Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.Thyroglossal Cyst: A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tongue DiseasesHyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Thyroid Dysgenesis: Defective development of the THYROID GLAND. This concept includes thyroid agenesis (aplasia), hypoplasia, or an ectopic gland. Clinical signs usually are those of CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary: The condition of a pattern of malignancies within a family, but not every individual's necessarily having the same neoplasm. Characteristically the tumor tends to occur at an earlier than average age, individuals may have more than one primary tumor, the tumors may be multicentric, usually more than 25 percent of the individuals in direct lineal descent from the proband are affected, and the cancer predisposition in these families behaves as an autosomal dominant trait with about 60 percent penetrance.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Branchioma: A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)Otitis Externa: Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Cutaneous Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.Ectopia Cordis: A rare developmental defect in which the heart is abnormally located partially or totally outside the THORAX. It is the result of defective fusion of the anterior chest wall. Depending on the location of the heart, ectopia cordis can be thoracic, thoracoabdominal, abdominal, and cervical.Commotio Cordis: A sudden CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA (e.g., VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION) caused by a blunt, non-penetrating impact to the precordial region of chest wall. Commotio cordis often results in sudden death without prompt cardiopulmonary defibrillation.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.DiGeorge Syndrome: Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Chondroma: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development: Conditions of sexual ambiguity in which the individual possesses gonadal tissues of both sexes, tissues from the OVARY and the TESTIS. There can be a testis on one side and an ovary on the other (lateral), or there may be combined ovarian and testicular tissue (ovotestes) on each side (bilateral). The karyotype may be 46,XX; 46,XY; or a mosaic of 46,XX/46,XY. These disorders have historically been called true hermaphroditism.

Selective expression of purinoceptor cP2Y1 suggests a role for nucleotide signalling in development of the chick embryo. (1/438)

Responses to extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, etc.) have been demonstrated in a number of embryonic cell types suggesting they may be important signalling molecules during embryonic development. Here the authors describe for the first time the expression of a G-protein-coupled receptor for extracellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1), during embryonic development of the chick. During the first 10 days of embryonic development, cP2Y1 is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in the limb buds, mesonephros, brain, somites, and facial primordia, suggesting that this receptor may have a role in the development of each of these systems.  (+info)

Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (2/438)

Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb.  (+info)

Regulation of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest cells involves members of the AP-2 family. (3/438)

Hoxa2 is expressed in cranial neural crest cells that migrate into the second branchial arch and is essential for proper patterning of neural-crest-derived structures in this region. We have used transgenic analysis to begin to address the regulatory mechanisms which underlie neural-crest-specific expression of Hoxa2. By performing a deletion analysis on an enhancer from the Hoxa2 gene that is capable of mediating expression in neural crest cells in a manner similar to the endogenous gene, we demonstrated that multiple cis-acting elements are required for neural-crest-specific activity. One of these elements consists of a sequence that binds to the three transcription factor AP-2 family members. Mutation or deletion of this site in the Hoxa2 enhancer abrogates reporter expression in cranial neural crest cells but not in the hindbrain. In both cell culture co-transfection assays and transgenic embryos AP-2 family members are able to trans-activate reporter expression, showing that this enhancer functions as an AP-2-responsive element in vivo. Reporter expression is not abolished in an AP-2(alpha) null mutant embryos, suggesting redundancy with other AP-2 family members for activation of the Hoxa2 enhancer. Other cis-elements identified in this study critical for neural-crest-specific expression include an element that influences levels of expression and a conserved sequence, which when multimerized directs expression in a broad subset of neural crest cells. These elements work together to co-ordinate and restrict neural crest expression to the second branchial arch and more posterior regions. Our findings have identified the cis-components that allow Hoxa2 to be regulated independently in rhombomeres and cranial neural crest cells.  (+info)

Chick Barx2b, a marker for myogenic cells also expressed in branchial arches and neural structures. (4/438)

We have isolated a new chicken gene, cBarx2b, which is related to mBarx2 in sequence, although the expression patterns of the two genes are quite different from one another. The cBarx2b gene is expressed in craniofacial structures, regions of the neural tube, and muscle groups in the limb, neck and cloaca. Perturbation of anterior muscle pattern by application of Sonic Hedgehog protein results in a posteriorization of cBarx2b expression.  (+info)

The role of SF/HGF and c-Met in the development of skeletal muscle. (5/438)

Hypaxial skeletal muscles develop from migratory and non-migratory precursor cells that are generated by the lateral lip of the dermomyotome. Previous work shows that the formation of migratory precursors requires the c-Met and SF/HGF genes. We show here that in mice lacking c-Met or SF/HGF, the initial development of the dermomyotome proceeds appropriately and growth and survival of cells in the dermomyotome are not affected. Migratory precursors are also correctly specified, as monitored by the expression of Lbx1. However, these cells remain aggregated and fail to take up long range migration. We conclude that parallel but independent cues converge on the migratory hypaxial precursors in the dermomyotomal lip after they are laid down: a signal given by SF/HGF that controls the emigration of the precursors, and an as yet unidentified signal that controls Lbx1. SF/HGF and c-Met act in a paracrine manner to control emigration, and migratory cells only dissociate from somites located close to SF/HGF-expressing cells. During long range migration, prolonged receptor-ligand-interaction appears to be required, as SF/HGF is expressed both along the routes and at the target sites of migratory myogenic progenitors. Mice that lack c-Met die during the second part of gestation due to a placental defect. Rescue of the placental defect by aggregation of tetraploid (wild type) and diploid (c-Met-/-) morulae allows development of c-Met mutant animals to term. They lack muscle groups that derive from migratory precursor cells, but display otherwise normal skeletal musculature.  (+info)

Connexin 43 expression reflects neural crest patterns during cardiovascular development. (6/438)

We used transgenic mice in which the promoter sequence for connexin 43 linked to a lacZ reporter was expressed in neural crest but not myocardial cells to document the pattern of cardiac neural crest cells in the caudal pharyngeal arches and cardiac outflow tract. Expression of lacZ was strikingly similar to that of cardiac neural crest cells in quail-chick chimeras. By using this transgenic mouse line to compare cardiac neural crest involvement in cardiac outflow septation and aortic arch artery development in mouse and chick, we were able to note differences and similarities in their cardiovascular development. Similar to neural crest cells in the chick, lacZ-positive cells formed a sheath around the persisting aortic arch arteries, comprised the aorticopulmonary septation complex, were located at the site of final fusion of the conal cushions, and populated the cardiac ganglia. In quail-chick chimeras generated for this study, neural crest cells entered the outflow tract by two pathways, submyocardially and subendocardially. In the mouse only the subendocardial population of lacZ-positive cells could be seen as the cells entered the outflow tract. In addition lacZ-positive cells completely surrounded the aortic sac prior to septation, while in the chick, neural crest cells were scattered around the aortic sac with the bulk of cells distributed in the bridging portion of the aorticopulmonary septation complex. In the chick, submyocardial populations of neural crest cells assembled on opposite sides of the aortic sac and entered the conotruncal ridges. Even though the aortic sac in the mouse was initially surrounded by lacZ-positive cells, the two outflow vessels that resulted from its septation showed differential lacZ expression. The ascending aorta was invested by lacZ-positive cells while the pulmonary trunk was devoid of lacZ staining. In the chick, both of these vessels were invested by neural crest cells, but the cells arrived secondarily by displacement from the aortic arch arteries during vessel elongation. This may indicate a difference in derivation of the pulmonary trunk in the mouse or a difference in distribution of cardiac neural crest cells. An independent mouse neural crest marker is needed to confirm whether the differences are indeed due to species differences in cardiovascular and/or neural crest development. Nevertheless, with the differences noted, we believe that this mouse model faithfully represents the location of cardiac neural crest cells. The similarities in location of lacZ-expressing cells in the mouse to that of cardiac neural crest cells in the chick suggest that this mouse is a good model for studying mammalian cardiac neural crest and that the mammalian cardiac neural crest performs functions similar to those shown for chick.  (+info)

Mutations in the zebrafish unmask shared regulatory pathways controlling the development of catecholaminergic neurons. (7/438)

The mechanism by which pluripotent progenitors give rise to distinct classes of mature neurons in vertebrates is not well understood. To address this issue we undertook a genetic screen for mutations which affect the commitment and differentiation of catecholaminergic (CA) [dopaminergic (DA), noradrenergic (NA), and adrenergic] neurons in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The identified mutations constitute five complementation groups. motionless and foggy affect the number and differentiation state of hypothalamic DA, telencephalic DA, retinal DA, locus coeruleus (LC) NA, and sympathetic NA neurons. The too few mutation leads to a specific reduction in the number of hypothalamic DA neurons. no soul lacks arch-associated NA cells and has defects in pharyngeal arches, and soulless lacks both arch-associated and LC cell groups. Our analyses suggest that the genes defined by these mutations regulate different steps in the differentiation of multipotent CA progenitors. They further reveal an underlying universal mechanism for the control of CA cell fates, which involve combinatorial usage of regulatory genes.  (+info)

13-cis-Retinoic acid alters neural crest cells expressing Krox-20 and Pax-2 in macaque embryos. (8/438)

This study investigates hindbrain and associated neural crest (NCC), otocyst, and pharyngeal arch development in monkey embryos following teratogenic exposure to 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA). cRA was orally administered (5 mg/kg) to pregnant long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) between gestational days (GD) 12 and 27. Embryos were surgically collected at desired stages during treatment, analyzed for external morphological changes, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Two transiently expressed nuclear proteins, Krox-20 and Pax-2, were used as markers for the target cellular and anatomical structures. Rhombomere (r) expression patterns of Pax-2 (r4/r6) and Krox-20 (r3/r5) were maintained after cRA treatment, but r4 and r5 were substantially reduced in size. In untreated embryos, Krox-20 immunoreactive NCC derived from r5 migrated caudally around the developing otocyst to contribute to the third pharyngeal arch mesenchyme. In cRA-treated embryos, a subpopulation of NCC rostral to the otocyst also showed Krox-20 immunoreactivity, but there was a substantial reduction in Krox-20 post-otic NCC. Pax-2 immunoreactive NCC migrating from r4 to the second pharyngeal arch were substantially reduced in numbers in treated embryos. Alteration in the otic anlage included delayed invagination, abnormal relationship with the adjacent hindbrain epithelium, and altered expression boundaries for Pax-2. cRA-associated changes in the pharyngeal arch region due to cRA included truncation of the distal portion of the first arch and reduction in the size of the second arch. These alterations in hindbrain, neural crest, otic anlage, and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis could contribute to some of the craniofacial malformations in the macaque fetus associated with exposure to cRA.  (+info)

The spatial distribution of the cranial paraxial mesoderm and the neural crest cells during craniofacial morphogenesis of the mouse embryo was studied by micromanipulative cell grafting and cell labelling. Results of this study show that the paraxial mesoderm and neural crest cells arising at the same segmental position share common destinations. Mesodermal cells from somitomeres I, III, IV and VI were distributed to the same craniofacial tissues as neural crest cells of the forebrain, the caudal midbrain, and the rostral, middle and caudal hindbrains found respectively next to these mesodermal segments. This finding suggests that a basic meristic pattern is established globally in the neural plate ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm during early mouse development. Cells from these two sources mixed extensively in the peri-ocular, facial, periotic and cervical mesenchyme. However, within the branchial arches a distinct segregation of these two cell populations was discovered. Neural crest cells ...
The formation and transformation of the pharyngeal arch arteries in the mouse embryo, from 8.5 to 13 days of gestation (DG), was observed using scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts and graphic reconstruction of 1-microm serial epoxy-resin sections. Late in 8.5-9DG (12 somites), the paired …
The pharyngeal arches -also known as visceral arches-are structures seen in the embryonic development of vertebrates that are recognisable precursors for many structures. In fish the arches are known as the branchial arches or gill arches. In the human embryo, the arches are first seen during the fourth week of development. They appear as a series of outpouchings of mesoderm on both sides of the developing pharynx. The vasculature of the pharyngeal arches is known as the aortic arches. In fish, the branchial arches support the gills. In vertebrates, the pharyngeal arches are derived from all three germ layers (the primary layers of cells that form during embryogenesis).Neural crest cells enter these arches where they contribute to features of the skull and facial skeleton such as bone and cartilage. However, the existence of pharyngeal structures before neural crest cells evolved is indicated by the existence of neural crest-independent mechanisms of pharyngeal arch development. The first, most ...
Internal carotid artery Right vagus nerve Figure 11.35 A. Aortic arches and dorsal aortae before transformation into the definitive vascular pattern. B. Aortic
J:104611 Moore-Scott BA, Manley NR, Differential expression of Sonic hedgehog along the anterior-posterior axis regulates patterning of pharyngeal pouch endoderm and pharyngeal endoderm-derived organs. Dev Biol. 2005 Feb 15;278(2):323-35 ...
A conserved feature of all vertebrate embryos is the presence of a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the head, the pharyngeal arches; it is within these structures that the nerves, muscles and skeletal components of the pharyngeal apparatus are laid down.[well established][VHOG]. ...
A conserved feature of all vertebrate embryos is the presence of a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the head, the pharyngeal arches; it is within these structures that the nerves, muscles and skeletal components of the pharyngeal apparatus are laid down.[well established][VHOG]. ...
First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon and comprise 1%-8% of all branchial cleft anomalies.1 They often present in the first two decades of life and present a clinical challenge as they can easily be misdiagnosed and thus inappropriately treated. They are thought to arise as a result of developmental abnormalities of the branchial apparatus and may take the form of a cyst, sinus, or fistula.2. Clinically they may present with repeated episodes of infection of the lesion. This may manifest itself with a cystic swelling or discharge from a fistulous opening either pre-auricularly or post-auricularly, in the cheek, or high in the neck. A thorough otological examination should be performed in all cases and may reveal a pit visible in the external canal at the site of entrance of a sinus or fistula. Such a lesion may result in otorrhoea or otitis externa with infective exacerbations. The meatus may be found to be partially or completely obstructed by bulging of the canal wall because of a ...
Thymic cyst: a fourth branchial cleft anomaly.: We report a unique case of a fourth branchial cleft cyst found within the thymus of an adult patient. In the lit
Trans-oral endoscopic approach to exposure of a type IV branchial cleft anomaly sinus tract in the left piriform recess and closure using cauterization and tisseel application. Contributors:Yi-Chun Carol Liu
Neural crest cells are a group of temporary, multipotent (can give rise to some other types of cells but not all) cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube (precursor to the spinal cord and brain) and therefore are found at the dorsal (top) region of the neural tube during development. They are derived from the ectoderm germ layer, but are sometimes called the fourth germ layer because they are so important and give rise to so many other types of cells. They migrate throughout the body and create a large number of differentiated cells such as neurons, glial cells, pigment-containing cells in skin, skeletal tissue cells in the head, and many more. Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ridge above the pharyngeal arches) and then into the 3rd, 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). They extend from the otic placodes (the structure in developing embryos that ...
Mutant mice mimic the craniofacial phenotypes of jaw dysplasia, micrognathia, dysplastic temporomandibular joints, auricular dysmorphism, and missing of the squamosal zygomatic process. Mutant EdnraY129F mice also exhibit hearing impairment in line with strong abnormalities of the ossicles and further, reduction of some lung volumetric parameters. In general, heterozygous and homozygous mice demonstrated inter-individual diversity of expression of the craniofacial phenotypes. Many of these phenotypes were also observed or described for MFDA patients. Thus the mutant EdnraY129F mice seem to be a valuable viable model for complex human syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches, the understanding of the human MFDA syndrome and for the development of therapeutic interventions. Sibylle Sabrautzki, Michael A. Sandholzer, Bettina Lorenz-Depiereux, Robert Brommage, Gerhard Przemeck, Ingrid L. Vargas Panesso, Alexandra Vernaleken, Lillian Garrett, Katharina Baron, Ali O. Yildirim, Jan Rozman, ...
Genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrate that Endothelin1 (Edn1) is a key signaling molecule for patterning the facial skeleton in fish, chicks, and mice. When Edn1 function is reduced early in development the ventral lower jaw and supporting structures are reduced in size and often fused to their dorsal upper jaw counterparts. We show that schmerle (she) encodes a zebrafish ortholog of Phospholipase C, beta 3 (Plcbeta3) required in cranial neural crest cells for Edn1 regulation of pharyngeal arch patterning. Sequencing and co-segregation demonstrates that two independent she (plcbeta3) alleles have missense mutations in conserved residues within the catalytic domains of Plcbeta3. Homozygous plcbeta3 mutants are phenotypically similar to edn1 mutants and exhibit a strong arch expression defect in Edn1-dependent Distalless (Dlx) genes as well as expression defects in several Edn1-dependent intermediate and ventral arch domain transcription factors. plcbeta3 also genetically interacts with ...
Neural crest cells are a type of migratory cells that are responsible for the formation of many different anatomical structures...
The muscles of the head can be grouped into two categories: the muscles of mastication (masticatory muscles), which are derivatives of the first pharyngeal arch, and the muscles of facial expression (facial muscles), which are derivatives of the second pharyngeal arch.
Neural crest cell migration in the hindbrain is segmental, with prominent streams of migrating cells adjacent to rhombomeres (r) r2, r4 and r6, but not r3 or r5. This migratory pattern cannot be explained by the failure of r3 and r5 to produce neural crest, since focal injections of the lipophilic dye, DiI, into the neural folds clearly demonstrate that all rhombomeres produce neural crest cells. Here, we examine the dynamics of hindbrain neural crest cell emigration and movement by iontophoretically injecting DiI into small numbers of cells. The intensely labeled cells and their progeny were repeatedly imaged using low-light-level epifluorescence microscopy, permitting their movement to be followed in living embryos over time. These intravital images definitively show that neural crest cells move both rostrally and caudally from r3 and r5 to emerge as a part of the streams adjacent to r2, r4, and/or r6. Within the first few hours, cells labeled in r3 move within and/or along the dorsal neural ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β1-integrin is a cell-autonomous factor mediating the Numb pathway for cardiac progenitor maintenance. AU - Gibbs, Brian C.. AU - Shenje, Lincoln. AU - Andersen, Peter. AU - Miyamoto, Matthew. AU - Kwon, Chulan. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Proper control of multipotent/stem cell number and fate is essential for ensuing organ formation during development. β1-integrin, a subfamily of cell surface receptors, has a conserved role in maintenance of multipotent/stem cells, including renal progenitor cells, follicle stem cells, epidermal stem cells and neural stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether β1-integrin has a role in cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) development. Here we show that a mesodermal deletion of β1-integrin decreases Isl1+ cell number in the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), where CPCs undergo renewal and expansion. Mesp1 lineage-specific mosaicism revealed that β1-integrin-deleted Isl1+ cells do not proliferate in the PA2. Consistently, β1-integrin-deleted ...
Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in pharyngeal and rectal swab samples of a cat seropositive for adenovirus and suffering from transient hepatic failure. The samples were taken at a one-year interval, and both faecal samples as well as the second pharyngeal sample were positive in ... read more PCR performed with general adenovirus primers. The size of the amplified products corresponded to that of the positive control. The identity of the amplicons was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The 301 bp long hexon gene fragment was very similar to but distinguishable from the corresponding hexon sequence of human adenovirus type 2. This result suggests the possibility of persistent carrier status and shedding of adenovirus in cats. show less ...
The arches caudal to the sixth branchial arch are not well developed in human embryos. The embryonic region caudal to the sixth arch becomes an important transition zone between head and trunk anatomy and is also near the emergence point of the superior limb bud. The somitomeric tissue that contributes to the muscles of these caudal arches migrates to form two important muscles, the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, which link the head and pectoral girdle of the upper limb. Both of the muscles are innervated by the accessory nerve ...
Thymic organogenesis is a precisely regulated process during which inductive interactions among epithelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cells are indispensable for organ development (reviewed in Refs. 1 and 2). Formation of the early thymic primordium is initiated at approximately embryonic day (E)511, as the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm forms an epithelial bud that becomes encompassed by neural crest mesenchyme of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches (3, 4). Signaling between cells of epithelial and mesenchymal origin is a general principle that governs the development of many organ systems. However, thymic organogenesis is unique in that signals derived from cells of hematopoietic as well as mesenchymal origin are required to induce proper differentiation of the epithelial compartment (5, 6, 7, 8, 9).. Programmed differentiation of epithelial cells in skin and other tissues is accompanied by changes in keratin expression pattern. The keratin superfamily of intermediate filament ...
During development neural crest cells give rise to a wide variety of specialized cell types in response to cytokines from surrounding tissues. Depending on the cranial-caudal level of their origin, different populations of neural crest cells exhibit
Principal Investigator:YAMASHITA Noriko, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
There is currently a deficiency in understanding the events that effect proper cardiovascular development. The long-term goal is to define these events in molec...
വർണകോശത്തിന്റെ വേർതിരിയലിൽ ഉള്ള തകരാറ് മൂലവും ഭ്രൂണാവസ്ഥയിൽ വർണകോശം ന്യൂറൽ ക്രെസ്റ്റിൽ( neural crest) നിന്ന് തൊലി, മുടി, തൂവൽ തുടങ്ങിയവയിലേക്ക് കുടിയേറുന്നതിലുള്ള തകരാറുകൾ മൂലം ഉണ്ടാകുന്ന സ്ഥൂലരൂപമാണ് ല്യൂക്കിസം. ശരീര ഉപരിതലം ഇത് പൂർണമായോ ഭാഗികമായോ വർണവസ്തുക്കൾ ഉൽപ്പാദിപ്പിക്കാൻ കഴിവുള്ള കോശങ്ങൾ ഇല്ലാതാകുന്നതിന് ഇടയാക്കുന്നു. എല്ലാ വർണവസ്തുക്കളും വിവിധ ശേഷികളുള്ള ഒരേ ...
Chromosome 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions cause the most common deletion syndrome, including the DiGeorge syndrome phenotype. Using a mouse model of this deletion (named Df1) we show that the aortic arch patterning defects that occur in heterozygously deleted mice (Df1/+) are associated with a differentiation impairment of vascular smooth muscle in the 4th pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) during early embryogenesis. Using molecular markers for neural crest, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle, we show that cardiac neural crest migration into the 4th arch and initial formation of the 4th PAAs are apparently normal in Df1/+ embryos, but affected vessels are growth-impaired and do not acquire vascular smooth muscle. As in humans, not all deleted mice present with cardiovascular defects at birth. However, we found, unexpectedly, that all Df1/+ embryos have abnormally small 4th PAAs during early embryogenesis. Many embryos later overcome this early defect, coincident with the appearance of ...
Neural crest cells were transplanted from one position in the body to another position. They developed into neural crest derivates from their new position. Neural crest cells are apparently pluripotent, as they give rise to the cell types expected from the position to which they have been transplanted.. For example, any neural crest cell can give rise to parasympathetic ganglia if transplanted to a certain position. Thus, neural crest cells must respond to environmental cues during their migration and subsequent differentiation. These environmental cues are often identical to the cues used by axons. ...
The Ontology of Craniofacial Development and Malformation (OCDM) is a mechanism for representing knowledge about craniofacial development and malformation, and for using that knowledge to facilitate integrating craniofacial data obtained via multiple techniques from multiple labs and at multiple levels of granularity. The OCDM is a project of the NIDCR-sponsored FaceBase Consortium, whose goal is to promote and enable research into the genetic and epigenetic causes of specific craniofacial abnormalities through the provision of publicly accessible, integrated craniofacial data ...
Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST)z5091101Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST) This project is coming along very well. Perhaps consider using a few more references as your list seems short. Also, I did like the use of a video but ideally it should be very short. I dont feel that many people will actually watch a 9 minute video. Perhaps a stop motion clip or a flow chart summary could replace this to make it easy to understand? Overall this is great work and seems to be a rather complex topic. Keep it up group 4. Z5164785 Some editing required for the formatting (introduction, development of the cardiovascular system etc) Good use of the video- excellent aid for later understanding of what you guys discuss! Great research exhibited in the cardiac neural crest cells section; an image to go beside it would be great. References need to be formatted correctly so that they aret displayed in the written information. I like how early development has been broken down. However, how ...
Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST)z5091101Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST) This project is coming along very well. Perhaps consider using a few more references as your list seems short. Also, I did like the use of a video but ideally it should be very short. I dont feel that many people will actually watch a 9 minute video. Perhaps a stop motion clip or a flow chart summary could replace this to make it easy to understand? Overall this is great work and seems to be a rather complex topic. Keep it up group 4. Z5164785 Some editing required for the formatting (introduction, development of the cardiovascular system etc) Good use of the video- excellent aid for later understanding of what you guys discuss! Great research exhibited in the cardiac neural crest cells section; an image to go beside it would be great. References need to be formatted correctly so that they aret displayed in the written information. I like how early development has been broken down. However, how ...
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J:155248 Song L, Li Y, Wang K, Zhou CJ, Cardiac neural crest and outflow tract defects in Lrp6 mutant mice. Dev Dyn. 2009 Aug 24;239(1):200-210 ...
A cancer of specialised nerve cells called neural crest cells. These cells are involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues.
Mutations in the DHODH gene cause Miller syndrome. This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. This enzyme is involved in producing pyrimidines, which are building blocks of DNA, its chemical cousin RNA, and molecules such as ATP and GTP that serve as energy sources in the cell. Specifically, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase converts a molecule called dihydroorotate to a molecule called orotic acid. In subsequent steps, other enzymes modify orotic acid to produce pyrimidines.. Miller syndrome disrupts the development of structures called the first and second pharyngeal arches. The pharyngeal arches are five paired structures that form on each side of the head and neck during embryonic development. These structures develop into the bones, skin, nerves, and muscles of the head and neck. In particular, the first and second pharyngeal arches develop into the jaw, the nerves and muscles for chewing and facial expressions, the bones in the middle ear, and the ...
Second branchial cleft remnants account for the majority of branchial cleft abnormalities. Embryologically, the second arch overgrows the second, third, and fourth branchial clefts. This process results in expansion of the second branchial cleft into an elongated common cavity, called the cervical sinus of His, which is obliterated shortly after its formation. Various degrees of incomplete closure of the sinus lead to anomalies of the second branchial cleft. Anomalies can occur anywhere along an embryologically defined tract that extends from the external opening, the anterior border of the junction of the middle and lower thirds of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, passes between the internal and external carotid arteries superficial to cranial nerves IX and XII, and enters the oropharyngeal tonsillar fossa (1, 2). The parapharyngeal space is a very rare location for a branchial cleft cyst. This rare location superior to the tonsillar fossa can best be explained by the fact that a second ...
In a large-scale screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish, we identified 48 mutations in 34 genetic loci specifically affecting craniofacial development. Mutants were analyzed for abnormalities in the cartilaginous head skeleton. Further, the expression of marker genes was studied to investigate potential abnormalities in mutant rhombencephalon, neural crest, and pharyngeal endoderm. The results suggest that the identified mutations affect three distinct aspects of craniofacial development. In one group, mutations affect the overall pattern of the craniofacial skeleton, suggesting that the genes are involved in the specification of these elements. Another large group of mutations affects differentiation and morphogenesis of cartilage, and may provide insight into the genetic control of chondrogenesis. The last group of mutations leads to the abnormal arrangement of skeletal elements and may uncover important tissue-tissue interactions underlying jaw development. ...
Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by regulating cell speed. Collectively, our results identify DAN as a novel factor ...
Branchial cleft cysts are the most common congenital neck mass, they appear in early adulthood, usually as painless slow-growing neck swelling as in this patient. Complications include haemorrhage and secondary infection.
Because of its unique ability to generate a wide variety of both neural and nonneural derivatives, the neural crest is an ideal model system to study the factors regulating cell lineage decisions in stem and progenitor cells. The use of various cell culture techniques and in vivo functional assays, including cell type-specific gene manipulation in mouse, helped to identify signaling factors involved in this process. Moreover, it became apparent that the biological functions of growth factors acting on neural crest cells depend on the context provided by the extracellular microenvironment. Thus, signaling molecules have to be viewed as parts of complex networks that change with time and location. Neural crest cells have to integrate these signals to ensure the generation of appropriate numbers of differentiating progeny. It will be important to determine how such signaling networks are established and how they elicit multiple signaling responses in neural crest cells to activate appropriate ...
Neural Crest Cell Emigration and Migration Neural crest cells are among the most migratory cell type in vertebrate embryos. We are characterizing the machinery responsible for neural crest cell movement, the nature of the neural crest epithelial to mesenchymal transition to form a migratory cell type and the role of the migratory environment in influencing migratory pathway choices. A variety of cell labeling techniques, including DiI-labeling, microsurgical grafts and confocal time-lapse microscopy, are used to follow the pathways of neural crest migration in in a number of vertebrate species. ...
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The member of Rho family of small GTPases Cdc42 plays important and conserved roles in cell polarity and motility. The Cdc42ep family proteins have been identified to bind to Cdc42, yet how they interact with Cdc42 to regulate cell migration remains to be elucidated. In this study, we focus on Cdc42ep1, which is expressed predominantly in the highly migratory neural crest cells in frog embryos. Through morpholino-mediated knockdown, we show that Cdc42ep1 is required for the migration of cranial neural crest cells. Loss of Cdc42ep1 leads to rounder cell shapes and the formation of membrane blebs, consistent with the observed disruption in actin organization and focal adhesion alignment. As a result, Cdc42ep1 is critical for neural crest cells to apply traction forces at the correct place to migrate efficiently. We further show that Cdc42ep1 is localized to two areas in neural crest cells: in membrane protrusions together with Cdc42 and in perinuclear patches where Cdc42 is absent. Cdc42 directly ...
The maxillary nerve is the second branch of the trigeminal nerve, which originates embryologically from the first pharyngeal arch. Its primary function is sensory supply to the mid third of the face.
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Gene regulatory network model of cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) development, adaped from PMID: 19575671. Most interactions in the model are proposed to regulate transcription of core factors involved involved in neural crest and downstream progenitor specification. Transcriptional regulation arrows are proposed to promote transcription, unless a graphical T-bar is present at the end of the arrow (commented to be inhibitors of transcriptional regulation). Additional gene information was obtained from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53143 ...
0012]In order to solve the problems discussed above, the invention provides a brain cooling device, characterized by including: a first storage portion capable of storing therein a cooled fluid and placeable in an esophagus of an organism when inserted orally or transnasally; a second storage portion to be placed at a pharyngeal region of the organism while the first storage portion is placed in the esophagus of the organism and capable of storing therein the cooled fluid; and infusion and discharge means provided so as to extend from the first and second storage portions for fusing the fluid into the first and second storage portions placed in the organism from outside a body of the organism and discharging the fluid from the first and second storage portions, wherein the first and second storage portions have flexibility to inflate or deflate in response to infusion or discharge of the fluid and are configured in such a manner that when the fluid is infused therein while placed in the ...
Small molecule microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are coming up with a huge impact on the scientific world of therapeutics and diagnostics
Orbital cartilage encircles the eye giving strength and support to the neural retina. It is derived from cranial neural crest cells (NCCs), cells that can generate a number of cell types including neurons, glia, and melanocytes. Uniquely in the head, NCCs also make skeletal derivatives that form the majority of the craniofacial skeleton. Differentiation of NCCs into cartilage requires inductive interactions between NCCs and the local environment. The nature of these interactions is largely unknown. We hypothesise that formation of the eye socket requires interactions between the eye and the NCCs during early development. This is supported by evidence in animals and humans where lack of eyes (anophthalmia) or formation of small eyes (microphthalmia) result in craniofacial abnormalities. Orbital cartilage is found in the majority of vertebrates but the ability to induce it has been lost to mammals. A comparison of chick and mouse should help us determine which tissues and molecules are necessary for this
Definition of neural crest in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is neural crest? Meaning of neural crest as a legal term. What does neural crest mean in law?
A baby is born with a cleft palate and a condition called DiGeorge syndrome, which involves failure of third and fourth pharyngeal pouch derivatives to develop properly. The palate defect is corrected surgically, but regarding the pharyngeal pouch defect the parents are advised that the growing ...
A human embryo of the fourth week. I, the chorion; 3, part of the amnion; 4, umbilical vesicle with its long pedicle passing into the abdomen; 7, the heart; 8, the liver; 9, the visceral arch destined to form the lower jaw, beneath which are two other visceral arches separated by the branchial clefts; 10, rudiment of the upper extremity, 11, that of the lower extremity; 12, the umbilical cord; 15, the eye; 16, the ear; 17, cerebral hemispheres; 18, optic lobes, corpora quadrigemina.. ...
Question - Had right molars taken out due to pain in lower jaw. The pain has reoccurred. Cure? . Ask a Doctor about when and why X ray is advised, Ask a Dentist
Question - Have painful lump on upper and lower jaw. Periodontal cleaning done. Easy way to get cure?. Ask a Doctor about when and why X ray is advised, Ask a Dentist
Zebrafish-striped fish a few centimeters long-have the ability to regrow up to 20 percent of their hearts after sustaining major damage. Now, Caltech scientists have discovered that embryonic cells from the hindbrain, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endoscopic cauterization for treatment of fourth branchial cleft sinuses. AU - Jordan, Jennifer A.. AU - Graves, Joe E.. AU - Manning, Scott C.. AU - McClay, John E.. AU - Biavati, Michael J.. PY - 1998/9. Y1 - 1998/9. N2 - Fourth branchial cleft sinuses are rare, and the nature of their origin is controversial. Clinical presentation is varied because they may present as asymptomatic neck masses, recurrent neck abscesses, or suppurative thyroiditis. We describe herein 7 children who presented with abscesses on the left side of their necks, 3 of whom had abscesses that involved the thyroid gland. Direct laryngoscopy revealed that all 7 children had a sinus tract opening into the apex of the piriform sinus. Endoscopic obliteration of this tract was achieved using an insulated electrocautery probe either when the abscess was initially incised and drained or 4 to 6 weeks later. All 7 children recovered uneventfully. Four of the 7 children were followed up for more than 18 months ...
A pharyngeal pouch is an out-pouching or pocket (diverticulum) that develops from the posterior wall of the pharynx just above the entrance to the oesophagus (gullet). The pouch may develop as the result of a lack of co-ordination in timing and muscle tone within the sphincter muscle at the top of the oesophagus (cricopharyngeus muscle) During the act of swallowing, the muscles of the pharynx contract and pressure in the pharynx increases. If the cricopharyngeus muscle does not open at the appropriate time, pressure builds up immediately above it and the pharyngeal mucosa may herniate through a potential weakness in the posterior wall of the pharynx at Killians dehiscence, between the cricopharyngeus and thyropharyngeus muscles. This results in the development of the pouch.. Patients usually present with symptoms in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Symptoms of pharyngeal pouch vary and small pouches may cause no symptoms at all. However, pouches may give rise to difficulty in swallowing, ...
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays multiple roles in the development of the anterior craniofacial skeleton. We show that the earliest function of Hh is indirect, regulating development of the stomodeum, or oral ectoderm. A subset of post-migratory neural crest cells, that gives rise to the cartilages of the anterior neurocranium and the pterygoid process of the palatoquadrate in the upper jaw, condenses upon the upper or roof layer of the stomodeal ectoderm in the first pharyngeal arch. We observe that in mutants for the Hh co-receptor smoothened (smo) the condensation of this specific subset of crest cells fails, and expression of several genes is lost in the stomodeal ectoderm. Genetic mosaic analyses with smo mutants show that for the crest cells to condense the crucial target tissue receiving the Hh signal is the stomodeum, not the crest. Blocking signaling with cyclopamine reveals that the crucial stage, for both crest condensation and stomodeal marker expression, is at the end of ...
A laryngeal-mask airway device including provision for drainage of the oesophagus comprises an inflatable main-cuff and a backplate having a laryngeal-side and a pharyngeal-side. The backplate also has an external tube-joint adjacent to the proximal region of the main-cuff. The backplate is hermetically bonded to the periphery of the main-cuff establishing separation between a laryngeal-chamber region and a pharyngeal region. An distally open evacuation tube includes a distal portion which longitudinally traverses the interior of the distal region of the main-cuff in sealed relation therewith for operative engagement and communication with the inlet of the oesophagus. The evacuation tube traverses the laryngeal-chamber region generally adjacent to the laryngeal-side of the backplate and passages through a proximally located tube-joint to the pharyngeal region. An airway tube also extends into the tube-joint for communication with an airway port to provide a flowpath between the airway tube and laryngeal
April 21st, 2015 at 12:42 pm Update 04/21/15:. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/16/24. BMC Fam Pract. 2015 Feb 25;16(1):24. The effectiveness of high dose zinc acetate lozenges on various common cold symptoms: a meta-analysis.. BACKGROUND: A previous meta-analysis found that high dose zinc acetate lozenges reduced the duration of common colds by 42%, whereas low zinc doses had no effect. Lozenges are dissolved in the pharyngeal region, thus there might be some difference in the effect of zinc lozenges on the duration of respiratory symptoms in the pharyngeal region compared with the nasal region. The objective of this study was to determine whether zinc acetate lozenges have different effects on the duration of common cold symptoms originating from different anatomical regions.. METHODS: We analyzed three randomized trials on zinc acetate lozenges for the common cold administering zinc in doses of 80-92 mg/day. All three trials reported the effect of zinc on seven respiratory symptoms, and ...
The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Craniofacial Morphogenesis and Tissue Regeneration will be held in Lucca (Barga), Italy. Apply today to reserve your spot.
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in Archives of Toxicology (in press). Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the ... [more ▼]. Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the migration-inhibition of NCC (cMINC) assay, a large number of toxicity mechanisms and protein targets can be covered. However, the key events that lead to the adverse effects of a given chemical or group of related compounds are hard to elucidate. To address this issue, we explored here, whether the establishment of two overlapping structure-activity relationships (SAR)-linking chemical structure on the one hand to a phenotypic test outcome, and on the other hand to a mechanistic endpoint-was useful as strategy to identify relevant toxicity mechanisms. ...
in Archives of Toxicology (in press). Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the ... [more ▼]. Migration of neural crest cells (NCC) is a fundamental developmental process, and test methods to identify interfering toxicants have been developed. By examining cell function endpoints, as in the migration-inhibition of NCC (cMINC) assay, a large number of toxicity mechanisms and protein targets can be covered. However, the key events that lead to the adverse effects of a given chemical or group of related compounds are hard to elucidate. To address this issue, we explored here, whether the establishment of two overlapping structure-activity relationships (SAR)-linking chemical structure on the one hand to a phenotypic test outcome, and on the other hand to a mechanistic endpoint-was useful as strategy to identify relevant toxicity mechanisms. ...
Pharyngeal raphe: | | | |Pharyngeal raphe| | | | | ||... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
NeurocristopathiesNeurocristopathies are a class of pathologies, or disorders, in vertebrates, including humans, that result from abnormal expression, migration, differentiation, or death of neural crest cells (NCCs) during embryonic development. NCCs are cells
Dr. Wens laboratory has recently identified a myeloid-like cell population in zebrafish epidermis. This newly identified myeloid-like cell population, designated as metaphocytes, are of ectodermal origin but shares high similarities with mesoderm-derived conventional macrophages in the skin.. ...
Within the hindbrain region, neural crest cell migration is organized into three streams that follow the segmentation of the neuroepithelium into distinct rhombomeric compartments. Although the streaming of neural crest cells is known to involve signals derived from the neuroepithelium, the molecular properties underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, we have mapped the expression of the signaling component of two secreted class III Semaphorins, Semaphorin (Sema) 3A and Sema 3F, at time points that correspond to neural crest cell migration within the hindbrain region of the chick. Both Semaphorins are expressed within rhombomeres at levels adjacent to crest-free mesenchyme and expression of the receptor components essential for Semaphorin activity by neural crest cells suggests a function in restricting neural crest cell migration. By using bead implantation and electroporation in ovo, we define a role for both Semaphorins in the maintenance of neural crest cell streams in proximity to the
Like the stylopharyngeus muscle of the third arch, the muscles of the fourth arch retain their embryonic position in the wall of the pharynx. The muscles are divided into two muscle groups, the three constrictor muscles of the pharynx proper and their anterior extension the cricothyroideus and the muscles of the soft palatal septum at the anterior aspect of the pharynx. The constrictor muscles form a semicircular arch of muscle in the posterior and lateral walls of the pharynx. When they contract they narrow, or constrict, the pharynx and help to initiate the swallowing reflex. The palatal muscles are small slips of muscle that converge posterior to the hard palate to form the muscular substance of the soft palate. The principal function of this musculature is to tense and raise the palate against the roof of the pharynx. This closes the posterior nasal aperture and prevents food and drink from entering the nasal cavity. The vagus nerve is the nerve supply to all of the muscles of the fourth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of a Kit-negative cell line of melanocyte precursors from mouse neural crest cells. AU - Kawa, Yoko. AU - Soma, Yoshinao. AU - Nakamura, Masayuki. AU - Ito, Masaru. AU - Kawakami, Tamihiro. AU - Baba, Takako. AU - Sibahara, Kuniko. AU - Ohsumi, Kayoko. AU - Ooka, Shiho. AU - Watabe, Hidenori. AU - Ono, Hirotake. AU - Hosaka, Eri. AU - Kimura, Satoko. AU - Kushimoto, Tsuneto. AU - Mizoguchi, Masako. PY - 2005/6. Y1 - 2005/6. N2 - We previously established a mouse neural crest cell line named NCCmelb4, which is positive for Kit and negative for tyrosinase. NCCmelb4 cells were useful to study the effects of extrinsic factors such as retinoic acids and vitamin D3 on melanocyte differentiation, but in order to study the development of melanocytes from multipotent neural crest cells, cell lines of melanocyte progenitors in earlier developmental stages are needed. In the present study, we established an immortal cell line named NCC-melb4M5 that was derived from NCCmelb4 ...
Craniofacial development is a highly dynamic and hierarchical process that involves multiple gene regulatory networks, distinct embryonic lineages, and reciprocal signaling interactions among cells and tissues. Mechanisms that orchestrate the various aspects of this complex process and ultimately enable the neural, skeletal, muscular, vascular, and epidermal components of the head to become structurally and functionally integrated, remain unclear. Our research focuses on the role of one progenitor population, the neural crest, during craniofacial development. Neural crest cells originate along the dorsal margins of the neural tube, and they migrate extensively throughout the head. Their derivatives include dermis, cartilages, bones, and tendons, and they interact extensively with non-neural crest-derived elements such as blood vessels, osteoclasts, muscles, epidermis, and nerves. To determine the extent to which neural crest cells regulate the size, shape, and integration of craniofacial ...
Looking for online definition of pharyngeal raphe in the Medical Dictionary? pharyngeal raphe explanation free. What is pharyngeal raphe? Meaning of pharyngeal raphe medical term. What does pharyngeal raphe mean?
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The University of Hasselt announced today that Belgian and Dutch scientists have successfully replaced a lower jaw with a 3D printed model for a 83 year-old woman. According to the researchers, It is the first custom-made implant in the world to replace an entire lower jaw.. The lower jaw of the elderly woman was badly infected and needed to be removed. Considering the age of the patient, a "classical" microsurgical reconstructive surgery takes too long time and can be risky. Therefore a tailor-made implant is the best choice.. The artificial jaw is slightly heavier than a natural jaw, but the patient can easily get used to it ...
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The diagnosis of a thyroglossal duct cyst is often apparent when it presents with typical findings. We report a case of a 6 year-old girl with a low-lying thyroglossal duct cyst presenting with recurrent lateral cervical discharge without palpable mass, thus mimicking a second branchial cleft fistula. CT scan differentiated the lesion from a second branchial cleft fistula, and a standard Sistrunk procedure cured the lesion. In patients who show lateral cervical discharge without definite mass, therefore mimicking a second branchial cleft fistula, a low-lying thyroglossal duct cyst should be considered.
In pharyngeal pouch surgery, the relatively new technique of endoscopic stapling diverticulotomy has a number of advantages over more traditional surgical treatments, such as Dohlmans procedure and open pouch excision, and now seems to be the procedure of choice. However, a number of iatrogenic perforations and deaths have been reported with this procedure. We present three cases of iatrogenic perforations occurring during endoscopic stapling of a pharyngeal pouch by different surgeons in our unit, and review the management, causes and prevention of this potentially life-threatening complication ...
In vitro studies have shown that the phorbol ester, 12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces neural crest cell differentiation into melanocytes, and stimulates proliferation and differentiation of normal melanocytes. As TPA is not a physiological agent, its action is clearly mimicking some in vivo pathway involved in these processes. An understanding of the effect of TPA on the expression of melanogenic genes will therefore provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating melanocyte differentiation. In this study, we utilized primary cultures of neural crest cells and an immortalized melanocyte cell line (DMEL-2) which proliferates in the absence of TPA, to explore the effects of TPA on key melanogenic effectors. In neural crest cells, TPA was found to be necessary for both microphthalmia associated transcription factor (Mitf) up-regulation and for melanin synthesis. Using northern blots, we show that in DMEL-2 cells, TPA significantly increases the messenger ribonucleic acid
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. The trunk neural crest has long been considered of particular significance. First, it has been held that the trunk neural crest has a morphogenetic role, acting to coordinate the development of the peripheral nervous system, secretory cells of the endocrine system and pigment cells of the skin. Second, the trunk neural crest additionally has skeletal potential. However, it has been demonstrated that a key role of the trunk neural crest streams is to organize the innervation of the intestine. Although trunk NCCs have a limited capacity for self-renewal, sometimes they become neural-crest-derived tumor cells and reveal the fact that that NCCs and tumor cells share the same molecular machinery. In this review we describe the routes taken by trunk NCCs and consider the signals and cues that pattern these trajectories. We also discuss recent
The morphology of the lower jaw and teeth of the legless lizard Pseudopus apodus (Anguimorpha, Anguidae, Anguinae) from Eurasia are described in detail and compared with those of other species of the subfamily Anguinae. The lower jaw anatomy of Pseudopus, especially the dentary and teeth, clearly differs from the genera Ophisaurus and Anguis. Even so, Ophisaurus is largely uniform in its lower jaw morphology across species. The teeth of North American Ophisaurus are slender cylinders, the shafts are mesiodistally compressed and bulge lingually; the apices are curved lingually and posteriorly and have weakly developed cutting edges. Southeast Asian and North African Ophisaurus present conical teeth, with broadened bases, apices more distinctly curved lingually and posteriorly, and cutting edges that are distinctly developed. The lingual surfaces of the tooth apices are striated in Ophisaurus and Pseudopus. The lower jaw of Ophisaurus is in many respects similar to that in Anguis, however, the ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Mammalian Nck1 and Nck2 are closely related adaptor proteins that possess three SH3 domains, followed by an SH2 domain, and are implicated in coupling phosphotyrosine signals to polypeptides that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. However, the in vivo functions of Nck1 and Nck2 have not been defined. We have mutated the murine Nck1 and Nck2 genes and incorporated β-galactosidase reporters into the mutant loci. In mouse embryos, the two Nck genes have broad and overlapping expression patterns. They are functionally redundant in the sense that mice deficient for either Nck1 or Nck2 are viable, whereas inactivation of both Nck1 and Nck2 results in profound defects in mesoderm-derived notochord and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 9.5. Fibroblast cell lines derived from Nck1−/− Nck2−/− embryos have defects in cell motility and in the organization of the lamellipodial actin network. These data suggest that the Nck SH2/SH3 adaptors have important functions in the development of mesodermal ...
Q: What is DiGeorge syndrome?A: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of some of the genes on chromosome 22. There is a lot of variability in how patients are affected by this syndrome, with the manifestations in an individual person depending on exactly which genes are deleted.DGS affects about one in every 5,000 babies. Although DGS may be inherited (in a dominant fashion, so if either parent has it there is a 50 percent chance the child will inherit it), over
Q: What is DiGeorge syndrome?A: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of some of the genes on chromosome 22. There is a lot of variability in how patients are affected by this syndrome, with the manifestations in an individual person depending on exactly which genes are deleted.DGS affects about one in every 5,000 babies. Although DGS may be inherited (in a dominant fashion, so if either parent has it there is a 50 percent chance the child will inherit it), over
Q: What is DiGeorge syndrome?A: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of some of the genes on chromosome 22. There is a lot of variability in how patients are affected by this syndrome, with the manifestations in an individual person depending on exactly which genes are deleted.DGS affects about one in every 5,000 babies. Although DGS may be inherited (in a dominant fashion, so if either parent has it there is a 50 percent chance the child will inherit it), over
Below is a picture of chicken embryos. On the left, unoperated. The right two frames show degrees of synophthalmia and holoprosencephaly (with reduction of forebrain tissue) in cephalic neural crest-ablated subjects. The forebrain territory itself had not been operated. This demonstrates that neural crest cells are vital to the survival of the telencephalon and much of the diencephalon. The effect is a phenocopy of interfering with the Sonic hedgehog signaling cascade either through gene mutations or teratogen exposure. No one cites this work very much because a colleague at the time carried it further and published in 2004. I just posted it so I could copy the link over to my blog. This image gives you an overview of what it discusses. ...
My lower jaw and back molar hurts terribly when I bite down, and when I leave my mouth slack my jaw has kind of a dull throb. This started in today.
Specimen was originally recorded as belonging to the Genus "Trinacromerum" by Betsy Nicholls in the 1992 original paper catalogue. Later, after preparation of the lower jaws, it was identified by Jim Garnder as "Dolichorhynchops". Further investigation by CFDC Curator Anita-Maria Janzic at the time of this specimens entry into the CFDC digital database confirmed the specimen as "Dolichorhynchops ...
Make room for placement of dental implants to the lower jaw with a nerve repositioning procedure from Dr. Nigalye in Niagara Falls. ☎ 716-276-3553
In 2009, FaceBase was launched in response to the need for more comprehensive analysis of craniofacial development: with so much craniofacial data being ge
Alcohol (ethanol) is a teratogen known to have diverse effects on brain and craniofacial development. Recent studies provide strong support for interference wit...
0098 0. A novel role for cardiac neural crest in heart development. Indd 35 05. The development of cutaneous malignancies in irradiated skin also is a serious long-term risk wгrk this treatment modality.
Information on this website is obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov. Using this information is subject to ClinicalTrials.govs Terms and Conditions ...
We are excited to announce a new partnership agreement with CellScope, Inc. to showcase videos taken with the CellScope Oto in ReelDx video case studies. The CellScope Oto offers a new approach to visualizing the ear by converting your smartphone …. Continue reading. ...
Check out the Oldox history and family crest/coat of arms. Free Search. Explore the Oldox family history for the English Origin. What is the origin of the name Oldox?
Check out the Wightworthay history and family crest/coat of arms. Free Search. Explore the Wightworthay family history for the English Origin. What is the origin of the name Wightworthay?
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Pattern of the branchial arches. I-IV branchial arches, 1-4 branchial pouches (inside) and/or pharyngeal grooves (outside). a ... Duct not labeled, but arises nearest to region identified as 'pyramidal lobe') ...
"A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head". Nature. 353 (6347): 861-4. doi:10.1038/353861a0. PMID ...
The ecological impact of B. viollaceus in this region remains unknown. Zooids are embedded in a transparent tunic and are all ... These tunicates usually have 8 branchial tentacles and 11 rows of stigmata. Gittenberger, Arjan (2015). "Botrylloides violaceus ...
They have triangular spines and well-defined gastric and branchial regions internally. Snow crabs also have little granules ... Another commercially important species, introduced deliberately to the same region, the red king crab, already has established ... and the stock of this region likely will reach levels similar to eastern Canada in the future. The species was first described ... along the border of their bodies, except their intestinal region. Concerning their walking legs, their first three are ...
There are grainy transverse ridges present on frontal, protogastric, mesogastric and branchial regions. There are six prominent ... Charybdis hellerii has a native range which encompasses the Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea and the east coast of Africa ...
... is a small, roughly diamond-shaped crab, with noticeably bulbous branchial regions. The carapace is wider than ...
John S.P Lumley and Anil K. D'Cruz). Branchial cysts and other essays on surgical subjects in the facio-cervical region (1929 ...
Their tough cuticle and their distinct branchial region with strongly tufted branchiae are characteristic. Abarenicola Wells, ... There are branchiae present on some of the setigers in the middle or posterior regions. Apart from the genus Branchiomaldane, ... The arenicolids are characterised by an elongated cylindrical body separated into two or three distinct regions. The prostomium ...
The long branchial region has up to 54 pairs of gill pores opening dorsally. It is followed by an esophageal region with a ... Posterior to this is a dark-coloured hepatic region and a long greyish intestinal region. This is transparent and the gut is ... Though generally cylindrical, the body is divided into several distinct regions, having a short cream-coloured, extendible ...
The tentacles of the branchial crown are used as gills and as a way of capturing food. Galeolaria build and live within white ... These tubes may be found singly or in complex interwoven colonies, forming a distinctive zone at the mid tidal regions. They ... The body is symmetrical, with a branchial crown made up of two lobes, one holding a stalked operculum. The operculum is winged ...
The carapace is relatively smooth, with small granules and pits on the branchial, cardiac, and gastric regions; hepatic regions ...
... and branchial regions; its hepatic region is smooth; protogastric region inflated in large specimens, especially in females. ... The anterior part of the carapace is predominantly purple, its branchial regions tan and its legs yellowish. It has a wide ... The carapace of females is more strongly arched from front to back and the protogastric regions are noticeably more inflated. ... the hepatic region of the carapace in C. granulatus is coarsely granular, whereas it is smooth in C. bicolor. Juvenile ...
"Branchio" refers to the branchial arches, also known as the pharyngeal arches, of the affected individual. The branchial arches ... "Facial" refers to the face; those affected can have several abnormalities in that region. These abnormalities include a cleft ... In individuals affected by this condition, the branchial arches fail to develop properly. This leads to some of the physical ... AP-2 alpha is especially important during the embyros development principally in the development of the branchial arches. ...
One of the more typical adaptations of apple snails is the branchial respiration. The snail has a system comparable to the ... Nevertheless, apple snails are considered a delicacy in several regions of the world, and they are often sold in East and ... Apple snails are exceptionally well adapted to tropical regions characterized by periods of drought alternating with periods of ... a disease that affects over 200 million people in tropical regions. One of the species introduced as bio-agent is Marisa ...
The larvae are aquatic, active, armed with strong sharp mandibles, and breathe by means of abdominal branchial filaments. When ... in the Upper Mississippi River region fill the air on a few summer nights each year much like mayflies in certain regions of ...
Its epibranchial region is bulbous, and it bears at least one transverse ridge in the protogastric, hepatic or branchial region ...
There are six to seven gill rakers on the lower limb of the first branchial arch. T. kimberleyensis can reach up to about 12.6 ... Toxotes kimberleyensis is a species of archerfish found in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. It was first named by ... T. oligolepis has longer dorsal spines overall than those observed in the Kimberley region population. The third dorsal spine ... The specific name kimberleyensis refers to the Kimberley region of western Australia, where the species is localized. T. ...
... is expressed in the first and second branchial arches, in the limb buds, mouth and nasal pits, in the trunk, the forebrain ... These genes are involved in osteoblast and lymphocyte differentiation through their interaction with the Osr1 promoter region. ... By day 10.5, the branchial arch and limbs also begin to express Osr1. Osr1 regulates atrial septum formation in the heart. Osr1 ...
The frontal region is beige-cream and covered in many short setae. Walking legs have a dactylus of 3.7-4.3 times as long as ... Their branchial openings are partially covered by maxillipeds, and have asymmetrical chelipeds with stiff, brown-black spines ...
It is a region of histologically disparate cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral ... This nucleus gives rise to the branchial efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve (CN X) terminating in the laryngeal, ...
The body cavity has a separate compartment in each of the first three regions of the body, and extends into the tentacles. The ... The anterior end is called the cephalic lobe, which bears from 1 to over 200 thin branchial ciliated tentacles, each bearing ... Their body is divided into four regions; the obturaculum, vestimentum, trunk, and opisthosome. The obturaculum is the first ... and often break off when a tubeworm is removed from hypothermal vent regions. It is unsure how long the roots of the tube worms ...
... branchial) sinus via crevices (lacunae) and channels (sinus). After its oxygenation the hemolymph is returning to the ... emanate from the heart and run to the respective organs and body regions. After having left the arteries and having washed ...
... the branchial arches. Weston JA, Yoshida H, Robinson V, Nishikawa S, Fraser ST, Nishikawa S (2004). "Neural crest and the ... or conversely arising from neural crest cells The neural crest is a critical group of cells that form in the cranial region ...
... branchial region MeSH A16.254.270 --- cleavage stage, ovum MeSH A16.254.270.274 --- blastula MeSH A16.254.270.550 --- morula ...
... with an enormously expanded head and branchial region (containing the gills) coupled with a slender, cylindrical body tapering ... The enlarged gill region and expanded gill filaments of the lollipop catshark suggest that it is adapted for living in deep-sea ...
... es inhabit various regions of the ocean, including coral reefs, pelagic waters, and the seabed; some live in the ... Before reaching the branchial heart, each branch of the vena cava expands to form renal appendages which are in direct contact ... During osmoregulation, fluid is added to the pericardia of the branchial hearts. The octopus has two nephridia (equivalent to ... Octopuses have three hearts; a systemic heart that circulates blood round the body and two branchial hearts that pump it ...
On presentation to the ear, nose, and throat clinic, there was a cystic swelling in the right post-auricular region inferiorly ... First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon and comprise 1%-8% of all branchial cleft anomalies.1 They often present in the ... They are thought to arise as a result of developmental abnormalities of the branchial apparatus and may take the form of a cyst ... May M, DAngelo A. The facial nerve and the branchial cleft: surgical challenge. Laryngoscope1989;99:564-5. ...
Pattern of the branchial arches. I-IV branchial arches, 1-4 branchial pouches (inside) and/or pharyngeal grooves (outside). a ... Duct not labeled, but arises nearest to region identified as pyramidal lobe) ...
Furthermore, anteromedial displacement of the internal carotid artery is frequently present with schwannomas in this region and ... Branchial cleft cysts are the most common neck masses in adults. Most are second branchial cleft cysts, which occur in the neck ... Second branchial cleft remnants account for the majority of branchial cleft abnormalities. Embryologically, the second arch ... consistent with a branchial cleft cyst (Fig 1F). The mass was identified as an infected second branchial cleft cyst. Gradual ...
... radiology and common disorders and branchial arches flashcards from ... The pharyngeal arches are a system of mesenchymal proliferations in the neck region of the embryo. How may of them are there? ... Week 2- osteology, radiology and common disorders and branchial arches Flashcards Preview Head and Neck , Week 2- osteology, ... Slight dislocation may not damage the spinal cord due to the large vertebral canal in the cervical region ...
What is branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst? Meaning of branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous ... What does branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst mean? ... branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst in the Medical Dictionary? ...
... region marked by arrows), the neural tube within caudal trunk sections. Although HNK-1 is also expressed in this region, it ... Sox9 and AP-2α signal occur within the NCC-populated cranial mesenchyme or branchial arches (A-B, D-E); panel in (D) is a ... Panels in (E-P) are higher power images of boxed regions in (A-D). NCC-derived DRGs are positive for Pax3 (A, E), p75NTR (A, E ... Images in (E-K) are magnifications of boxed regions in (A-D); image in (L) is from the contralateral side of the section shown ...
View mouse Aspscr1 Chr11:120672973-120709447 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Weak nuchal grooves present above branchial region. Pectoral fins of "macroceanic" type with straight and very broad tips. ...
"A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head". Nature. 353 (6347): 861-4. doi:10.1038/353861a0. PMID ...
The ecological impact of B. viollaceus in this region remains unknown. Zooids are embedded in a transparent tunic and are all ... These tunicates usually have 8 branchial tentacles and 11 rows of stigmata. Gittenberger, Arjan (2015). "Botrylloides violaceus ...
They have triangular spines and well-defined gastric and branchial regions internally. Snow crabs also have little granules ... Another commercially important species, introduced deliberately to the same region, the red king crab, already has established ... and the stock of this region likely will reach levels similar to eastern Canada in the future. The species was first described ... along the border of their bodies, except their intestinal region. Concerning their walking legs, their first three are ...
... second branchial membrane (sb); atrial heart chamber (ac); vitelline artery (va); bulbus cordis heart region (bc); pericardio- ... Labels: neuroepithelium (ne); first branchial arch (fb); ...
There are grainy transverse ridges present on frontal, protogastric, mesogastric and branchial regions. There are six prominent ... Charybdis hellerii has a native range which encompasses the Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea and the east coast of Africa ...
1 First branchial cleft malformation develops more often near the ear and parotid gland than the hyoid region. ... First branchial cleft anomalies are associated with the parotid gland, as closure of the branchial clefts is concurrent with ... regions. Anomalies frequently become infected. An inflammatory process in the region of Pochets triangle should immediately ... and the external layer of the tympanic membrane are the structures derived from the first branchial cleft.3 First branchial ...
What is the clitellum of earthworms and where it is located? The clitellum is a special region of the annelid made up of rings ... Respiration in annelids can be cutaneous or branchial. Cutaneous respiration occurs through the large amount of veins under the ... Respiratory system: cutaneous or branchial. with dioecious and monoecious species. a ventral and a dorsal one. such as nereis ...
Ebalia tumefacta is a small, roughly diamond-shaped crab, with noticeably bulbous branchial regions. The carapace is wider than ...
John S.P Lumley and Anil K. DCruz). Branchial cysts and other essays on surgical subjects in the facio-cervical region (1929 ...
Their tough cuticle and their distinct branchial region with strongly tufted branchiae are characteristic. Abarenicola Wells, ... There are branchiae present on some of the setigers in the middle or posterior regions. Apart from the genus Branchiomaldane, ... The arenicolids are characterised by an elongated cylindrical body separated into two or three distinct regions. The prostomium ...
The long branchial region has up to 54 pairs of gill pores opening dorsally. It is followed by an esophageal region with a ... Posterior to this is a dark-coloured hepatic region and a long greyish intestinal region. This is transparent and the gut is ... Though generally cylindrical, the body is divided into several distinct regions, having a short cream-coloured, extendible ...
2. - Structure of branchial region.. bc, coelom.. tb, tongue-bars.. ds, mesentery.. pr, ridge.. vv, vessel.. gp, gill-pore.. dn ... Special thickenings of the diffuse nervous layer of the epidermis occur in certain regions and along certain lines. In the neck ... region of the proboscis, through the neck into the proboscis-coelom, ending blindly in front. Although an integral portion of ... but an interesting concentration of nerve-cells and fibres has taken place in the collar-region, where a medullary tube, closed ...
It indicates the anterior region of body.. Plate 1, figs. F, I. Branchial fold. The wall of the branchial sac that folds on ... Branchial orifice. The same as the branchial aperature.. Plate 2, fig. B; Plate 4, figs. G, H. Branchial papillae. Expansions ... Branchial opening. The same as the branchial aperature.. Plate 1, figs. G, H; Plate 2, fig. G; Plate 3, figs. A, B, D, G; Plate ... The same as branchial siphon.. Infundibula Each of the conical projections of the branchial sac facing the lumen of the ...
The 3.9 kb region upstream of the Er71 transcription start site was fused to the EYFP reporter (Fig. 1A). This promoter ... al, allantois; ba, branchial arch; bi, blood island; cc, cardiac crescent; cv, cardinal vein; da, dorsal artery; ec, ... A select number of EYFP-positive cells are found within this region; however, these cells are Pdgfra- (supplementary material ... Boxed regions are shown at higher magnification; planes of sections are indicated. See first section of the Results for a ...
Intestinal and branchial regions moderately granulated. Protogastric, hepatic, and pterygostomial regions smooth, except for ... Intestinal and branchial regions sparsely covered with granules; metabranchial bump strong, crested with acute granules. ... Metagastric and urogastric regions swollen, crested with rounded granules. Cardiac region with two distinct humps, placed side ... Mesogastric region slightly lower than gastric one, with few small granules. Metagastric, urogastric, and cardiac regions ...
The tentacles of the branchial crown are used as gills and as a way of capturing food. Galeolaria build and live within white ... These tubes may be found singly or in complex interwoven colonies, forming a distinctive zone at the mid tidal regions. They ... The body is symmetrical, with a branchial crown made up of two lobes, one holding a stalked operculum. The operculum is winged ...
The carapace is relatively smooth, with small granules and pits on the branchial, cardiac, and gastric regions; hepatic regions ...
  • Pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) is an anomaly that can arise due to failure of involution of the third or fourth branchial cleft during embryogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Crucial to patterning of this brain region is an early transient subdivision of the neural tube into repeated morphological units, termed rhombomeres (r). (biologists.org)
  • Melanorivulus is diagnosed by an apomorphic morphology of preopercle, and derived colour patterns of male postorbital region and female unpaired fins, and includes species from southern Amazonian tributaries, Parana-Paraguay river system, and Parnaiba and Sao Francisco river basins. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • C) At E7.5 Twist1 transcript expression overlaps with the distribution of Rosa26R-positive mesodermal cells shown in (B). (D) At headfold stage (E8.0) Twist1 expression is detected in the cranial mesoderm underlying the neural epithelium (E: magnification of boxed area in D). (F) Expression of Twist1 protein in the same region at headfold stage. (nih.gov)
  • It is either like the mesenchyme, arising from mesodermic cells, or conversely arising from neural crest cells The neural crest is a critical group of cells that form in the cranial region during early vertebrate development. (wikipedia.org)
  • First branchial cleft malformations are often under recognized and mistaken for other inflammatory lesions in the periauricular and cervical region. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Oto-facio-cervical (OFC) syndrome is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving EYA1: molecular analysis confirms allelism with BOR syndrome and further narrows the Duane syndrome critical region to 1 cM. (nih.gov)
  • The line of separation between these two white areas form meanwhile a "T". Difference can also be made by their ventral coloration, the reef manta ray has a white belly with often spots between the branchial gill slits and other spots spread across trailing edge of pectoral fins and abdominal region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emx1 is not only limited to the telencephalon, rather it is also expressed in branchial patterns and in the apical ectodermal ridge of the developing limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show the NC origin of the opercular bones and of multiple cell types contributing to the barbels, chemosensory organs located in the mouth region. (biologists.org)
  • The paraxial mesoderm that contributes to the posteriormost region of the skull (including the otic capsule, the occipital, part of the sphenoid and post-orbital bones) covers only the midbrain and hindbrain. (biologists.org)
  • The structure of the JAG1 protein includes a small intracellular component, a transmembrane motif, proceeded by an extracellular region containing a cystine-rich region, 16 EGF-like repeats, a DSL domain, and finally a signal peptide totaling 1218 amino acids in length over 26 coding exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • TdIF1 is another protein that interacts with TdT to inhibit its function by masking the DNA binding region of the TdT polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • One N-linked, glycosylation consensus sequence was identified in the protein coding region as well as an odd number of half cysteine residues, the latter of which would allow for interchain bonding or dimerisation of monomeric subunits. (wikipedia.org)