A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.
The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
Defective development of the THYROID GLAND. This concept includes thyroid agenesis (aplasia), hypoplasia, or an ectopic gland. Clinical signs usually are those of CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.
The condition of a pattern of malignancies within a family, but not every individual's necessarily having the same neoplasm. Characteristically the tumor tends to occur at an earlier than average age, individuals may have more than one primary tumor, the tumors may be multicentric, usually more than 25 percent of the individuals in direct lineal descent from the proband are affected, and the cancer predisposition in these families behaves as an autosomal dominant trait with about 60 percent penetrance.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.
A rare developmental defect in which the heart is abnormally located partially or totally outside the THORAX. It is the result of defective fusion of the anterior chest wall. Depending on the location of the heart, ectopia cordis can be thoracic, thoracoabdominal, abdominal, and cervical.
A sudden CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA (e.g., VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION) caused by a blunt, non-penetrating impact to the precordial region of chest wall. Commotio cordis often results in sudden death without prompt cardiopulmonary defibrillation.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.

Selective expression of purinoceptor cP2Y1 suggests a role for nucleotide signalling in development of the chick embryo. (1/438)

Responses to extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, etc.) have been demonstrated in a number of embryonic cell types suggesting they may be important signalling molecules during embryonic development. Here the authors describe for the first time the expression of a G-protein-coupled receptor for extracellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1), during embryonic development of the chick. During the first 10 days of embryonic development, cP2Y1 is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in the limb buds, mesonephros, brain, somites, and facial primordia, suggesting that this receptor may have a role in the development of each of these systems.  (+info)

Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (2/438)

Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb.  (+info)

Regulation of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest cells involves members of the AP-2 family. (3/438)

Hoxa2 is expressed in cranial neural crest cells that migrate into the second branchial arch and is essential for proper patterning of neural-crest-derived structures in this region. We have used transgenic analysis to begin to address the regulatory mechanisms which underlie neural-crest-specific expression of Hoxa2. By performing a deletion analysis on an enhancer from the Hoxa2 gene that is capable of mediating expression in neural crest cells in a manner similar to the endogenous gene, we demonstrated that multiple cis-acting elements are required for neural-crest-specific activity. One of these elements consists of a sequence that binds to the three transcription factor AP-2 family members. Mutation or deletion of this site in the Hoxa2 enhancer abrogates reporter expression in cranial neural crest cells but not in the hindbrain. In both cell culture co-transfection assays and transgenic embryos AP-2 family members are able to trans-activate reporter expression, showing that this enhancer functions as an AP-2-responsive element in vivo. Reporter expression is not abolished in an AP-2(alpha) null mutant embryos, suggesting redundancy with other AP-2 family members for activation of the Hoxa2 enhancer. Other cis-elements identified in this study critical for neural-crest-specific expression include an element that influences levels of expression and a conserved sequence, which when multimerized directs expression in a broad subset of neural crest cells. These elements work together to co-ordinate and restrict neural crest expression to the second branchial arch and more posterior regions. Our findings have identified the cis-components that allow Hoxa2 to be regulated independently in rhombomeres and cranial neural crest cells.  (+info)

Chick Barx2b, a marker for myogenic cells also expressed in branchial arches and neural structures. (4/438)

We have isolated a new chicken gene, cBarx2b, which is related to mBarx2 in sequence, although the expression patterns of the two genes are quite different from one another. The cBarx2b gene is expressed in craniofacial structures, regions of the neural tube, and muscle groups in the limb, neck and cloaca. Perturbation of anterior muscle pattern by application of Sonic Hedgehog protein results in a posteriorization of cBarx2b expression.  (+info)

The role of SF/HGF and c-Met in the development of skeletal muscle. (5/438)

Hypaxial skeletal muscles develop from migratory and non-migratory precursor cells that are generated by the lateral lip of the dermomyotome. Previous work shows that the formation of migratory precursors requires the c-Met and SF/HGF genes. We show here that in mice lacking c-Met or SF/HGF, the initial development of the dermomyotome proceeds appropriately and growth and survival of cells in the dermomyotome are not affected. Migratory precursors are also correctly specified, as monitored by the expression of Lbx1. However, these cells remain aggregated and fail to take up long range migration. We conclude that parallel but independent cues converge on the migratory hypaxial precursors in the dermomyotomal lip after they are laid down: a signal given by SF/HGF that controls the emigration of the precursors, and an as yet unidentified signal that controls Lbx1. SF/HGF and c-Met act in a paracrine manner to control emigration, and migratory cells only dissociate from somites located close to SF/HGF-expressing cells. During long range migration, prolonged receptor-ligand-interaction appears to be required, as SF/HGF is expressed both along the routes and at the target sites of migratory myogenic progenitors. Mice that lack c-Met die during the second part of gestation due to a placental defect. Rescue of the placental defect by aggregation of tetraploid (wild type) and diploid (c-Met-/-) morulae allows development of c-Met mutant animals to term. They lack muscle groups that derive from migratory precursor cells, but display otherwise normal skeletal musculature.  (+info)

Connexin 43 expression reflects neural crest patterns during cardiovascular development. (6/438)

We used transgenic mice in which the promoter sequence for connexin 43 linked to a lacZ reporter was expressed in neural crest but not myocardial cells to document the pattern of cardiac neural crest cells in the caudal pharyngeal arches and cardiac outflow tract. Expression of lacZ was strikingly similar to that of cardiac neural crest cells in quail-chick chimeras. By using this transgenic mouse line to compare cardiac neural crest involvement in cardiac outflow septation and aortic arch artery development in mouse and chick, we were able to note differences and similarities in their cardiovascular development. Similar to neural crest cells in the chick, lacZ-positive cells formed a sheath around the persisting aortic arch arteries, comprised the aorticopulmonary septation complex, were located at the site of final fusion of the conal cushions, and populated the cardiac ganglia. In quail-chick chimeras generated for this study, neural crest cells entered the outflow tract by two pathways, submyocardially and subendocardially. In the mouse only the subendocardial population of lacZ-positive cells could be seen as the cells entered the outflow tract. In addition lacZ-positive cells completely surrounded the aortic sac prior to septation, while in the chick, neural crest cells were scattered around the aortic sac with the bulk of cells distributed in the bridging portion of the aorticopulmonary septation complex. In the chick, submyocardial populations of neural crest cells assembled on opposite sides of the aortic sac and entered the conotruncal ridges. Even though the aortic sac in the mouse was initially surrounded by lacZ-positive cells, the two outflow vessels that resulted from its septation showed differential lacZ expression. The ascending aorta was invested by lacZ-positive cells while the pulmonary trunk was devoid of lacZ staining. In the chick, both of these vessels were invested by neural crest cells, but the cells arrived secondarily by displacement from the aortic arch arteries during vessel elongation. This may indicate a difference in derivation of the pulmonary trunk in the mouse or a difference in distribution of cardiac neural crest cells. An independent mouse neural crest marker is needed to confirm whether the differences are indeed due to species differences in cardiovascular and/or neural crest development. Nevertheless, with the differences noted, we believe that this mouse model faithfully represents the location of cardiac neural crest cells. The similarities in location of lacZ-expressing cells in the mouse to that of cardiac neural crest cells in the chick suggest that this mouse is a good model for studying mammalian cardiac neural crest and that the mammalian cardiac neural crest performs functions similar to those shown for chick.  (+info)

Mutations in the zebrafish unmask shared regulatory pathways controlling the development of catecholaminergic neurons. (7/438)

The mechanism by which pluripotent progenitors give rise to distinct classes of mature neurons in vertebrates is not well understood. To address this issue we undertook a genetic screen for mutations which affect the commitment and differentiation of catecholaminergic (CA) [dopaminergic (DA), noradrenergic (NA), and adrenergic] neurons in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The identified mutations constitute five complementation groups. motionless and foggy affect the number and differentiation state of hypothalamic DA, telencephalic DA, retinal DA, locus coeruleus (LC) NA, and sympathetic NA neurons. The too few mutation leads to a specific reduction in the number of hypothalamic DA neurons. no soul lacks arch-associated NA cells and has defects in pharyngeal arches, and soulless lacks both arch-associated and LC cell groups. Our analyses suggest that the genes defined by these mutations regulate different steps in the differentiation of multipotent CA progenitors. They further reveal an underlying universal mechanism for the control of CA cell fates, which involve combinatorial usage of regulatory genes.  (+info)

13-cis-Retinoic acid alters neural crest cells expressing Krox-20 and Pax-2 in macaque embryos. (8/438)

This study investigates hindbrain and associated neural crest (NCC), otocyst, and pharyngeal arch development in monkey embryos following teratogenic exposure to 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA). cRA was orally administered (5 mg/kg) to pregnant long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) between gestational days (GD) 12 and 27. Embryos were surgically collected at desired stages during treatment, analyzed for external morphological changes, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Two transiently expressed nuclear proteins, Krox-20 and Pax-2, were used as markers for the target cellular and anatomical structures. Rhombomere (r) expression patterns of Pax-2 (r4/r6) and Krox-20 (r3/r5) were maintained after cRA treatment, but r4 and r5 were substantially reduced in size. In untreated embryos, Krox-20 immunoreactive NCC derived from r5 migrated caudally around the developing otocyst to contribute to the third pharyngeal arch mesenchyme. In cRA-treated embryos, a subpopulation of NCC rostral to the otocyst also showed Krox-20 immunoreactivity, but there was a substantial reduction in Krox-20 post-otic NCC. Pax-2 immunoreactive NCC migrating from r4 to the second pharyngeal arch were substantially reduced in numbers in treated embryos. Alteration in the otic anlage included delayed invagination, abnormal relationship with the adjacent hindbrain epithelium, and altered expression boundaries for Pax-2. cRA-associated changes in the pharyngeal arch region due to cRA included truncation of the distal portion of the first arch and reduction in the size of the second arch. These alterations in hindbrain, neural crest, otic anlage, and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis could contribute to some of the craniofacial malformations in the macaque fetus associated with exposure to cRA.  (+info)

The spatial distribution of the cranial paraxial mesoderm and the neural crest cells during craniofacial morphogenesis of the mouse embryo was studied by micromanipulative cell grafting and cell labelling. Results of this study show that the paraxial mesoderm and neural crest cells arising at the same segmental position share common destinations. Mesodermal cells from somitomeres I, III, IV and VI were distributed to the same craniofacial tissues as neural crest cells of the forebrain, the caudal midbrain, and the rostral, middle and caudal hindbrains found respectively next to these mesodermal segments. This finding suggests that a basic meristic pattern is established globally in the neural plate ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm during early mouse development. Cells from these two sources mixed extensively in the peri-ocular, facial, periotic and cervical mesenchyme. However, within the branchial arches a distinct segregation of these two cell populations was discovered. Neural crest cells ...
Combined intrinsic and extrinsic influences pattern cranial neural crest migration and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis in axolotl Journal Article ...
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The formation and transformation of the pharyngeal arch arteries in the mouse embryo, from 8.5 to 13 days of gestation (DG), was observed using scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts and graphic reconstruction of 1-microm serial epoxy-resin sections. Late in 8.5-9DG (12 somites), the paired …
The pharyngeal arches -also known as visceral arches-are structures seen in the embryonic development of vertebrates that are recognisable precursors for many structures. In fish the arches are known as the branchial arches or gill arches. In the human embryo, the arches are first seen during the fourth week of development. They appear as a series of outpouchings of mesoderm on both sides of the developing pharynx. The vasculature of the pharyngeal arches is known as the aortic arches. In fish, the branchial arches support the gills. In vertebrates, the pharyngeal arches are derived from all three germ layers (the primary layers of cells that form during embryogenesis).Neural crest cells enter these arches where they contribute to features of the skull and facial skeleton such as bone and cartilage. However, the existence of pharyngeal structures before neural crest cells evolved is indicated by the existence of neural crest-independent mechanisms of pharyngeal arch development. The first, most ...
Internal carotid artery Right vagus nerve Figure 11.35 A. Aortic arches and dorsal aortae before transformation into the definitive vascular pattern. B. Aortic
Anatomy,Physiology,Biochemistry,Pharmacology,Pathology ,Microbiology , General Medicine, General Surgery 5000 MCQs 300 High Yield Topics 200 Hours Online Video
The pattern of skeletal structures and muscles in the branchial region of the head is profoundly influenced by the neural crest, whose cells arise at discrete segmental levels of the chick hindbrain: specifically, rhombomeres (r)1+2, r4 and r6, whereas r3 and r5 are crest-depleted. We have demonstra …
J:104611 Moore-Scott BA, Manley NR, Differential expression of Sonic hedgehog along the anterior-posterior axis regulates patterning of pharyngeal pouch endoderm and pharyngeal endoderm-derived organs. Dev Biol. 2005 Feb 15;278(2):323-35 ...
A conserved feature of all vertebrate embryos is the presence of a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the head, the pharyngeal arches; it is within these structures that the nerves, muscles and skeletal components of the pharyngeal apparatus are laid down.[well established][VHOG]. ...
A conserved feature of all vertebrate embryos is the presence of a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the head, the pharyngeal arches; it is within these structures that the nerves, muscles and skeletal components of the pharyngeal apparatus are laid down.[well established][VHOG]. ...
First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon and comprise 1%-8% of all branchial cleft anomalies.1 They often present in the first two decades of life and present a clinical challenge as they can easily be misdiagnosed and thus inappropriately treated. They are thought to arise as a result of developmental abnormalities of the branchial apparatus and may take the form of a cyst, sinus, or fistula.2. Clinically they may present with repeated episodes of infection of the lesion. This may manifest itself with a cystic swelling or discharge from a fistulous opening either pre-auricularly or post-auricularly, in the cheek, or high in the neck. A thorough otological examination should be performed in all cases and may reveal a pit visible in the external canal at the site of entrance of a sinus or fistula. Such a lesion may result in otorrhoea or otitis externa with infective exacerbations. The meatus may be found to be partially or completely obstructed by bulging of the canal wall because of a ...
Thymic cyst: a fourth branchial cleft anomaly.: We report a unique case of a fourth branchial cleft cyst found within the thymus of an adult patient. In the lit
Trans-oral endoscopic approach to exposure of a type IV branchial cleft anomaly sinus tract in the left piriform recess and closure using cauterization and tisseel application. Contributors:Yi-Chun Carol Liu
Neural crest cells are a group of temporary, multipotent (can give rise to some other types of cells but not all) cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube (precursor to the spinal cord and brain) and therefore are found at the dorsal (top) region of the neural tube during development. They are derived from the ectoderm germ layer, but are sometimes called the fourth germ layer because they are so important and give rise to so many other types of cells. They migrate throughout the body and create a large number of differentiated cells such as neurons, glial cells, pigment-containing cells in skin, skeletal tissue cells in the head, and many more. Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ridge above the pharyngeal arches) and then into the 3rd, 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). They extend from the otic placodes (the structure in developing embryos that ...
The first pharyngeal arch, also known as the mandibular arch, forms the jaw. The first pharyngeal arch gives rise to elements of the jaw, with the most anteriorly positioned cranial neural crest cells contributing to mandibular arch structures, including Meckels and palatoquadrate cartilages that constitute the lower and upper jaw respectively ...
Mutant mice mimic the craniofacial phenotypes of jaw dysplasia, micrognathia, dysplastic temporomandibular joints, auricular dysmorphism, and missing of the squamosal zygomatic process. Mutant EdnraY129F mice also exhibit hearing impairment in line with strong abnormalities of the ossicles and further, reduction of some lung volumetric parameters. In general, heterozygous and homozygous mice demonstrated inter-individual diversity of expression of the craniofacial phenotypes. Many of these phenotypes were also observed or described for MFDA patients. Thus the mutant EdnraY129F mice seem to be a valuable viable model for complex human syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches, the understanding of the human MFDA syndrome and for the development of therapeutic interventions. Sibylle Sabrautzki, Michael A. Sandholzer, Bettina Lorenz-Depiereux, Robert Brommage, Gerhard Przemeck, Ingrid L. Vargas Panesso, Alexandra Vernaleken, Lillian Garrett, Katharina Baron, Ali O. Yildirim, Jan Rozman, ...
Genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrate that Endothelin1 (Edn1) is a key signaling molecule for patterning the facial skeleton in fish, chicks, and mice. When Edn1 function is reduced early in development the ventral lower jaw and supporting structures are reduced in size and often fused to their dorsal upper jaw counterparts. We show that schmerle (she) encodes a zebrafish ortholog of Phospholipase C, beta 3 (Plcbeta3) required in cranial neural crest cells for Edn1 regulation of pharyngeal arch patterning. Sequencing and co-segregation demonstrates that two independent she (plcbeta3) alleles have missense mutations in conserved residues within the catalytic domains of Plcbeta3. Homozygous plcbeta3 mutants are phenotypically similar to edn1 mutants and exhibit a strong arch expression defect in Edn1-dependent Distalless (Dlx) genes as well as expression defects in several Edn1-dependent intermediate and ventral arch domain transcription factors. plcbeta3 also genetically interacts with ...
The majority of muscles in the head and associated pharynx and larynx develop from the mesodermal arches of tissue that surround the front end of the developing embryonic gut tube. The arches arise in a segmental series that begins near the developing mouth and extends caudally around the pharynx towards the developing heart region of the embryo. Each embryonic arch is a serial homologue that consists of a skeletal bar that supports the arch, muscle that surrounds the skeletal support of the arch, branches of the aorta that supply blood to the tissues of the arch, and a single dorsal cranial nerve that innervates the tissues of the arch. As development proceeds, the structural relationships established in each embryonic arch are retained in the final adult body plan. That is, the muscles form common groups within common fascial boundaries that share common actions and the nerve of the arch innervates all the muscles from that arch. For example, the trigeminal nerve, the nerve of the first ...
The majority of muscles in the head and associated pharynx and larynx develop from the mesodermal arches of tissue that surround the front end of the developing embryonic gut tube. The arches arise in a segmental series that begins near the developing mouth and extends caudally around the pharynx towards the developing heart region of the embryo. Each embryonic arch is a serial homologue that consists of a skeletal bar that supports the arch, muscle that surrounds the skeletal support of the arch, branches of the aorta that supply blood to the tissues of the arch, and a single dorsal cranial nerve that innervates the tissues of the arch. As development proceeds, the structural relationships established in each embryonic arch are retained in the final adult body plan. That is, the muscles form common groups within common fascial boundaries that share common actions and the nerve of the arch innervates all the muscles from that arch. For example, the trigeminal nerve, the nerve of the first ...
Migration and difference of cranial neural crest cells are mainly controlled by environmental cues, whereas pathfinding in the trunk area level is dictated by cell-autonomous molecular adjustments owing to early standards of the premigratory crest. level of somites 1, 2 and 3 migrate to the pharyngeal arches 3-6 and the output system of the center. We also observe aggregation of cells following to the sensory pipe, which possess been known to as the ganglionic crest of the cranial nerve IX and Back button (Kuratani et al., 1988). The sensory crest cells from somite-level 1-2 reach the anterior foregut (increasing posteriorly to the site where the laryngotracheal groove offers break up into the (22R)-Budesonide supplier esophagus and the lung pals), whereas the sensory crest cells from somite-level 3 reach the abdomen (at the forelimb level). Sensory crest Rabbit Polyclonal to IRF3 cells from the level of somite 4, by stage 20, combination into the ganglionic crest (as referred to above), ...
Neural crest cells are a type of migratory cells that are responsible for the formation of many different anatomical structures...
Aortic arch Artery: Aortic arch Plan of the branches. The arch of the aorta, and its branches. Latin arcus aortae Grays subject #142 547 Source ascending
The proposed pathways of chick cranial neural crest migration and their relationship to the rhombomeres of the hindbrain have been somewhat controversial, with differing results emerging from grafting and DiI-labelling analyses. To resolve this discrepancy, we have examined cranial neural crest migratory pathways using the combination of neurofilament immunocytochemistry, which recognizes early hindbrain neural crest cells, and labelling with the vital dye, DiI. Neurofilament-positive cells with the appearance of premigratory and early-migrating neural crest cells were noted at all axial levels of the hindbrain. At slightly later stages, neural crest cell migration in this region appeared segmented, with no neural crest cells obvious in the mesenchyme lateral to rhombomere 3 (r3) and between the neural tube and the otic vesicle lateral to r5. Focal injections of DiI at the levels of r3 and r5 demonstrated that both of these rhombomeres generated neural crest cells. The segmental distribution of ...
TY - THES. T1 - Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 signaling in the early development of the midbrain-hindbrain and pharyngeal region. AU - Trokovic, Ras. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. KW - aivot. KW - nielu. KW - kehitys. KW - alkionkehitys. KW - väitöskirjat. KW - embryologia. KW - aivot. KW - nielu. KW - kehitys. KW - alkionkehitys. KW - väitöskirjat. KW - embryologia. KW - aivot. KW - nielu. KW - kehitys. KW - alkionkehitys. KW - väitöskirjat. KW - embryologia. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. SN - 952-10-2296-5. T3 - Dissertationes bioscientiarum molecularium Universitatis Helsingiensis in Viikki. PB - University of Helsinki. CY - Helsinki. ER - ...
The muscles of the head can be grouped into two categories: the muscles of mastication (masticatory muscles), which are derivatives of the first pharyngeal arch, and the muscles of facial expression (facial muscles), which are derivatives of the second pharyngeal arch.
Sippy Cups can harm natural jaw development in your toddler Your childs future oral health is shaped by how they drink as a baby and toddler. What are
TY - JOUR. T1 - β1-integrin is a cell-autonomous factor mediating the Numb pathway for cardiac progenitor maintenance. AU - Gibbs, Brian C.. AU - Shenje, Lincoln. AU - Andersen, Peter. AU - Miyamoto, Matthew. AU - Kwon, Chulan. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Proper control of multipotent/stem cell number and fate is essential for ensuing organ formation during development. β1-integrin, a subfamily of cell surface receptors, has a conserved role in maintenance of multipotent/stem cells, including renal progenitor cells, follicle stem cells, epidermal stem cells and neural stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether β1-integrin has a role in cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) development. Here we show that a mesodermal deletion of β1-integrin decreases Isl1+ cell number in the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), where CPCs undergo renewal and expansion. Mesp1 lineage-specific mosaicism revealed that β1-integrin-deleted Isl1+ cells do not proliferate in the PA2. Consistently, β1-integrin-deleted ...
Adenoviral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in pharyngeal and rectal swab samples of a cat seropositive for adenovirus and suffering from transient hepatic failure. The samples were taken at a one-year interval, and both faecal samples as well as the second pharyngeal sample were positive in ... read more PCR performed with general adenovirus primers. The size of the amplified products corresponded to that of the positive control. The identity of the amplicons was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The 301 bp long hexon gene fragment was very similar to but distinguishable from the corresponding hexon sequence of human adenovirus type 2. This result suggests the possibility of persistent carrier status and shedding of adenovirus in cats. show less ...
Thymic organogenesis is a precisely regulated process during which inductive interactions among epithelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cells are indispensable for organ development (reviewed in Refs. 1 and 2). Formation of the early thymic primordium is initiated at approximately embryonic day (E)511, as the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm forms an epithelial bud that becomes encompassed by neural crest mesenchyme of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches (3, 4). Signaling between cells of epithelial and mesenchymal origin is a general principle that governs the development of many organ systems. However, thymic organogenesis is unique in that signals derived from cells of hematopoietic as well as mesenchymal origin are required to induce proper differentiation of the epithelial compartment (5, 6, 7, 8, 9).. Programmed differentiation of epithelial cells in skin and other tissues is accompanied by changes in keratin expression pattern. The keratin superfamily of intermediate filament ...
This protocol describes the isolation of satellite cells from branchiomeric head muscles of a 9 week-old rat. The muscles originate...
Nov 13, 2016 · evolution of jaw of human. According to Charles Darwin evolution is descent with modification Any feature acquired by organism in his life time is transmitted to its progeny with modification so that their offspring can survive in a better way.; According to Lamarck more use and disuse of any body part make it more specialised or atrophied It was the need of feeding that led to evaluation of jaw,. Chat With Support ...
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During development neural crest cells give rise to a wide variety of specialized cell types in response to cytokines from surrounding tissues. Depending on the cranial-caudal level of their origin, different populations of neural crest cells exhibit
Principal Investigator:YAMASHITA Noriko, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
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There is currently a deficiency in understanding the events that effect proper cardiovascular development. The long-term goal is to define these events in molec...
വർണകോശത്തിന്റെ വേർതിരിയലിൽ ഉള്ള തകരാറ് മൂലവും ഭ്രൂണാവസ്ഥയിൽ വർണകോശം ന്യൂറൽ ക്രെസ്റ്റിൽ( neural crest) നിന്ന് തൊലി, മുടി, തൂവൽ തുടങ്ങിയവയിലേക്ക് കുടിയേറുന്നതിലുള്ള തകരാറുകൾ മൂലം ഉണ്ടാകുന്ന സ്ഥൂലരൂപമാണ് ല്യൂക്കിസം. ശരീര ഉപരിതലം ഇത് പൂർണമായോ ഭാഗികമായോ വർണവസ്തുക്കൾ ഉൽപ്പാദിപ്പിക്കാൻ കഴിവുള്ള കോശങ്ങൾ ഇല്ലാതാകുന്നതിന് ഇടയാക്കുന്നു. എല്ലാ വർണവസ്തുക്കളും വിവിധ ശേഷികളുള്ള ഒരേ ...
Chromosome 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions cause the most common deletion syndrome, including the DiGeorge syndrome phenotype. Using a mouse model of this deletion (named Df1) we show that the aortic arch patterning defects that occur in heterozygously deleted mice (Df1/+) are associated with a differentiation impairment of vascular smooth muscle in the 4th pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) during early embryogenesis. Using molecular markers for neural crest, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle, we show that cardiac neural crest migration into the 4th arch and initial formation of the 4th PAAs are apparently normal in Df1/+ embryos, but affected vessels are growth-impaired and do not acquire vascular smooth muscle. As in humans, not all deleted mice present with cardiovascular defects at birth. However, we found, unexpectedly, that all Df1/+ embryos have abnormally small 4th PAAs during early embryogenesis. Many embryos later overcome this early defect, coincident with the appearance of ...
Neural crest cells were transplanted from one position in the body to another position. They developed into neural crest derivates from their new position. Neural crest cells are apparently pluripotent, as they give rise to the cell types expected from the position to which they have been transplanted.. For example, any neural crest cell can give rise to parasympathetic ganglia if transplanted to a certain position. Thus, neural crest cells must respond to environmental cues during their migration and subsequent differentiation. These environmental cues are often identical to the cues used by axons. ...
The Ontology of Craniofacial Development and Malformation (OCDM) is a mechanism for representing knowledge about craniofacial development and malformation, and for using that knowledge to facilitate integrating craniofacial data obtained via multiple techniques from multiple labs and at multiple levels of granularity. The OCDM is a project of the NIDCR-sponsored FaceBase Consortium, whose goal is to promote and enable research into the genetic and epigenetic causes of specific craniofacial abnormalities through the provision of publicly accessible, integrated craniofacial data ...
During development, cell fates are often specified in noisy and dynamic three-dimensional environments, which cells must navigate through, e.g. by migration. Examples include the formation of segments of the hindbrain and the pharyngeal arches, precursors of the jaw and larynx; these are largely composed of cranial neural crest cells, arising from distinct segmental positions in the hindbrain and migrating in streams through the head. While prevailing theories suggest that premigratory neural crest cells are pluripotent, relying on their migratory environment for fate specification, some lineage tracing studies have hinted at earlier pre-specification. It remains elusive when, where, and how neural crest cells acquire fate identities and robustly migrate to correct locations despite gene expression fluctuations within each cell, and fluctuations due to environmental signals. We study these stochastic dynamics in developmental systems. Heterogeneity is critical to robust environmental responses ...
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FUNCTION: This gene encodes a member of the endothelin family of peptides. The encoded preproprotein undergoes proteolytic processing to generate a peptide before secretion by the vascular endothelial cells. The mature peptide has various biological activities such as vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, stimulation of hormone release and modulation of central nervous activity. Mice lacking the encoded protein exhibit neonatal lethality accompanied with numerous craniofacial and cardiovascular defects due to disruption in cranial and cardiac neural crest cell patterning during early embryogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016 ...
Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST)z5091101Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST) This project is coming along very well. Perhaps consider using a few more references as your list seems short. Also, I did like the use of a video but ideally it should be very short. I dont feel that many people will actually watch a 9 minute video. Perhaps a stop motion clip or a flow chart summary could replace this to make it easy to understand? Overall this is great work and seems to be a rather complex topic. Keep it up group 4. Z5164785 Some editing required for the formatting (introduction, development of the cardiovascular system etc) Good use of the video- excellent aid for later understanding of what you guys discuss! Great research exhibited in the cardiac neural crest cells section; an image to go beside it would be great. References need to be formatted correctly so that they aret displayed in the written information. I like how early development has been broken down. However, how ...
Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST)z5091101Z5091101 (talk) 20:10, 3 October 2018 (AEST) This project is coming along very well. Perhaps consider using a few more references as your list seems short. Also, I did like the use of a video but ideally it should be very short. I dont feel that many people will actually watch a 9 minute video. Perhaps a stop motion clip or a flow chart summary could replace this to make it easy to understand? Overall this is great work and seems to be a rather complex topic. Keep it up group 4. Z5164785 Some editing required for the formatting (introduction, development of the cardiovascular system etc) Good use of the video- excellent aid for later understanding of what you guys discuss! Great research exhibited in the cardiac neural crest cells section; an image to go beside it would be great. References need to be formatted correctly so that they aret displayed in the written information. I like how early development has been broken down. However, how ...
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J:155248 Song L, Li Y, Wang K, Zhou CJ, Cardiac neural crest and outflow tract defects in Lrp6 mutant mice. Dev Dyn. 2009 Aug 24;239(1):200-210 ...
On the official site for the animated adaptation of the manga written and illustrated by Marimo Ragawa, Mashiro no Oto (Those Snow White Notes), the second
This is the community wiki page for the cranial neural crest please feel free to add any information that is relevant to this anatomy item that is not already captured elsewhere in Xenbase ...
A cancer of specialised nerve cells called neural crest cells. These cells are involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues.
Respiration is with the help of branchial sac. Water enters the body from the region of mouth or branchial aperture, passes ... The body proper has two projections-atrial and branchial siphons. Branchial siphon has a branchial or incurrent aperture or ...
"A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head". Nature. 353 (6347): 861-4. Bibcode:1991Natur.353..861H. ...
The ecological impact of B. violaceus in this region remains unknown. Zooids are embedded in a transparent tunic and connected ... These tunicates usually have 8 branchial tentacles and 11 rows of stigmata. Colonial ascidians are the only known chordates ...
They have triangular spines and well-defined gastric and branchial regions internally. Snow crabs also have little granules ... Another commercially important species, introduced deliberately to the same region, the red king crab, already has established ... and the stock of this region likely will reach levels similar to eastern Canada in the future. Since 2016, the snow crab is at ... along the border of their bodies, except their intestinal region. Concerning their walking legs, their first three are ...
Pattern of the branchial arches. I-IV branchial arches, 1-4 branchial pouches (inside) and/or pharyngeal grooves (outside). a ... Duct not labeled, but arises nearest to region identified as 'pyramidal lobe') ...
There are grainy transverse ridges present on frontal, protogastric, mesogastric and branchial regions. There are six prominent ... Charybdis hellerii has a native range which encompasses the Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea and the east coast of Africa ...
... is a small, roughly diamond-shaped crab, with noticeably bulbous branchial regions. The carapace is wider than ...
John S.P Lumley and Anil K. D'Cruz). Branchial cysts and other essays on surgical subjects in the facio-cervical region (1929 ...
Their tough cuticle and their distinct branchial region with strongly tufted branchiae are characteristic. Abarenicola Wells, ... There are branchiae present on some of the setigers in the middle or posterior regions. Apart from the genus Branchiomaldane, ... The arenicolids are characterised by an elongated cylindrical body separated into two or three distinct regions. The prostomium ...
The long branchial region has up to 54 pairs of gill pores opening dorsally. It is followed by an esophageal region with a ... Posterior to this is a dark-coloured hepatic region and a long greyish intestinal region. This is transparent and the gut is ... Though generally cylindrical, the body is divided into several distinct regions, having a short cream-coloured, extendible ...
A sliver of bone near the cheek region may represent a branchial element (gill bone). Preserved fragments of the shoulder ... The outer (marginal) tooth row was present solely on the dentary bone, which was narrow and had alternating regions of light ...
"Branchio" refers to the branchial arches, also known as the pharyngeal arches, of the affected individual. The branchial arches ... "Facial" refers to the face; those affected can have several abnormalities in that region. These abnormalities include a cleft ... In individuals affected by this condition, the branchial arches fail to develop properly. This leads to some of the physical ... AP-2 alpha is especially important during the embryos development principally in the development of the branchial arches. ...
The tentacles of the branchial crown are used as gills and as a way of capturing food. Galeolaria build and live within white ... These tubes may be found singly or in complex interwoven colonies, forming a distinctive zone at the mid tidal regions. They ... The body is symmetrical, with a branchial crown made up of two lobes, one holding a stalked operculum. The operculum is winged ...
The carapace is relatively smooth, with small granules and pits on the branchial, cardiac, and gastric regions; hepatic regions ...
... and branchial regions; its hepatic region is smooth; protogastric region inflated in large specimens, especially in females. ... The anterior part of the carapace is predominantly purple, its branchial regions tan and its legs yellowish. It has a wide ... The carapace of females is more strongly arched from front to back and the protogastric regions are noticeably more inflated. ... the hepatic region of the carapace in C. granulatus is coarsely granular, whereas it is smooth in C. bicolor. Juvenile ...
The larvae are aquatic, active, armed with strong sharp mandibles, and breathe by means of abdominal branchial filaments. When ... in the Upper Mississippi River region fill the air on a few summer nights each year much like mayflies in certain regions of ...
Its epibranchial region is bulbous, and it bears at least one transverse ridge in the protogastric, hepatic or branchial region ...
There are six to seven gill rakers on the lower limb of the first branchial arch. T. kimberleyensis can reach up to about 12.6 ... Toxotes kimberleyensis is a species of archerfish found in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. It was first named by ... T. oligolepis has longer dorsal spines overall than those observed in the Kimberley region population. The third dorsal spine ... The specific name kimberleyensis refers to the Kimberley region of western Australia, where the species is localized. T. ...
The frontal region is beige-cream and covered in many short setae. Walking legs have a dactylus of 3.7-4.3 times as long as ... Their branchial openings are partially covered by maxillipeds, and have asymmetrical chelipeds with stiff, brown-black spines ...
While its distribution is restricted to regions containing rivers such as the Volga and Northern Dvina, it is thought that ... It is known that Dvinosaurus featured a highly ossified branchial skeleton just posterior to the skull that would have provided ... Dvinosaurus is an extinct genus of amphibious temnospondyls localized to regions of western and central Russia during the Late ... Of note, Dvinosaurus' skull lacks an otic notch, while also featuring a noticeably elongated occipital region. Like other ...
It is a region of histologically disparate cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral ... This nucleus gives rise to the branchial efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve (CN X) terminating in the laryngeal, ...
The body cavity has a separate compartment in each of the first three regions of the body, and extends into the tentacles. The ... The anterior end is called the cephalic lobe, which bears from one to over 200 thin branchial ciliated tentacles, each bearing ... Their bodies are divided into four regions; the obturaculum, vestimentum, trunk, and opisthosome. The obturaculum is the first ... and often break off when a tubeworm is removed from hypothermal vent regions. How long the roots of the tube worms can grow is ...
... branchial) sinus via crevices (lacunae) and channels (sinus). After its oxygenation the hemolymph is returning to the ... emanate from the heart and run to the respective organs and body regions. After having left the arteries and having washed ...
Symptoms may include: Severe pain in perimastoid region Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) Sore throat Difficulty in ... Acute upper jugular lymphadenitis Abscess or mass in Lower part of parotid Infected branchial cyst Parapharyngeal abscess ...
The first body region is the vascularized branchial plume, which is bright red due to the presence of hemoglobin that contain ... The second body region is the vestimentum, formed by muscle bands, having a winged shape, and it presents the two genital ... In the posterior part, the fourth body region, is the opistosome, which anchors the animal to the tube and is used for the ... In the middle part, the trunk or third body region, is full of vascularized solid tissue, and includes body wall, gonads, and ...
... cephalic region or caput) and the thorax (thoracic region), the two regions being separated by the cervical groove; covered by ... segments Operculum or branchial operculum (plural opercula): One of the plates on the ventral surface of the abdomen, just in ... cephalic region Carapace: A hardened plate (sclerite) covering the upper (dorsal) portion of the cephalothorax; see also ... separated from the thoracic region by the cervical groove Cephalothorax or prosoma: One of the two main body parts (tagmata), ...
... branchial region MeSH A16.254.270 - cleavage stage, ovum MeSH A16.254.270.274 - blastula MeSH A16.254.270.550 - morula MeSH ...
... with an enormously expanded head and branchial region (containing the gills) coupled with a slender, cylindrical body tapering ... The enlarged gill region and expanded gill filaments of the lollipop catshark suggest that it is adapted for living in deep-sea ...
... but also by its very large head and branchial region, which together exceeded a quarter of its body length. Studies suggests ...
... often spots between the branchial gill slits and other spots spread across trailing edge of pectoral fins and abdominal region ... The oceanic manta ray has also a white ventral coloration with spots clustered around lower region of its abdomen. Its cephalic ...
... es inhabit various regions of the ocean, including coral reefs, pelagic waters, and the seabed; some live in the ... Before reaching the branchial heart, each branch of the vena cava expands to form renal appendages which are in direct contact ... During osmoregulation, fluid is added to the pericardia of the branchial hearts. The octopus has two nephridia (equivalent to ... Octopuses have three hearts; a systemic heart that circulates blood round the body and two branchial hearts that pump it ...
... usually presents as a midline neck lump (in the region of the hyoid bone) that is usually painless, smooth ... Branchial cleft cyst. *Cystic hygroma. *Preauricular sinus and cyst. *Ranula. References[edit]. *^ a b c d University of ...
Other bones in the neck region lost in Acanthostega (and later tetrapods) include the extrascapular series and the ... each containing deep grooves in the place where one would expect to find the afferent branchial artery. This strongly suggests ... During exhalation, the bony scales in the upper chest region become indented. When the muscles are relaxed, the bony scales ... the thoracoabdominal region). Inhaling with the ribs was either primitive for amniotes, or evolved independently in at least ...
Des percoïdes à dorsale unique à sept rayons branchiaux et à dents en velours ou en cardes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 3: i-xxviii + ... Es poden trobar a les regions tropicals i subtropicals de tots els oceans.[4] ...
Originally it was the lower of two cartilages which supported the first branchial arch in early fish. Then it grew longer and ... the ventral ends meet each other in the region of the symphysis menti, and are usually regarded as undergoing ossification to ...
These regions are presented to the attacking animal and their secretions may be foul-tasting or cause various physical or ... Water is drawn in through their mouths, which are usually at the bottom of their heads, and passes through branchial food traps ... In temperate regions, breeding is mostly seasonal, usually in the spring, and is triggered by increasing day length, rising ... Amphibians breathe by means of a pump action in which air is first drawn into the buccopharyngeal region through the nostrils. ...
Each of these two regions contains its own unique coral reef fish fauna with no natural overlap in species. Of the two regions ... There are two major regions of coral reef development recognized; the Indo-Pacific (which includes the Pacific and Indian ... Another 500-700 species can be found in the greater Caribbean region.[3] ...
Truncus arteriosus Fourth left branchial artery Paired dorsal aortae (combine into the single descending aorta). ... while the latter two together supply the left side of the same regions. ...
Occipital region. *Nuchal crest (occipital crest). *Nuchal folds (occipital folds). *Occipital membrane ... Branchial hearts. *Ctenidia (gills). *Hepatopancreas (digestive gland). *Ink sac and ink. *Needham's sac ...
In bony fish, the gills lie in a branchial chamber covered by a bony operculum. The great majority of bony fish species have ... In some fish, a rete mirabile allows for an increase in muscle temperature in regions where this network of vein and arteries ... which is not subdivided into different regions. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive system normally found in ... as well as many other structures derived from the embryonic branchial pouches.[citation needed] Scientists have investigated ...
Dorsal view of the lower pharyngeal and oral jaws of a juvenile Malawi eyebiter showing the branchial (pharyngeal) arches and ... Other elements of the skull, however, may be reduced; there is little cheek region behind the enlarged orbits, and little, if ... The hyomandibula is a set of bones found in the hyoid region in most fishes. It usually plays a role in suspending the jaws or ... The pressures generated in those regions were high enough to puncture or cut through cuticle or dermal armour[67] suggesting ...
... a relatively long branchial apparatus showing a branchial basket, seven gill pouches, gill arches, and even the impressions of ... They are found in most temperate regions except those in Africa. Their larvae (ammocoetes) have a low tolerance for high water ... as they don't require to produce anticoagulant continuously and mechanisms for preventing solid material entering the branchial ...
André C. Cordier ja Stanislas M. Haumont, Development of thymus, parathyroids, and ultimo-branchial bodies in NMRI and nude ... Malignant Tumors and Tumor-like Growths of the Thymic Region, Ann Surg. aprill 1932; 95(4): 544-572. PMCID: PMC1391577, 1932 ... Prenant A (1893) Recherches sur Ie developpement organique et histologique des derives branchiaux. 1. Thymus. Compt rend hebdom ...
Des percoïdes à dorsale unique à sept rayons branchiaux et à dents en velours ou en cardes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 3: i-xxviii + ... Geographic distribution of marine reef fishes in the New Zealand region. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 30:35-55. ... Des percoïdes à dorsale unique à sept rayons branchiaux et à dents en velours ou en cardes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. 1829. v. 3. i- ... Meeresfische der Welt - Groß-Indopazifische Region. Tetra Verlag, Herrenteich, Melle. 528 p. ...
The labyrinth organ is a much-folded suprabranchial accessory breathing organ. It is formed by a vascularized expansion of the ... are in the region of only 2-3 kPa.[13][14] A doubling or more of these small pressure differences could be achieved only by ... increasing the volume of that region of the trunk as well.[41] The increase in volume of the entire trunk cavity reduces the ... it is replaced considerably more slowly by the oxygen from the oxygen-rich regions small distances away from the exchanger than ...
transcription regulatory region DNA binding. Cellular component. • transcription factor complex. • protein complex. • nuclear ... In addition, this transcription factor plays an important role in limb and branchial arch development.[6] In one study, it was ... RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • protein homodimerization activity. • protein dimerization ... positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • peripheral nervous system neuron development. • palate ...
Many lymph cells (dark-colored region) pass from the nodules toward the surface and will eventually mix with the saliva as ... isolated bone which is usually derived from embryonic rests originating from the branchial arches.[8] ...
... in the Cilento region on the southwest coast of Italy, where Keys lived and worked from 1963 to 1998.[65][66] They also ... "Branchial Responses to Adrenaline and to Pitressin in the eel" (PDF). Biological Bulletin. 63 (2): 327-336. doi:10.2307/ ...
... relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck.[2 ... A case with unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury in branchial cyst surgery. [20] ... "A case with unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury in branchial cyst surgery". Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve ...
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. Cellular component. • cell nucleus. • cytosol. • extrinsic ... Osr1 is expressed in the first and second branchial arches, in the limb buds, mouth and nasal pits, in the trunk, the forebrain ... By day 10.5, the branchial arch and limbs also begin to express Osr1.[12][14] ... These genes are involved in osteoblast and lymphocyte differentiation through their interaction with the Osr1 promoter region.[ ...
Instead, the gametes are released into the coelom until they find their way to the posterior end of the caudal region, whereby ... The esophagus is also connected to the left branchial opening, which is therefore larger than the right one, through a ... The role of the branchial arches is highly speculative, as hagfish embryos undergo a caudal shift of the posterior pharyngeal ... uniting to form a common aperture on the ventral side known as the branchial opening. ...
Coleoids have two gill hearts (also known as branchial hearts) that move blood through the capillaries of the gills. A single ... they were mainly constrained to sublittoral regions of shallow shelves of the low latitudes, and usually occur in association ... Filtered nitrogenous waste is produced in the pericardial cavity of the branchial hearts, each of which is connected to a ... Several outgrowths of the lateral vena cava project into the renal sac, continuously inflating and deflating as the branchial ...
Hemichordates ("half chordates") have some features similar to those of chordates: branchial openings that open into the ... New data on Kimberella, the Vendian mollusc-like organism (White sea region, Russia): palaeoecological and evolutionary ... have long proboscises and worm-like bodies with up to 200 branchial slits, are up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) long, and burrow ...
The zygomatic process is a long, arched process projecting from the lower region of the squamous part and it articulates with ... The styloid process is developed from the proximal part of the cartilage of the second branchial or hyoid arch by two centers: ...
Some unusual events impact vertical migration: DVM is absent during the midnight sun in Arctic regions[8] and vertical ... Normal diel vertical migration occurs in species of foraminifera throughout the year in the polar regions; however, during the ... "Octogenetic vertical migration and life cycle of Neocalanus plumchrus (Crustacea:Copepoda) in the Oyashio region, with notes ...
The stomach is an enlarged region at the lowest part of the U-bend. Here, digestive enzymes are secreted and a pyloric gland ... Except for the heart, gonads, and pharynx (or branchial sac), the organs are enclosed in a membrane called an epicardium, which ...
"Fond du Lac and the Lake Winnebago Region, Wisconsin, Tourism and Conventions in Fond du Lac, WI. Retrieved April 19, 2019.. ... branchial arches ...
This results in the heart being located in different regions of the body that is relative to the snake's body length. [124] The ... Squids and other cephalopods have two "gill hearts" also known as branchial hearts, and one "systemic heart". The brachial ... The purple regions represent areas where mixing of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood occurs. *Pulmonary vein ... The heart derives from splanchnopleuric mesenchyme in the neural plate which forms the cardiogenic region. Two endocardial ...
... s inhabit all the oceans of the world, with the largest number of species living in the Indo-Pacific region. Most ... p.46 The visceral ganglia are also the origin of the branchial nerves which control the scallop's gills. The cerebral ganglia ... top region, and the bottom corresponds to the ventral or (as it were) underside/ belly.[6] However, as many scallop shells are ...
... previous study established that Dlx-2 is essential for development of proximal regions of the murine first and second branchial ... Dlx-1 and -2 are expressed in the proximal and distal first and second arches, yet only the proximal regions are abnormal. The ... Role of the Dlx homeobox genes in proximodistal patterning of the branchial arches: mutations of Dlx-1, Dlx-2, and Dlx-1 and -2 ... previous study established that Dlx-2 is essential for development of proximal regions of the murine first and second branchial ...
On presentation to the ear, nose, and throat clinic, there was a cystic swelling in the right post-auricular region inferiorly ... First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon and comprise 1%-8% of all branchial cleft anomalies.1 They often present in the ... They are thought to arise as a result of developmental abnormalities of the branchial apparatus and may take the form of a cyst ... May M, DAngelo A. The facial nerve and the branchial cleft: surgical challenge. Laryngoscope1989;99:564-5. ...
Pattern of the branchial arches. I-IV branchial arches, 1-4 branchial pouches (inside) and/or pharyngeal grooves (outside). a ... Duct not labeled, but arises nearest to region identified as pyramidal lobe) ...
The epidermis, the most distal region of the branchial arches, and the somites were also well labeled. In contrast, the heart ... 5), strong expression was seen in the open neural folds at both the anterior and posterior regions of the body. The most ... The results indicated that the FAS gene was broadly expressed in the mouse embryo, but the regions of strong FAS mRNA ... Robust and sharply defined expression was visualized in the distal edges of the nasal pit, branchial arches, and limb and tail ...
Branchial region‎ (12 F). C. *. ► Embryology of cardiovascular system‎ (6 C, 2 F) ...
View mouse Aspscr1 Chr11:120672973-120709447 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
No nuchal grooves present above branchial region. Pectoral fins falcate and with curved and narrow tips. Claspers extremely ...
Weak nuchal grooves present above branchial region. Pectoral fins of "macroceanic" type with straight and very broad tips. ...
TBX1 maps within the region of 22q11 deleted in humans with DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome. Mice haploinsufficient for ... Branchial Region / abnormalities * Branchial Region / embryology* * DiGeorge Syndrome / embryology * DiGeorge Syndrome / ... TBX1 maps within the region of 22q11 deleted in humans with DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome. Mice haploinsufficient for ...
... radiology and common disorders and branchial arches flashcards from ... The pharyngeal arches are a system of mesenchymal proliferations in the neck region of the embryo. How may of them are there? ... Week 2- osteology, radiology and common disorders and branchial arches Flashcards Preview Head and Neck , Week 2- osteology, ... Slight dislocation may not damage the spinal cord due to the large vertebral canal in the cervical region ...
... second branchial membrane (sb); atrial heart chamber (ac); vitelline artery (va); bulbus cordis heart region (bc); pericardio- ... Labels: neuroepithelium (ne); first branchial arch (fb); ...
What is branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst? Meaning of branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous ... What does branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst mean? ... branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst in the Medical Dictionary? ...
Respiration is with the help of branchial sac. Water enters the body from the region of mouth or branchial aperture, passes ... The body proper has two projections-atrial and branchial siphons. Branchial siphon has a branchial or incurrent aperture or ...
2. - Structure of branchial region.. bc, coelom.. tb, tongue-bars.. ds, mesentery.. pr, ridge.. vv, vessel.. gp, gill-pore.. dn ... Special thickenings of the diffuse nervous layer of the epidermis occur in certain regions and along certain lines. In the neck ... region of the proboscis, through the neck into the proboscis-coelom, ending blindly in front. Although an integral portion of ... but an interesting concentration of nerve-cells and fibres has taken place in the collar-region, where a medullary tube, closed ...
... region marked by arrows), the neural tube within caudal trunk sections. Although HNK-1 is also expressed in this region, it ... Sox9 and AP-2α signal occur within the NCC-populated cranial mesenchyme or branchial arches (A-B, D-E); panel in (D) is a ... Panels in (E-P) are higher power images of boxed regions in (A-D). NCC-derived DRGs are positive for Pax3 (A, E), p75NTR (A, E ... Images in (E-K) are magnifications of boxed regions in (A-D); image in (L) is from the contralateral side of the section shown ...
What is the clitellum of earthworms and where it is located? The clitellum is a special region of the annelid made up of rings ... Respiration in annelids can be cutaneous or branchial. Cutaneous respiration occurs through the large amount of veins under the ... Respiratory system: cutaneous or branchial. with dioecious and monoecious species. a ventral and a dorsal one. such as nereis ...
It indicates the anterior region of body.. Plate 1, figs. F, I. Branchial fold. The wall of the branchial sac that folds on ... Branchial orifice. The same as the branchial aperature.. Plate 2, fig. B; Plate 4, figs. G, H. Branchial papillae. Expansions ... Branchial opening. The same as the branchial aperature.. Plate 1, figs. G, H; Plate 2, fig. G; Plate 3, figs. A, B, D, G; Plate ... The same as branchial siphon.. Infundibula Each of the conical projections of the branchial sac facing the lumen of the ...
Gill filaments subtly increasing in size towards posterior region. Posterior end of gill rounded, located in posterior region ... Ctenidial vein (efferent branchial vessel), uniformly narrow throughout its length. Gill elongated, occupying ∼80 % of mantle ... Cephalic region with long neck with two small ventral tentacles on distal end; eyes located on outer side of head, anterior to ... Cephalic region with long neck, with two small ventral tentacles on distal end. Rachidian tooth with two similar-sized pointed ...
The 3.9 kb region upstream of the Er71 transcription start site was fused to the EYFP reporter (Fig. 1A). This promoter ... al, allantois; ba, branchial arch; bi, blood island; cc, cardiac crescent; cv, cardinal vein; da, dorsal artery; ec, ... A select number of EYFP-positive cells are found within this region; however, these cells are Pdgfra- (supplementary material ... Boxed regions are shown at higher magnification; planes of sections are indicated. See first section of the Results for a ...
Intestinal and branchial regions moderately granulated. Protogastric, hepatic, and pterygostomial regions smooth, except for ... Intestinal and branchial regions sparsely covered with granules; metabranchial bump strong, crested with acute granules. ... Metagastric and urogastric regions swollen, crested with rounded granules. Cardiac region with two distinct humps, placed side ... Mesogastric region slightly lower than gastric one, with few small granules. Metagastric, urogastric, and cardiac regions ...
1 First branchial cleft malformation develops more often near the ear and parotid gland than the hyoid region. ... First branchial cleft anomalies are associated with the parotid gland, as closure of the branchial clefts is concurrent with ... regions. Anomalies frequently become infected. An inflammatory process in the region of Pochets triangle should immediately ... and the external layer of the tympanic membrane are the structures derived from the first branchial cleft.3 First branchial ...
Branchial region. Pharyngeal arch (1st, 2nd) - Pharyngeal pouch - Pharyngeal groove - Cervical sinus Frontonasal prominence - ...
Branchial region. Pharyngeal arch (1st, 2nd) - Pharyngeal pouch - Pharyngeal groove - Cervical sinus Frontonasal prominence - ... The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum. Seen from behind. ...
Branchial region. Pharyngeal arch (1st, 2nd) - Pharyngeal pouch - Pharyngeal groove - Cervical sinus Frontonasal prominence - ... Pattern of the branchial arches. I-IV branchial arches, 1-4 branchial pouches (inside) and/or pharyngeal grooves (outside). a ... Duct not labeled, but arises nearest to region identified as pyramidal lobe) ...
Branchial region. Teeth. Derivatives of the branchial clefts, pouches and arches. Development of Tongue. ... OROFACIAL REGION, SKULL and SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT: Nose. Olfactory organ.Upper and lower jaws development. Development of the ...
Categories: Branchial Region Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 ...
The full-length cDNA contained 16 bp of 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and 216 bp of 3′ untranslated region (UTR) except for its ... Branchial FXYD protein expression in response to salinity change and its interaction with Na+/K+-ATPase of the euryhaline ... Branchial FXYD protein expression in response to salinity change and its interaction with Na+/K+-ATPase of the euryhaline ... Branchial FXYD protein expression in response to salinity change and its interaction with Na+/K+-ATPase of the euryhaline ...
These abnormalities are associated with the DiGeorge syndrome and branchial arch abnormalities. ... DiGeorge critical region). Ablation of cells of the neural crest has been shown to reproduce conotruncal malformations. ...
... the photogenic region. The name of specific photophores often reflects their position on the animal. For example, the branchial ... Nuchal - Formerly a term generally relating to the posterior region of the head, now more restricted. See: Nuchal region.. ... Nuchal region - The posterodorsal region of the head and the area immediately posterior to it. ... Branchial heart - A pulsating gland at the base of the gill and through which the afferent blood to the gills flows. It ...
The elongate right branchial photophore has a bluish region at one end. Photograph by R. Young, R/V G. O. Sars, Mar-Eco cruise ... Middle arrow - branchial photophore. Right arrow - postero-abdominal photophore which was damaged while cutting open the mantle ...
  • 3 First branchial cleft anomalies are associated with the parotid gland, as closure of the branchial clefts is concurrent with the emergence of the developing parotid gland and migration of the facial nerve, which originate from the second branchial arch. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 5 A Work type 2 anomaly is ectodermal and mesodermal in origin, arising from duplication of the membranous external auditory canal, cartilaginous pinna, and rarely from the second branchial arch. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Few gill rakers on the 1st branchial arch. (fishbase.org)
  • When the right fourth branchial arch remains, a right aortic arch is present. (medscape.com)
  • The development of extraocular muscles was compromised whereas the differentiation of branchial arch muscles was not affected, indicating a differential requirement for Twist1 in these two types of craniofacial muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Between the branchial clefts - that is to say, between the pharyngeal pouches and branchial grooves - are the branchial or visceral arches, each of which contains a skeletal rod, the cartilaginous branchial arch, its musculature, an aortic arch, and a nerve-trunk. (edu.au)
  • Problems with branchial arch development underlie many of the other features of branchio-oculo-facial syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The trigeminal prominence is continuous ventrally with the broad first branchial arch that extends to the pericardial sac. (ehd.org)
  • The otic prominence is continuous ventrally with an area that will soon become the second branchial arch. (ehd.org)
  • It spreads laterally and is gradually lost in the mesenchyme of the first branchial arch. (ehd.org)
  • Localized thickenings of the ectoderm called placodes develop on the lateral side of the head in the branchial arch region. (ehd.org)
  • It is also known as the epibranchial placode of the second branchial arch and is associated with the facial part of the facioacoustic crest. (ehd.org)
  • However, anomalies of the second branchial arch and pouch are common which accounts for 90-95% of the cases. (epainassist.com)
  • C ) The number of filaments per branchial arch is higher in bigger fish - x axis represents fish length, and y axis the number of filaments in the second right branchial arch. (elifesciences.org)
  • C ) Branchial arch from a double transgenic Gaudí Ubiq.iCre Gaudí RSG fish 2 months after induction with TMX. (elifesciences.org)
  • Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish. (zfin.org)
  • In lockjaw, the hyoid arch is strongly reduced and subsets of branchial arches do not develop. (zfin.org)
  • The viscerocranium develops primarily from the branchial arch cartilages. (ehd.org)
  • Laryngeal condensationâ€"surrounding the primitive larynx and representing the caudal branchial arch cartilages. (ehd.org)
  • Caudal to the occipital region, cells from the cranial part of each sclerotome extend dorsally between the spinal ganglion and the myotome forming the neural arch. (ehd.org)
  • It persists in the craniofacial mesenchyme and the first branchial arch in 9 dpc embryos. (cnrs.fr)
  • They are thought to arise as a result of developmental abnormalities of the branchial apparatus and may take the form of a cyst, sinus, or fistula. (bmj.com)
  • We report a unique presentation of a child with an anterior chest wall mass in the sternal region, which was identified as a bronchogenic cyst. (ispub.com)
  • In such cases histological findings are crucial to distinguish this lesion from branchial cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst, cutaneous ciliated cyst, dermoid cyst, infundibular cyst, and trichilemmal cyst.6 Thyroglossal duct cysts present as midline cystic nodules on the anterior neck in children or young adults. (ispub.com)
  • Summary: We report the MR findings of parapharyngeal branchial cleft cyst manifesting as multiple, lower cranial nerve palsies in a 35-year-old woman. (ajnr.org)
  • We describe a case of parapharyngeal branchial cleft cyst manifesting as multiple lower cranial nerve palsies, an unusual location and presentation for this lesion. (ajnr.org)
  • F, Photomicrograph (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×100) of the lesion shows a squamous epithelial-lined cyst wall ( arrows ), consistent with a branchial cleft cyst. (ajnr.org)
  • Histopathologic evaluation of the mass revealed a squamous epithelial-lined cyst with lymphoid infiltrate, consistent with a branchial cleft cyst ( Fig 1F ). (ajnr.org)
  • The mass was identified as an infected second branchial cleft cyst. (ajnr.org)
  • Our objective is to present a rare case of infected thyroglossal duct cyst in left submandibular region. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on the history and clinical examination, provisional diagnosis of branchial cyst was made. (hindawi.com)
  • A congenital pit or sinus involving the ascending limb of the helix of the ear or the preauricular region is of little importance unless it gives rise to an offensive discharge or forms a retention cyst. (egms.de)
  • Both these things might not occur at all and over time it might grow into a branchial cyst. (epainassist.com)
  • Congenital anomalies of the branchial apparatus: Embryology and pathologic anatomy. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Embryological anomalies of the first branchial cleft are uncommonly encountered. (bmj.com)
  • First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon and comprise 1%-8% of all branchial cleft anomalies. (bmj.com)
  • First branchial cleft anomalies are a special group of congenital head and neck malformations. (appliedradiology.com)
  • These lesions are rare, accounting for 8% of all branchial cleft anomalies. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Several classification systems have been proposed for first branchial cleft anomalies. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 4 Type 1 anomalies involve the parotid region and manifest during early or middle adult life. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The most common presentation of patients with branchial cleft anomalies is swelling in the cervical (35%), parotid (35%) or periauriclar (24%) regions. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Olsen K, Maragos N, Weiland L. First branchial cleft anomalies. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The deletion of chromosome region 22q11 appears to be closely associated with these anomalies. (medscape.com)
  • Branchial cleft cysts are almost always located anterior to the SCM, though first branchial anomalies are often found in the parotid or even postauricular areas. (redorbit.com)
  • The occurrence of all these abnormalities is called branchial anomalies. (epainassist.com)
  • Typically the presence of branchial fistulas or branchial anomalies can be found on the front part of the neck. (epainassist.com)
  • These branchial anomalies could get enlarged due to infection in the upper respiratory tract . (epainassist.com)
  • (2) Branchial fistulas are rare anomalies of embryonic development of the branchial apparatus. (epainassist.com)
  • There are 6 pairs of branchial arches, which appear around the 4th week of gestation. (appliedradiology.com)
  • A gill contains four pairs of branchial arches ( middle left ) that display numerous filaments ( middle right ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Clinical update on type II first branchial cleft cysts. (appliedradiology.com)
  • There is no pathognomonic sign and symptoms and it is clinically difficult to diagnose and differentiate it from other cysts, which are commonly located in midline particularly thyroglossal duct cysts and branchial cysts. (ispub.com)
  • Branchial cysts appear in the preauricular area, mandibular region, or along the sternocleidomastoid muscle. (ispub.com)
  • Branchial cleft cysts are the most common neck masses in adults. (ajnr.org)
  • Most are second branchial cleft cysts, which occur in the neck, anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle at the mandibular angle. (ajnr.org)
  • This process results in expansion of the second branchial cleft into an elongated common cavity, called the cervical sinus of His , which is obliterated shortly after its formation. (ajnr.org)
  • The pharyngeal pouches and branchial grooves are later again separated by the ingrowth of mesoderm or (sinus cervicalis) by the constriction of the branchial grooves from the surface and the subsequent modification of their epithelium. (edu.au)
  • Rule out the presence of additional auricular anlagen (embryologic defects) such as pre-auricular tags, pits, sinus tracts, or other chondrocutaneous remnants that may lie anywhere along the embryologic line from the oral commissure to the temporal region. (ama-assn.org)
  • This is done through the branchial sinus which is a small opening on the skin. (epainassist.com)
  • E ditor -The branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is characterised by a branchial cleft sinus or linear skin lesion behind the ear, lacrimal duct obstruction, colobomata of the iris/retina, hypertrophy of the lateral pillars of the philtrum ("pseudocleft"), an asymmetrical nose with a broad tip, and auricular and lip pits. (bmj.com)
  • The contraction of the red muscles of the branchial wall may be smoothly conveyed by blood in the peribranchial sinus to the branchial sac and cause contraction of the sac and outflow of the water through the gill pore. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Second branchial cleft remnants account for the majority of branchial cleft abnormalities. (ajnr.org)
  • The elongate right branchial photophore has a bluish region at one end. (tolweb.org)
  • Many of the structures affected in the del22q11 syndrome are derivatives of the branchial apparatus, which is populated by the rostral neural crest cells. (bmj.com)
  • In people with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome, the first and second branchial arches do not develop properly, leading to abnormal patches of skin, typically on the neck or near the ears. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The proboscis-gut occurs as an outgrowth from the anterior dorsal wall of the collar-gut, and extends forward into the basal (posterior) region of the proboscis, through the neck into the proboscis-coelom, ending blindly in front. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Axial (Figure 1A) and coronal (Figure 1B) images from a CT examination of the neck with IV contrast show a complex, rim-enhancing lesion in the right parotid region, just inferior to the right external auditory canal. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Problems outside of the head and neck region include kidney defects and congenital heart defect. (rarediseases.org)
  • four pairs of arched columns in the neck region of some aquatic vertebrates that bear the gills. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among the embryonic structures formed from neural crest cells are the branchial arches, which develop into the bones and other tissues of the head and neck. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These neoplasms commonly occur in trunk and extremities but are rare in head and neck region. (hindawi.com)
  • IMH are frequently found in trunk and extremities but are uncommon in the head and neck region. (hindawi.com)
  • Her head and neck examination revealed a 4 × 3 cm swelling in left anterolateral region of upper neck. (hindawi.com)
  • Branchio-" refers to the branchial arches, which are structures in the developing embryo that give rise to tissues in the face and neck. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This protein is critical during development before birth, particularly of the branchial arches, which form the structures of the face and neck. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lymph nodes are located throughout the head and neck region and are the most common sites of neck masses. (redorbit.com)
  • In the early stages of prenatal development, the face and neck forms from 5 building blocks known as branchial arches which are separated from each other through clefts. (epainassist.com)
  • However they can also be spotted on the lowers part of the neck, the region around which a person has the thyroid glands or the area around the ear. (epainassist.com)
  • Paragangliomas of the head and neck region (HN) are rare, comprising 0.6% of HN tumors and 0.03% of all neoplasms. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The embryopathology remains unclear, although CMCC is considered result from a failure in mesodermal fusion of the first and second branchial arches on the midline of the neck between gestational weeks 3 and 4. (aad.org)
  • Respiration is with the help of branchial sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiration in annelids can be cutaneous or branchial. (scribd.com)
  • positive cells in the craniofacial region at E9.5 and E15.5. (nih.gov)
  • Between 8 and 9 dpc, this preferential expression is also observed in neural crest cells migrating from the closing brain towards craniofacial regions and the first three branchial arches. (cnrs.fr)
  • It was subsequently found to be a first branchial cleft anomaly. (bmj.com)
  • A provisional diagnosis of a first branchial cleft anomaly was made. (bmj.com)
  • First branchial cleft anomaly. (appliedradiology.com)
  • An inflammatory process in the region of Pochet's triangle should immediately raise suspicion for this anomaly. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Clinical and radiological investigations are primarily used for the diagnosis of branchial fistulas In many cases, a fistulogram is also performed that helps to delineate the tract and is commonly used to investigate cases of the branchial anomaly. (epainassist.com)
  • E ditor -Microdeletions of chromosomal region 22q11.2 (del22q11) have been associated with several genetic disorders, including DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). (bmj.com)
  • TFAP2A gene mutations disrupt the development of structures derived from the branchial arches, which results in the characteristic features of branchio-oculo-facial syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Branchial fistula is a condition that occurs during the stage of embryonic development. (epainassist.com)
  • 3 First branchial cleft lesions result from incomplete fusion of the ventral portions of the first and second arches. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Ventral view of stage 45 embryos hybridized with anti-sense (i) and sense (ii) probe, lateral view of the gut region of a stage 45 embryo (iii), cryostat section (iv) at 28μm of a stage 45 embryo through the gut . (xenbase.org)
  • aortic a's paired vessels arching from the ventral to the dorsal aorta through the branchial clefts of fishes and amniote embryos. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The head and tail folds move the attachment of the amnion to the ventral side of the head and tail regions, respectively. (ehd.org)
  • These all delete continuous stretches of adjacent branchial arches and unpaired cartilages in the ventral midline. (zfin.org)
  • the endodermal diverticula are termed pharyngeal pouches (also pharyngeal grooves, or inner branchial grooves or pouches), while the ectodermal invaginations are known simply as branchial grooves, or as ectodermal or outer branchial grooves (outer pharyngeal grooves, Hammar). (edu.au)
  • but an interesting concentration of nerve-cells and fibres has taken place in the collar-region, where a medullary tube, closed in from the outside, opens in front and behind by anterior and posterior neuropores. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Ascending limb of intestine, towards to anterior region of the body. (si.edu)
  • It indicates the anterior region of body. (si.edu)
  • 23 free vertebrae, the fifth cerato-branchial bone with 5 teeth in the anterior region (ref. 93748 ). (fishbase.org)
  • Anterior branchial lobe bearing one or two tubercles, lacking in [M. sexspinosa]. (usc.edu)
  • Thus, regions of the anterior hindbrain (i.e., r3 and r4) appear to be greatly expanded, whereas the posterior hindbrain (r5-r8) is reduced or absent. (deepdyve.com)
  • Well-developed orbits lie directly anterior to a series of eight uncovered, branchial openings which are arranged in a postero-ventrally slanting line. (palass.org)
  • Branchial photophores, transversely elongate, each lies at base of one gill. (tolweb.org)
  • Gill stem cells located at the periphery of branchial arches generate more filaments life-long. (elifesciences.org)
  • In adult lampreys, respiratory water shuttles between the external gill, -pore … More and branchial sac. (nii.ac.jp)
  • C) At E7.5 Twist1 transcript expression overlaps with the distribution of Rosa26R-positive mesodermal cells shown in (B). (D) At headfold stage (E8.0) Twist1 expression is detected in the cranial mesoderm underlying the neural epithelium (E: magnification of boxed area in D). (F) Expression of Twist1 protein in the same region at headfold stage. (nih.gov)
  • Hoxd-4 mRNA expression was absent in the posterior hindbrain, and the rostral limit of Hoxb-5 protein expression in the neural tube was anteriorized, suggesting that the most posterior hindbrain region (r7/r8) had been deleted and/or improperly patterned. (deepdyve.com)
  • Migrating neural crest cells in the tail region are also preferentially labeled at this stage. (cnrs.fr)
  • I-L) Twist1 expression in the cranial mesenchyme of control embryo at E9.5 (I, Ii and K) is absent in the CM-CKO (J, Ji and L). Corresponding regions in control and CM-CKO embryo are marked by the dashed line (K and L). The Twist1 -deficient cranial mesenchyme displays early signs of acquiring a compacted morphology (L, red arrow). (nih.gov)
  • However, the arrangement of the branchial region in Metaspriggina has wider implications for reconstructing the morphology of the primitive vertebrate. (nature.com)
  • Melanorivulus is diagnosed by an apomorphic morphology of preopercle, and derived colour patterns of male postorbital region and female unpaired fins, and includes species from southern Amazonian tributaries, Parana-Paraguay river system, and Parnaiba and Sao Francisco river basins. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Diagnosis: Four triangular carapace spines: one gastric, one cardiac, and two at the end of each sinuous branchial ridge. (usc.edu)
  • The body proper has two projections-atrial and branchial siphons. (wikipedia.org)
  • the branchial grooves and pharyngeal pouches thus become continuous and together form the branchial clefts. (edu.au)
  • 2 The margins of Pochet's triangle are the external auditory canal superiorly, the mental region anteriorly, and the hyoid bone inferiorly. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 1 First branchial cleft malformation develops more often near the ear and parotid gland than the hyoid region. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The branchial arches are named in succession the mandibular, hyoid, and branchial arches proper, these last being numbered in succession from before backward. (edu.au)
  • First branchial cleft malformations are often under recognized and mistaken for other inflammatory lesions in the periauricular and cervical region. (appliedradiology.com)
  • It can be found deep in platysma muscle and the region of overlying cervical fascia. (epainassist.com)
  • Dermatologists will usually note them in the mid-cervical region. (aad.org)
  • The cavum conchae, the external auditory canal (EAC) and the external layer of the tympanic membrane are the structures derived from the first branchial cleft. (appliedradiology.com)
  • This has led to the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of a gene(s) within the deleted region disrupts the development of these structures. (bmj.com)
  • The formation of open branchial clefts occurs also in reptiles and birds, but not, under normal conditions, in mammals (see below). (edu.au)
  • The most caudal region of the hindbrain was the most sensitive to retinoid insufficiency, as evidenced by a loss of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) in embryos from the 125 μg atRA/g diet group. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, when limiting amounts of atRA are provided to VAD dams, the caudal portion of the hindbrain is shortened and possesses r4/r5-like characteristics, with this region finally exhibiting r4-like gene expression when retinoid is restricted even more severely. (deepdyve.com)
  • This work shows that retinoid plays a critical role in patterning, segmentation, and neurogenesis of the caudal hindbrain and serves as an essential posteriorizing signal for this region of the central nervous system in the mammal. (deepdyve.com)
  • The head region is elevated above the yolk sac by the large pericardial sac, the midportion lies upon the yolk sac and the caudal region is curved toward the yolk sac. (ehd.org)
  • No nuchal grooves present above branchial region. (fao.org)
  • Sensory grooves flank a pineal region on the dorsal headshield. (palass.org)
  • Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Despite the wide variety of adaptive modifications in oral and branchial region of vertebrates, their early oropharyngeal development is considered rather uniform. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Cleft palate is a congenital condition where there is incomplete closure of some of the branchial clefts before birth. (scuba-doc.com)
  • The inflow of water may be due to elastic expansion of fibrous tissues connecting branchial arches made of characteristic alveolar cartilage. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Based on the largest published family with BOFS 6 and in order to find a candidate gene for BOFS, we studied four flanking markers in the BOR chromosome region ( EYA1 gene) 7 as well as six markers flanking the EYA2 gene, 8 four markers at the EYA3 gene, 9 and four markers close to the EYA4 gene, which has recently been mapped to 6q23. (bmj.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that mice heterozygously deleted (Df1/+) for part of the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous to the DGS/VCFS region of 22q11.2 have heart defects similar to those found in DGS/VCFS patients. (bmj.com)
  • It blends with mesenchyme of the otic region. (ehd.org)
  • They may also connect with the throat lining and may drain mucus from a small opening which is called the branchial fistula. (epainassist.com)
  • Talking of symptoms of Branchial fistula, in most cases, it has been seen that the early symptoms of Branchial fistula become visible either during the later part of childhood or the early part of adulthood. (epainassist.com)
  • Having discerned the symptoms that are the first indications of the Branchial fistula, it is eminent here to mention that branchial fistulas can be of four types. (epainassist.com)
  • TBX1 maps within the region of 22q11 deleted in humans with DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Branchial siphon has a branchial or incurrent aperture or mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional distinctive features of M. aristatus are the complexity of the incurrent siphon, the kidney opening widely into the supra-branchial chamber (instead of via a nephropore), and the multi-lobed auricle. (scielo.br)
  • This suggests that expression of paddy in late stages does not depend on apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) signaling and is probably involved in posterior determination in more proximal regions of the limb. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Text -FIG.-A, Nemichthys scolopaceus , lateral view head and branchial region. (natlib.govt.nz)
  • Dlx-1 and -2 are expressed in the proximal and distal first and second arches, yet only the proximal regions are abnormal. (nih.gov)
  • A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. (biologists.org)
  • Arrowheads in B and C indicate recombined embryonic filaments located at the centre of branchial arches, and asterisks indicate stretches of peripheral filaments with the same recombination status. (elifesciences.org)
  • The apical part of each filament and the more peripheral filaments are devoted of signal revealing the stereotypic growth of branchial arches. (elifesciences.org)
  • The nested expression patterns of Dlx-1, -2, -3, -5, and -6 provide evidence for a model that predicts the region-specific requirements for each gene. (nih.gov)
  • The TFAP2A gene appears to be especially important for the development of tissues derived from the first and second branchial arches. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This gene is first expressed at 9.5 days postcoitum (E9.5) in the forelimbs and in the branchial arches region. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • The skeletal and soft tissue analyses of mice with Dlx-1 and Dlx-1 and -2 mutations provide additional evidence that the Dlx genes regulate proximodistal patterning of the branchial arches. (nih.gov)
  • Vascular rings result from incomplete regression of one of six embryonic branchial arches. (medscape.com)
  • Water enters the body from the region of mouth or branchial aperture, passes through the pharynx where food is picked up. (wikipedia.org)

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