Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Heart Sounds: The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amplifiers, Electronic: Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.Ear Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Trichechus manatus: Member of the genus Trichechus inhabiting the coast and coastal rivers of the southeastern United States as well as the West Indies and the adjacent mainland from Vera Cruz, Mexico to northern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Biophysical Processes: Physical forces and actions in living things.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Heart Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the heart.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Sound localization is the ability to correctly identify the directional location of sounds. A sound stimulus localized in the ... The cochlear nerve spans from the cochlea of the inner ear to the ventral cochlear nuclei located in the pons of the brainstem ... sound localization), and it is important for sound segregation. Sound segregation refers the ability to identify acoustic ... and spectral differences in the sound arriving at the two ears are used in localization. Localization of low frequency sounds ...
Coincidence detection in neurobiology
Coincidence detection has been shown to be a major factor in sound localization along the azimuth plane in several organisms. ... Carr, C. E.; Konishi, M. (1988). "Axonal delay lines for time measurement in the owl's brainstem". Proceedings of the National ... When a sound is heard, sound waves may reach the ears at different times. This is referred to as the interaural time difference ... Neurobiology Sound localization Long-term potentiation Long-term depression Hebbian theory Coincidence circuit Neuroethology ...
Pure tone audiometry
PTA only measures audibility thresholds, rather than other aspects of hearing such as sound localization and speech recognition ... However, there are benefits of using PTA over other forms of hearing test, such as click auditory brainstem response (ABR). PTA ... "Sound Advice". Sound Advice Safety and Health Ltd. Retrieved 10 May 2016. Hietamen A, Era P, Henrichsen J, Rosenhall U, Sorri M ... which alter sound intensity within the sound field. Therefore, it may be necessary to use other stimuli, such as warble tones ...
The lateral lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to ... This is believed to help with localization of sound. The superior olivary complex is located in the pons, and receives ... brings sound into awareness/perception. AC identifies sounds (sound-name recognition) and also identifies the sound's origin ... LSO normalizes sound levels between the ears; it uses the sound intensities to help determine sound angle. LSO innervates the ...
She is an auditory neuroscientist best known for her work on attention and the cocktail party problem, sound localization, and ... brainstem frequency following responses, and computational modeling. She also collaborates with researchers conducting ... "Cochlear neuropathy and the coding of supra-threshold sound," Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00026 ...
In vertebrates, inter-aural time differences are known to be calculated in the superior olivary nucleus of the brainstem. ... Sound localization by the human auditory system. Sound localization is the process of determining the location of a sound ... For sound localization via mechanical or electrical means, see acoustic location.. Sound localization is a listener's ability ... Bi-coordinate sound localization (owls). Main article: Sound localization in owls ...
Sound localization in owls
The fibers of the auditory nerve innervate both cochlear nuclei in the brainstem, the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis ( ... When the sound source is directly in front of the owl, there is no ITD, i.e. the ITD is zero. In sound localization, ITDs are ... Ear asymmetry allows for sound originating from below the eye level to sound louder in the left ear, while sound originating ... ITDs tend to be utilized for localization of lower frequency sounds, while ILDs tend to be used for higher frequency sounds. ...
Calyx of Held
... stimulation necessary in sound localization in the horizontal plane, and is key in distinguishing the location of low frequency ... found in other auditory brainstem structures, namely the cochlear nucleus. As with the calyces, these synapses promote fast, ... required for high frequency sound localization. This synapse has been described as the largest in the brain. The related ... is to allow differentiation between temporal activation of the cochlear hair cells that are important in sound localization ( ...
Perceptual-based 3D sound localization
... and populations of neurons that are sensitive to ILD are found at almost every synaptic level from brain stem to cortex. These ... Perceptual-based 3D sound localization is the application of knowledge of the human auditory system to develop 3D sound ... The precedence effect is the observation that sound localization can be dominated by the components of a complex sound that are ... Furthermore, by understanding and exploiting biological mechanisms of sound localization, virtual sound scenes may be rendered ...
The information is used by higher brainstem regions to achieve further computational objectives (such as sound source location ... The inputs from these other areas of the brain probably play a role in sound localization. In order to understand in more ... Bushy cells can also be inhibited by sounds adjacent to the frequency to which they are tuned, leading to even sharper tuning ... Each fiber is an axon of a spiral ganglion cell that represents a particular frequency of sound, and a particular range of ...
Superior olivary complex
... and act to normalize the sound level detected by each ear in order to aid in sound localization. Considerable species ... The superior olivary complex (or SOC or superior olive) is a collection of brainstem nuclei that functions in multiple aspects ... the angle to the left or right where the sound source is located. Sound elevation cues are not processed in the olivary complex ... Only horizontal data is present, but it does come from two different ear sources, which aids in the localizing of sound on the ...
Neuroscience of music
Implications for Sound Localization". Journal of Neurophysiology. 96 (5): 2327-41. doi:10.1152/jn.00326.2006. PMC 2013745. PMID ... "Auditory Brain Stem Response to Complex Sounds: A Tutorial". Ear and Hearing. 31 (3): 302-24. doi:10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181cdb272 ... Sounds with pitch activated more of these regions than sounds without. When a melody was produced activation spread to the ... proposes that a ventral auditory stream maps sounds onto meaning, whereas a dorsal stream maps sounds onto articulatory ...
Spatial hearing loss
By the time sound stream representations reach the end of the auditory pathways brainstem inhibition processing ensures that ... At A, Spierer L, Clarke S; The role of the right parietal cortex in sound localization: a chronometric single pulse ... Different notches/peaks are added to sounds coming from below compared to sounds coming from above, and compared to sounds ... A sound straight in front of the head is heard at the same time by both ears. A sound to the side of the head is heard ...
In the brainstem, the auditory system compares the timing and levels of sounds between the two ears to encode the location of ... When this degradation is asymmetric (worse in one ear than the other) the binaural cues associated with sound localization can ... Webster DB, Webster M (July 1977). "Neonatal sound deprivation affects brain stem auditory nuclei". Arch Otolaryngol. 103 (7): ... Children with amblyaudia experience difficulties in speech perception, particularly in noisy environments, sound localization, ...
Neuronal encoding of sound
May 2009). "Localization of inner hair cell mechanotransducer channels using high-speed calcium imaging". Nature Neuroscience. ... Kandler, K.; Clause, A.; Noh, J. (Jun 2009). "Tonotopic reorganization of developing auditory brainstem circuits". Nature ... Amplitude is the size of the pressure variations in a sound wave, and primarily determines the loudness with which the sound is ... This article explores the basic physiological principles of sound perception, and traces hearing mechanisms from sound as ...
Often these maps involve comparing, as in performing subtraction to get a time delay, two stimuli, like incoming sound ... 59(2):213-23 Penfield, W., Rasmussen, T., (1950), The cerebral cortex of man: a clinical study of localization of function, ... Vol 123(4), 1432-1106 Carr, C.E., Konishi, M., (1988), Axonal delay lines for time measurement in the owl's brainstem. ... for where a sound came from. The neural system computes this ITD in the Owl Auditory System and the real neural system was ...
Interaural time difference
It is important in the localization of sounds, as it provides a cue to the direction or angle of the sound source from the head ... The axons of most of the CNIC cells form the brachium of IC and leave the brainstem to travel to the ipsilateral thalamus. ... Sound localization Jan Schnupp, Israel Nelken and Andrew King (2011). Auditory Neuroscience. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-11318-X. ... This lead them to the theory that in phase excitatory inputs are summated such that the brain can process sound localization by ...
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), also referred to as brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) show the neuronal ... Patients with cortical deafness cannot hear any sounds, that is, they are not aware of sounds including non-speech, voices, and ... Advances in imaging techniques, such as MRI, greatly improved the diagnosis and localization of cerebral infarcts that coincide ... They are aware of their inability to hear environmental sounds, non-speech and speech sounds. Patients with auditory agnosia ...
... sound localisation (May et al., 2004), and intensity discrimination (May and McQuone, 1995). All of these studies were ... More recently, however, the division of the OCB is based on the cell bodies' site of origin in the brainstem relative to the ... 1997) concluded that OCB-mediated suppression of sounds in the cochlea was responsible for the suppression of unexpected sounds ... protection from loud sounds, was challenged by Kirk and Smith (2003), who argued that the intensity of sounds used in the ...
... which is thought to help sound localisation. The pontine tegmentum contains two predominately cholinergic nuclei, the ... The pontine tegmentum, or dorsal pons, is located within the brainstem, and is one of two parts of the pons, the other being ... which are located further caudally in the brainstem. The dorsal respiratory group are connected to the pneumotaxic and ...
The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... Shupak A. Sharoni Z. Yanir Y. Keynan Y. Alfie Y. Halpern P. (January 2005). "Underwater Hearing and Sound Localization with and ... This is related to differences of the speed of sound in water vs air and the blocking of normal air conducted sound paths. Not ... This gives these animals the ability to localize sound vertically. The eardrum is an airtight membrane, and when sound waves ...
These nerves permit the subconscious localization of a sound source; people can identify the direction from which a sound ... portion of the brain stem-the first processing stop for auditory nerves-as is induced by an actual moving sound source. Any ... A sound source produces a propagating sound wave that strikes the ear closer to it before traveling an extra distance to strike ... If a sound impulse originates from a point equidistant to each ear (e.g. directly behind or in front of the head), the neuronal ...
While acknowledging the weakness of the data, the authors found that CI in people with UHL improves sound localization compared ... Auditory brainstem response Auditory brainstem implant Bone-anchored hearing aid Bone conduction Brain implant Ear trumpet ... which creates the experience of sound. Instead, the devices pick up sound and digitize it, convert that digitized sound into ... Cochlear implants bypass most of the peripheral auditory system which receives sound and converts that sound into movements of ...
The second neuron has its cell body either in the spinal cord or in the brainstem. This neuron's ascending axons will cross ( ... The form of touch where localization is not possible is known as crude touch. The posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway is ... this info is used in determining if a perceived sound is just villi noise/irritation. All fibers cross (left becomes right) in ... decussate) to the opposite side either in the spinal cord or in the brainstem. ...
Dorsal cochlear nucleus
While this has not been studied extensively, it may play an important role in sound source localization in elevation. A similar ... is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral surface of the brainstem. Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), it ... type IV cells may participate in localization of the sound stimulus on the vertical axis. The pinna selectively amplifies ... Classified as cochlear nucleus type IV cells, the firing rate may be very rapid in response to a low intensity sound at one ...
Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. ... Sound location data thus becomes fully integrated by the inferior colliculus. IC are large auditory nuclei on the right and ... In addition, spatial localization by binaural hearing is a related function of IC as well. The inferior colliculus has a ... Posterior dissection of brainstem with colliculi visible. Fourth ventricle. Posterior view.Deep dissection. Brainstem. ...
Phineas Gage: Difference between revisions
1878). "The Goulstonian lectures of the localisation of cerebral disease. LectureI (concluded)". Br Med J. 1 (900): 443-7.. ... brain stem, and cerebellum. Inter-hemispheric connections of the frontal and limbic lobes as well as basal ganglia were also ... as well as about victims of other unlikely-sounding brain-injury accidents-see Macmillan 2000).:66-7 Noting dryly that, "The ... the American crowbar case and nineteenth-century theories of cerebral localization". JNeurosurg. 82: 672-682. PMID 7897537.. ...
The sound produced by a muscle comes from the shortening of actomyosin filaments along the axis of the muscle. During ... Deeper muscles such as those involved in posture often are controlled from nuclei in the brain stem and basal ganglia. ... found a similar pattern of localization in cnidarians with except with the cnidarian N. vectensis having this striated muscle ... Furthermore, Steinmetz et all showed that the localization of this duplicated set of genes that serve both the function of ...
He saw this as an opportunity to address language localization. It wasn't until Leborgne, formally known as "tan", died when ... Damage to the Broca's area typically produces symptoms like omitting functional words (agrammatism), sound production changes, ... injuries to the brainstem, posterior fossa, and subtemporal and subfrontal regions. However patients with pacemakers, metallic ... The second patient had similar speech impairments, supporting his findings on language localization. The results of both cases ...
Most fMRI scanners allow subjects to be presented with different visual images, sounds and touch stimuli, and to make different ... "Influence of head models on neuromagnetic fields and inverse source localizations". Biomedical Engineering Online. 5 (1): 55. ... Main article: MRI of brain and brain stem. Sagittal MRI slice at the midline. ...
... an ability to react reflexively to sounds remains as there is a great deal of subcortical processing in the auditory brainstem ... Areas of localization on lateral surface of hemisphere. Motor area in red. Area of general sensations in blue. Auditory area in ... Many have surmised that this linkage is based on the location of sounds. However, there are numerous distortions of sound when ... When each instrument of a symphony orchestra or the jazz band plays the same note, the quality of each sound is different - but ...
... in which the speed of sound is faster than in air. Underwater hearing is by bone conduction, and localization of sound appears ... They found that neurons located in the brainstem of fish are responsible for the genesis of the respiratory rhythm. The ... Shupak A. Sharoni Z. Yanir Y. Keynan Y. Alfie Y. Halpern P. (January 2005). "Underwater Hearing and Sound Localization with and ... Fish can sense sound through their lateral lines and their otoliths (ears). Some fishes, such as some species of carp and ...
Vision in toads
The optic tectum exists as an ordered localization system, in the form of a topographical map. Each point on the map ... evolutionary point of view it is important to note that the tetrapod vertebrates share a common pattern of homologous brainstem ... Sound localization. *Ultrasound avoidance in insects. People. *Theodore Holmes Bullock. *Walter Heiligenberg ...
Haas L. F. (2001). "Phineas Gage and the Science of Brain Localisation". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 71 ... Damage to the Broca's area typically produces symptoms like omitting functional words (agrammatism), sound production changes, ... injuries to the brainstem, posterior fossa, and subtemporal and subfrontal regions. However patients with pacemakers, metallic ... He saw this as an opportunity to address language localization. It wasn't until Leborgne, formally known as "tan", died when ...
However, if the sound and the pictures were not meaningfully fit, we would segregate the two stimuli. Therefore, whether ... The superior colliculus (SC) or optic tectum (OT) is part of the tectum, located in the midbrain, superior to the brainstem and ... Thus, vision has a greater influence on integrated localization than hearing, and hearing and touch have a greater bearing on ... Shams L, Iwaki S, Chawla A, Bhattacharya J (April 2005). "Early modulation of visual cortex by sound: an MEG study". Neurosci. ...
It works to form new memories and also connecting different senses such as visual input, smell or sound to memories. The ... Specificity was determined through the comparison of emotion-category brain-localizations by contrasting activations in key ... and brainstem). Brain regions implicated across discrete emotion included the basal ganglia (~60% of studies inducing happiness ...
Auditory processing disorder
This can include problems with: "...sound localization and lateralization (see also binaural fusion); auditory discrimination; ... "Auditory training improves neural timing in the human brainstem". Behav. Brain Res. 156 (1): 95-103. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2004.05. ... An analogy may be drawn with trying to listen to sounds in a foreign language. It is much harder to distinguish between sounds ... APD can manifest as problems determining the direction of sounds, difficulty perceiving differences between speech sounds and ...
قلادة ملكية - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
"For his researches on the localisation of cerebral functions.". 1891. آرثر وليام روكر. Physics. "For his researches on liquid ... "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to evolutionary biology, combining mathematics and biology to develop a sound ... and brain stem for the control of pain, methods that are now in widespread use.". ...
Temporal synchronization - sound localization and echo location. Parameters of human hearing. Frequency range ... In 1967, Sohmer and Feinmesser were the first to publish auditory brainstem responses (ABR), recorded with surface electrodes ... The first types were clock-like, giving off air-borne sound to the tubes of a stethoscope; the sound distributor head had a ... but also the characteristics of sound reproduction devices, in-the-canal hearing aids, vents and sound tubes of hearing aids.[4 ...
... mechanical sounds and more recently sonation. The term sonate has been defined as the act of producing non-vocal sounds ... has been considered homologous to a mammalian motor pathway originating in the cerebral cortex and descending through the brain stem ... The black jacobin is exceptional in producing sounds at about 11.8 kHz. It is not known if they can hear these sounds. ... The Australian raven (Perplexus) makes a slow, high-pitched ah-ah-aaaah sound. Australian raven territorial call (help·info ...
The localization of speech in Broca's area is one of the weakest points of this model. Tremblay, Pascal; Dick, Anthony Steven ( ... For listening to and understanding spoken words, the sounds of the words are sent through the auditory pathways to area 41, ... and from there instructions are sent to facial motor neurons in the brainstem, which relay movement orders to facial muscles. ...
Brennan TJ, Seeley WW, Kilgard M, Schreiner CE, Tecott LH (August 1997). "Sound-induced seizures in serotonin 5-HT2c receptor ... Abramowski D, Rigo M, Duc D, Hoyer D, Staufenbiel M (1995). "Localization of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine2c Receptor Protein in ... several brainstem nuclei, amygdala, subthalamic nucleus and lateral habenula. 5-HT2C receptors are also found on epithelial ...
Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments. -...
Mongolian gerbil; cochlear nucleus; inhibition; neuroscience; sound localization; spherical bushy cell. PMID:. 27855778. PMCID: ... Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments.. Keine ... Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments ... Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments ...
Biophysical basis of the sound analog membrane potential that underlies coincidence detection in the barn owl. - PubMed - NCBI
auditory brainstem; oscillation; owl; periodic signals; phase-locking; sound localization. PMID:. 24265615. PMCID:. PMC3821004 ... Since this oscillatory potential resembled the stimulus sound waveform, it was named the sound analog potential (Funabiki et al ... is a fundamental cue for sound localization. A wide variety of animals have specialized neural circuits dedicated to the ... C) Comparison of synaptic filters at different sound stimulus frequencies fs (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz). Filter strength exceeds ...
A circuit for detection of interaural time differences in the brain stem of the barn owl | Journal of Neuroscience
Detection of interaural time differences underlies azimuthal sound localization in the barn owl Tyto alba. Axons of the ... A circuit for detection of interaural time differences in the brain stem of the barn owl. CE Carr and M Konishi ... A circuit for detection of interaural time differences in the brain stem of the barn owl ... A circuit for detection of interaural time differences in the brain stem of the barn owl ...
Ipsilateral and Contralateral Auditory Brainstem Response Reorganization in Hemispherectomized Patients
The superior olivary complex of the mammalian brainstem is also involved in computing sound localization . Our present ... N. Lessard, F. Lepore, P. Poirier, J. Villemagne, and M. Lassonde, "Sound localization in hemispherectomized subjects: the ... S. J. Oh, T. Kuba, A. Soyer, I. S. Choi, F. P. Bonikowski, and J. Vitek, "Lateralization of brainstem lesions by brainstem ... One of the most common tests used to evaluate auditory function in the brainstem is measurement of the auditory brainstem ...
Hearing Flashcards by Isobel Ritchie | Brainscape
... auditory cortex and brainstem (sound localisation) ... Sound transmitted to one ear has to cross the midline to be ... sense sound by moving Type 1 spiral ganglion afferents (95%). 3 rows of outer hair cells - amplify sound by moving Type 2 ... Volume difference between ears is due to the sound being refracted around the head (the sound is perceived as quieter in the ... Loudness defined relative to a sound which is just audible (0dB). Conversation = ~60dB. Painful sound = ~120dB ...
WILLIAM DUWAYNE NEFF | Biographical Memoirs: Volume 89 | The National Academies Press
Nauman, C. Sound localization: The role of the commissural path- ways of the auditory system of the cat, 1958. Nieder, P. C. ... Auditory localization: Role of auditory path- ways in brain stem of the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 38:842-858. With T. R. Dolan, H. ... Sound localiza- tion: Role of the commissural pathways of the auditory system of the cat. Brain Res. 82:13-26. Neff, L. M. 1969 ... Sound localization: The role of the commissural pathways of the auditory system of the cat. Brain Res. 82:13-26. 1975 With J. H ...
Clinical Utility of Evoked Potentials: Overview, Visual Evoked Potential, Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials
The structures involved in the generation of BAEPs may be concerned more with sound localization than with hearing itself. ... Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials. The brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), or brainstem auditory evoked response ( ... Efficacy of auditory brainstem response as a screening test for small acoustic neuromas. Am J Otol. 1995 Mar. 16(2):136-9. [ ... From dipole localization, the exact origin of the P16 source could not be assigned to either the subthalamic level or the ...
Inhibitory Plasticity and Auditory Function | SpringerLink
... including the spatial localization of sound sources and the recognition of behaviorally-relevant sounds. The... ... The first example deals with sound localization and the brainstem circuitry that decodes binaural spatial cues. This provides ... Retrograde GABA signaling adjusts sound localization by balancing excitation and inhibition in the brainstem. Neuron 59:125-137 ... including the spatial localization of sound sources and the recognition of behaviorally-relevant sounds. The neural circuitry ...
Module D-12 Flashcards by hasina ashraf | Brainscape
what pathway is used to detect the time delay for low freq sound localization? ... 2) collaterals from these fibers cross the midline of the brainstem and form excitatory synapses on inhibitory interneurons in ... the differences in sound intensity in the two ears when the sound originates from positions lateral to the midline. , the ear ... Encoding method for sound intensity that based on number of afferent fibers activated. low intensity sound only activates low ...
Acute hyperbilirubinaemia induces presynaptic neurodegeneration at a central glutamatergic synapse - Haustein - 2010 - The...
This glutamatergic relay synapse is part of the brainstem auditory pathway involved in sound localisation (Johnston et al. 2010 ... Jaundice causes hearing loss through failure of transmission in the auditory brainstem A, in vivo auditory brainstem responses ... Sound-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) are commonly used to test for hearing loss and hyperbilirubinaemia reduces ... Acute brainstem slices (200 μm) were prepared as for patch clamp experiments. Slices were loaded with 5 μm of the acetoxy ...
Frontiers | Developmental Profile of Ion Channel Specializations in the Avian Nucleus Magnocellularis | Frontiers in Cellular...
... properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage ... properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage ... In order to accurately encode temporal information of sound, auditory brainstem neurons are functionally primed to generate ... Köppl, C. (2009). Evolution of sound localisation in land vertebrates. Curr. Biol. 19, R635-R639. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.05. ...
Contribution of the Dorsal Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus to Binaural Responses in the Inferior Colliculus of the Rat:...
... and other brainstem structures, results in an impairment in sound localization and a degradation in auditory spatial acuity for ... 1974) Localization of paired sound sources in the rat: small time differences. J Acoust Soc Am 55:1277-1284. ... 1985) Localization of GABA immunoreactivity in the auditory brainstem of guinea pigs. Brain Res 339:119-122. ... Intervals ,1.0 msec are clearly beyond the range of ITDs that can serve as cues for sound localization by rats or other mammals ...
Tempel Lab | Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center
Binaural fusion - Wikipedia
Sound localization is the ability to correctly identify the directional location of sounds. A sound stimulus localized in the ... The cochlear nerve spans from the cochlea of the inner ear to the ventral cochlear nuclei located in the pons of the brainstem ... sound localization), and it is important for sound segregation. Sound segregation refers the ability to identify acoustic ... and spectral differences in the sound arriving at the two ears are used in localization. Localization of low frequency sounds ...
Models of the Superior Olivary Complex | SpringerLink
... so that a natural description of a sound includes its location and other spatial properties. The extraction... ... Sounds in the real world originate from specific sources, either alone or in combination, ... Jeffress LA (1948) A place theory of sound localization. J Comp Physiol Psychol 41:35-39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Carr CE, Konishi M (1988) Axonal delay lines for time measurement in the owls brainstem. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:8311-8315 ...
Pap 0111 | Auditory System | Brainstem
... time information is extracted by a specific pool of neurons within lower brain stem centers.Mechanisms of Sound Localization ... 1966). It is within the SOC that binaural convergence first occurs and that neural mechanisms for sound localization are first ... If one considers the head only as a spherical obstacle to sound waves reaching the two ears for humans a sound originating from ... 1969) and natural vowel sounds (Moore and Cashin. There was no indication of a systematic map of sound space in AI. spatially ...
Balance of excitation and inhibition - Scholarpedia
Browse by Persons
Retrograde GABA signaling adjusts sound localization by balancing excitation and inhibition in the brainstem. In: Neuron, Vol. ... ORCID: 0000-0001-7317-0615 (2015): Sound localization with microsecond precision in mammals: what is it we do not understand? ... ORCID: 0000-0001-7317-0615 (2012): Sound Localization in Noise by Gerbils and Humans. In: Journal of the Association for ... ORCID: 0000-0001-7317-0615 (2003): Sound localization and delay lines - do mammals fit the model? In: Trends in Neurosciences, ...
Coincidence detection in neurobiology - Wikipedia
Coincidence detection has been shown to be a major factor in sound localization along the azimuth plane in several organisms. ... Carr, C. E.; Konishi, M. (1988). "Axonal delay lines for time measurement in the owls brainstem". Proceedings of the National ... When a sound is heard, sound waves may reach the ears at different times. This is referred to as the interaural time difference ... Neurobiology Sound localization Long-term potentiation Long-term depression Hebbian theory Coincidence circuit Neuroethology ...
Scientists Discover a 'Turbocharger' for Nerve Cells
Sound localization synapses (Calyx of Held) in the brainstem of a mouse. The green areas are synapses that release ... BMJ Sounds the Alarm: COVID-19 Vaccine Trials Cannot Tell Us if They Will Save Lives ... Without it, we would not be able to localize sounds, mental maths would be impossible, and the speed and flexibility with which ... two neurophysiologists first studied the effects of this genetic manipulation on synapses involved in the localization of sound ...
A Turbocharger for Nerve Cells - Neuroscience News
Sound localisation synapses (Calyx of Held) in the brainstem of a mouse. The green areas are synapses that release ... Without it, we would not be able to localise sounds, mental maths would be impossible, and the speed and flexibility with which ... two neurophysiologists first studied the effects of this genetic manipulation on synapses involved in the localisation of sound ...
Frontiers | Sexual attractiveness of male chemicals and vocalizations in mice | Neuroscience
... and sound localization are observed (Haggard and Gaston, 1978; Jerger and Johnson, 1988; Wharton and Church, 1990; Coleman et ... Wharton, J. A., and Church, G. T. (1990). Influence of menopause on the auditory brainstem response. Audiology 29, 196-201. doi ... However, neural circuits for audible sounds have been identified. Encoded sound information is transmitted from the cochlea to ... The SO is important for detecting the interaural level and time differences necessary for sound localization. Third-order ...
Xpert search results for Love on the rocks?start=2940
Glutamate receptor phenotypes in the auditory brainstem and mid-brain of the developing rat - Caicedo - 1999 - European Journal...
Retrograde GABA Signaling Adjusts Sound Localization by Balancing Excitation and Inhibition in the Brainstem, Neuron, 2008, 59 ... Glutamate receptor phenotypes in the auditory brainstem and mid-brain of the developing rat. Authors. *. Alejandro Caicedo,. ... Pirjo Saransaari, Simo S. Oja, Mechanisms of Glycine Release in Mouse Brain Stem Slices, Neurochemical Research, 2009, 34, 2, ... Alan P. Cooper, Deda C. Gillespie, Synaptotagmins I and II in the developing rat auditory brainstem: Synaptotagmin I is ...
ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN A NEURONAL CIRCUIT IMPORTANT FOR SOUND LOCALIZATION
The superior olivary complex (SOC) within the auditory brainstem is the first site of binaural interaction and its major ... auditory, sound localization, development, HCN channel, GABAB receptor. Subjects:. 500 Natural sciences and mathematics , 570 ... It is therefore quite likely that GABABRs modulate and possibly improve the localization of low frequency sounds even in adult ... It is therefore quite likely that GABABRs modulate and possibly improve the localization of low frequency sounds even in adult ...
Sound-intensity-dependent compensation for the small interaural time difference cue for sound source localization. J Neurosci ... A circuit for detection of interaural time differences in the brain stem of the barn owl. J Neurosci 10: 3227-3246, 1990. ... Encoding of interaural timing for sound localization. In: The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, edited by Dallos P, Oertel D. ... Mechanisms of sound localization in mammals. Physiol Rev 90: 983-1012, 2010. ...
Inhibitory neurotransmission, plasticity and aging in the mammalian central auditory system | Journal of Experimental Biology
... and high-frequency sounds (Joris and Yin, 2007). Localization of sounds in the horizontal plane is necessary to avoid predation ... auditory brain stem response. CN. cochlear nucleus. DCN. dorsal cochlear nucleus. GABA. gamma amino butyric acid. GABAAR. GABAA ... Localization of high frequency sounds is thought to involve left vs right comparison of interaural intensity differences, which ... Masterton, R. B. and Imig, T. J. (1984). Neural mechanisms for sound localization. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 46,275 -287. ...
Sound localization - Wikipedia
In vertebrates, inter-aural time differences are known to be calculated in the superior olivary nucleus of the brainstem. ... Sound localization by the human auditory system. Sound localization is the process of determining the location of a sound ... For sound localization via mechanical or electrical means, see acoustic location.. Sound localization is a listeners ability ... Bi-coordinate sound localization (owls). Main article: Sound localization in owls ...
Sensory Neuroscience: Hearing and speech - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Brainstem-evoked potentials in audiological & neurological diagnosis. *Sound localization *Nature of binaural sound ... representation of the sound in the nervous system and sound localization). *Perceptive (detecting the sound and discrimination) ... localization cues: effects of sound frequency and azimuth. *Neural coding of binaural sound localization cues, interaural phase ... This covers some introductory aspects of the mechanisms of human hearing, sound localization, speech perception and speech ...
VIVO Multiphoton</span><span class=...
"Excitation by Axon Terminal GABA Spillover in a Sound Localization Circuit." The Journal of Neuroscience, 20 January 2016, 36(3 ... Calcium imaging in mouse brainstem slices in conjunction with electrophysiology and GABA uncaging using 488 laser line. Kandler ... Morphological imaging of labeled neurons in the auditory pathway in mouse brainstem slices. Kandler lab, University of ...
Source localizationNeuronalMidbrainMammalian brainstemCells in the auditory brainstemSpatial localizationPathwayAxonsSynapticNucleusTemporalITDsCerebellumMechanismsNeural pathwaysHuman auditoryCentersMeasuring the auditorySpectralContralateral brainstemCircuitsVentral2016PhysiologyAzimuthalSpinal cordSynapsesCochlearSlicesInferiorStimulationIntensityPerceptionMedial super
- The auditory system uses several cues for sound source localization, including time- and level-differences (or intensity-difference) between both ears, spectral information, timing analysis, correlation analysis, and pattern matching. (wikipedia.org)
- The human brain exploits asymmetries in sensory responses for spatial orientation, and also for sound-source localization," Schmitz explains. (medicalxpress.com)
- The Duplex Theory only accounts for sounds traveling in the horizontal plane at the level of the ear and does not explain anteroposterior sound source localization. (statpearls.com)
- This strictly contralateral projection is an essential component of the circuitry that computes interaural time and intensity differences, critical cues for sound source localization [ 12 - 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- This projection is specialized for the computation of interaural time differences, a major cue used in sound source localization. (grantome.com)
- 1998). The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is an auditory brainstem structure playing a pivotal role in the integration of information from multiple sensory pathways (Wu and Martel, 2016) and in acoustic cues related to vertical sound source localization (May, 2000). (researchreport-digital.com)
- An auditory brainstem nucleus as a model system for neuronal metabolic demands. (uni-muenchen.de)
- We study computational neuroscience, spiking neuronal networks in the auditory brainstem, and novel electrical and optical stimulation methods for hearing implants. (tum.de)
- In this doctoral thesis, several aspects of neuronal activity in the rat superior olivary complex (SOC), an auditory brainstem structure, were analyzed using optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD). (uni-kl.de)
- In conclusion, this study demonstrates the usage of VSD imaging to analyze the neuronal activity in auditory brainstem slices. (uni-kl.de)
- Dr. Weisz's laboratory investigates the synaptic transmission and electrical properties of descending neuronal circuitry in the auditory brainstem and cochlea. (nih.gov)
- The spatial localization of sound sources, especially low-frequency sounds, presents the neuronal processing system with a daunting challenge, for it depends on resolving the difference between the arrival times of the acoustic stimulus at the two ears. (uni-muenchen.de)
- An MSO neuron generates spikes if the 'bilateral' inputs are nearly coincident in time, performing a crucial neuronal computation in the mammalian brainstem for sound localization. (yale.edu)
- Hearing relies on transmission of sound-evoked responses through very precisely arranged neuronal connections. (grantome.com)
- It is thought that this persistent inhibition (PI) suppresses further processing of sound source information cues of lagging sounds, thereby providing the neuronal basis for sound localisation in reverberant environments. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Epileptic seizure is a Temporal auditory processing (TAP) is defined as transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to the perception of the temporal envelope or the alteration abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in of durational characteristics of a sound within a restricted the brain (3). (who.int)
- The brainstem is divided into the medulla, pons, and midbrain. (medscape.com)
- The LL is formed by a thick fiber bundle, which connects the auditory brainstem with the auditory midbrain (Figure 16.1 ). (oxfordhandbooks.com)
- To study the region-dependent heterogeneity of GlyT and GAT expression in astrocytes, we chose two systems that contrast the LSO with respect to the utilization of glycine and GABA for inhibitory synaptic transmission: 1) The inferior colliculus (IC) residing in the midbrain belongs to the rostral part of the auditory brainstem and serves as a major hub for processing auditory cues [ 4 , 27 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Tolnai S, Beutelmann R, Klump GM (2017) Effect of preceding stimulation on sound localization and its representation in the auditory midbrain. (uni-oldenburg.de)
- Studies in the auditory system have begun to shed new light on how natural aging can alter not only the periphery, but also neural processing all along the ascending neural pathways through the brainstem, midbrain, thalamus and cortex. (oxfordre.com)
Cells in the auditory brainstem1
- The mammalian auditory system serves many functions for an -organism throughout its life, including the spatial localization of sound sources and the recognition of behaviorally-relevant sounds. (springer.com)
- The integration of a sound stimulus is a result of analyzing frequency (pitch), intensity, and spatial localization of the sound source. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, reorganization of the brainstem auditory pathway might occur. (hindawi.com)
- Similar to the pyramidal tract and medial lemniscus, the auditory pathway might also reorganize in the asymmetric brainstem and remain long after hemispherectomy. (hindawi.com)
- In mutant mice we can study the role of potassium channels in the sound localization pathway in the brainstem. (washington.edu)
- Anatomical features of the auditory pathway of interest to microwave hearing begin with the cochlea within which hair cells transduce sound into neural impulses that are transmitted through the vestibulocochlear nerve. (slavery.org.uk)
- This parallel route in the auditory pathway is mainly devoted to sound localization, and also joins the lateral lemniscus, which proceeds to the inferior colliculus. (slavery.org.uk)
- His research has been focused on neural mechanisms of hearing and sound localization at various levels of the auditory pathway and on auditory system plasticity. (bionicsinstitute.org)
- Typically, they are regarded as forming the ascending azimuthal localization pathway. (academic.ru)
- Sound-Evoked Activity Influences Myelination of Brainstem Axons in the Trapezoid Body. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Since the ipsilateral axons enter the nucleus laminaris dorsally while the contralateral axons enter ventrally, sounds from various positions along the azimuth correspond directly to stimulation of different depths of the nucleus laminaris. (wikipedia.org)
- The axons that are most sensitive to low-frequency tones are larger in diameter than those that respond to high-frequency sounds but -- surprisingly -- their internode regions are actually shorter," Grothe explains. (eurekalert.org)
- 2011). Previous modeling studies suggested that a convergence of phase-locked spikes from NM leads to an oscillatory membrane potential in NL, but how presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic factors affect the formation of the sound analog potential remains to be investigated. (nih.gov)
- Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that, provided the total synaptic input is kept constant, changes in the number and spike rate of NM fibers alter the ITD-independent noise whereas the degree of phase-locking is linearly converted to the ITD-dependent signal component of the sound analog potential. (nih.gov)
- Using an in vitro preparation of the auditory brainstem from these rats, extracellular multi-electrode array recording from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) showed longer latency and decreased amplitude of evoked field potentials following bilirubin exposure, suggestive of transmission failure at this synaptic relay. (wiley.com)
- Input timing for spatial processing is precisely tuned via constant synaptic delays and myelination patterns in the auditory brainstem. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Amazingly, these excitatory and inhibitory synapses are highly intermingled in dendrites with micron-precision, but the specific rules that govern this precise synaptic localization remain unknown. (mpg.de)
- Using these tools we dissect the synaptic inputs to the olivocochlear efferents in the brainstem, to determine how they are activated and modulated. (nih.gov)
- Recent studies performed in accessible synapses such as the calyx of Held, a giant axosomatic synapse in the sound localization circuit of the auditory brainstem, have provided tremendous insights into how central synapses regulate the dynamic gain range of synaptic transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the mammalian superior olivary complex (SOC), synaptic inhibition contributes to the processing of binaural sound cues important for sound localization. (beds.ac.uk)
- To assess the impact of inhibition, I employ in vitro patch clamp techniques to observe cellular and synaptic physiology in brainstem circuits dedicated to sound localization processing. (lehigh.edu)
- In an avian system, I described the synaptic activity involving the superior olivary nucleus (SON), which provides the main inhibitory input in the avian sound localization circuit. (lehigh.edu)
- At the cochlea, this information is converted into electrical impulses that travel by means of the cochlear nerve, which spans from the cochlea to the ventral cochlear nucleus, which is located in the pons of the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
- The superior olivary nucleus (SON) is the primary source of inhibition in the avian auditory brainstem. (physiology.org)
- Specificity in the projections from the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) is essential for sound localization. (semanticscholar.org)
- The medial superior olive (MSO) is a specialized nucleus that is believed to measure the time difference of arrival of sounds between the ears (the interaural time difference or ITD). (academic.ru)
- The fusiform cells of the Dorsal cochlear nucleus , which are thought to contribute to localization in elevation, bypass the SOC and project directly to the inferior colliculus . (academic.ru)
- The long term goal of this research program is to elucidate these mechanisms in the lateral superior olive, a primary sound localization nucleus in the auditory brainstem of mammals. (grantome.com)
- A Temporal Filter for Binaural Hearing Is Dynamically Adjusted by Sound Pressure Level. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The auditory system processes temporal information at multiple scales, and disruptions to this temporal processing may lead to deficits in auditory tasks such as detecting and discriminating sounds in a noisy environment. (imperial.ac.uk)
- Ultimately, this will provide the basis for therapeutic intervention in hearing disorders characterized by impaired sensitivity to precise temporal features in sounds. (neomed.edu)
- Together, our results suggest that efficient processing of the temporal properties of behaviorally relevant sounds begins at potentially very early stages of the anuran auditory system that include the periphery. (biologists.org)
- The two main deficits are in sound localization and temporal processing, which lead to poor speech perception. (oxfordre.com)
- Neural representation of interaural correlation in human auditory brainstem: comparisons between temporal-fine structure and envelope. (pku.edu.cn)
- Low sound frequencies are the most useful signals for detecting ITDs, and animals with good sensitivity below 1,500 Hz tend to perform best at this perception . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Both of these features are found in mammals such as gerbils, which use ITDs for the localization of low-frequency sounds, but not in mice, which only hear high frequencies and don't use ITDs. (uni-muenchen.de)
- A question framed in this case muscles having their root values as l1, l2 like the cerebrum, cerebellar peduncles, brainstem and cerebellum. (bigsurlandtrust.org)
- The particles were found primarily in the cerebellum and the brainstem, and there was striking asymmetry in the distribution between the left and right hemispheres of the brain. (medicalxpress.com)
- The brain is composed of 3 main structural divisions: the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum (see the images below). (medscape.com)
- Posterior to the brainstem lies the cerebellum. (medscape.com)
- The purpose of this chapter is to use a few of the known examples of how inhibition and inhibitory plasticity subserve the functional processing of sounds to illustrate both the advances that have been made in terms of understanding mechanisms as well as the open questions remaining. (springer.com)
- While the cellular mechanisms underlying inhibitory plasticity are less clear in these latter cases, taken all together these examples demonstrate the importance and pervasiveness of inhibition in the functional processing of sounds. (springer.com)
- The sound localization mechanisms of the mammalian auditory system have been extensively studied. (wikipedia.org)
- Through the mechanisms of compression and rarefaction, sound waves travel through the air, bounce off the pinna and concha of the exterior ear, and enter the ear canal. (wikipedia.org)
- This covers some introductory aspects of the mechanisms of human hearing, sound localization, speech perception and speech production. (wikibooks.org)
- Detailed information about these mechanisms is essential to the understanding of the biological and developmental basis of human auditory processing deficits, including deficits in speech perception or developmental dyslexia, that are associated with abnormal auditory processing on the level of the auditory brainstem. (grantome.com)
- The above brainstem neural pathways contribute to the Auditory Brainstem Response recorded from surface electrodes. (slavery.org.uk)
- We performed 3 behavioural experiments to probe different connecting neural pathways: 1) horizontal and vertical localization of auditory stimuli in a noisy background, 2) vertical localization of repetitive frequency sweeps and 3) discrimination of horizontally separated sound stimuli with a short onset difference (precedence effect). (jpn.ca)
- This critical review examines the effects of notched-sound therapy on the human auditory system and its' potential as a novel and effective treatment option for tinnitus. (amazonaws.com)
- The system of human auditory allows the body to interpret and collect sound waves into meaningful messages. (wordpress.com)
- The inferior colliculus connects brainstem auditory centers to the medial geniculate body in the posterior thalamus from which the rather disperse acoustic radiation projects to the primary auditory cortex. (slavery.org.uk)
- Sound information is transduced in the hair cells of the cochlea and conveyed to the central auditory processing centers. (beds.ac.uk)
Measuring the auditory2
- This chapter's focus on the SOC and on interaural difference information means that the monaural localization cues, notably the direction-dependent spectral filtering of the source waveform, are not addressed here, even though these cues also carry information about source location, especially its elevation. (springer.com)
- Professor Irvine has published a monograph on auditory brainstem processing, a co-edited book on auditory spectral processing, and approximately 120 peer-reviewed publications and book chapters. (bionicsinstitute.org)
- Effects of altering spectral cues in infancy on horizontal and vertical sound localization by adult ferrets. (ox.ac.uk)
- The laboratory aims to provide a basic understanding of the role of these proteins in functionally well-established auditory circuits that analyze information for the localization of sound sources. (neomed.edu)
- Auditory stimuli are processed by several parallel and serial neural circuits in the auditory brainstem. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Due to physical constraints acting on the circuits that process sound localization cues, many neural specializations have evolved. (lehigh.edu)
- Laumen G, Ferber AT, Klump GM, Tollin DJ (2016) The Physiological Basis and Clinical Use of the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response. (uni-oldenburg.de)
- Feinkohl A, Borzeszkowski K M, Klump GM (2016) Azimuthal sound localization in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): III. (uni-oldenburg.de)
- At the base of the brain is the brainstem, which extends from the upper cervical spinal cord to the diencephalon of the cerebrum. (medscape.com)
- This unit covers the surface anatomy of the human brain, its internal structure, and the overall organization of sensory and motor systems in the brainstem and spinal cord. (coursera.org)
- Here, by performing splice variant-specific quantitative real-time PCR on selected regions of the rat CNS I demonstrate that +SSTR variant channels are differentially expressed spatially with predominant expression in the brainstem, reticular thalamus and spinal cord. (ubc.ca)
- Sound localization synapses (Calyx of Held) in the brainstem of a mouse. (scitechdaily.com)
- The two neurophysiologists first studied the effects of this genetic manipulation on synapses involved in the localization of sound, which are typically activated several hundred times every second. (scitechdaily.com)
- We studied features of the brainstem known to be altered in FXS or Fmr1 KO mice, including cell size and expression of markers for excitatory (VGLUT) and inhibitory (VGAT) synapses. (eneuro.org)
- The sound waves vibrate the tympanic membrane ( ear drum ), causing the three bones of the middle ear to vibrate, which then sends the energy through the oval window and into the cochlea where it is changed into a chemical signal by hair cells in the organ of corti , which synapse onto spiral ganglion fibers that travel through the cochlear nerve into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
- The cochlear nerve arises from the vestibulocochlear nerve for transmission to the cochlear nuclear complex at the brainstem pontomedullary junction. (slavery.org.uk)
- Results in Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients With Varied Asymmetric Hearing: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Speech Recognition, Localization, and Participant Report. (bioportfolio.com)
- Environmental Sound Awareness in Experienced Cochlear Implant Users and Cochlear Implant Candidates. (bioportfolio.com)
- To determine if postlingually deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) users have better environmental sound awareness (ESA) compared with adult patients eligible for CIs who have not yet undergone implantati. (bioportfolio.com)
- Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers. (bioportfolio.com)
- One of the parts of the brain that is responsible for locating sounds is the inferior colliculus. (elifesciences.org)
- Studies in cats and humans have shown that damage to the inferior colliculus on one side of the brain prevents accurate localization of sounds on the opposite side of the body, but the animals are still able to locate sounds on the same side. (elifesciences.org)
- According to the 1990 Noise and Hearing Loss Consensus Conference, a€?Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) results from damage to the ear from sounds of sufficient intensity and duration that a temporary or permanent sensorineural hearing loss is produced. (amazonaws.com)
- Irrespective of the nature or intensity of sound, the vibrations are all directed to the eardrum through the auditory canal and in return makes the eardrum vibrates. (wordpress.com)
- The human brain for instance has to perform a transition after birth from the perception of sound waves transmitted in amniotic fluid to the perception of airborne sounds. (uni-muenchen.de)
- It explores many of the processes which occur between the occurrence of a sound in the world and the perception of that sound. (wikibooks.org)
- The lab measures how transient hearing loss, such as accompanies ear infections in children, impairs perception of speech-related sounds later in life, and the neural changes that induce these perceptual deficits. (neomed.edu)
- For many years, Dr. McFadden's research involved behavioral measurements on various aspects of human hearing--sound localization, binaural hearing, masking, pitch perception, the aftereffects of exposure to intense sound, and other topics. (utexas.edu)
- Audition is the scientific name for the perception of sound. (wikidoc.org)
- This mechanism thus contributes to the encoding of duration and termination of sound, two important parameters in sensory perception. (beds.ac.uk)
- perception in quiet and in background noise, localization, The occurrence of epileptic seizures in the discrimination, binaural integration, and binaural developing brain may impair neurophysiological separation (8,9,10). (who.int)