Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Touch Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Ventral Thalamic Nuclei: A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Posterior Thalamic Nuclei: A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sensation Disorders: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Stereognosis: Perception of shape and form of objects by TOUCH, via tactile stimuli.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques: Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Aotidae: A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).Thalamic Diseases: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Lateral Thalamic Nuclei: A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Deaf-Blind Disorders: The absence of both hearing and vision.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Spinothalamic Tracts: A bundle of NERVE FIBERS connecting each posterior horn of the spinal cord to the opposite side of the THALAMUS, carrying information about pain, temperature, and touch. It is one of two major routes by which afferent spinal NERVE FIBERS carrying sensations of somaesthesis are transmitted to the THALAMUS.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Cerebral Decortication: Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Mice, Inbred C57BLOtoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Personal Space: Invisible boundaries surrounding the individual's body which are maintained in relation to others.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Amputation Stumps: The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Nissl Bodies: Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
"Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials in coma due to CNS depressant drug ... Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials demonstrate delayed interpeak latencies (IPLs) I-III, III-V and I-V. Toxic overdoses of ... In a New Zealand study (2003) of 200 deaths, Zopiclone, a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, had similar overdose potential as ... Benzodiazepine-overdose-related coma may be characterised by an alpha pattern with the central somatosensory conduction time ( ...
"Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials in coma due to CNS depressant drug ... Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials demonstrate delayed interpeak latencies (IPLs) I-III, III-V and I-V. Toxic overdoses ... A potential hazard following withdrawal of certain benzodiazepines". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association. 241 ... Severe nitrazepam overdose resulting in coma causes the central somatosensory conduction time (CCT) after median nerve ...
... brain stem MeSH G11.561.250.385 --- evoked potentials, motor MeSH G11.561.250.400 --- evoked potentials, somatosensory MeSH ... evoked potentials, auditory MeSH G11.561.250.370.223 --- cochlear microphonic potentials MeSH G11.561.250.370.300 --- evoked ... evoked potentials, visual MeSH G11.561.250.440 --- excitatory postsynaptic potentials MeSH G11.561.450.100 --- action ... evoked potentials, visual MeSH G11.697.677.340 --- eye color MeSH G11.697.677.360 --- figural aftereffect MeSH G11.697.677.370 ...
... brain stem MeSH G07.453.450.385 --- evoked potentials, motor MeSH G07.453.450.400 --- evoked potentials, somatosensory MeSH ... evoked potentials, auditory MeSH G07.453.450.370.223 --- cochlear microphonic potentials MeSH G07.453.450.370.300 --- evoked ... evoked potentials, visual MeSH G07.453.450.440 --- excitatory postsynaptic potentials MeSH G07.453.697 --- membrane potentials ... evoked potentials MeSH G07.453.450.250 --- contingent negative variation MeSH G07.453.450.350 --- event-related potentials, ...
The same study also found abnormalities in visual evoked potential and median somatosensory evoked potential in some SCA1 ... Individuals with SCA1 often exhibit abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potential, including prolonged latency and absent or ... Chandran V, Jhunjhunwala K, Purushottam M, Jain S, Pal PK (July 2014). "Multimodal evoked potentials in spinocerebellar ataxia ... Many potential differentiating symptoms have been found and methods of assessing many symptoms and their progression to guide ...
... usually recorded from the scalp but originating at brainstem level; visual evoked potentials, and somatosensory evoked ... visual evoked potential Chromatic visual evoked potential Hemi-field visual evoked potential Flash visual evoked potential LED ... evoked potential Stereo-elicited visual evoked potential Steady state visually evoked potential Auditory evoked potential can ... visual evoked potential Motion visual evoked potential Multifocal visual evoked potential Multi-channel visual evoked potential ...
... and far-field positivities reflecting the evoked activity generated in peripheral, spinal and brainstem somatosensory fibers. ... Somatosensory evoked potential (SEPs or SSEPs) tests measure the electrical activity of the brain that results from the ... "Somatosensory evoked potentials". Electroencephalography: basic principles, clinical applications and related fields. Williams ... P100 components of somatosensory evoked potentials and the earliest signs of sensory processing in man. Electroencephalography ...
Somatosensory evoked potential. *Brainstem auditory evoked potential. Evoked potentials. Negativity. Bereitschaftspotential. ... ERPLAB, for deriving measures from average event-related potentials;. *NBT, a toolbox for the computation and integration of ...
The ABR, also known as the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test or auditory brainstem evoked potential (ABEP) test ... The cutaneous somatosensory system detects changes in temperature. The perception begins when thermal stimuli from a ... Each mechanoreceptor is tuned to a different sensitivity, and will fire its action potential only when there is enough energy. ... Otoacoustic emissions test (OAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing measures the brain's response to sounds. The OAE ...
Since the 1970s, SSEP (somatosensory evoked potentials) have been used to monitor spinal cord function by stimulating a nerve ... transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP), EEG, EMG, and auditory brainstem response (ABR). For a given surgery ... Motor evoked potentials have also been used in surgery for Thoracic aortic aneurysm. Intraoperative monitoring is used to : to ... More recently, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP) have also been used for spinal cord monitoring. This is ...
Electrical stimuli to the auditory nerve evoke a graded excitatory postsynaptic potential in the octopus cells. These EPSPs are ... The cochlear nuclei (CN) are located at the dorso-lateral side of the brainstem, spanning the junction of the pons and medulla ... There is evidence, however, for stimulation from the contralateral ear via the contralateral CN, and also the somatosensory ... They are also called chopper cells, in reference to their ability to fire a regularly spaced train of action potentials for the ...
The somatosensory system comprises a diverse range of receptors and processing centers to produce the perception of touch, ... The organ of Corti projects in an orderly fashion to structures in the brainstem (namely, the cochlear nuclei and the inferior ... These findings, however, do not exclude a role for activity-dependent processes in the maintenance or potential plasticity of ... Mice lacking the olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel fail to exhibit odor-evoked electrophysiological responses in ...
1996 Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in epileptics on different antiepileptic Drugs Usha Panjwani, S. H. Singh, W. ... 1999 Effect of stress on somatosensory evoked potentials Usha Panjwani, S. B. Singh, K. Harinath, Deepak K. Yadav and W. ... Effect of Sojourn at Altitude of 3,500 m on auditory evoked potential in man S. Mukhopadhyay, L. Thakur, J. P. Anand and W. ... Effect of Sahaja Yoga Meditation on Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP) and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) in Epileptics U. ...
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are weak electric responses in the CNS following stimulation of peripheral sensory ... It has been suggested that brainstem circuits can generate pain. This includes research with anencephalic children who, despite ... 2014). "Evoked potentials in the Atlantic cod following putatively innocuous and putatively noxious electrical stimulation: a ... This process evokes a reflex arc response generated at the spinal cord and not involving the brain, such as flinching or ...
If the change in electrical potential is large enough to pass the given threshold, it evokes an action potential, which is ... Every fish has two Mauthner cells, located in the bottom part of the brainstem, one on the left side and one on the right. Each ... the primary somatosensory cortex and the inferior parietal cortex. The function of the mirror system is a subject of much ... The initial sensory response, in the retina of the eye, and the final motor response, in the oculomotor nuclei of the brain stem ...
The best known action potentials are pulse-like waves that travel along the axons of neurons. Membrane potential Ion channel ... Interactions between neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter receptors can evoke a wide range of differing responses from the ... List of sensory systems Sensory neuron Perception Visual system Auditory system Somatosensory system Vestibular system ... Central nervous system General terms Meninges Spinal cord Gray columns White substance Brain Brainstem Cerebellum Diencephalon ...
Robinson, LR; Micklesen, PJ; Tirschwell, DL; Lew, HL (Mar 2003). "Predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials for ... Continued oxygen deprivation results in fainting, long-term loss of consciousness, coma, seizures, cessation of brain stem ...
The vestibular evoked myogenic potential is an assessment of the sacculo-collic reflex and a test of function in otolithic ... This reflex is initiated by sensory information from the vestibular, visual, and the somatosensory systems and is therefore not ... may directly innervate motor neurons of the spinal cord or brainstem. This is seen in anterior (ventral) horn cells or certain ... Recent research has shown that damage to the medial vestibulospinal tract alters vestibular evoked myogenic potential in the ...
... electroencephalography or somatosensory-evoked potentials) and demonstration of loss of cerebral blood flow (cerebral ...
"Heartbeat Evoked Potentials Mirror Altered Body Perception in Depressed Patients." Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 123, 01 Oct. ... This suggested that somatosensory information from afferents innervating the skin outside of the heart may provide information ... Lamina I spinothalamic and vagal afferents project via the brainstem and thalamus to the posterior and mid dorsal insula ... Soft touch activates the insula rather than the somatosensory cortex, indicating that it has an affective importance absent in ...
TMS was used to stimulate the left motor cortex and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured in the observer's first dorsal ... are therefore hypothesized to take part in the emotional reaction evoked from witnessing another in pain. The somatosensory ... Several brain regions including the bilateral anterior insula (AI), rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brainstem, and ... there is a reduced motor evoked potential (MEP) in the muscle of the observer's hand. Lack of empathy occurs in several ...
Evoked potential. *Bereitschaftspotential. *P300. *Auditory evoked potential. *Somatosensory evoked potentials. *Visual evoked ... To be specific, in rats, this maturation occurs during the perinatal period when brain stem projects reach the lumbar ... reverse potential of the postsynaptic potential, action potential threshold voltage, ionic permeability of the ion channel, as ... An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to ...
Two types of gamma activity were found by Snyder & Large: induced gamma activity, and evoked gamma activity. Evoked gamma ... By phase- and mode-locking in this way, the auditory brainstem is known to preserve a good deal of the temporal and low-passed ... The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. The ... and gray matter volume in the primary motor and somatosensory areas, premotor areas, anterior superior parietal areas and in ...
Single action potentials from unmyelinated axons can be observed. Recordings from efferent postganglionic sympathetic C fibers ... The second-order neurons ascend to the brain stem and thalamus in the ventrolateral, or anterolateral, quadrant of the ... al (2007). "Brain activity related to temporal summation of C-fiber evoked pain". Pain (1-2 ed.). 129 (1-2): 130-142. doi: ... TSSP events are also associated with other regions of the brain that process functions such as somatosensory processing, pain ...
Somatosensory Input Organization. J. Neurophysiol. 48: 150-159, 1982. Strick, P.L. and Preston, J.B. Input-output organization ... Preston, J.B. The influence of thiosemicarbazide on electrical activity recorded in the anterior brainstem of the cat. J. ... Stewart, D.H., Preston, J.B., and Whitlock, D.G. Spinal pathways mediating motor cortex evoked excitability changes in ... Preston, J.B. Influence of pentobarbital on ventral root reflex discharges and on intracellular potentials recorded from single ...
Robinson, LR; Micklesen, PJ; Tirschwell, DL; Lew, HL (Mar 2003). "Predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials for ... Continued oxygen deprivation results in fainting, long-term loss of consciousness, coma, seizures, cessation of brain stem ...
... or evoked responses, measure the electrophysiologic responses of the nervous system to a variety of stimuli. In theory, almost ... studies-including visual evoked potential (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), and somatosensory evoked potential ... Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials. The brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), or brainstem auditory evoked response ( ... Somatosensory Evoked Potentials. The first evoked potential (EP) measurement is credited to Richard Caton of Liverpool, England ...
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials require greater technical expertise than the other evoked potentials to give reliable ... SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS. After a brief electrical stimulus is applied to the median or posterior tibial nerves, ... BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIALS. This measures five waves of the short latency response from the time of auditory stimulus ... can be measured using evoked potentials. Of these the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) contribute the most to the diagnosis of ...
Auditory Evoked Potential (Brain Stem Evoked Potential BSEP). Less commonly used since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging ... Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) SSEPs are often requested in conjunction with VEPs and BSEPs, again to provide evidence ... pattern VEPs can be used in conjunction with auditory and somatosensory evoked potential studies. ... Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs) One of the major uses of VEP is the diagnosis of demyelination, which can cause a marked ...
Buy the Hardcover Book Brainstem Disorders by Peter P. Urban at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on ... Early Acoustic Evoked Potentials.-Somatosensory Evoked Potentials.-Transcranial magnetic stimulation.-Laser evoked potentials.- ... Inflammations of the brainstem.-Brainstem involvement in demyelinating diseases.-Paraneoplastic brainstem syndromes.-Brainstem ... Degenerative brainstem disorders.-Abnormalities of brainstem development.-Metabolic brainstem diseases.-Vascular cranial nerve ...
Brainstem and Spinal Somatosensory Evoked Potentials. Progress in Clinical Neurophysiology.Google Scholar ... In Desmedt, J.E. (ed.): Clinical Uses of Cerebral, Brainstem and Spinal Somatosensory Evoked Potentials. Progress in Clinical ... Somatosensory evoked potentials after removal of somatosensory cortex. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 37: 663-669.Google ... Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials recorded around the human upper brainstem, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 88: ...
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). *Visual evoked potentials (VEP). *Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) ... Sub-sensory evoked potentials. *Motor-sensory evoked potentials * ...
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). *Visual evoked potentials (VEP). *Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) ... Sub-sensory evoked potentials. *Motor-sensory evoked potentials * ...
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials as a Tool to Evaluate Brainstem Herniation in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. Cureus. ... Somatosensory evoked potentials: clinical uses. AAEM Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Subcommittee. American Association of ... Chiappa K. Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials: interpretation. Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine. New York: ... Clinical Applications of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Q&A What is the clinical interpretation of somatosensory evoked ...
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials as a Tool to Evaluate Brainstem Herniation in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. Cureus. ... Somatosensory evoked potentials: clinical uses. AAEM Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Subcommittee. American Association of ... Chiappa K. Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials: interpretation. Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine. New York: ... Somatosensory evoked potentials, sensory nerve potentials and sensory nerve conduction in hereditary motor and sensory ...
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). *Visual evoked potentials (VEP). *Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) ... by the Laboratory Accreditation Board of the American Board of Registration of Electroencephalographic and Evoked Potential ...
Brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). *Visual evoked potentials (VEP). *Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) ...
Short latency brainstem and somatosensory evoked potentials in alcoholics.. Reilly EL, Kelley JT, Pena YM, Overall JE, Faillace ... The relationship between flash evoked potentials and evoked amplitude modulation patterns of an applied UHF electromagnetic ... Effects of age and alcohol abuse on pattern reversal visual evoked potentials. ...
... somatosensory evoked potentials). Dorsal or posterior spinal cord. What do BAEPs monitor? (Brainstem auditory EP). Monitor ... What are evoked potentials used for?. To evaluate integrity of neural pathways. ...
Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test. This test can diagnose hearing ability and can point to possible brainstem ... Somatosensory evoked response:. *A healthcare professional will place electrodes on the scalp and at one or more locations on ... Sensory Evoked Potentials Studies. What is a sensory evoked potentials study?. Sensory evoked potentials studies measure ... What happens during a sensory evoked potentials study?. A sensory evoked potentials test may be done on an outpatient basis or ...
Nerve conduction studies, Electromyogram, Visual evoked potential, Brainstem *auditory evoked potential, Somatosensory evoked ... potential Employment Opportunities As neuroelectrophysiology is an integral part of neurology, the neuroelectrophysiologists ...
Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP) [ Time Frame: 1 year after treatment ]. *Somatosensory Evoked Potential(SEP) [ Time ... Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) [ Time Frame: 1 year after treatment ]. * ...
Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). *Visual evoked potential (VEP). *Brain stem auditory response (BAER) ...
somatosensory and brainstem evoked potentials. *Consultant(s)*. *Towns*. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography, ... brainstem abnormalities. *Consultant(s)*. *Towns*. Autonomic neurophysiology, diabetic neuropathy, brainstem abnormalities, ... Special Interests word selected:- BRAINSTEM * Information available to verified or subscribed users. The first stage in this ... auditory brainstem implants. *Consultant(s)*. *Towns*. Otology, neuro-otology, skull base surgery, cochlear implants, auditory ...
... intraoperative evoked potentials monitoring (somatosensory, motor, visual and brainstem evoked potentials), and transcranial ... motor evoked potentials (MEPs), visual evoked potentials (VEPs), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and ... Proficiency in the use of EEG, somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials for interested parties. The Department of ... the basic principles and technique of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring including somatosensory evoked potentials ( ...
Somatosensory Evoked Potential and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential Monitoring in Cerebral Aneurysm Surgery under ... A Program for Automatic Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential and Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring Using the Pathfinder ... Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential Monitoring Related to Morbidity and Mortality in Basal and Posterior Fossa Tumors ... Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring in Temporary Vascular Occlusion for Aneurysm Surgery under Moderate Hypothermia ...
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). *Brainstem auditory evoked potentials. *Objective audiometry. *Visual evoked potentials ... During SEP, electrophysiologists use three major types of stimulation -- visual, auditory and somatosensory -- to assess ... brain stem and brain. The lab test results reveal the continuity and quality of conduction through central nervous system ... while auditory stimulation is used to check the pathway from the ear to the brain and somatosensory stimulation is used to ...
These are visual evoked potentials, brain stem auditory evoked response, and somatosensory evoked potential. Slower nerve ... These are visual evoked potentials, brain stem auditory evoked response, and somatosensory evoked potential. Slower nerve ...
These are visual evoked potentials, brain stem auditory evoked response, and somatosensory evoked potential. Slower nerve ... These are visual evoked potentials, brain stem auditory evoked response, and somatosensory evoked potential. Slower nerve ...
"Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials in coma due to CNS depressant drug ... Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials demonstrate delayed interpeak latencies (IPLs) I-III, III-V and I-V. Toxic overdoses ... A potential hazard following withdrawal of certain benzodiazepines". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association. 241 ... Severe nitrazepam overdose resulting in coma causes the central somatosensory conduction time (CCT) after median nerve ...
Somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Crit Care Med. ( ... Somatosensory Evoked Potentials. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) are often used for prognostication in CA survivors who ... Somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Semin Neurol. (2017) 37:60-5. doi: 10.1055/s- ... Somatosensory evoked potentials during mild hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Neurology (2009) 73:1457-61. doi: ...
  • This systematic review provides the most comprehensive evaluation of the quality and limitations of the primary studies investigating the diagnostic test accuracy of all evoked potential monitoring modalities used during clipping of intracranial aneurysm surgery. (bmj.com)
  • The fourth ventricle is a space filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) located in front of the cerebellum (and behind the brainstem). (aans.org)