Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
Clinical Chemistry Tests
Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic
Organic Chemistry Phenomena
Green Chemistry Technology
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Amino Acid Sequence
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Small Molecule Libraries
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Indicators and Reagents
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Chemical Warfare Agents
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nucleic Acid Conformation
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Sequence Analysis, DNA
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Retinal Vein Occlusion
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Organic Chemistry Processes
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Spectrum Analysis, Raman
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
High-Throughput Screening Assays
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Outline of natural science
... scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. Immunochemistry - branch of chemistry ... Computational chemistry - branch of chemistry that uses principles of computer science to assist in solving chemical problems. ... Environmental chemistry - Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur ... Chemical oceanography - study of the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans. Chemical physics - branch of ...
Outline of Earth sciences
A branch of statistics focusing on spatial data sets Environmental chemistry - The scientific study of the chemical and ... history of the Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural ... History of toxicology - history of the branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse ... Earth science is a branch of the physical sciences which is a part of the natural sciences. It in turn has many branches. ...
Glossary of astronomy
extragalactic astronomy The branch of astronomy that studies objects and phenomena outside of the Milky Way galaxy, i.e. all ... astrophotography astrophysics The branch of astronomy that employs principles of physics and chemistry to determine the nature ... Astronomers can determine the mass, age, temperature, chemical composition, and many other properties of a star by observing ... galactic astronomy The branch of astronomy that studies objects and phenomena within the Milky Way galaxy, as opposed to ...
Biology is thus but a branch of the physico-chemistry of liquids; it includes the study of electrolytic and colloidal solutions ... "Hence the study of life may be best begun by the study of those physico-chemical phenomena which result from the contact of two ... Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953. Haas, C.; Drenth, J. (1999). "Understanding protein crystallization on the basis of the phase ... Sear, Richard P. (1999). "Phase behavior of a simple model of globular proteins". The Journal of Chemical Physics. 111 (10): ...
Post-mortem may also refer to: Post-mortem chemistry, a branch of chemistry for studying of chemical and biochemical phenomena ...
Glossary of physics
change of base rule charge carrier chemical physics A branch of chemistry and physics that studies chemical processes from the ... photonics physical chemistry The study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in ... It is closely related to atomic physics and overlaps greatly with theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry and chemical ... molecular physics A branch of physics that studies the physical properties of molecules and the chemical bonds between atoms as ...
... is a subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from ... it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics. While at the interface of ... Chemistry A Journal of Physical Chemistry B Journal of Physical Chemistry C Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics Chemical ... and discovering accurate approximations to make the physics of chemical phenomena computationally accessible. Chemical ...
Outline of chemistry
... it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes. Electrochemistry - branch of chemistry that studies chemical ... Computational chemistry Environmental chemistry - study of chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur diverse aspects of the ... History of chemistry Precursors to chemistry Alchemy (outline) History of alchemy History of the branches of chemistry History ... Chemical kinetics - study of rates of chemical processes. Chemical physics - investigates physicochemical phenomena using ...
... is the branch of physical chemistry concerned with the relationship between electrical potential, as a ... This phenomenon is what distinguishes an electrochemical reaction from a chemical reaction. Understanding of electrical matters ... and identifiable chemical change, with either electrical potential as an outcome of a particular chemical change, or vice versa ... Nobel Lectures in Chemistry, Volume 1, World Scientific (1999) ISBN 981-02-3405-8 Swaddle, Thomas Wilson Inorganic chemistry: ...
... is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems. It uses ... it can in some cases predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena. It is widely used in the design of new drugs and materials ... Storing and searching for data on chemical entities (see chemical databases). Identifying correlations between chemical ... Chemical Engineering Journal of Chemical Software Molecular Informatics Journal of Computer Aided Chemistry Theoretical ...
... and the physical chemistry elucidated by R. E. Rosensweig and colleagues. In addition Rosensweig evolved a new branch of fluid ... In 2019, researchers at the University of Massachusetts and Beijing University of Chemical Technology succeeded in creating a ... mechanics termed ferrohydrodynamics which sparked further theoretical research on intriguing physical phenomena in ferrofluids ...
The formal distinction between both fields is that physical chemistry is a branch of chemistry while chemical physics is a ... In the most general sense, it is explanation of chemical phenomena by methods of theoretical physics. In contrast to ... Modern theoretical chemistry may be roughly divided into the study of chemical structure and the study of chemical dynamics. ... Theoretical chemistry is the branch of chemistry which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical ...
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
... is the branch of chemistry pertaining to the quantitative relationships between elements in chemical compounds and chemical ... He investigated isomerism, allotropy, and catalysis, phenomena that owe their names to him. Berzelius was among the first to ... "Cerium". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 1 January 2020. "Selenium". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 1 January 2020 ... "Silicon". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 1 January 2020. "Thorium". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 1 January 2020 ...
Outline of physical science
History of chemical engineering - history of the branch of engineering that deals with physical science (e.g., chemistry and ... History of environmental chemistry - history of the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in ... History of electrochemistry - history of the branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution ... History of chemical physics - history of the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of ...
Food physical chemistry
... is considered to be a branch of Food chemistry concerned with the study of both physical and chemical ... Food physical chemistry concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical ... Chemical physics Molecular dynamics Surface chemistry and Van der Waals forces Chemical reactions and Reaction chemistry ... Physical chemistry List of unsolved problems in chemistry#Physical chemistry problems John M. de Man.1999. Principles of Food ...
Biological interface engineering
... is a branch of bioengineering (specifically a subset of tissue and biological materials ... Biological interface engineering involves the marriage of analytical, organic and physical chemistry with genetic, cellular and ... Further, biological interface engineering uses concepts developed in traditional materials engineering to describe phenomena ... Biomedical engineering Chemical engineering Tissue engineering. ...
Advances in Chemistry, Vol. 66. Chapter 11, pp 156-169. American Chemical Society, 1967. Walter Brenner, R. F. Shaffer, R. ... Nucleation Phenomena In Polymers Defense Technical Information Center, 1968, 216 p. Contributor: New York University, NY ... Brenner's expertise led him to become a consultant working for many different companies, institutions, branches of the ... Sodium Selenide Vicinal Dihalide Elimination In: The journal of organic chemistry. - [S.l.]: American Chemical Society, ISSN ...
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the ... is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry in order to ... The study of chemicals found in space, including their formation, interaction and destruction, is called astrochemistry. These ... of which it may properly be classed as a branch, and on the other hand to chemistry and physics.… It seeks to ascertain the ...
In the biological sense and in the extent to which this phenomena appears in nature, this exists as chemical energy is sourced ... Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP. 9 (37): 5067-83. Bibcode:2007PCCP....9.5067A. doi:10.1039/b708995c. PMID 17878982. ... Interdisciplinary collaboration between different branches of science and institutions is thus a key element of the SNI's day- ... The theory behind Brownian motors relies on the phenomena of Brownian motion, random motion of particles suspended in a fluid ( ...
Outline of physical science
History of chemical engineering - history of the branch of engineering that deals with physical science (e.g., chemistry and ... History of environmental chemistry - history of the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in ... History of physical chemistry - history of the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical ... Chemistry - branch of science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry is ...
History of electrochemistry
Electrochemistry, a branch of chemistry, went through several changes during its evolution from early principles related to ... The ions were supposed to be the carriers of not only the electric current, as in electrolysis, but also of the chemical ... The term electrochemistry was used to describe electrical phenomena in the late 19th and 20th centuries. In recent decades, ... In the preface to his book he expressed his intention to relate chemical research to industrial processes and in the same year ...