from somites located close to SF/HGF-expressing cells. During long range migration, prolonged receptor-ligand-interaction appears to be required, as SF/HGF is expressed both along the routes and at the target sites of migratory myogenic progenitors. Mice that lack c-Met die during the second part of gestation due to a placental defect. Rescue of the placental defect by aggregation of tetraploid (wild type) and diploid (c-Met-/-) morulae allows development of c-Met mutant animals to term. They lack muscle groups that derive from migratory precursor cells, but display otherwise normal skeletal musculature.  (+info)

Connexin 43 expression reflects neural crest patterns during cardiovascular development. (6/438)

We used transgenic mice in which the promoter sequence for connexin 43 linked to a lacZ reporter was expressed in neural crest but not myocardial cells to document the pattern of cardiac neural crest cells in the caudal pharyngeal arches and cardiac outflow tract. Expression of lacZ was strikingly similar to that of cardiac neural crest cells in quail-chick chimeras. By using this transgenic mouse line to compare cardiac neural crest involvement in cardiac outflow septation and aortic arch artery development in mouse and chick, we were able to note differences and similarities in their cardiovascular development. Similar to neural crest cells in the chick, lacZ-positive cells formed a sheath around the persisting aortic arch arteries, comprised the aorticopulmonary septation complex, were located at the site of final fusion of the conal cushions, and populated the cardiac ganglia. In quail-chick chimeras generated for this study, neural crest cells entered the outflow tract by two pathways, submyocardially and subendocardially. In the mouse only the subendocardial population of lacZ-positive cells could be seen as the cells entered the outflow tract. In addition lacZ-positive cells completely surrounded the aortic sac prior to septation, while in the chick, neural crest cells were scattered around the aortic sac with the bulk of cells distributed in the bridging portion of the aorticopulmonary septation complex. In the chick, submyocardial populations of neural crest cells assembled on opposite sides of the aortic sac and entered the conotruncal ridges. Even though the aortic sac in the mouse was initially surrounded by lacZ-positive cells, the two outflow vessels that resulted from its septation showed differential lacZ expression. The ascending aorta was invested by lacZ-positive cells while the pulmonary trunk was devoid of lacZ staining. In the chick, both of these vessels were invested by neural crest cells, but the cells arrived secondarily by displacement from the aortic arch arteries during vessel elongation. This may indicate a difference in derivation of the pulmonary trunk in the mouse or a difference in distribution of cardiac neural crest cells. An independent mouse neural crest marker is needed to confirm whether the differences are indeed due to species differences in cardiovascular and/or neural crest development. Nevertheless, with the differences noted, we believe that this mouse model faithfully represents the location of cardiac neural crest cells. The similarities in location of lacZ-expressing cells in the mouse to that of cardiac neural crest cells in the chick suggest that this mouse is a good model for studying mammalian cardiac neural crest and that the mammalian cardiac neural crest performs functions similar to those shown for chick.  (+info)

Mutations in the zebrafish unmask shared regulatory pathways controlling the development of catecholaminergic neurons. (7/438)

The mechanism by which pluripotent progenitors give rise to distinct classes of mature neurons in vertebrates is not well understood. To address this issue we undertook a genetic screen for mutations which affect the commitment and differentiation of catecholaminergic (CA) [dopaminergic (DA), noradrenergic (NA), and adrenergic] neurons in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The identified mutations constitute five complementation groups. motionless and foggy affect the number and differentiation state of hypothalamic DA, telencephalic DA, retinal DA, locus coeruleus (LC) NA, and sympathetic NA neurons. The too few mutation leads to a specific reduction in the number of hypothalamic DA neurons. no soul lacks arch-associated NA cells and has defects in pharyngeal arches, and soulless lacks both arch-associated and LC cell groups. Our analyses suggest that the genes defined by these mutations regulate different steps in the differentiation of multipotent CA progenitors. They further reveal an underlying universal mechanism for the control of CA cell fates, which involve combinatorial usage of regulatory genes.  (+info)

13-cis-Retinoic acid alters neural crest cells expressing Krox-20 and Pax-2 in macaque embryos. (8/438)

This study investigates hindbrain and associated neural crest (NCC), otocyst, and pharyngeal arch development in monkey embryos following teratogenic exposure to 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA). cRA was orally administered (5 mg/kg) to pregnant long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) between gestational days (GD) 12 and 27. Embryos were surgically collected at desired stages during treatment, analyzed for external morphological changes, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Two transiently expressed nuclear proteins, Krox-20 and Pax-2, were used as markers for the target cellular and anatomical structures. Rhombomere (r) expression patterns of Pax-2 (r4/r6) and Krox-20 (r3/r5) were maintained after cRA treatment, but r4 and r5 were substantially reduced in size. In untreated embryos, Krox-20 immunoreactive NCC derived from r5 migrated caudally around the developing otocyst to contribute to the third pharyngeal arch mesenchyme. In cRA-treated embryos, a subpopulation of NCC rostral to the otocyst also showed Krox-20 immunoreactivity, but there was a substantial reduction in Krox-20 post-otic NCC. Pax-2 immunoreactive NCC migrating from r4 to the second pharyngeal arch were substantially reduced in numbers in treated embryos. Alteration in the otic anlage included delayed invagination, abnormal relationship with the adjacent hindbrain epithelium, and altered expression boundaries for Pax-2. cRA-associated changes in the pharyngeal arch region due to cRA included truncation of the distal portion of the first arch and reduction in the size of the second arch. These alterations in hindbrain, neural crest, otic anlage, and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis could contribute to some of the craniofacial malformations in the macaque fetus associated with exposure to cRA.  (+info)

Respiration is with the help of branchial sac. Water enters the body from the region of mouth or branchial aperture, passes ... The body proper has two projections-atrial and branchial siphons. Branchial siphon has a branchial or incurrent aperture or ...
Viscera and gills with a branchial canal. Eggs that contain a large external yolk sac. Specimens of A. aldrich have been found ... PNG). It has been theorized that the species may live along the coastal regions in Australia and Papua New Guinea. The species ...
"A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head". Nature. 353 (6347): 861-4. Bibcode:1991Natur.353..861H. ...
The ecological impact of B. violaceus in this region remains unknown. Zooids are embedded in a transparent tunic and connected ... These tunicates usually have 8 branchial tentacles and 11 rows of stigmata. Colonial ascidians are the only known chordates ...
"A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head". Nature. 353 (6347): 861-4. Bibcode:1991Natur.353..861H. ...
They have triangular spines and well-defined gastric and branchial regions internally. Snow crabs also have little granules ... Another commercially important species, introduced deliberately to the same region, the red king crab, already has established ... and the stock of this region likely will reach levels similar to eastern Canada in the future. Since 2016, the snow crab is at ... along the border of their bodies, except their intestinal region. Concerning their walking legs, their first three are ...
Infection of the cysts in this region can compress trachea, causing respiratory problems, or it can compress the oesophagus, ... Branchial cleft cysts are remnants of embryonic development and result from a failure of obliteration of one of the branchial ... Third and fourth branchial cleft cysts are rare, usually consisting of 2% of all branchial arch abnormalities, located below ... Cholesterol crystals may be found in the fluid extracted from a branchial cyst.[citation needed] The diagnosis of branchial ...
There are grainy transverse ridges present on frontal, protogastric, mesogastric and branchial regions. There are six prominent ... Charybdis hellerii has a native range which encompasses the Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea and the east coast of Africa ...
... is a small, roughly diamond-shaped crab, with noticeably bulbous branchial regions. The carapace is wider than ...
John S.P Lumley and Anil K. D'Cruz). Branchial cysts and other essays on surgical subjects in the facio-cervical region (1929 ...
Their tough cuticle and their distinct branchial region with strongly tufted branchiae are characteristic. The family ... There are branchiae present on some of the setigers in the middle or posterior regions. Apart from the genus Branchiomaldane, ... The arenicolids are characterised by an elongated cylindrical body separated into two or three distinct regions. The prostomium ...
The long branchial region has up to 54 pairs of gill pores opening dorsally. It is followed by an esophageal region with a ... Posterior to this is a dark-coloured hepatic region and a long greyish intestinal region. This is transparent and the gut is ... Though generally cylindrical, the body is divided into several distinct regions, having a short cream-coloured, extendible ...
A sliver of bone near the cheek region may represent a branchial element (gill bone). Preserved fragments of the shoulder ... The outer (marginal) tooth row was present solely on the dentary bone, which was narrow and had alternating regions of light ...
"Branchio" refers to the branchial arches, also known as the pharyngeal arches, of the affected individual. The branchial arches ... "Facial" refers to the face; those affected can have several abnormalities in that region. These abnormalities include a cleft ... In individuals affected by this condition, the branchial arches fail to develop properly. This leads to some of the physical ... AP-2 alpha is especially important during the embryos development principally in the development of the branchial arches. ...
One of the more typical adaptations of apple snails is branchial respiration. The snail has a system comparable to the gills of ... Nevertheless, apple snails are considered a delicacy in several regions of the world, and they are often sold in East and ... Apple snails are exceptionally well adapted to tropical regions characterized by periods of drought alternating with periods of ... a disease that affects over 200 million people in tropical regions. One of the species introduced as bio-agent is Marisa ...
The tentacles of the branchial crown are used as gills and as a way of capturing food. Galeolaria build and live within white ... These tubes may be found singly or in complex interwoven colonies, forming a distinctive zone at the mid tidal regions. They ... The body is symmetrical, with a branchial crown made up of two lobes, one holding a stalked operculum. The operculum is winged ...
The carapace is relatively smooth, with small granules and pits on the branchial, cardiac, and gastric regions; hepatic regions ...
... and branchial regions; its hepatic region is smooth; protogastric region inflated in large specimens, especially in females. ... The anterior part of the carapace is predominantly purple, its branchial regions tan and its legs yellowish. It has a wide ... The carapace of females is more strongly arched from front to back and the protogastric regions are noticeably more inflated. ... the hepatic region of the carapace in C. granulatus is coarsely granular, whereas it is smooth in C. bicolor. Juvenile ...
The larvae are aquatic, active, armed with strong sharp mandibles, and breathe by means of abdominal branchial filaments. When ... in the Upper Mississippi River region fill the air on a few summer nights each year much like mayflies in certain regions of ...
Its epibranchial region is bulbous, and it bears at least one transverse ridge in the protogastric, hepatic or branchial region ...
There are six to seven gill rakers on the lower limb of the first branchial arch. T. kimberleyensis can reach up to about 12.6 ... Toxotes kimberleyensis is a species of archerfish found in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. It was first named by ... T. oligolepis has longer dorsal spines overall than those observed in the Kimberley region population. The third dorsal spine ... The specific name kimberleyensis refers to the Kimberley region of western Australia, where the species is localized. T. ...
By day 10.5, the branchial arch and limbs also begin to express Osr1. Mice carrying a targeted null mutation in the Odd1 gene ... These genes are involved in osteoblast and lymphocyte differentiation through their interaction with the Osr1 promoter region. ... Osr1 is expressed in the first and second branchial arches, in the limb buds, mouth and nasal pits, in the trunk, the forebrain ...
The frontal region is beige-cream and covered in many short setae. Walking legs have a dactylus of 3.7-4.3 times as long as ... Their branchial openings are partially covered by maxillipeds, and have asymmetrical chelipeds with stiff, brown-black spines ...
... branchial) sinus via crevices (lacunae) and channels (sinus). After its oxygenation the hemolymph is returning to the ... emanate from the heart and run to the respective organs and body regions. After having left the arteries and having washed ...
It is a region of histologically disparate cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral ... This nucleus gives rise to the branchial efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve (CN X) terminating in the laryngeal, ...
The body cavity has a separate compartment in each of the first three regions of the body, and extends into the tentacles. The ... The anterior end is called the cephalic lobe, which bears from one to over 200 thin branchial ciliated tentacles, each with ... Vestimentiferan bodies are divided into four regions: the obturaculum, vestimentum, trunk, and opisthosome. The main trunk of ... and often break off when a tubeworm is removed from hypothermal vent regions. How long the roots of the tube worms can grow is ...
Symptoms may include: Severe pain in perimastoid region Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) Sore throat Difficulty in ... Acute upper jugular lymphadenitis Abscess or mass in Lower part of parotid Infected branchial cyst Parapharyngeal abscess ...
RAP typically lasts four months but, in cases of branchial plexus injuries or severe burns, potentially over two years and ... More overt manifestations include warmness of an affected region, decreased bone density, and increased bone plasticity. In rat ...
The first body region is the vascularized branchial plume, which is bright red due to the presence of hemoglobin that contain ... The second body region is the vestimentum, formed by muscle bands, having a winged shape, and it presents the two genital ... In the posterior part, the fourth body region, is the opistosome, which anchors the animal to the tube and is used for the ... In the middle part, the trunk or third body region, is full of vascularized solid tissue, and includes body wall, gonads, and ...
... cephalic region or caput) and the thorax (thoracic region), the two regions being separated by the cervical groove; covered by ... segments Operculum or branchial operculum (plural opercula): One of the plates on the ventral surface of the abdomen, just in ... cephalic region Carapace: A hardened plate (sclerite) covering the upper (dorsal) portion of the cephalothorax; see also ... separated from the thoracic region by the cervical groove Cephalothorax or prosoma: One of the two main body parts (tagmata), ...
Cutaneous columnar cyst Branchial cleft cyst Cystic hygroma Preauricular sinus and cyst Ranula University of Rochester Medical ... in the region of the hyoid bone) that is usually painless, smooth and cystic, though if infected, pain can occur. There may be ...
Originally it was the lower of two cartilages which supported the first branchial arch in early fish. Then it grew longer and ... the ventral ends meet each other in the region of the symphysis menti, and are usually regarded as undergoing ossification to ...
Each slit consists of a branchial chamber opening to the pharynx through a U-shaped cleft and to the exterior through a dorso- ... and is partially separated from the epidermis in that region. This part of the dorsal nerve cord is often hollow, and may well ... they are controlling the development of the different body regions. The internal relationships within the Enteropneusta are ...
Temnospondyls and other early tetrapods have rounded otic notches in the back of the skull that project into the cheek region. ... This study found that grooved ceratobrachnial structures (components of the branchial arches) are correlated with internal ... The positioning of the stapes and the shape of the otic region suggests that the tympani of temnospondyls and frogs are ... The neural spines tend to be of similar height throughout the presacral region of the trunk, but some temnospondyls exhibit ...
Late Mississippian Productoid Brachiopods Inflatia, Keokukia, and Adairia, Ozark Region of Oklahoma and Arkansas. ... "A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches". Nature. 509 (7502): 608-611. doi:10.1038/nature13195. PMID ... Ozark region of Arkansas and Oklahoma". Journal of Paleontology. 59 (1): 32-59. Yochelson, E 1969. Revision of Some of Girty's ...
It is, however, distributed across tropical seas especially in the Indonesian region which is commonly found in wet markets ... Parasites of the tripletail include the copepods Anuretes heckelii which affects the branchial cavities, Lernanthropus pupa ...
Besides this, the additional anomalies seen in FND can be subdivided by region. None of these anomalies are specific for the ... Guion-Almeida ML, Richieri-Costa A (2006). "Frontonasal malformation, first branchial arch anomalies, congenital heart defect, ... Furthermore, disorders like an intracranial cyst can affect the frontonasal region, which can lead to symptoms similar to FND. ... This pathway plays an important role in developing the midline central nervous system/craniofrontofacial region and the limbs. ...
Some species are found across various regions while others can only be found in one specific region. Sexual dimorphism is seen ... lack Milne-Edwards openings and have modified antennae which they inhale through and they generally have posterior branchial ... The 46 species are distributed across pan-tropical regions with certain regions having many species and some with only one. ...
During exhalation, the bony scales in the upper chest region become indented. When the muscles are relaxed, the bony scales ... each containing deep grooves in the place where one would expect to find the afferent branchial artery. This strongly suggests ... Other bones in the neck region lost in Acanthostega (and later tetrapods) include the extrascapular series and the ... the thoracoabdominal region). Inhaling with the ribs was either primitive for amniotes, or evolved independently in at least ...
TCOF1 is found on the 5th chromosome in the 5q32 region. It codes for a relatively simple nucleolar protein called treacle, ... Senggen, E; Laswed, T; Meuwly, JY; Maestre, LA; Jaques, B; Meuli, R; Gudinchet, F (May 2011). "First and second branchial arch ...
These regions are presented to the attacking animal and their secretions may be foul-tasting or cause various physical or ... Water is drawn in through their mouths, which are usually at the bottom of their heads, and passes through branchial food traps ... In temperate regions, breeding is mostly seasonal, usually in the spring, and is triggered by increasing day length, rising ... If the intruder persisted, a biting lunge was usually launched at either the tail region or the naso-labial grooves. Damage to ...
Analysis showed Pod-1 to map to a region of mouse chromosome 10 that is syntenic with human chromosome 6q23-q24. The tissue ... branchial arch myoblasts, and mesenchyme of developing lung, gut, kidney, and gonads". Developmental Dynamics. 213 (1): 105-13 ... 6q23-q24 was the chosen chromosomal region due to frequently described LOH in human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas ( ... Restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) along a region of recurrent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 6q23-q24 to ...
In bony fish, the gills lie in a branchial chamber covered by a bony operculum. The great majority of bony fish species have ... In some fish, a rete mirabile allows for an increase in muscle temperature in regions where this network of vein and arteries ... which is not subdivided into different regions. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive system normally found in ... as well as many other structures derived from the embryonic branchial pouches.[citation needed] Scientists have investigated ...
This low pressure region allows the artery to receive (siphon) the blood flow from the pulmonary artery which is under a higher ... The aortic arches or pharyngeal arch arteries (previously referred to as branchial arches in human embryos) are a series of six ...
They present two distinct extracellular matrix regions. These regions are an acellular fibrous region with a high collagen ... The most studied cartilage in arthropods is the branchial cartilage of Limulus polyphemus. It is a vesicular cell-rich ... The amount of the acellular fibrous region is variable. The model organisms used in the study of cartilage in sabellid ... The embryos of Sepia officinalis express ColAa, ColAb, and hyaluronan in the cranial cartilages and other regions of ...
The hyomandibula is a set of bones found in the hyoid region in most fishes. It usually plays a role in suspending the jaws or ... Both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula". Developmental Biology. 377 (2): ... Other elements of the skull, however, may be reduced; there is little cheek region behind the enlarged orbits, and little, if ... The pressures generated in those regions were high enough to puncture or cut through cuticle or dermal armour suggesting that ...
The protein selectively binds enhancer regions based on type of cell and stage of differentiation. During differentiation, ... branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid ...
Tuxeraspis and Litoaspis are known primarily from fragments and portions of the head-region, while Dotaspis is known from a ... a pair of branchial openings for exhaling, and a simple, slit-like, or tube-like mouth. Siberiaspidoidei contains two families ...
These fairly small to very small fishes are widespread in tropical and temperate regions, mostly near the coast, but a few ... gaining oxygen from the air by the branchial surfaces (gills), skin and perhaps the mouth. At least a few species even tolerate ... The greatest species richness is in tropical and warm temperate regions, but the range of a few extends into colder waters, ...
... with raised areas representing branchial (of the gills) chambers or respiratory tissue of the branchial tract. The postabdomen ... thus increasing the absorptive area of this region. Apart from this spiral structure, the pretelson of the paratype preserves a ... as well as the internal muscular structure of its limbs and even part of the external branchial respiratory system. This turned ...
There are seven branchial or gill-like openings behind the eye. Sea lampreys are olive or brown-yellow on the dorsal and ... Sea lampreys are considered a pest in the Great Lakes region. The species is native to the inland Finger Lakes and Lake ... in North West Spain and data comparisons with other European regions". Marine and Freshwater Research. 68: 116. doi:10.1071/ ...
The scales of the hind limbs and the underside of the hip region were similar to those of the back, although no integument was ... Among these parts include approximately three rows of tiny bones (branchial ossicles) covered with thin tooth-like structures ( ... This study found that grooved ceratobrachnial structures (components of the branchial arches) are correlated with internal ... branchial denticles). These structures appeared near the neck of one of the skeletons, and almost certainly attached to the ...
The encoded protein may play a role in the developing kidney, branchial arches, eye, and ear. Mutations of this gene have been ... 1998). "Clustering of mutations responsible for branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome in the eyes absent homologous region (eyaHR) ... molecular analysis confirms allelism with BOR syndrome and further narrows the Duane syndrome critical region to 1 cM". Hum. ...
Chromosome 19, within the region of D19S894 and D19S416 has been postulated as the locus for the abnormalities found in EEC ... as well as the maxillary and mandibular branchial ectoderm that are so prominently disturbed in these mice. All of these ...
... are benign lesions caused by anomalous development of the branchial apparatus. This case report describes a 63-year-old woman ... Keywords: branchial cleft cyst; congenital; fourth branchial cleft cyst; pre-sternal region; unique location. ... These are the rarest of the branchial anomalies, and extension below the peri-thyroid region is very infrequently described. ... Branchial cleft cyst and branchial cleft cyst carcinoma, or cystic lymph node and cystic nodal metastasis? Stefanicka P, ...
Categories: Branchial Region Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 ...
Branchial Region A16.254.160 A16.142. Brugada Syndrome C14.280.67.441.500 C14.280.67.322. Bucrylate D2.626.290.200. Burkitt ...
A four-region (capillary plasma, endothelium, interstitial fluid, cell) multipath model was configured to describe the kinetics ... Branchial Region / metabolism* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Flows of 2.0, and 10 ml−1·g·min−1 used for comparison; 2-region model fit to outflow curves of 4-region model at flow of 2.3 ml ... Control: group 2 control data (A and B). A: 4-region instantaneous extraction fit. B: 2-region instantaneous extraction fit. ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Brain/abnormalities; Branchial Region/abnormalities; Culture Techniques; Heart Defects, Congenital/ ... produced branchial arch and somite defects similar to those elicited by equal concentrations of all-trans-retinoic acid (all- ...
Vascular rings result from incomplete regression of one of six embryonic branchial arches. The deletion of chromosome region ... Six embryonic branchial arches connect these two arches. The third, fourth, and sixth arches are crucial in the development of ... When the right fourth branchial arch remains, a right aortic arch is present. This may exist in the absence of other anomalies ...
Tumors of the parapharyngeal region. II. Neural tumors, chemodectomas chordemas, branchial cysts. Surgical treatment. ... 7. [Neurogenic tumors in the facial and neck region].. Schöder HJ; Haake K. Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena); 1970 Oct; 64(20):1039-42. ...
intersomitic region. tail region. branchial arch. sema6b.L. X. laevis. Throughout NF stage 16 to NF stage 19. neural fold. ... periocular region. sema6d.L. semaphorin 6D4. X. laevis. Throughout NF stage 28 to NF stage 32. somite. branchial arch. ... tail region. intersomitic region. otic vesicle. sema6a.S. X. laevis. Throughout NF stage 28 to NF stage 32. otic vesicle. eye. ... tail region. anterior dorsal lateral plate region. pronephric kidney. paraxial mesoderm. sema6a.S. X. laevis. Throughout NF ...
branchial arch syndrome: index under BRANCHIAL REGION (IM) + SYNDROME (NIM). Scope Note. A region, of SOMITE development period ... Branchial Arch Branchial Arches Branchial Clefts Branchial Grooves Pharyngeal Arch Pharyngeal Arches Pharyngeal Clefts ... Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.. Terms. Branchial Region Preferred Term Term UI T005506. Date01/01/ ... Branchial Region Preferred Concept UI. M0002887. Scope Note. A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of ...
Branchial Region A16.166 Cleavage Stage, Ovum A16.178 Cloaca A16.254 Embryo, Mammalian A16.254.500 Blastocyst A16.254.500.533 ... CA1 Region, Hippocampal A08.186.211.180.405.149 CA2 Region, Hippocampal A08.186.211.180.405.174 CA3 Region, Hippocampal A08.186 ... CA1 Region, Hippocampal A08.186.211.200.885.287.500.345.149 CA2 Region, Hippocampal A08.186.211.200.885.287.500.345.174 CA3 ... Lumbosacral Region A01.923.176.780 Sacrococcygeal Region A01.923.600 Pelvis A01.923.600.500 Lesser Pelvis A01.923.600.600 ...
These changes tend to occur in a region of the protein that enables it to bind to DNA. Although the effect of the amino acid ... The TFAP2A gene appears to be especially important for the development of tissues derived from the first and second branchial ... Among the embryonic structures formed from neural crest cells are the branchial arches, which develop into the bones and other ... TFAP2A gene mutations disrupt the development of structures derived from the branchial arches, which results in the ...
Usually the tips are a darker colour than the rest of the coloured regions. The white gills are also edged in yellow-orange. ... The upper two-thirds of the oral tentacles, extra-branchial and extra-rhinophoral processes are yellow-orange, as are the ...
Branchial Arch. Branchial Arches. Branchial Cleft. Branchial Clefts. Branchial Groove. Branchial Grooves. Branchial Regions. ... Branchial Clefts Entry term(s). Branchial Cleft Branchial Groove Branchial Grooves Cleft, Branchial Cleft, Pharyngeal Clefts, ... Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.. Annotation:. branchial arch syndrome: index under BRANCHIAL REGION ... Branchial Region Entry term(s). Branchial Regions Region, Branchial Regions, Branchial Branchial Clefts - Narrower Concept UI. ...
branchial arch syndrome: index under BRANCHIAL REGION (IM) + SYNDROME (NIM). Scope Note. A region, of SOMITE development period ... Branchial Arch Branchial Arches Branchial Clefts Branchial Grooves Pharyngeal Arch Pharyngeal Arches Pharyngeal Clefts ... Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.. Terms. Branchial Region Preferred Term Term UI T005506. Date01/01/ ... Branchial Region Preferred Concept UI. M0002887. Scope Note. A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of ...
... parabrachial region,noun,E0684769,brachial region,noun,E0788903,no para,parabranchial,adj,E0554939,branchial,adj,E0013957,no ... parasternal region,noun,E0788983,sternal region,noun,E0788691,no para,parasternally,adv,E0532410,sternally,adv,E0598730,no para ... paravertebral region,noun,E0788005,vertebral region,noun,E0788469,no para,paravertebrally,adv,E0532399,vertebrally,adv,E0537215 ...
... the lateral bran- chial openings ; ff1, entrance to the throat or branchial cavity ; g, posterior end of the latter, and ... Its principal regions are four in number, namely, 1, the so- called optic lobe, (g1,) which is a prominent bulging on the lower ... the fissures have been called by embryologists the branchial fissures, and the vessels the branchial aortce, the former ... At its anterior region this is entirely closed over, from the head to the point, just behind the heart, where the afferent ...
Pediatric otolaryngology in the Rocky Mountain region. Ear infections, sinus infections and tonsillitis-kids are susceptible to ... Branchial cleft cysts. *Breathing difficulties. *Chronic ear disease. *Deviated septum. *Ear infections ...
... branchial cleft fistulae. Three (3.26%) BCAs were distributed in the head regions, 88 (95.65%) in the neck regions, and 1 (1.09 ... Most derive from the second branchial arch and cause cysts, sinuses, and fistulae to develop in the neck region. In our case, ... Pharyngeal cleft cysts (also called branchial cleft cysts) are rare congenital defects of the pharynx region that appear as ... Branchial cysts deriving from the second branchial arch are by far the most common, accounting for approximately 95% of all ...
... regions. Stage-, branchial arch- and tissue region-matched tissues were pooled, dissociated as previously described (Morrison ... Each branchial arch microenvironment was subdivided into the front (distal) and the back (Fig. 1A,B). Stage-, branchial arch- ... cells enriched for the neural crest invasion signature exist at the distal region of each branchial arch (BA1-4). (A) SOX10+ NC ... cells enriched for the neural crest invasion signature exist at the distal region of each branchial arch (BA1-4). (A) SOX10+ NC ...
Mesoderm in the 2nd pharyngeal (branchial) arches - block-like structures in the neck region of the embryo. ... V2 exits through foramen rotundum and makes its way onto the maxillary region of the face. *V3 exits through foramen ovale and ... Its located in the parotid region.*2. Elevates and protracts the mandible. Also has minor action of retrusion and ipsilateral ... 1. Bells Palsy is caused by injecting anesthetics into what region?. 2. Which muscles does Bells Palsy inactivate? ...
First branchial cleft anomalies (FBCA) such as duplication of the external auditory canal are due to failure to obliterate the ... periauricular region and the neck above the hyoid bone. ... Keywords: Duplicate External auditory canal,First branchial ...
Furthermore, we demonstrate that REST binding sites are abundant in low gene-occupancy regions of the human genome but this is ... cells by binding to a 21 bp consensus sequence and recruiting epigenetic and regulatory cofactors to gene regulatory regions. ... 30), all genes are expressed in the brain with fbxo41, fbxl7 and fbxl10 also expressed in the eyes and branchial arches. In ... Identification of homologous regions in the human genome. To identify regions in the human chromosome that were homologous to ...
Branchial Region A16.254.160 A16.142. Brugada Syndrome C14.280.67.441.500 C14.280.67.322. Bucrylate D2.626.290.200. Burkitt ...
Branchial region. *Cloaca. *Embryonic organizers. *Gastrula. *Germ Layers +. *Gestational Sac. *gubernaculum *Limb Buds ...
Carla Sopie Tapparo, Argentina, Modified branchial imaginations, in defense of chaos and eros as a way back to hope through ... Launching the hydrosexual movement for the Baltic region to navigate between utopias and dystopias ...
Branchial Region Medicine & Life Sciences 39% * Dandy-Walker Syndrome Medicine & Life Sciences 22% ... Analysis of Foxc1 regulatory regions revealed a conserved recognition element for the Yap and Taz DNA binding co-factor Tead. ... Analysis of Foxc1 regulatory regions revealed a conserved recognition element for the Yap and Taz DNA binding co-factor Tead. ... Analysis of Foxc1 regulatory regions revealed a conserved recognition element for the Yap and Taz DNA binding co-factor Tead. ...
Branchial cleft cyst: An unusual site for the cervical metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.. Liao YC; Adel M; Lee LY; Chang ... EBER in situ hybridization differentiates carcinomas originating from the sinonasal region and the nasopharynx.. Hwang TZ; Jin ...
Chondrocutaneous Branchial Remnant in Cervical Region: A Case Report. Sung No Jung, Hong Sil Ju, Jong Phil Choi, Ho Kwon Arch ...
  • Vascular rings result from incomplete regression of one of six embryonic branchial arches. (medscape.com)
  • Six embryonic branchial arches connect these two arches. (medscape.com)
  • A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. (nih.gov)
  • In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS . (nih.gov)
  • Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves. (nih.gov)
  • Among the embryonic structures formed from neural crest cells are the branchial arches, which develop into the bones and other tissues of the head and neck. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The TFAP2A gene appears to be especially important for the development of tissues derived from the first and second branchial arches. (medlineplus.gov)
  • TFAP2A gene mutations disrupt the development of structures derived from the branchial arches, which results in the characteristic features of branchio-oculo-facial syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Buy Soma 350 Mg Online - the sagittal suture, and it main- immediately above the adult by eherent branchial arches the bulb. (freethevaccine.org)
  • Special focus will be set on regions of complex topology (head, branchial arches, anal cavity), which deviate from the typical and simpler 2D organization studied so far. (centuri-livingsystems.org)
  • Postoperative histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst. (nih.gov)
  • Because of the course of the sinus track, it is believed that this was a fourth branchial cleft cyst. (nih.gov)
  • A review of the relevant literature was performed to summarize the clinical features of fourth branchial cleft cyst and to identify the best options for diagnosis and treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Branchial cleft cyst is the most common birth defect involving the neck. (bvsalud.org)
  • The pathological examination confirmed branchial cleft cyst carcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • 27. Branchial cleft cyst: An unusual site for the cervical metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Differential diagnosis involves branchial cleft cyst, lymphoepithelial cyst, thyroid gland lesions, ranula and lymphadenopathy (of various etiologies). (bvsalud.org)
  • Experiments in vitro with cultured rat conceptuses demonstrated that 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) (300 ng/mL amniotic fluid) produced branchial arch and somite defects similar to those elicited by equal concentrations of all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA), but with an increase in cephalic defects that included missing optic vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • When the right fourth branchial arch remains, a right aortic arch is present. (medscape.com)
  • Most derive from the second branchial arch and cause cysts, sinuses, and fistulae to develop in the neck region. (bvsalud.org)
  • When using either Cre driver, Yap and Taz deficiency in the CNC resulted in enlarged, hemorrhaging branchial arch blood vessels and hydrocephalus. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Proliferation was reduced in the branchial arch mesenchyme of Yap and Taz CNC conditional knockout (CKO) embryos. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Branchial cleft cysts (BCC) are benign lesions caused by anomalous development of the branchial apparatus. (nih.gov)
  • Neural tumors, chemodectomas chordemas, branchial cysts. (nih.gov)
  • Pharyngeal cysts are developmental abnormalities of the branchial apparatus. (bvsalud.org)
  • These are the rarest of the branchial anomalies, and extension below the peri-thyroid region is very infrequently described. (nih.gov)
  • The deletion of chromosome region 22q11 appears to be closely associated with these anomalies. (medscape.com)
  • Other rare presentations can be severe respiratory distress or sudden infant death syndrome due to lesions at the base of the tongue, a lateral cystic neck mass, an anterior tongue fistula, or coexistence with branchial anomalies [6]. (bvsalud.org)
  • TDCs can be found anywhere in the midline from the submental region to the suprasternal notch, but are most commonly located halfway between these extremes, near the hyoid bone [11]. (bvsalud.org)
  • cross section dorsally flattened and ventrally slightly rounded at anterior and median regions, flattened to round at posterior region of body. (plazi.org)
  • to be well posterior dichotomy or less curved characunsed by an region. (philcoffeeboard.com)
  • Epistome with ridges that define efferent branchial canals absent or confined to the posterior part of the branchial cavity, not continuing on to meet the anterior buccal frame. (fieldofscience.com)
  • In situ hybridization right, left, ventral and dorsal views of wild-type embryos showing lhx2 expression of the anterior region over time, from stage 34 to stage 46. (xenbase.org)
  • Applications of USG imaging particularly in dentomaxillofacial region include head and neck pathologies, examination of bone and superficial soft tissue, detection of major salivary gland lesions, temporomandibular joint imaging, implant imaging, assessment of fractures and vascular lesions, lymph node examination, measurement of the thickness of muscles and visualization of vessels of the neck. (dentalmedjournal.it)
  • The upper two-thirds of the oral tentacles, extra-branchial and extra-rhinophoral processes are yellow-orange, as are the rhinophore clubs. (seaslugforum.net)
  • In detail we work on 1) the endocrine response to osmotic challenges and ion/osmolytes balance (namely calcium and phosphate) with a special emphasis on renal but also on intestinal and branchial processes, 2) the HPI-axis and the mechanisms of stress response, a crucial adaptive reaction in a changing natural or social environment, 3) metabolic changes and behavioral processes in relation to habitat or social contexts. (ualg.pt)
  • 6. Light and electron microscopic investigation of the lectin-binding pattern in the oxyntic gland region of bovine abomasum. (nih.gov)
  • 7. [Neurogenic tumors in the facial and neck region]. (nih.gov)
  • As its name suggests, this protein is a transcription factor, which means it attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A major role of REST (repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor) is to inhibit the expression of neuronal genes in neural stem cells and non-neuronal cells by binding to a 21 bp consensus sequence and recruiting epigenetic and regulatory cofactors to gene regulatory regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chondrocutaneous Branchial Remnant in Cervical Region: A Case Report. (e-acfs.org)
  • These changes tend to occur in a region of the protein that enables it to bind to DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that REST binding sites are abundant in low gene-occupancy regions of the human genome but this is not due to an increased association with non-coding RNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 8. A histochemical study of the distribution of lectin binding sites in the developing branchial area of the trout Salmo trutta. (nih.gov)
  • Home Literature review Applications of Ultrasonographic imaging in dentomaxillofacial region. (dentalmedjournal.it)
  • The aim of this narrative review is to explore various applications of USG imaging in the dentomaxillofacial region. (dentalmedjournal.it)
  • It is about the most part of a bulb-lik« admission of a post-oral region of long a curved claw. (freethevaccine.org)
  • Analysis of Foxc1 regulatory regions revealed a conserved recognition element for the Yap and Taz DNA binding co-factor Tead. (elsevierpure.com)
  • [ 5 ] An unusual cause of parotid tumors is the embryologic remnant of first branchial cleft cysts. (medscape.com)
  • Excision of branchial cleft cysts/fistulae, fitting with appropriate aural habilitation, and enrollment in appropriate educational programs for the hearing impaired are appropriate. (nih.gov)
  • In the experience of a surgeon, of the congenital masses related to embryonic remnants, approximately 70% would be thyroglossal duct sinuses and cysts, 25% would be branchial cysts and sinuses, and 5% would be cystic hygromas. (medscape.com)
  • Recurrences are known to occur following complete surgical excision of branchial cyst sinuses, as seen in a large retrospective study where the overall recurrence rate was noted to be 4.9% after a 2-year follow-up period. (medscape.com)
  • Third and fourth branchial pouch sinuses can be rare causes of respiratory distress in neonates. (nih.gov)
  • [ 6 ] Fistulae arising in the first branchial cleft are rare. (medscape.com)
  • Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Experiments in vitro with cultured rat conceptuses demonstrated that 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) (300 ng/mL amniotic fluid) produced branchial arch and somite defects similar to those elicited by equal concentrations of all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA), but with an increase in cephalic defects that included missing optic vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • [ 1 ] Branchial cysts are said to be the second major cause of head and neck pathology in childhood, related to the embryonic remnants of the thyroid and branchial structures. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Branchial cysts are invariably lined by squamous epithelium, immediately outside which lies abundant lymphoid tissue corresponding to the tonsils and other lymphatic tissues in the pharynx. (medscape.com)
  • The majority of opinion points to its origin from either the branchial apparatus or from lymphoid tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Branchial cysts represent swellings of the neck due to a remnant of the branchial cleft. (medscape.com)
  • Most of the branchial cysts are of 2nd cleft origin and occur in the neck on the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the carotid triangle. (medscape.com)
  • These changes tend to occur in a region of the protein that enables it to bind to DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 8 ] In the differential diagnosis it is important to note that branchial cysts should not be confused with bronchogenic cysts. (medscape.com)