Ureteral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETERS.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Ureteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Ureteral Calculi: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Retrocaval Ureter: A rare congenital abnormality resulting in the URETER passing dorsal to and being obstructed by the INFERIOR VENA CAVA.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Ureteroscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the ureter.Ureterostomy: Surgical formation of an opening in the ureter for external drainage of the urine; cutaneous route utilizes a ureteral orifice emerging through the skin.Urinary Fistula: An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.Urinary Diversion: Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ureterocele: A cystic dilatation of the end of a URETER as it enters into the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by the ballooning of the ureteral orifice into the lumen of the bladder and may obstruct urine flow.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Retroperitoneal Space: An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Bundle-Branch Block: A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.IndophenolRetroperitoneal Fibrosis: A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Uroplakin III: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney: A nongenetic defect due to malformation of the KIDNEY which appears as a bunch of grapes with multiple renal cysts but lacking the normal renal bean shape, and the collection drainage system. This condition can be detected in-utero with ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Vaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage that connects the VAGINA to other organs, such as the bladder (VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA) or the rectum (RECTOVAGINAL FISTULA).Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Kidney Calices: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Visible Human Projects: Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal: A rare aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma, characterized by a biphasic histologic pattern of small compact cells intermixed with islands of cartilaginous matrix. Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas have a predilection for flat bones; long tubular bones are rarely affected. They tend to occur in the younger age group and are highly metastatic. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1456)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Nephrostomy, Percutaneous: The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Wnt4 Protein: A Wnt protein that is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes such as the formation of the KIDNEY; ADRENAL GLANDS; MAMMARY GLANDS; the PITUITARY GLAND; and the female reproductive system. Defects in WNT4 are a cause of ROKITANSKY KUSTER HAUSER SYNDROME.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Butylscopolammonium Bromide: Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Keratin-15: A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Operative Time: The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Surgically-Created Structures: Organs or parts of organs surgically formed from nearby tissue to function as substitutes for diseased or surgically removed tissue.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male: Surgery performed on the male genitalia.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Urethral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETHRA. Benign epithelial tumors of the urethra usually consist of squamous and transitional cells. Primary urethral carcinomas are rare and typically of squamous cells. Urethral carcinoma is the only urological malignancy that is more common in females than in males.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Abnormalities, MultipleUrinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Nicorandil: A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Kidney Papillary Necrosis: A complication of kidney diseases characterized by cell death involving KIDNEY PAPILLA in the KIDNEY MEDULLA. Damages to this area may hinder the kidney to concentrate urine resulting in POLYURIA. Sloughed off necrotic tissue may block KIDNEY PELVIS or URETER. Necrosis of multiple renal papillae can lead to KIDNEY FAILURE.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder manifested by various combinations of preauricular pits, branchial fistulae or cysts, lacrimal duct stenosis, hearing loss, structural defects of the outer, middle, or inner ear, and renal dysplasia. Associated defects include asthenic habitus, long narrow facies, constricted palate, deep overbite, and myopia. Hearing loss may be due to Mondini type cochlear defect and stapes fixation. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Collagen Type XVIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsElectrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bundle of His: Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.DNA, Cruciform: A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.Ficoll: A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Methysergide: An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ribonucleoprotein, U2 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U2 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U1, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U2 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the branch point, which associates with a heat- and RNAase-sensitive factor in an early step of splicing.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Mice, Inbred C57BLRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Spliceosomes: Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Other branches supply the ureter. pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (pelvicarteries) This ... The superior vesical artery supplies numerous branches to the upper part of the bladder. The first part of the superior vesical ... usually a branch of the superior vesical artery, is distributed to the fundus of the bladder and the seminal vesicles. This ...
A small branch supplies the ureter. Spermatic cord Artery to the ductus deferens.Deep dissection. Lateral view. This article ... which in turn arises from the anterior branch of the internal iliac artery. It accompanies the ductus deferens into the testis ...
The celiac artery and its branch. Horizontal disposition of the peritoneum in the upper part of the abdomen. Transverse section ... Back of lumbar region, showing surface markings for kidneys, ureters, and spleen. Side of thorax, showing surface markings for ...
Often, each renal vein will have a branch that receives blood from the ureter. It is usually singular to each kidney, except in ... There is one vein per kidney, that divides into 4 divisions upon entering the kidney: the anterior branch which receives blood ... from the anterior portion of the kidney and, the posterior branch which receives blood from the posterior portion. Because the ...
Endourology is the branch of urology that deals with the closed manipulation of the urinary tract. It has lately grown to ... The urinary bladder, ureters (the tubes that lead from the kidneys to the urinary bladder) and genitalia are other examples of ... Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of ... Laparoscopy is a rapidly evolving branch of urology and has replaced some open surgical procedures. Robot-assisted surgery of ...
... course divides into an ascending and a descending branch; the stem of the artery or its branches cross the left ureter and left ... the descending branch anastomoses with the highest sigmoid artery. From the arches formed by these anastomoses branches are ... The ascending branch crosses in front of the left kidney and ends, between the two layers of the transverse mesocolon, by ... The left colic artery is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery that runs to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of ...
The major function of the renal pelvis is to act as a funnel for urine flowing to the ureter. The renal pelvis is the location ... Each renal papilla is surrounded by a branch of the renal pelvis called a calyx. ... The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the basin-like or funnel-like dilated proximal part of the ureter in the kidney. In ... The name reflects that each renal pelvis collects urine from the calyces and funnels it into the ureter like a wash basin ...
The internal spermatic artery supplies one or two small branches to the ureter, and in the inguinal canal gives one or two ... The testicular artery (the male gonadal artery, also called the internal spermatic arteries in older texts) is a branch of the ... Each crosses obliquely over the ureter and the lower part of the external iliac artery to reach the abdominal inguinal ring, ... and divides into several branches. Two or three of these accompany the ductus deferens, and supply the epididymis, anastomosing ...
... and a pubic branch, which is given off from the vessel just before it leaves the pelvic cavity. The pubic branch ascends upon ... In the pelvic cavity this vessel is in relation, laterally, with the obturator fascia; medially, with the ureter, ductus ... into an anterior branch and a posterior branch of the obturator artery which encircle the foramen under cover of the obturator ... and anastomoses with the posterior branch and with the medial femoral circumflex artery. The posterior branch of the obturator ...
Small branches are given to the ureter and the uterine tube, and one passes on to the side of the uterus, and unites with the ... It can be found in the suspensory ligament of the ovary, anterior to the ovarian vein and ureter. The ovarian arteries are ... The abdominal aorta and its branches. Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view. Uterus and right broad ligament, ...
... ureter, and internal spermatic vessels. Their branches supply the lower part of the descending colon, the iliac colon, and the ... Branches of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery" Anatomy image:7926 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center. ...
... anterior branches) lie between the renal vein and ureter, the vein being in front, the ureter behind, but one or more branches ... posterior branches) are usually situated behind the ureter. Each vessel gives off some small inferior suprarenal branches to ... Before reaching the hilus of the kidney, each artery divides into four or five branches; the greater number of these ( ... the suprarenal gland, the ureter, and the surrounding cellular tissue and muscles. One or two accessory renal arteries are ...
It runs backward and upward on the lateral wall of the pelvis below the obturator artery, and then passes between the ureter ... It has an anterior and posterior branch (similar to obturator artery). Variations in origin and course of obturator artery. The ...
Because it is variable, a listed artery may not be a direct branch, but instead might arise off a direct branch. In the fetus, ... The following are relations of the artery at various points: it is posterior to the ureter, anterior to the internal iliac vein ... The vesicular branches of the internal iliac arteries supply the bladder It is a short, thick vessel, smaller than the external ... The exact arrangement of branches of the internal iliac artery is variable. Generally, the artery divides into an anterior ...
The lower part of the ureter closest to the bladder is supplied by branches from the internal iliac arteries, as well as[ ... The ureters are a component of the urinary system. Urine, produced by the kidneys, travels along the ureters to the bladder. ... The ureter is lined by urothelium, a type of transitional epithelium that is capable of responding to stretches in the ureters ... View of the ureter under the microscope Wall of the ureter During the embryologic development of the kidney, the ureteropelvic ...
Each lobule contains a single branch of the ureter in its centre, into which the collecting ducts empty. Reptiles have ... The lobes consists of several small, irregularly arranged, lobules, each centred on a branch of the ureter. Birds have small ... This becomes the ureter. At the hilum, the ureter and renal vein exit the kidney and the renal artery enters. Hilar fat and ... Note 2: Each renal artery partitions into an anterior and posterior branch. The anterior branch further divides into the ...
The common iliac artery, and all of its branches, exist as paired structures (that is to say, there is one on the left side and ... Their terminal bifurcation is crossed anteriorly by the ureters. Deep and superficial dissection of the lumbar plexus. ...
The ureteral branches of renal artery are small branches which supply the ureter. Kyung Won, PhD. Chung (2005). Gross Anatomy ( ...
Anterior branch of obturator nerve Posterior branch of obturator nerve Cutaneous branch of the obturator nerve Sacral plexus of ... and on the lateral side of the internal iliac artery and ureter, and runs along the lateral wall of the lesser pelvis, above ... Here it enters the thigh, through the obturator canal, and divides into an anterior and a posterior branch, which are separated ... The lumbar plexus and its branches. Deep and superficial dissection of the lumbar plexus. Dissection of side wall of pelvis ...
At the colon it divides into a descending branch, which anastomoses with the ileocolic, and an ascending branch, which ... the right ureter and the Psoas major, toward the middle of the ascending colon; sometimes the vessel lies at a higher level, ... These branches form arches, from the convexity of which vessels are distributed to the ascending colon. This article ... "Branches of the superior mesenteric artery." Anatomy photo:39:03-0102 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Intestines and ...
round ligament of the uterus ovary ("Ovarian branches") uterus (arcuate vessels) vagina ("Vaginal branches" - azygos arteries ... It travels to the uterus, crossing the ureter anteriorly, reaching the uterus by traveling in the cardinal ligament. It travels ... Branches of Internal Iliac Artery" pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (uterus) Pelage, J. P ... of the vagina) uterine tube ("Tubal branch") Uterine artery embolization Uterine leiomyomata (fibroids of the uterus) Anatomy ...
The sensation to the skin is provided by: Lateral cutaneous branches of torso,Lateral cutaneous branches Dorsal cutaneous ... the ureters, which pass it to the bladder for storage; and the urethra, which excretes urine and in a male passes sperm through ... Dorsal and lateral cutaneous branches labeled at center right. Dorsal aspect. Ventral and lateral cutaneous branches labeled at ... branches Distribution of cutaneous nerves. Ventral aspect. ...
There is apparently no secondary ureter. The buccal mass is small, about twice as long as wide, the oesophagus opening well ... Both ocular retractors give off some short anterior pedal branches distally. The pharyngeal retractor is not split at its ...
The interlobar arteries each in turn branch into arcuate arteries, which in turn branch to form interlobular arteries, and ... the dilated portion of the ureter. The renal medulla (Latin renes medulla = kidney middle) contains the structures of the ...
The papillae rarely fuse and uncommonly branch. Cytologically, they have uniform nuclear enlargement. They cannot be reliably ... ureters, urinary bladder and part of the urethra. PUNLMP is pronounced pun-lump, like the words pun and lump. As their name ...
... a dilated pouch of ureter stores the urine until it is secreted continuously down from the ureters to the urodeum until ... The deep branches of the coronary arteries found within the heart tissue are small and supply the interventricular and right ... It then moves along the coronary groove and continues on into the tissue as interventricular branches toward the apex of the ... The blood supply by the coronary arteries are fashioned starting as a large branch over the surface of the heart. ...
... blind-ending ureter was not intervened. Blind-ending bifid ureter is a rare congenital anomaly of the ureter which has three ... Blind-ending branch of a bifid ureter: multidetector CT imaging findings. Br J Radiol 2011; 84: e38-40.. 8. Stimac G, Sucic M, ... Distal blind-ending branch of a bifid ureter. Archives of Medical Science. 2012;9(1):188-190. doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.30951.. APA ... Distal blind-ending branch of a bifid ureter." Archives of Medical Science, vol. 9, no. 1, 2012, pp. 188-190. doi:10.5114/aoms. ...
Other branches supply the ureter. pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (pelvicarteries) This ... The superior vesical artery supplies numerous branches to the upper part of the bladder. The first part of the superior vesical ... usually a branch of the superior vesical artery, is distributed to the fundus of the bladder and the seminal vesicles. This ...
A small branch supplies the ureter. Spermatic cord Artery to the ductus deferens.Deep dissection. Lateral view. This article ... which in turn arises from the anterior branch of the internal iliac artery. It accompanies the ductus deferens into the testis ...
Definition of ureteric branches. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ... ureteric branches. Definition: arterial branches distributed to the ureter. Terminologia Anatomica lists ureteric branches ( ... Ureteric branches from the inferior vesical artery are constant in occurrence and supply the terminal portion of the ureter. ... ureteric branches also rise regularly from the abdominal aorta, common iliac artery, and internal iliac artery. ...
The branches include (1) parasympathetic motor fibers to the detrusor (i.e., the muscular coat); (2) sensory fibers that are ... Chapter 33: The ureter, bladder and urethra. Ureter (see figs. 26-1, 27-12, 29-1, 29-2, 29-3, and 33-2) The upper half of the ... In the male, the ureter lies in the sacrogenital fold and is crossed medially by the ductus deferens. In the female, the ureter ... The ureter descends retroperitoneally on the lateral pelvic wall. At the level of the ischial spine, it turns forward and ...
Origin, umbilical; distribution, bladder, urachus, ureter; anastomoses, other vesical branches. Synonym(s): arteria vesicalis ... a branch of the superior vesical artery that comes off the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery.. Anatomy for the ... while in bilateral ligation of internal iliac artery the visceral branches clamped are the uterine, the superior vesical artery ... originates from the root of the umbilical artery and supplies the superior aspect of the bladder and distal parts of the ureter ...
Collecting system of the kidney- collecting tubules and ducts, major and minor calyses, renal pelvis, and the ureters ... What muscle is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve? ...
Abdominal aorta and its branches. Inferior vena cava and its tributaries. Kidneys and ureters ... There is greater separations at inferior ends of kidneys and ureters are located anterior to transverse processes of lumbar ...
Inferior vena cava Renal veins Aorta with its branches Iliacal vessels Ureter Urinary bladder Prostate Adrena ... Aorta with its branches. * Iliacal vessels. * Ureter. * Urinary bladder. * Prostate. * Adrenal gland ...
Collecting tubules from each lobule empty into a separate branch of the ureter. Reptiles have relatively few nephrons (from ... As the ureter enters the kidney it enlarges into a cavity, the renal pelvis; urine passes into this pelvis from the collecting ...
ureter synonyms, ureter pronunciation, ureter translation, English dictionary definition of ureter. n. The long, narrow duct ... inferior vena cava and their branches.. Basic clinical retroperitoneal anatomy for pelvic surgeons/Pelvik cerrahlar icin temel ... Spontaneous Rupture of Proximal Ureter: A Case Report/Spontane Proksimal Ureter Rupturu: Olgu Sunumu ... ureter. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. u·re·ter. (yo͝o-rē′tər, yo͝or′ĭ-tər). n.. The long, narrow ...
... 1. Renal pyramid2. Efferent artery3. Renal artery4. Renal vein5. Renal hilum6. Renal pelvis7. Ureter8. Minor ... Superior vesical artery, Vaginal artery, Ureteral branches of renal artery Precursor Ureteric bud ... Kidneys • Ureters • Orifice of ureter. Pelvis. Urinary bladder (Uvula, Trigone, Detrusor, Apex, Neck) Urethral sphincters ( ... The ureters are muscular tubes that can propel urine along by the motions of peristalsis. In the adult, the ureters are usually ...
... a branch of the renal artery; D, the pelvis of the kidney; U, ureter; C, a calyx. ... Labels: 1, cortex; 2, medulla; 2 , pyramid of Malpighi; 2", pyramid of Ferrein; 5, small branches of the renal artery entering ...
As the ureter courses through the retroperitoneum, the aorta contributes numerous small branches. In the pelvis, the iliac, ... In men, the vas deferens loops anterior to the ureter, prior to the ureter entering the bladder. In women, the ureter courses ... The ureter is a muscular tube lined by transitional epithelium that courses from the renal pelvis to the bladder in the ... Examining the obstructed ureter with intraluminal sonography. J Urol. 1999 Oct. 162(4):1286-90. [Medline]. ...
Each lobule contains a single branch of the ureter in its centre, into which the collecting ducts empty. Reptiles have ... The lobes consists of several small, irregularly arranged, lobules, each centred on a branch of the ureter. Birds have small ... This becomes the ureter. At the hilum, the ureter and renal vein exit the kidney and the renal artery enters. Hilar fat and ... Note 2: Each renal artery partitions into an anterior and posterior branch. The anterior branch further divides into the ...
The first branch stems (arrows) and the main ureter trunk (between arrowheads) are short in mutants. The size of ureter buds is ... In bifid ureters, the 2 ureters from the duplex kidney unite caudally to form a single ureter that drains into the bladder with ... c and d) Bmp4 expression is seen around the branching ureter and ureter stalk, but not in the MM. (e and f) In addition to the ... In addition, at E11.5, the size of the T-shaped bud (the main ureter trunk, the first branch stem, and the secondary buds) is ...
A few branches supplying the mass were ligated. All of the vessels looked bare after excision of the mass (Figure 2). The bowel ... The right ureter was then dissected from the mass. Next, the mass was dissected all around and separated from the vena cava, ... The mass pushed the right ureter anterolaterally. It was densely adherent to the underlying great vessels. The left ovary and ...
Conclusion Inguinal herniation of the transplant ureter leading to ureteral obstruction is a rare, probably underreported, ... Acute vs late extracranial facial nerve branch(s) repair: A comparative study ... Patient with Duplex Ureter Injury Underwent Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Common Sheath Ureteral Reimplantation Single Docking: ... A preventable cause of transplant hydroureteronephrosis: inguinal herniation of the transplant ureter. Case report and review ...
Mnemonics to remember the branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery are: SOI VU MR PIG (it can be ... ureter*variants *ectopic ureter. * duplex collecting system *Weigert-Meyer law. *bifid ureter ... Branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic). Dr Daniel J Bell ◉ and Dr Maxime St-Amant ◉ et al. ... Mnemonics to remember the branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery are:. * SOI VU MR PIG (it can be ...
Definition: origin, internal iliac; distribution, base of bladder, ureter, and (in the male) seminal vesicles, ductus deferens ... and prostate; anastomoses, middle rectal, and other vesical branches.. Synonym(s): arteria vesicalis inferiorTA ...
These two branches of the renal vein are responsible for draining blood from the ureter. The ureter moves urine away from the ... These veins branch off the inferior vena cava, one of the major blood vessels in the human body as shown by a diagram from the ...
The ureter is not necessary to suitably exteriorize the ureteral sheath ureteral a. Ascending branch descending branch ... Superior branch inferior branch posterior cecal artery. Instruct the patient for surgery of choice for impalpable testes, unos ...
Marginal Branch, Posterior interventricular Artery. Which arteries branch off of the left coronary artery?. Circumflex Branch, ... 1. where renal pelvis drains into ureter, 2. where ureter crosses common iliac artery, 3. where ureter enters bladder. ... branch of pudendal nerve/internal pudendal vein/artery. perineal branch of the pudendal nerve innervates which muscles?. 3 ... L1-2. Genital Branch: cremaster muscle, scrotum/skin of mons pubis & labia major. Femoral Branch: skin of anterior superior ...
The uterine arteries cross beyond the ureter and provide a ureteric branch as they pass in the parametrium. In the parametrium ...
Cranial Blind-ending Branch of a Bifid Ureter International Urology and Nephrology. 2001 , Pubmed ID: 11989554 A case of ... cranial blind-ending branch of bifid ureter is presented in a woman. There were no associated complications requiring surgery. ...
  • These veins branch off the inferior vena cava, one of the major blood vessels in the human body as shown by a diagram from the American Medical Association. (reference.com)
  • Note how the vessels cross over the ureters and enter and exit the inguinal canal with the spermatic cord via the deep and superficial inguinal rings, respectively. (slideserve.com)
  • The adventitia of the ureter, like elsewhere is composed of fibrous connective tissue, that binds it to adjacent tissues. (bionity.com)
  • In the normal mouse embryo, Bmp4 is expressed in mesenchymal cells surrounding the Wolffian duct (WD) and ureter stalk, whereas bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor genes are transcribed either ubiquitously ( Alk3 ) or exclusively in the WD and ureter epithelium ( Alk6 ). (jci.org)
  • The primary branches of ureter were composed of tunica mucosa , submucosa, muscularis and serosa , whereas the wall of smaller branches of ureter only consisted of epithelium and connective tissue fibers. (bvsalud.org)
  • The simple columnar epithelium of proximal region was changed to pseudostratified columnar in other regions of the ureter . (bvsalud.org)
  • Urology is the branch of medicine that provides diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the urinary system and genitourinary tract. (lcmh.com)
  • It was at this point that an intraoperative consult was called for Urology and The reflected colon allowed identification of the bifurcation of the aorta, which was then tracked proximally and minor periaortic branches were identified, plicated and divided. (aapc.com)
  • Urology is the medical branch specifically concerned with diagnosing and treating conditions and disorders that impact the urinary system. (fmh.org)
  • Tissue samples from proximal, middle and distal regions of each ureter were obtained and stained with H & E, Alcian blue ( pH 2.5), Periodic acid -Schiff, Masson's trichrome, Verhoeff's, and Gomori's method for reticulum . (bvsalud.org)
  • The thickness of the tunica muscularis increased from the proximal to the distal region of the ureter . (bvsalud.org)
  • Los pliegues de la mucosa y las microvellosidades fueron más identificadas en la región proximal del uréter . (bvsalud.org)
  • El epitelio columnar simple de la región proximal se presentó como columnar pseudostratificado en otras regiones del uréter . (bvsalud.org)
  • Purpose: There has been no report evaluating the anatomy of the ureter on CT images. (scirp.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the anatomy of the ureter near the ureterovesical junction on preoperative CT. (scirp.org)
  • Conclusions: We can evaluate the anatomy of the ureter near the ureterovesical junction on preoperative CT. (scirp.org)
  • Although a technique for the evaluation of the urinary tract has been developed , there has been no report evaluating the anatomy of the ureter on CT images. (scirp.org)
  • Our patient was easily diagnosed since she had a ureteroureteral reflux (yo-yo ureteric peristalsis) between the normal ureter and blind-ending branch detected in EU. (termedia.pl)
  • By contrast, when S-GAGs synthesis is not inhibited, BMP4 beads inhibit ureter branching and expression of Wnt 11 , a target of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. (jci.org)
  • Malignant ureteral obstruction is differentiated from benign ureteral obstruction by (1) the presence of an extrinsic mass on a CT scan or sonogram and (2) the appearance of the ureter on contrast-study images. (medscape.com)