Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.High-Energy Shock Waves: High-amplitude compression waves, across which density, pressure, and particle velocity change drastically. The mechanical force from these shock waves can be used for mechanically disrupting tissues and deposits.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Pulse Wave Analysis: Evaluation of the contour of the PULSE waves which vary in different parts of the circulation and depend on physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions of the individual.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Inbred C57BLAlzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)

Social power and approach-related neural activity. (1/469)

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Single-trial classification of NIRS signals during emotional induction tasks: towards a corporeal machine interface. (2/469)

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The early auditory gamma-band response is heritable and a putative endophenotype of schizophrenia. (3/469)

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Cortical gamma-oscillations modulated by auditory-motor tasks-intracranial recording in patients with epilepsy. (4/469)

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Independent component analysis (ICA) of generalized spike wave discharges in fMRI: comparison with general linear model-based EEG-fMRI. (5/469)

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The functional architecture of the infant brain as revealed by resting-state fMRI. (6/469)

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Fast propagating waves within the rodent auditory cortex. (7/469)

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Delayed maturation in brain electrical activity partially explains the association between early environmental deprivation and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (8/469)

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*Brain Wave

... is a science fiction novel by Poul Anderson first published in serial form in Space Science Fiction in 1953, and ... "Book Reviews", New Worlds, February 1956, p.128 Brain Wave title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database. ... "Brain Wave is a convincing, humanly realistic example of the wonders of the science fiction novel at its literary and thought- ... Schuyler Miller described Brain Wave as "a brilliant idea that somehow doesn't quite come off." Anthony Boucher praised the ...

*Brain wave (disambiguation)

Brain wave or brainwave may also refer to: Brain Wave, a science fiction novel by Poul Anderson Brainwave (comics), two ... Brain waves are rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system. ... characters in the DC Comics Universe Brainwaves (comic strip), cartoon series by Betsy Streeter Epilepsy Ireland, an ... organisation formerly known as "Brainwave - The Irish Epilepsy Association". ...

*Brainwave entrainment

Brainwaves, or neural oscillations, share the fundamental constituents with acoustic and optical waves, including frequency, ... Will U, Berg E (31 August 2007). "Brain wave synchronization and entrainment to periodic acoustic stimuli". Neuroscience ... da Silva FL (1991). "Neural mechanisms underlying brain waves: from neural membranes to networks". Electroencephalography and ... Brainwave entrainment, also referred to as brainwave synchronization and neural entrainment, refers to the capacity of the ...

*Brainwaves (comic strip)

"Brainwaves: The First Wave," and "Brainwaves While U Wait." Streeter is a regular contributor to the Funny Times. Betsy ... For a time "Brainwaves" was syndicated online by the Universal Press Syndicate on its GoComics site. Many "Brainwaves" cartoons ... Brainwaves is a single-panel cartoon series by Betsy Streeter, a cartoonist and writer who resides in Northern California, USA ... "Brainwaves" has been described as "a single-panel stream of consciousness about the infinite absurdity of everyday life". There ...

*Frederic A. Gibbs

"Epileptic Brain Waves". Time Magazine. 1935-04-22. Retrieved 2006-09-05. "Frederic A. Gibbs Obituary". New York Times. 1992-10- ...

*Flaws (album)

Nu Rave Brain Wave. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2010. Gregory, Jason (11 May 2010). "Bombay Bicycle Club Announce ...

*Live at the Smell

"mp3: the babies - breaking the law (live at the smell)". Nu Rave Brain Wave. October 17, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2014. The ... Nu Rave Brain Wave The Babies Kevin Morby - vocals, guitar Cassie Ramone - vocals, guitar Justin Sullivan - drums Nathanael ...

*Neuroscience of sleep

The brain transitions from alpha waves having a frequency of 8-13 Hz (common in the awake state) to theta waves having a ... Brain waves get slower and bigger. The excitatory neurotransmitter acetylcholine becomes less available in the brain. Humans ... with slow-wave sleep comprising stages 3 and 4. In stage 3, delta waves made up less than 50% of the total wave patterns, while ... PGO waves may also play a role in development and structural maturation of brain, as well as long term potentiation in immature ...

*Suzanne Anker

Genocchio, Benjamin (2006-05-07). "ART REVIEW; Making (Brain) Waves". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-22 ... The Butterfly in the Brain refers to MRI brain scans and Rorschach tests as devices explicating brain morphology and ... "BRAINWAVE: Common Senses". We Make Money Not Art. 2008-03-26. Retrieved 2017-02-08. "Octet: Selected Works from the School of ... By superimposing images of butterflies on MRI brain scans, the artist explores the ways in which human perception relies on ...

*OLogic

Garreau, Joel (April 23, 2009). "Brain Wave of The Future". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2013. Mike Snider ( ... Hammock, Anne (January 4, 2010). "The future of brain-controlled devices". CNN. Retrieved September 4, 2013. ... which allows the user to control the levitation of a sphere utilizing their brainwaves. AMP is a two-wheeled, self-balancing ...

*John Drury (television anchor)

"Brain Waves Vol. 7 No. 2" (PDF). brainresearchfdn.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-08-07. ... Drury was a leading activist for ALS research and was a spokesperson for the Brain Research Foundation. Drury died from motor ...

*Prince Paul production discography

"How Does The Brain Wave" 03. "Fred Berry (Instrumental)" 04. "Cool Runnins" 05. "Even Stranger" 01. "The Search (Skit)" 05. " ... "Bleeding Brain Grow" A1. "Since I Left You (Prince Paul Remix)" A1. "The Day I Fell Off" 07. "Back to the Lab" - performed by ...

*Neurometrics

Certain brainwave frequencies are associated with general psychological processes. EEGs are used to measure the brain waves. ... This computer analysis makes it possible to detect and quantify abnormal brain organization, to give a quantitative definition ... Neurometrics is the science of measuring the underlying organization of the brain's electrical activity. ... of the severity of brain disease, and to identify subgroups of pathophysiological abnormalitites within groups of patients with ...

*Rocking chair

"Rocking synchronizes brain waves during a short nap". Current Biology. Elsevier. 21: R461. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.05.012. PMID ...

*Karneval (manga)

He sends messages to Nai through brain waves. He calls Nai his "special child". During the incident at Smokey Resident, it is ...

*Mental chronometry

ISBN 0-521-27433-8. Weiss, V; Weiss, H (2003). "The golden mean as clock cycle of brain waves". Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. ... Many studies have shown that there is a small number of brain areas which are widely spread out which are involved in ... The fMRI image presents the specific locations where these stages are occurring in the brain while performing this simple ... Also, fMRI was used which have detected the precise brain areas that are active during mental chronometry tasks. ...

*Bose-Einstein condensation (network theory)

Acta Psychologica, 32, 301-345 Weiss V., Weiss H. (2003). The golden mean as clock cycle of brain waves. Chaos, Solitons and ... Herbert Fröhlich is the source of the idea that quantum coherent waves could be generated in the biological neural network. His ...

*Polysomnography

This may be because of sleep state misperception, drug effects on brain waves, or individual differences in brain waves.) Sleep ... Within non-REM sleep, stage 3 is called "slow wave" sleep because of the relatively wide brain waves compared to other stages; ... are sudden shifts in brain wave activity. They may be caused by numerous factors, including breathing abnormalities, leg ... wave, "QRS" complex, and "T" wave. These can be analyzed for any abnormalities that might be indicative of an underlying heart ...

*Richard Teitelbaum

In the mid-1960s he began researching the use of brain-waves to control musical events and, as a result, he brought the first ... He is a pioneer of brain-wave music. He is also involved with world music and uses Japanese, Indian, and western classical ...

*Mind machine

The devices were various models of a product called the InnerQuest Brain Wave Synchronizer - headgear (an audio cassette and ... Farley Dixie (1994). "Unapproved 'Brain Wave' Devices Condemned after Seizure Reports". FDA Consumer. March. Lay summary. ... After several sessions it is observed that users can produce a desired brain state with the associated brainwaves easier and ... or beta brain waves (13-40 Hz). Those frequency bands can be adjusted by the user based on the desired effects. For relaxation ...

*Sensorimotor rhythm

The sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) is a brain wave. It is an oscillatory idle rhythm of synchronized electric brain activity. It ... Theta wave - (4 - 7 Hz) Alpha wave - (8 - 15 Hz) Mu wave - (7.5 - 12.5 Hz) SMR wave - (12.5 - 15.5 Hz) Beta wave - (16 - 31 Hz ... An introduction to brain computer interfacing. In Guido Dornhege, Jose del R. Millán, Thilo Hinterberger, Dennis McFarland, and ... Conceptually, SMR is sometimes mixed up with alpha waves of occipital origin, the strongest source of neural signals in the EEG ...

*Myoclonic epilepsy

EEG is used to read brain wave activity. Spike activity produced from the brain is usually correlated with brief jerks seen on ... If the abnormal brain wave activity is persistent and results from ongoing seizures, then a diagnosis of myoclonic epilepsy may ... When myoclonic jerks are occasionally associated with abnormal brain wave activity, it can be categorized as myoclonic seizure ... Reticular reflex myoclonus is a generalized form of epilepsy originating from the brain stem. Jerks associated with the ...

*Hemi-Sync

The technique involves using sound waves to entrain brain waves. Wearing headphones, Monroe claimed that brains respond by ... Hemi-Sync is short for Hemispheric Synchronization, also known as brainwave synchronization. Monroe claimed that the technique ... Brainwave synchronization Binaural beats Electroencephalography Neurofeedback Mind machine Human enhancement Intelligence ... Neural oscillations Evoked potential Event-related potential Induced activity Lucid dreaming Ongoing brain activity Brainwave ...

*Robert Monroe

The technique involves using sound waves to entrain brain waves. Wearing headphones, Monroe claimed that brains respond by ... Monroe indicated that the technique synchronizes the two hemispheres of one's brain, thereby creating a 'frequency-following ... Astral projection Lucid dreaming Out-of-body experience Parapsychology Brainwave synchronization Binaural beats ... Hemi-Sync is short for Hemispheric Synchronization, also known as brainwave synchronization. ...

*OpenBCI

... official page Cohen, Reuven (2014-03-01). "New Open Source Platform Allows Anyone To Hack Brain Waves". Forbes. Forbes ... OpenBCI boards can be used to measure and record electrical activity produced by the brain (EEG), muscles (EMG), and heart (EKG ... OpenBCI is an open source brain-computer interface platform, created by Joel Murphy and Conor Russomanno, after a successful ... Pate, Josh (2014-08-31). "Early Openbci Researcher Hacks a Hexbug and Gives Advice to Other Brain-hackers". Neurogadget. ...

*Diplacusis

Place Theory posits that the cause is looking for the edge of the wave for the pitch and could explain diplacusis as a small ... Thus the C# will be perceived by the brain as a C natural. In this hypothesis, which may explain some cases of diplacusis, the ...
Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronised discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e. a positive role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e. negative) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were. For instance, if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they
Neuronal oscillations exist across a broad frequency spectrum, and are thought to provide a mechanism of interaction between spatially separated brain regions. Since ongoing mental activity necessitates the simultaneous formation of multiple networks, it seems likely that the brain employs interactions within multiple frequency bands, as well as cross-frequency coupling, to support such networks. Here, we propose a multi-layer network framework that elucidates this pan-spectral picture of network interactions. Our network consists of multiple layers (frequency-band specific networks) that influence each other via inter-layer (cross-frequency) coupling. Applying this model to MEG resting-state data and using envelope correlations as connectivity metric, we demonstrate strong dependency between within layer structure and inter-layer coupling, indicating that networks obtained in different frequency bands do not act as independent entities. More specifically, our results suggest that frequency band
To quantify the relationship between SC and cortical oscillations by an additional coupling measure that takes phase into account, we computed the cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling between SC and μECoG recording sites (see fig. S7). This measure quantifies the strength with which the amplitude of SC LFP oscillations is modulated by the phase of μECoG signals across all possible frequency-frequency combinations. Figure 7B displays population-averaged cross-frequency phase-amplitude spectrograms for SC-μECoG channel pairs that display significant (left) and insignificant (middle) high-frequency amplitude correlation, respectively. Cross-frequency coupling for correlated SC-μECoG channel pairs was characterized by the strong modulation of SC activity above 8 Hz by the phase of slow cortical oscillations. In contrast, uncorrelated SC-μECoG channel pairs displayed comparatively weak cross-frequency coupling (Fig. 7B, middle). The difference in cross-frequency spectra between significantly ...
Cortical oscillations at gamma (30-100 Hz) and beta (10-30 Hz) frequencies are implicated in cognitive tasks. Gamma and beta oscillations evoked in the hippocampal slice in vitro by tetanic stimulation can be synchronised with phase lags faster than the conduction delays expected from the distance between the stimulating electrodes. This led Traub to develop an innovative model based on networks of fast synapses using glutamate and GABA as their transmitters. While this theoretical model is feasible on the basis of the known cellular and network properties of the hippocampus, and may well apply under some experimental circumstances, we now have doubts on its application to tetanically evoked gamma rhythms because of: (1) the spatial extent of the gamma focus means that the actual distance between the oscillating populations is much less than the distance between the two stimulating electrodes (typically ~1-2mm), and (2) new evidence and ideas on the mechanism of tetanically-evoked gamma ...
The entorhinal cortex (EC) has bidirectional connections with the hippocampus and plays a critical role in memory formation and retrieval. EC is one of the most vulnerable regions in the brain in early stages of Alzheimers disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease with progressive memory impairments. Accumulating evidence from healthy behaving animals indicates gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) as critical for mediating interactions in the circuit between EC and hippocampus. However, it is still unclear whether gamma oscillations have causal relationship with memory impairment in AD. Here we provide the first evidence that in vivo gamma oscillations in the EC are impaired in an AD mouse model. Cross-frequency coupling of gamma (30-100 Hz) oscillations to theta oscillations was reduced in the medial EC of anesthetized amyloid precursor protein knock-in mice. Phase locking of spiking activity of layer II/III pyramidal cells to the gamma oscillations was significantly impaired. These data indicate that the
You really can get on the same wavelength as someone else: In a new study, the brain waves of high school students synced up when they were highly engaged during a biology class.. On 11 days over the course of one semester, researchers hooked up all 12 of the students in a biology class to portable devices called electroencephalograms (EEGs) that measured their brain waves. The more synced up a students brain waves were with the brain waves of the rest of the students in the class, the more likely that person was to say that he or she enjoyed the class that day, according to the study, published today (April 27) in the journal Current Biology. For example, when the researchers analyzed brain waves called alpha waves, they found that students waves were more likely to rise and fall at the same time as other students waves when they were highly engaged in the class.. Likewise, when a students brain waves were less synced with those of the rest of the class, the student was less likely to say ...
Brain waves, or the EEG, are electrical signals that can be recorded from the brain, either directly or through the scalp. The kind of brain wave recorded depends on the behavior of the animal, and is the visible evidence of the kind of neuronal (brain cell) processing necessary for that behavior.. We are working on fast brain waves, at about 40 cycles per second (Hz), which are known as gamma band. Gamma rhythms appear to be involved in higher mental activity, including perception and consciousness. It seems to be associated with consciousness, eg it disappears with general anesthesia.. Synchronous activity at about 40Hz appears to be involved in binding sensory inputs into the single, unitary object we perceive. This process is so efficient, we are hardly aware that it goes on at all. Recordings of neurons in visual cortex show that synchronization at about 40 Hz links parts of the cortex excited by the same object, and not those excited by different objects, implicating in gamma rhythms in ...
Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subjects brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.
Gamma-band synchronization has been linked to attention and communication between brain regions, yet the underlying dynamical mechanisms are still unclear. How does the timing and amplitude of inputs
DTG Barrett, S Denève, CK Machens, Optimal compensation for neuron loss, eLife 5, e12454 (2016). IB Yildiz, N Mesgarani, S Deneve, Predictive Ensemble Decoding of Acoustical Features Explains Context-Dependent Receptive Fields, Journal of Neuroscience 36 (49), 12338-12350 (2016). S Deneve, M Chalk, Efficiency turns the table on neural encoding, decoding and noise, Current opinion in neurobiology 37, 141-148 (2016). S Denève, CK Machens, Efficient codes and balanced networks, Nature neuroscience 19 (3), 375-382 2016. 2015. Hyafil A, Giraud AL, Fontolan L, Gutkin B. Neural Cross-Frequency Coupling: Connecting Architectures, Mechanisms, and Functions. Trends Neurosci. 2015 Nov;38(11):725-40. Oster A, Faure P, Gutkin BS.Mechanisms for multiple activity modes of VTA dopamine neurons. Front Comput Neurosci. 2015 Jul 28;9:95. Hyafil A, Fontolan L, Kabdebon C, Gutkin B, Giraud AL.Speech encoding by coupled cortical theta and gamma oscillations.Elife. 2015 May 29;4:e06213.. Tran-Van-Minh A, Cazé RD, ...
A mouse study has found that the apoE4 protein decreases two types of brain activity in the hippocampus that are important for memory formation: sharp wave ripples (ripples) and coincident slow gamma activity. During the ripples, prior experiences are replayed numerous times to help preserve the memory of them, and the slow gamma activity that occurs during the ripples helps to ensure that the replay of those memories is accurate.. Mice with apoE4 had fewer ripples than mice with the normal apoE3 protein, and they had less slow gamma activity during the ripples. It appears that apoE4 expression disrupts slow gamma activity during ripples, and this in turn impairs memory consolidation.. The finding points to restoring slow gamma activity in the hippocampus as a therapeutic target.. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-05/gi-glt050516.php. ...
The book begins with an introduction to MATLAB, the most common programming platform in neuroscience, which is used in the book. (Readers familiar with MATLAB can skip this chapter and might decide to focus on data type or method type.) The book goes on to cover neural field data and spike train data, spectral analysis, generalized linear models, coherence, and cross-frequency coupling. Each chapter offers a stand-alone case study that can be used separately as part of a targeted investigation. The book includes some mathematical discussion but does not focus on mathematical or statistical theory, emphasizing the practical instead. References are included for readers who want to explore the theoretical more deeply. The data and accompanying MATLAB code are freely available on the authors website. The book can be used for upper-level undergraduate or graduate courses or as a professional reference.. ...
What, exactly, is a brain wave? Some stages of akasha moving? ,What does it measure, or reflect? That depends on the sector. ,Is it really a wave form The only time I perceived some (magic ones to do with someone else) in my brain, they had regular wave shape, but only as long as the other was constant on a setting, when he fuzzed to another one there were loads of energies that I did not track. Dont recall much about them, but to me those did not seem like regular wave shapes. Might depend on the area and what you do. Concerning tuning to other energies: As such some areas can be tuned to overlay with external energies, especially some of the energy sensor areas meant for such, but with artificial ranges it might be questionable if it is healthy to do that. If wishing to tune to sleeping ranges, or other stages, it might be healthier to have a consenting brain able to tune there and tune to it. That is more natural than using artificial devices ...
Altering your thoughts and emotions using imagery and sound frequencies - Learn about my experience using brain wave entrainment and find out what happened!
In a first step toward helping severely paralyzed people communicate more easily, Utah researchers have shown that it is possible to translate recorded brain waves into words, using a grid of
In a new study, researchers show that they could make faint sensations more vivid by triggering a brain rhythm that appears to shift sensory attention.
(Medical Xpress) -- It has long been suspected that humans do not experience the world continuously, but rather in rapid snapshots.
2337] Chen, Z., Resnik E., McFarland J. M., Sakmann B., & Mehta M. R. (2011). Speed Controls the Amplitude and Timing of the Hippocampal Gamma Rhythm. PLoS ONE. 6(6), e21408 - e21408. ...
Brain Activity by Terrance A. Bastian The human brain is a wondrous and complex organic computer that governs every motion of our bodies. Within this computer there is a virtual storm of...
German engineers report they have been able to read the brain waves of drivers in a car simulator and apply the cars brakes a fraction of a second more quickly than the driver would be able to hit the brake pedal. It is one of a growing number of experiments in using brain waves.
Our findings show that spikes from isolated single units in the hippocampus are phase locked to each other and to gamma-band oscillations in simultaneously recorded hippocampal LFPs during memory encoding. Furthermore, the magnitude of this phase locking is correlated with subsequent recognition memory performance. These results suggest that memory encoding is accompanied by enhanced coordination between hippocampal neurons.. Fell et al. (2001) previously showed that successful recognition memory encoding is correlated with increased gamma-band synchronization between local EEG oscillations in the hippocampus and rhinal cortex of human epileptic patients. The current findings extend these observations to hippocampal neurons, indicating that single units within the hippocampus synchronize the timing of their spikes to the local network oscillations during memory formation, perhaps as a mechanism by which neurons sharing similar response properties might undergo functional coupling. We also found ...
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Pathophysiologically it has been attributed to bottom-up deafferentation and/or top-down noise-cancelling deficit. Both mechanisms are proposed to alter auditory -thalamocortical signal transmission, resulting in thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD). In deafferentation, TCD is characterized by a slowing down of resting state alpha to theta activity associated with an increase in surrounding gamma activity, resulting in persisting cross-frequency coupling between theta and gamma activity. Theta burst-firing increases network synchrony and recruitment, a mechanism, which might enable long-range synchrony, which in turn could represent a means for finding the missing thalamocortical information and for gaining access to consciousness. Theta oscillations could function as a carrier wave to integrate the tinnitus-related focal auditory gamma activity in a consciousness enabling network, as envisioned by the ...
The signal averaging approach typically used in ERP research assumes that peaks in ERP waveforms reflect neural activity that is uncorrelated with activity in the ongoing EEG. However, this assumption has been challenged by research suggesting that ERP peaks reflect event-related synchronization of ongoing EEG oscillations. In this study, we investigated the validity of a set of methods that have been used to demonstrate that particular ERP peaks result from synchronized EEG oscillations. We simulated epochs of EEG data by superimposing phasic peaks on noise characterized by the power spectrum of the EEG. When applied to the simulated data, the methods in question produced results that have previously been interpreted as evidence of synchronized oscillations, even though no such synchrony was present. These findings suggest that proposed analysis methods may not effectively disambiguate competing views of ERP generation.
The cellular diversity of interneurons in the neocortex is thought to reflect subtype-specific roles of cortical inhibition. Here we ask whether perturbations to two subtypes-parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SST+) interneurons-can be compensated for with respect to their contributions to cortical development. We use a genetic cell fate switch to delete both PV+ and SST+ interneurons selectively in cortical layers 2-4 without numerically changing the total interneuron population. This manipulation is compensated for at the level of synaptic currents and receptive fields (RFs) in the somatosensory cortex. By contrast, we identify a deficit in inhibitory synchronization in vitro and a large reduction in cortical gamma oscillations in vivo. This reveals that, while the roles of inhibition in establishing cortical inhibitory/excitatory balance and RFs can be subserved by multiple interneuron subtypes, gamma oscillations depend on cellular properties that cannot be compensated ...
ACTIVATION APPARATUS, METHOD, AND COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR BRAINWAVE INTERFACE SYSTEM - A brain wave interface (IF) is started up using users brain wave signals. A brain wave IF system comprises a brain wave measuring portion for measuring brain wave signals, a function controlling portion which analyzes an event-related potential contained in brain signals and outputs a function control signal for controlling the function of the apparatus based on the analysis results, and an output portion for outputting the function control signal. A start-up device comprises a start-up judging portion and a stimulus-attention judging portion. The start-up judging portion transmits, to the output portion, a stimulus control signal for controlling presentation/extinction of a visual stimulus which is a single item in the output portion when the brain wave IF system is not working, and compares a value of a P200 component of the event-related potential starting on a presentation timing of a visual stimulus out of ...
This page is a hub for Brain Waves Coordinators across Canada. The English and French resources needed to coordinate and deliver Brain Waves can be found on this page. If you have additional questions, or ideas for resources we should add to this page, please contact [email protected] ...
Based on the intricate expression pattern of ErbB4 during development and in the adult brain, we decided to compare the behavioral outcomes between ErbB4−/− and PV-Cre;ErbB4 mice. Interest in identifying the potential role of PV-expressing interneurons in mediating NRG/ErbB4 effects on behavior stems from multiple observations, including (1) the extensive coexpression of PV and ErbB4 in the PFC and, albeit to a lesser extent, the hippocampus (Fisahn et al., 2009; Fazzari et al., 2010; Neddens and Buonanno, 2010); (2) the notion that PV interneurons are involved in gamma oscillations whose power is reduced in schizophrenia (Kwon et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2008); and (3) the finding that the number of PV mRNA and protein-expressing cells is reduced in the PFC of individuals with schizophrenia (for review, see Lewis et al., 2005). Intriguingly, acute NRG-1/ErbB4 signaling potently augments the power of kainate-induced hippocampal gamma oscillations, while slices from ErbB4−/− mice exhibit ...
sciencedaily.com Figuring out how to pedal a bike and memorizing the rules of chess require two different types of learning, and now for the first time, researchers have been able to distinguish each type of learning by the brain-wave patterns it produces. These distinct neural signatures could guide scientists as they study the underlying neurobiology of how we both learn motor skills and work through complex cognitive tasks, says Earl K. Miller, the Picower Professor of Neuroscience at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory and the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, and senior author of a paper describing the findings in the Oct. 11 edition of Neuron. When neurons fire, they produce electrical signals that combine to form brain waves that oscillate at different frequencies. Our ultimate goal is to help people with learning and memory deficits, notes Miller. We might find a way to stimulate the human brain or optimize training techniques to mitigate those deficits. The neural
By shining laser light directly onto the brains of mice, researchers are inducing gamma brain waves, those believed to be crucial to consciousness, at
Brain Waves is a game that will challenge your brain power to the max! Test yourself in a series of challenges designed to focus on different areas of your b…
Nissan says its brain to vehicle system will use brain waves to anticipate a drivers every move, enhancing the driving experience and making it safer.
Whats the science behind tea, the worlds most popular beverage? What does it do to our brain waves, and why shouldnt we add milk to it?
Thank you for your comments, which I understand to pertain to the broad spectrum of activity in the brain. I should perhaps have made it clearer that I was referring to just a narrow part of that spectrum, namely the gamma range of frequencies of oscillation defined by the authors in my references 5,6 and 7. These and other researchers are tentatively identifying the rhythmic and synchronised firing of certain groups of neurons in this gamma range as the neural correlate of awareness of particular objects. I propose only that mitochondria in certain circumstances might trigger this rhythmic and synchronised firing in the gamma range. The complex interaction of many nerve impulses arriving at the synapses of one neuron from other parts of the brain is something I know nothing about. Regards, Andrew Gyles In article ,908l3u$k5p$1 at mercury.hgmp.mrc.ac.uk,, Rich Cooper ,richcooper1 at mindspring.com, wrote: , Andrew Gyles wrote: , , [snip] , , The question here is whether the ATPsynthase enzymes ...
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I just arrived home from a business trip to Cairo. In the bus that took us to the plane last night, a (young cute) guy offered his seat to me! Do I look that old? I have never been so depressed. Have to go to work now (after sleeping only 3 hours on the plane), more later ...
Kindergarten economics: when a person makes $ 1,000 per month and spends $ 1,200, after a while he will have problems. At first, he may find a bank that is willing to lend him the $ 200, but banks are not (totally) crazy so at one point the individual will have to cut his spending and live with the money he actually makes. The US of A as a whole has been living like the person in this example for at least a decade, continuously spending more than it is making. With the recent sub-prime crisis, this period seemed to have come to an end which is good. Americans need to spend less, save more and go back to a standard of living they can actually afford. But the Bush government and the Fed are now doing their best to prolong the good times by giving away tax checks and dramatically lowering interest rates. Which only means that the recession that will follow will be deeper, when it comes. All Bush and the Fed are doing is delaying the process of adjustment. This would have been a good time to force ...
Called the Cognitive Technology Threat Warning System (CT2WS), the initiative was first launched in 2007 by - not surprisingly - DARPA. Today, the agency announced the results of field tests using the futuristic system, which was nicknamed "Luke Skywalker" early on in the program. According to DARPA, the binoculars yielded a 91 percent success rate in detecting threats. By comparison, soldiers using conventional binoculars or camera systems currently miss around 47 percent of potential dangers ...
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For the finale of his show, Manish Arora sent out a wild mechanical frock covered in a variety of opening and closing carnivorous blooms.
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Vai jūsu dzīvnieks ņemt sirdstārpu preventīvus? Es ceru, ka jā, but if the preventative they take is Iverhart Plus you need to know that there has been a recall on this
Gratuit Science of brain wave technology for intellectual ... Neurofeedback is a form of training that monitors your brain waves and trains you to control them. Providers claim it makes you smarter and more creative. Brain Wave 32 Advanced Binaural Brainwave Entrainment ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Brain Wave 32 Advanced Binaural Brainwave Entrainment Programs with ... Electroencephalography Wikipedia Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain. It is typically noninvasive, with the electrodes ... Brain Waves Binaural Beats Android Apps on Google Play With this app you can easily generate pure waves that will stimulate your concentration, meditation or relaxation. Very Important Use headphones for a ... Alpha Brain Waves Boost Creativity and Reduce Depression ... Neuroscientists recently made a correlation between an increase of alpha brain waveseither through electrical ...
How to better suppress the interference from the non-target language when switching from one language to the other in bilingual production? The current study applied transcranial direct current...
Move down one further level - to theta waves and your body relaxes, heart rate and respiration lower slightly, and your mind tends to move back and forth between creative energy and deep relaxation. Eventually, the lowest brain waves, called delta, kick in, and for awhile the brain moves back and forth between delta and theta movement.. In the first stage of sleep, EEGs show the brain waves slowing down progressively through a thirty minute period. Your brain at that point shifts into REM or rapid eye movement sleep.. Nathaniel Kleitman, discovered in the 1950s, that in REM sleep a persons eyes flutter rapidly in all directions. In REM stages of sleep people dream, and when woken in that stage you may feel like a Mack truck hit you - but you will likely remember your dreams. Interestingly, brain waves at the deepest sleep speed up again - even though the brain remains dormant to conscious thought.. The key is to sustain brain waves suitable for the moment, based on what you hope to accomplish. ...
*******www.eyetap****/about_us/people/fungja/regen.html *******www.eyetap**** EyeTap Personal Imaging (ePI) Lab experiments with brain wave controlled music, based upon the collective EEG signal of 300 people.
VFO precedes electrographic seizures in vitro, as well as in vivo. The in vitro VFO is gap junction dependent, and is observed most readily in conditions when synaptic transmission is suppressed. One hypothesis as to seizure initiation is that synaptic excitation recovers prior to synaptic inhibition, so that classical synaptically mediated seizure discharges can arise. Epileptiform discharges in vivo can also be preceded by gamma oscillations, and there is an in vitro model in which gamma activity and bursting activity alternates. The alternating activity appears to arise because of use-dependent alterations in synaptic excitation and inhibition.
It seemed as if Zaheer would spend the first part of the second session resting near the fence, but he was marking his run-up in the second over after the break, reports Atreyo Mukhopadhyay.
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Before computing the EEG data by CMI, the ERP data were analyzed (Fig. 1). The EEG data were segmented into 6000-msec epochs (Fig. 2). Each epoch selleck inhibitor included three trials. Sweeps exceeding ±70 μV were excluded by automatic artifact screening. MATLAB 7.1 and EEGLAB (Delorme and Makeig 2004) software were used to apply a phase-corrected FIR filter in the δ Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (1-4 Hz), θ (4-7 Hz), α (7-13 Hz), β (13-25 Hz), and γ (25-50. Hz) frequency bands. Figure 1 ERP time series over the entire epoch. Figure 2 Two examples (F4, CP3) of the EEG data, which were segmented into 6000-msec epochs. Each epoch included three trials and the triggers onset at 0, 2000, and 4000 msec. CMI analysis This study analyzed task-related brain oscillations using CMI analysis. CMI quantifies the information transmitted from one electrode to another (Jeong et al. 2001). The CMI analysis was defined as (Jeong et al. 2001): This study evaluated the probabilities by ...
Health, ...WEDNESDAY Feb. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists may one day be able t...In their report published in the Jan. 31 online edition of the journ...This ability to decode electrical activity in an area of the auditory ... This is huge for patients who have damage to their speech mechanisms ...,Scientists,Use,Brain,Waves,to,Eavesdrop,on,the,Mind,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The leading reference on electroencephalography since 1982, Niedermeyers Electroencephalography is now in its thoroughly updated sixth edition.
Use BIOPAC data acquisition systems for human and animal EEG recordings. The systems are suitable for single-channel and multi-channel EEG recordings. The software provides real-time filters for identifying alpha, beta, theta, delta, and gamma wave activity. A variety of stimulus response protocols are possible when using the averaging and stimulator accessories.
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Looking for backwash ripple mark? Find out information about backwash ripple mark. Ripple marks that are broad and flat and parallel to the shoreline, with narrow, shallow troughs and crests about 30 centimeters apart; formed by backwash... Explanation of backwash ripple mark
Oscillatory fluctuations of local field potentials (LFPs) in the theta (4-8 Hz) and gamma (25-140 Hz) band are held to play a mechanistic role in various ...
electroencephalography (eeg) is an electrophysiological monitoring technique to record electrical activity of the brain. it is generally noninvasive, with...
Download the full report: https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/4823123/ Factors such as increasing R&D investments by manufacturers to provide sophisticated brain monitoring devices,
I was excited to see that local field potentials were added! Unfortunately I was having trouble getting them to work, likely due to my own ignorance. I have the same code as in my previous post about plotRatePSD, where I create a network with the following populations ...
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Modern sensors can see farther than humans. Electronic circuits can shoot faster than nerves and muscles can pull a trigger. Humans still outperform armed robots in knowing what to shoot at - but new research funded in part by the Army may soon narrow that gap.. Researchers from DCS Corp and the Army Research Lab fed datasets of human brain waves into a neural network - a type of artificial intelligence - which learned to recognize when a human is making a targeting decision. They presented their paper on it at the annual Intelligent User Interface conference in Cyprus in March.. Why is this a big deal? Machine learning relies on highly structured data, numbers in rows that software can read.. Source: The Military is Using Human Brain Waves to Teach Robots How to Shoot - Defense One. ...
Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been shown to increase the frequency of gamma oscillations in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The underlying mechanism of the increase however, is unclear. This project utilizes an integrate-and-fire model of the CA3, based on experimental data, to investigate the increase in oscillation frequency. The model was built first without NMDA receptors to simulate carbachol induced oscillations in vitro. Then, NMDA receptors were added to evoke the increase in oscillation frequency. The model shows that a shift in mechanism, from a pyramidal neuron-interneuron feedback loop, to interneuron-interneuron oscillations, is responsible for the increase in gamma oscillation frequency. An interesting relationship between the active NMDA mediated current and instantaneous cycle frequencies points to further areas of study.
Brian Vitori became the first Zimbabwean to take five wickets on his One-day International debut as the home side beat Bangladesh by four wickets in the first of five ODIs at Harare Sports Club. | Zimbabwe beat Bangladesh by four wickets
India vs Zimbabwe 2nd ODI: India once again defeated Zimbabwe by 8 wickets, putting an all-round performance, in 2nd ODI played at Harare Sports Club.
There are two identical Envelopes generators. Not the typical envelope generators, these are described as "envelope / oscillators because they have a number of ways they can be used to generate either envelopes, commonly used to fade notes up and down, or making low-frequency oscillations which have many different uses." So, in essence they are EGs but they can be used as additional LFOs depending on the need.. But lets take a closer look at these EGs. They both have few modes. Lets see if I can demystify the modes of the EG a bit.. There are 3 mode buttons in the EG section.. The first button toggles between the envelope mode and oscillator mode. If you take a closer look the first two knobs in the EGs have dual operating modes demarked by ENV and OSC. In ENV mode the knobs are Up Time and Down Time. While in OSC mode the same two knobs are used for Speed and level.. The second mode button is used to toggle the modes of the 3rd knob which is located in the EG section. Those modes are Step, ...
You may want to look into the LFP modelling work of Alain Destexhes lab: http://cns.iaf.cnrs-gif.fr/Main.html and Gaute Einevolls lab: http://compneuro.umb.no/ . They have both been producing some very interesting work on the origin and features of local field potentials. If you are using simplified point neuron models, it may be worth looking at Alberto Mazzonis recent papers on LFPs insimplified models: http://www.iit.it/en/component/profiles ... ile&id=385 ...
CHICAGO -- The speed that an autistic childs brain processes sounds, as gauged by magnetoencephalography, may characterize the severity of the condition, researchers reported here today.
Brainwaves MP3 with Hypnosis for Self Improvement and Brainwave MP3 with Mantra for Meditation. Brainwaves are effective paraliminal for Mantra Meditation
Brainwaves MP3 with Hypnosis for Self Improvement and Brainwave MP3 with Mantra for Meditation. Brainwaves are effective paraliminal for Mantra Meditation
Others have been working on such phenomena for decades, but no one has ever made these connections," said Steven J. Schiff, director of the Center for Neural Engineering at Penn State University, who was not involved in the study. "The implications are that such directed fields can be used to modulate both pathological activities, such as seizures, and to interact with cognitive rhythms that help regulate a variety of processes in the brain. ...
When the human brain takes on intellectually challenging tasks, groups of neurons tune in to one another for a fraction of a second and harmonise, then go back to improvising, says a new study.
Accessing Alpha brain waves seem to tickle the satiety within our spirit. Our seemingly incessant drive for possession, accumulation and consumption leads to only one outcome: signals for the industry to produce more in order to curb that satiety. It is when we begin questioning the repercussions of our actions and promising ourselves that we will adhere to this new behavior, which will support ourselves and our environment, that we feel nourished deeply. ...
A collection of 18 quirky tales to chill and delight you. Including: Brain Wave - An awesome medical application... surely not using a time machine? Indulgence:- This free, but totally effective treatment might not be what every overweight person thought they were getting? Micro-Voices - They can drive you off-balance and with him,,,they did! These events couldnt really happen...right?
MI 36-3 (6 ovs) vs KKR 107 all out (18.5 ovs) | Scorecard Piyush Chawla comes back into the attack and gets his second wicket. That is a drifter, the ball goes straight and Rayudu is bowled all ends
In an ideal world, the talk around a cricket series would be about the strengths and weaknesses of the teams. In this series, however, the focus is on how the wicket would behave. Aakash Chopra writes.
Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yay nlar , 1978 y l ndan beri stanbulda, T rkiyenin tarihi, arkeolojisi ve sanat tarihi ile ilgili kitaplar basmaktad r. Akademisyenlere hitap edecek zel monogrofilerden, T rkiyenin tan nm turistik b lgelerini tan tan rehber kitaplara kadar geni bir yelpaze i inde d rt ayda bir
Global Market Study on Electroencephalography (EEG) Devices: Increased Demand for Advanced Imaging Techniques for Brain Monitoring Has Led to Proliferation of EEG Devices in Recent Years
مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 77710 - ترجمه نشده - موضوع : واقعیت مجازی - 7 صفحه - سال انتشار : 2015 - منبع : الزویر ساینس دایرکت
世界のシングルユースバイオリアクター市場は今後急速な拡大が見込まれ、その世界市場規模は2017年の9億9760万ドルから2022年には26億8510万ドル市場に達すると予測されます。同市場規模の2017年から2022年にかけての平均年成長率は21.9%増で推移するとレポートでは分析しています。 当レポートでは、2022年に至るシングルユースバイオリアクターの世界市場予測(市場規模US$)、製品別市場(シングルユースバイオリアクターシステム各種、メディアバッグ各種、ろ過設備、その他製品)、タイプ別市場(シングルユース撹拌槽バイオリアクター、WAVEバイオリアクター、気泡塔型シングルユースバイオリアクター、その他)、細胞種類別市場(哺乳動物細胞、細菌細胞、酵母細胞、その他細胞)、分子タイプ別市場(モノクローナル抗体、ワクチン、幹細胞
BACKGROUND. Differentiating drug-related changes and state-related changes on the electroencephalogram during anesthetic-induced unconsciousness has remained a challenge. To distinguish these, we designed a rigorous experimental protocol with two drugs known to have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. We hypothesized that drug- and state-related changes can be separated.. METHODS: Forty-seven healthy participants were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (n = 23) or propofol (n = 24) as target-controlled infusions until loss of responsiveness. Then, an attempt was made to arouse the participant to regain responsiveness while keeping the drug infusion constant. Finally, the concentration was increased 1.5-fold to achieve presumable loss of consciousness. We conducted statistical comparisons between the drugs and different states of consciousness for spectral bandwidths, and observed how drug-induced electroencephalogram patterns reversed upon awakening. Cross-frequency coupling was also ...
The effect of local TTX application on the gamma power. (a) Lay-out of the experimental setup. The rat (1) was kept at 37 °C on a heating blanket (2) and fixed in a stereotaxic frame (3) by ear bars (4) and incisor bar (5). Electrodes were stereotaxically placed in burr holes (6) and local field potentials were by an MPA8 headstage (7) and AM3600 amplifier (8), digitized by a Power 4101 (9), controlled by spike 2 software (10). Guide cannulas (11) were placed such that the inserted quartz infusion cannula (12) perfused TTX locally. 1 μl TTX solution was supplied through a thin tube (13) driven by the MSM micropump (14) driven by an arduino (15) controlled by pulsed voltage output generated by spike software (16). (b) Local field potentials recorded from hippocampus area CA1 before (top trace), 15 min (middle trace) and 30 min (bottom trace) after the start of a 1 μl TTX application over 3 min. (c) Gamma power was determined as a running average from local field potential recordings in the ...
The key learning regions in the brain, the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, use different wave frequencies during memory-based decision making, a new research says.. The study was carried out by Massachusetts Institute of Technology neuroscientists and published in the Nature Neurosciences online edition on February 23.. As neurons fire in the brain they generate brain waves at different frequencies. Formerly, it was thought the frequencies were just a byproduct of neurons activity.. The new research shows that as the brain correctly links the objects during the learning process, the waves oscillate at a higher frequency, named beta, and when the link is incorrect, the waves oscillate at a lower theta frequency.. "Its like youre playing a computer game and you get a ding when you get it right, and a buzz when you get it wrong. These two areas of the brain are playing two different notes for correct guesses and wrong guesses," said senior author of the paper professor Earl ...
Middleton, Knöpfel and colleagues also found another important difference between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex. Oscillations in both brain regions can be triggered by activation of receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine; however, the receptors in the cortex are so-called muscarinic receptors, which are not activated by nicotine, whereas the receptors in the cerebellum are triggered by nicotine. Furthermore, the cerebellar nicotine receptor that is acting to induce the brain waves seemed to be a nonclassical nicotine receptor.. Unraveling neuronal communication. The network oscillations in the cerebral cortex occur due, in part, to gap junctions between cortical neurons, in which electrical activity in one cell can spread through channels that connect that neuron directly to its partner. The researchers also found many pieces of evidence that suggest that electrical connections also exist between cerebellar neurons.. First, they showed that a dye injected into a cerebellar ...
After mixed results in human and animal studies, it is unclear whether baclofen and other pharmacotherapies targeting GABAergic neurotransmission can effectively treat the symptoms of FXS, particularly in the absence of biomarker-based strategies to target treatment to subsets of individuals. In this study, we present evidence that (a) sensory hypersensitivity occurs in Fmr1 KO mice, as indexed by increased evoked EEG gamma power, (b) baclofen normalizes this increased evoked EEG gamma power and improves working memory (T-maze performance), and (c) at an individual level, normalization of evoked gamma oscillations was associated with improvement in working memory. Our study also suggests that some Fmr1 KO-related deficits, such as impaired sociability and episodic memory (radial water maze performance), may be impervious to rescue by baclofen. Overall, these findings indicate that racemic baclofen may have benefit for remediating sensory hypersensitivity and some cognitive deficits in FXS and ...
As the diagram shows, there are three main parts to a neuron: dendritic tree, the soma (cell body), and the axon. The diagram also displays the myelin sheath and the terminal boutons (it calls them buttons), but those are only tangentially pertinent to the discussion of brain waves. The axon is a neurons main method of sending a signal, via what is known as an action potential, to a target cell. The dendritic tree is where most action potentials are received by a neuron, although sometime signals are also received on the soma - this will be important later and discussed in further detail. The junction between an axon and a dendrite is known as a synapse. Neurons generate a resting potential across their cell membranes of approximately -70mV with respect to the surrounding interstitial fluid. For a neuron to fire an action potential it must be excited to below some threshold. Exciting a neuron is typically caused by synapses in the dendritic tree, where an incoming action potential triggers a ...
Google, along with MediaVest are releasing information about ad quality determined by reading brain waves and psychological responses to ads on video content. This is an interesting idea, and for the most part, it seems like it could be a very accurate way to measure how ads are perceived by viewers.
High-gamma signals mirror the tuning and temporal profiles of neurons near a recording electrode in sensory and motor areas. These frequencies appear to aggregate local neuronal activity, but it is unclear how this relationship affects information encoding in high-gamma activity (HGA) in cortical areas where neurons are heterogeneous in selectivity and temporal responses, and are not functionally clustered. Here we report that populations of neurons and HGA recorded from the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) encode similar information, although there is little correspondence between signals recorded by the same electrode. HGA appears to aggregate heterogeneous neuron activity, such that the spiking of a single cell corresponds to only small increases in HGA. Interestingly, large-scale spatiotemporal dynamics are revealed in HGA, but less apparent in the population of single neurons. Overall, HGA is closely related to neuron activity in OFC, and provides a unique means of studying large-scale ...
The findings could help to identify brain abnormalities in ill patients, with the potential for electric or magnetic stimulation to modify abnormal rhythms, according to a study recently published in the Plos One journal.. Dr Anne Keitel, a postdoctoral researcher at Glasgow Universitys Centre for Cognitive Imaging, said: "When you look at all 115 areas of the brain you can find totally different rhythms. It seems a bit messy at first so we wanted to see if we could classify what was going on so we could see what to expect.". A group of 22 healthy adults were asked to simply sit still for a few minutes with their eyes open while their neural activity was monitored.. By measuring the magnetic fields produced by brain activity, the team were able to establish which part of the brain it came from and to analyse the individual rhythms.. Some parts of the brain had just two relatively slow oscillations, indicating that this part was focused on a single specific task. ...
NAPIER, New Zealand (AP) - Fast bowler Lockie Ferguson took two wickets with the first two balls of his Twenty20 debut and went on to claim 3-32 as New Zeala...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Electroencephalography Equipment Market analysis is provided for global market including development trends by regions, competitive analysis of the Electroencephalography Equipment market. EEG, the bodys own brain generated by the weak creatures in the scalp at the collection, and enlarge the record and get the curve graph. The electroencephalogram measures voltage fluctuations from ion currents in neurons in the brain and is used to aid in the diagnosis of brain-related diseases.. Browse more detail information about Electroencephalography Equipment market report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-electroencephalography-equipment-market-by-manufacturers-regions-type-and-application-forecast-to-2021-10515577 Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers. ...
The Malech patent utilizes interference of 210 and 100 MHz frequencies resulting in a 110 MHz return signal, which is demodulated to give EEG waveform. Reference to ultrashort pulses without mention of another interfering frequency indicates that these remote EEG references represent different mechanisms, and therefore methods. Ultrashort pulses currently have definition in the range of 10-15 second. Considering that EEG word elicited potentials are comparatively long (100s of milliseconds), has relevance to remote radar EEG capture adequate to word recognition, with ultrashort pulses allowing greater than 109 radar reflections in a millisecond (10-3 sec.) The possibility of impressing an experience set on an individual is also contemplated.3 The above patent also can alter brain waves. Microwave non-lethal weapon brain wave disruption ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about electroencephalography at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about electroencephalography easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Sales, means the sales volume of Electroencephalography Amplifiers Revenue, means the sales value of Electroencephalography Amplifiers This report studies sales (consumption) of Electroencephalography Amplifiers in Europe market, especially in Germany, France, UK, Russia, Italy, Spain and Benelux, focuses on top players in these countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each play
The Secret to Feeling Calm and Focused in the Chaos L-Theanine will help you feel relaxed and focused so you can take control of your life L-Theanine has no known side effects Its a safe and naturally occurring amino acid that is found in green tea L-Theanine increases alpha brain wave activity Alpha brain waves… Read More ». ...
Please hop along with us! You have a chance to win one of the above stamp sets! Just comment on the following blogs (dont forget this one), each day for more chances to win! (You do NOT have to comment on all the blogs each day! The names are drawn randomly!) All three winners will be announced on Jan. 18,2014 on the Marks Finest Papers blog. You can go back and comment if you missed a day. (HINT: The more you comment, the more chances you have to win and comments on the MFP blog count twice!) The deadline for ...
This is a version of MIEP Macrophage computational model released on Jan 11th, 2011. The model is available for download in CellDesigner xml format. We have tested that the model is compatible with Cell Designer 4.1. Here is the release note: One species and one reaction were added in the model. The new specie is s140. The reaction is re89. The aim to add these two items is to distinguish different phosphorylations of PPAR gamma. PKA phosphrylates PPAR gamma that increases PPAR gamma activity, while Cdk5 phosphrylates PPAR gamma that decrease PPAR gamma activity ...
Autocorrelation analysis, which has been used in statistical communication theory for the study of randomly varying processes, can be applied to electroencephalography-the study of brain waves. The statistical properties retained by an auto correlation analysis of the EEG are summarized in the power density spectrum. The amplitude and frequency characteristics of this spectrum have been found to change with analytic length, denoting an inherent EEG statistical instability which limits the resolving power of the autocor relation function. There are indications that this instability is a function of component power and frequency, and this information may be applicable to future investigations. (Author)(*ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY
Coppola G, Ambrosini A, Di Clemente L, Magis D, Fumal A, Gérard P, Pierelli F & Schoenen J. Interictal abnormalities of gamma band activity in visual evoked responses in migraine: an indication of thalamocortical dysrhythmia? Cephalalgia 2007; 27:1360-1367. London. ISSN 0333-1024. Between attacks, migraineurs lack habituation in standard visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual stimuli also evoke high-frequency oscillations in the gamma band range (GBOs, 20-35 Hz) assumed to be generated both at subcortical (early GBOs) and cortical levels (late GBOs). The consecutive peaks of GBOs were analysed regarding amplitude and habituation in six successive blocks of 100 averaged pattern reversal (PR)-VEPs in healthy volunteers and interictally in migraine with (MA) or without aura patients. Amplitude of the two early GBO components in the first PR-VEP block was significantly increased in MA patients. There was a significant habituation deficit of the late GBO peaks in migraineurs. The increased ...
Neurovascular coupling describes the mechanism by which the energy and oxygen demand arising from neuronal activity is met by an increase in regional blood flow, known as the haemodynamic response. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important mediator of neuronal injury, though mechanisms through which IL-1 exerts its effects in the brain are not fully understood. In this study, we set out to investigate if increased cerebral levels of IL-1 have a negative effect on the neurovascular coupling in the cortex in response to sensory stimulation. We used two approaches to measure the neuronal activity and haemodynamic changes in the anaesthetised rat barrel somatosensory cortex in response to mechanical whisker stimulation, before and for 6 h after intra-striatal injection of interleukin-1β or vehicle. First, we used two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy (2D-OIS) to measure the size of the functional haemodynamic response, indicated by changes of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and
Human brain oscillations occur in different frequency bands that have been linked to different behaviours and cognitive processes. Even within specific frequency bands such as the beta- (14-30 Hz) or gamma-band (30-100 Hz), oscillations fluctuate in frequency and amplitude. Such frequency fluctuations most probably reflect changing states of neuronal network activity, as brain oscillations arise from the correlated synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons. However, the neuronal mechanisms governing the dynamic nature of amplitude and frequency fluctuations within frequency bands remain elusive. Here we show that in acute slices of rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), carbachol-induced oscillations in the beta-band show frequency and amplitude fluctuations. Fast and slow non-harmonic frequencies are distributed differentially over superficial and deep cortical layers, with fast frequencies being present in layer 3, while layer 6 only showed slow oscillation frequencies. Layer 5 pyramidal cells and
Widge, A. S., Zorowitz, S., Link, K., Miller, E. K., Deckersbach, T., Eskandar, E. N., & Dougherty, D. D. (2015). Ventral Capsule/Ventral Striatum Deep Brain Stimulation Does Not Consistently Diminish Occipital Cross-Frequency Coupling. Biological Psychiatry.. Widge, A. S., Arulpragasam, A. R., Deckersbach, T., & Dougherty, D. D. (2015). Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders. Emerging trends in the social and behavioral sciences: An interdisciplinary, searchable, and linkable resource.. Widge, A.S., Deckersbach, T., Eskandar, E. N. & Dougherty, D. D. Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Psychiatric Illnesses: What Has Gone Wrong and What Should We Do Next? Biological Psychiatry, 2015 Jun 10.. Widge, A. S., & Dougherty, D. D. (2015). Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Refractory Mood and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports, 2(4), 187-197.. Nierenberg, A., Peters, A., Stange, J., Sylvia, L.G., Otto, M.W., Miklowitz, D.J., Dougherty, D.D., ...

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy - Abstract - Concussion - Karger PublishersChronic Traumatic Encephalopathy - Abstract - Concussion - Karger Publishers

Kaplan HA, Browder J: Observations on the clinical and brain wave patterns of professional boxers. J Am Med Assoc 1954;156:1138 ... gross and/or microscopic destruction of brain tissue following brain trauma. The brain of a CTE sufferer may appear grossly ... Graham DI, Adams JH, Nicoll JA, Maxwell WL, Gennarelli TA: The nature, distribution and causes of traumatic brain injury. Brain ... Jordan BD: The clinical spectrum of sport-related traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol 2013;9:222-230. External Resources * ...
more infohttps://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/358761

ROGER WATERS Radio Waves (EP) reviewsROGER WATERS Radio Waves (EP) reviews

This page includes Radio Waves (EP)s : cover picture, songs / tracks list, members/musicians and line-up, different releases ... Radio Waves (EP) is a music singles/eps/fan club/promo recording by ROGER WATERS (Crossover Prog/Progressive Rock) released in ... So why not make a more danceable version of Radio Waves? Apparently most of the brain cells back in 1987 were on a picnic. ... Roger Waters Radio Waves EP featured an extended remix version of Radio Waves (the single off of Radio K.A.O.S.), the "7-inch ...
more infohttp://www.progarchives.com/album.asp?id=11099

New Radio Wave Technique For Detect Alien Planets - The Tech JournalNew Radio Wave Technique For Detect Alien Planets - The Tech Journal

... they are looking for radio waves emitted when ultraviolet flares light up the atmospheres of planets like Saturn and Jupiter ... New radio wave technique could detect alien planets, receive interstellar tunes and because exoplanets often have decades-long ... New Radio Wave Technique For Detect Alien Planets. On Apr 24, 2011. ... New radio wave technique could detect alien planets, receive interstellar tunes and because exoplanets often have decades-long ...
more infohttps://thetechjournal.com/science/new-radio-wave-technique-for-detect-alien-planets.xhtml

A preliminary investigation on the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for neurogenic heterotopic...A preliminary investigation on the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for neurogenic heterotopic...

... effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification following traumatic brain ...
more infohttps://findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/display/publicationS1196623

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ESWLExtracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ESWL

What is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the use of shock waves produced ... Cerebral Vascular Disease,Acne,Heart Disease,Deaf,Headache,Std,Condyloma Acuminatum,Fibroid,Pneumonia,Brain Trauma,。 ... What is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the use of shock waves produced ... What is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the use of shock waves produced ...
more infohttp://www.scleritis.net/urology-surgery/urolithiasis/NVXEZ.html

Brain wavesBrain waves

Brain »Brain waves »Cortex »Electrical »Electrical oscillations »Knöpfel »Neuron »Neuronal »Neurotransmitter »VFOs » ... Further reports about: , Brain , Brain waves , Cortex , Electrical , Electrical oscillations , Knöpfel , Neuron , Neuronal , ... Brain waves. 10.11.2008. Electrical oscillations in one part of the brain suggest that it may interact with another to guide ... If other parts of the brain also produce gamma waves and VFOs, it is possible that these brain regions could receive these ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/brain-waves-121915.html

Brain WavesBrain Waves

... or the recordable patterns of electrical activity in the brain, can affect mental health if abnormal, but can be retrained ... Brain Waves and Sleep. The brain is very active during sleep, and each stage of sleep is characterized by the brain waves that ... Brain Waves and Mental Health. Brain waves are relevant to mental health, as abnormalities in brain functioning can influence ... There are five different types of brain waves, ranging from low to high frequency:. *Delta brain waves are the slowest brain ...
more infohttps://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/psychpedia/brain-waves?replytocom=553383

Brain WavesBrain Waves

... or the recordable patterns of electrical activity in the brain, can affect mental health if abnormal, but can be retrained ... Brain Waves and Sleep. The brain is very active during sleep, and each stage of sleep is characterized by the brain waves that ... Brain Waves and Mental Health. Brain waves are relevant to mental health, as abnormalities in brain functioning can influence ... There are five different types of brain waves, ranging from low to high frequency:. *Delta brain waves are the slowest brain ...
more infohttps://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/psychpedia/brain-waves?replytocom=551995

brain waves | JHU Pressbrain waves | JHU Press

The views expressed in guest posts belong solely to the author and in no way reflect the official opinion of the Johns Hopkins University Press.. ...
more infohttps://www.press.jhu.edu/news/blog/tags/brain-waves

electromagnetic/brain waveselectromagnetic/brain waves

... Kevin Spencer kspencer at s.psych.uiuc.edu Tue Apr 2 01:03:14 EST 1996 *Previous message: ... Previous message: electromagnetic/brain waves *Next message: electromagnetic/brain waves * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ ... electromagnetic/brain waves *Next message: electromagnetic/brain waves * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1996-April/023281.html

brain waves Archives | Springwisebrain waves Archives | Springwise

Posts Categorized: brain waves. Robot uses muscle and brain signals for real time gesture detection. United States / July 2018 ... Sensory technology allows users to direct robots through hand gestures and brain waves. ...
more infohttps://www.springwise.com/?keyword=brain-waves

Brain Waves Backpacks | Society6Brain Waves Backpacks | Society6

Shop brain waves backpacks featuring ultra cool designs from thousands of artists from around the world. Crafted with premium ...
more infohttps://society6.com/backpacks/brain-waves

Brain Waves | Free Internet Radio | TuneInBrain Waves | Free Internet Radio | TuneIn

Stream Brain Waves free online. Listen to free internet radio, sports, music, news, talk and podcasts. Stream live events, live ...
more infohttps://tunein.com/radio/Brain-Waves-p779713/

Electrodes translate brain waves into words - latimesElectrodes translate brain waves into words - latimes

Utah researchers have shown that it is possible to translate recorded brain waves into words, using a grid of ... Electrodes translate brain waves into words. The Utah study reported in the Journal of Neuroengineering shows promise for ... The volunteer spoke each word 31 to 96 times while the researchers measured brain waves. ... Utah researchers have shown that it is possible to translate recorded brain waves into words, using a grid of electrodes placed ...
more infohttp://articles.latimes.com/2010/sep/07/science/la-sci-brain-words-20100908

Brain waves predict our risk for insomniaBrain waves predict our risk for insomnia

"Brain waves predict our risk for insomnia ." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 16 Mar. 2015. Web.. 23 Jul. 2019. ,https ... Measuring students brain waves at the beginning of the school semester, Dang-Vu and his team found that students showing a ... The brain -- specifically the deep, inner parts of the brain called the thalamus and cortex -- produces electromagnetic ... 2015, March 16). "Brain waves predict our risk for insomnia ." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https://www.medicalnewstoday ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/290789.php?tw

Sleepy brain waves predict dream recall | ScienceBlogsSleepy brain waves predict dream recall | ScienceBlogs

The research provides the first evidence of a signature pattern of brain activity associated with dream recall. It also ... THE patterns of brain waves that occur during sleep can predict the likelihood that dreams will be successfully recalled upon ... provides further insight into the brain mechanisms underlying dreaming, and into the relationship between our dreams and our ... that monitor brain-activity and only wake you up when in a desired state of brain-wave patterns. Exploiting this concept could ...
more infohttps://scienceblogs.com/neurophilosophy/2011/05/10/sleepy-brain-waves-predict-dream-recall

Brain Waves | Bipolar UpdateBrain Waves | Bipolar Update

Imagine a light wave being measured to identify how fast it is vibrating or how long the wave is. We can do this with brain ... My next post will examine the positive effects of altering brain waves through mediation. After that, lets take a look at ... Home » Blogs » Bipolar Update » Brain Waves. #sectiongraphic h2 { display:none!important; } Bipolar Update. *About the Blog* ... Next post we will be introduced to another method of altering brainwaves called "brain entrainment" as it is becoming very ...
more infohttps://blogs.psychcentral.com/bipolar-update/2015/05/brain-waves/

BRAIN WAVE MACHINES | DailyStrengthBRAIN WAVE MACHINES | DailyStrength

DOES ANYONE KNOW IF THOSE BRAIN WAVE MACHINES WORK FOR SLEEP? THEY ARE USED FOR MEDITATION, SLEEP, HEALTH PROBLEMS ETC. JUST ... DOES ANYONE KNOW IF THOSE BRAIN WAVE MACHINES WORK FOR SLEEP? THEY ARE USED FOR MEDITATION, SLEEP, HEALTH PROBLEMS ETC. JUST ...
more infohttps://www.dailystrength.org/group/insomnia/discussion/brain-wave-machines

Brain Wave | Reed MagazineBrain Wave | Reed Magazine

... brain-waves demonstrated a different pattern after the training, suggesting that the shape-processing part of the brain was ... Brain Wave (continued) MIND-BENDERS. Prof. Canseco-Gonzalez (left) and Prof. Pitts (right) explain the how and why of ... "This is a great way to study how the brain functions. We are rethinking how the brain is wired." ... "There is a part of the brain that processes shapes. Usually this is in the form of vision or touch. But if you give it sound, ...
more infohttps://www.reed.edu/reed_magazine/december2014/articles/features/brainwave/brainwave1.html

Brain wave - FactbitesBrain wave - Factbites

Exploring the Brain and Brain Waves. Brain waves are generated by the building blocks of your brain -- the individual cells ... Brain waves are obtained from a special analysis of EEG. These brain waves show us the brains response to a particular ... Brain Wave. But sometime after that, Brain Wave returned to a life of crime, and his wife left him and her son; they believed ... Brain Fingerprinting - Research. A specific, electrical brain wave response, known as a P300, is emitted by the brain within a ...
more infohttp://www.factbites.com/topics/Brain-wave

Whats a Brain Wave?What's a Brain Wave?

Whats a Brain Wave?. Cijadrachon cijadra at zedat.fu-berlin.de Mon Apr 12 10:59:48 EST 1999 *Previous message: Whats a Brain ... Is it really a wave form The only time I perceived some (magic ones to do with someone else) in my brain, they had regular wave ... What, exactly, is a brain wave? Some stages of akasha moving? ,What does it measure, or reflect? That depends on the sector. , ... Dont recall much about them, but to me those did not seem like regular wave shapes. Might depend on the area and what you do. ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/hypermail/neur-sci/1999-April/037775.html

A Machine That Turns Brain Waves Into MusicA Machine That Turns Brain Waves Into Music

He turned to a modified EEG, what he calls a Brain Pulse Machine, to measure the brain waves of earthquake victims and play ... A Machine That Turns Brain Waves Into Music. After Japans devastating earthquake last year, Masaki Batoh wanted to give people ... "Human beings lie, but their brain waves never lie," writes Batoh. And with that mantra in mind, Batoh moved beyond words. ... "For example, a patient in deep anxiety during his treatment might have brain waves that are very unstable," Batoh explains. "I ...
more infohttps://www.fastcompany.com/90186468/a-machine-that-turns-brain-waves-into-music

Antique brain wave synchronizer | MakeAntique brain wave synchronizer | Make

Sidney Schneider was one of the researchers to analyze these effects, and he went on to create the "Brain Wave Synchronizer". ...
more infohttps://makezine.com/2008/02/05/antique-brain-wave-synchr/

Google Reads Brain Waves To Measure YouTube Ads | WIREDGoogle Reads Brain Waves To Measure YouTube Ads | WIRED

... released information on Thursday about ad quality found by reading brain waves and psychological responses to ads on YouTubes ... eye movement and an EEG brain scan in response to YouTube InVideo overlay ads. They found \[…\] ... Google Reads Brain Waves To Measure YouTube Ads. Google, together with MediaVest, released information on Thursday about ad ... quality found by reading brain waves and psychological responses to ads on YouTubes video content. ...
more infohttps://www.wired.com/2008/10/google-reads-br/

brain wave hat | Hackadaybrain wave hat | Hackaday

brain wave hat Your New Winter Hat Should Express Your Brain Waves Like a Neon Sign… Just Saying. October 20, 2014 by Sarah ... Posted in Wearable HacksTagged arduino eeg, beanie, brain wave hat, brain waves, eeg, eeg hacks, illumino, neurosky. ... and other wave types associated with brain activity as a morphing ball of changing size and color. This offers a nice visual ... "Your New Winter Hat Should Express Your Brain Waves Like a Neon Sign… Just Saying" → ...
more infohttps://hackaday.com/tag/brain-wave-hat/
  • Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome, which is caused by single, episodic, or repetitive blunt force impacts to the head and transfer of acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain. (karger.com)
  • Symptoms of CTE may begin with persistent symptoms of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) following a documented episode of brain trauma or after a latent period that may range from days to weeks to months and years, up to 40 years following a documented episode of brain trauma or cessation of repetitive TBI. (karger.com)
  • Posttraumatic encephalopathy is distinct from CTE, can be comorbid with CTE, and is a clinicopathologic syndrome induced by focal and/or diffuse, gross and/or microscopic destruction of brain tissue following brain trauma. (karger.com)
  • The brain of a CTE sufferer may appear grossly unremarkable, but shows microscopic evidence of primary and secondary proteinopathies. (karger.com)
  • Since his discovery, EEGs have been used to provide useful information about one's mental state and functioning, as they can lead to the diagnosis of epilepsy , sleep conditions , Alzheimer's , and other issues related to brain functioning. (goodtherapy.org)
  • The arrays were placed directly on the brain of a volunteer patient with epilepsy whose skull had already been opened to measure aberrant electrical signals that trigger seizures. (latimes.com)
  • The person in the wheelchair wears a cap that can read brain signals, which are relayed to a brain scan electroencephalograph, or EEG, on the electrically powered wheelchair, and then analyzed in a computer program. (technologyreview.com)
  • After several seconds, Honda's boy-shaped robot Asimo, programmed to respond to brain signals, lifted its right arm. (technologyreview.com)
  • Indeed, previous studies have shown that brain waves in the frontal and temporal lobes can predict encoding and subsequent recall of episodic memories , and that they can even be used to distinguish between true and false memories . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Too little arousal in the brain, on the other hand, has been correlated with depression, chronic pain , and insomnia . (goodtherapy.org)
  • Measuring students' brain waves at the beginning of the school semester, Dang-Vu and his team found that students showing a lower amount of a particular pattern of brain waves were more at risk for developing insomnia afterwards in response to the stress of the exams. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Though Berger's path to this discovery began because he wanted to record what he thought was psychic energy in the brain, he eventually narrowed his focus and successfully made the first recording of electrical waves in the brain: an electroencephalogram, or EEG. (goodtherapy.org)
  • The researchers demonstrated that the granule cells were not involved in generating the brain waves, so it was surprising that they observed these oscillations at all, since they had to have been generated by inhibitory neuronal populations only. (innovations-report.com)
  • The electrical oscillations we call brain waves have intrigued scientists and the public for more than a century. (scientificamerican.com)
  • If brain rhythms are unstable, an individual may experience obsessive compulsions , develop epilepsy , or have panic attacks . (goodtherapy.org)
  • For example, a patient in deep anxiety during his treatment might have brain waves that are very unstable," Batoh explains. (fastcompany.com)
  • Brain waves are the electrical fluctuations in the brain associated with various states of cortical arousal (thinking, learning, relaxing, recuperating etc. (factbites.com)
  • Research has demonstrated that the brain has the quality of neural-plasticity, (able to change and learn new pathways) therefore our brain can be trained to produce certain brainwaves at certain parts of the brain thus enabling us to move from one state of cortical arousal to another depending on our goals. (factbites.com)
  • These brain rhythms may then be conveyed to other parts of the brain to initiate and control the action of reaching out an arm to pick up the pencil. (innovations-report.com)
  • For example, when one feels fatigued or dreamy, slower brainwaves are likely dominant at that time. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Depending on what one is doing at the time, a particular brain wave will be dominant over the others. (goodtherapy.org)
  • In most people, one of the four brain waves is dominant most of the time. (beliefnet.com)
  • In 1973, scientists discovered that we have specific receptors in our brain for opiate drugs like heroin and morphine. (care2.com)
  • In 1990, scientists discovered that we have specific receptors in our brain for the active ingredient in marijuana as well, cannabinoids like THC. (care2.com)
  • Brains , thus, spring forth naturally from any body of cells over time when the cellular DNA (which is driven by food energy) dumps its excess wave energy to a suitable region of adjacent cells in the form of gray matter. (factbites.com)
  • We observed that] by using this type of stimulation, we can reconnect or resynchronize those faulty brain circuits in the brains of the elderly and then rapidly boost their working memory function," explains Reinhart. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Google, together with MediaVest, released information on Thursday about ad quality found by reading brain waves and psychological responses to ads on YouTube's video content. (wired.com)
  • Together with neuroscience advertising research firm NeuroFocus , Google measured things likes users' skin responses, eye movement and an EEG brain scan in response to YouTube InVideo overlay ads. (wired.com)
  • The test focuses on changes and responses in brain waves. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you've ever been hooked up to an EEG monitor, the idea of brain music and EEG therapy may sound a little less out there-to smooth out a real-time graph of your mind, your brain must enter a state I'd compare to meditation. (fastcompany.com)
  • Later she goes into her husband's lab to use an electroconvulsive therapy machine there to destroy parts of her brain, bringing her IQ down to about 150, with which she is more comfortable. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that the brain mechanisms underlying memory encoding and retrieval during sleep are the same as those during waking hours. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Yet a growing body of research suggests many brain waves are actually "traveling waves" that physically move through the brain like waves on the sea. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Now a new study from a team at Columbia University led by neuroscientist Joshua Jacobs suggests traveling waves are widespread in the human cortex-the seat of higher cognitive functions-and that they become more organized depending on how well the brain is performing a task. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Past systems required several seconds to read brain waves, but the new technology requires only 125 milliseconds - or 125 thousandths of a second. (technologyreview.com)
  • The pattern of brain waves is similar to that in stages 1 and 2, although the sleeper is in a deeper state of sleep. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Sleep occurs in five distinct stages, each characterized by a distinct pattern of brain waves, and most dreaming occurs in the rapid eye movement (REM) stage. (scienceblogs.com)
  • If wishing to tune to sleeping ranges, or other stages, it might be healthier to have a consenting brain able to tune there and tune to it. (bio.net)
  • A team of researchers, including Steven Middleton and Thomas Knöpfel from the RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI), Wako, Miles Whittington from Newcastle University, United Kingdom, and Roger Traub, now at IBM in New York, report these findings in the journal Neuron. (innovations-report.com)
  • The volunteer spoke each word 31 to 96 times while the researchers measured brain waves. (latimes.com)
  • We know that the brain processes newly acquired information while we sleep, and although the function of dreaming is unknown, some researchers believe that it plays an important role in memory consolidation . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Toyota's system, developed in a collaboration with researchers in Japan, is among the fastest in the world in analyzing brain waves, it said in a release Monday. (technologyreview.com)
  • Beta waves are the most common pattern in the normal waking state. (goodtherapy.org)
  • When I finished George showed me the brain-wave pattern on the screen with all four brain waves perfectly balanced. (beliefnet.com)
  • Brain Wave is a science fiction novel by Poul Anderson first published in serial form in Space Science Fiction in 1953, and then as a novel in 1954. (wikipedia.org)
  • He and his colleagues instead use arrays of tiny microelectrodes that are placed in contact with the brain, but not implanted. (latimes.com)
  • Brain Windows is a blog devoted to reporting, analyzing and interpreting the latest results in the field of brain imaging technologies, particularly at the levels of systems, circuits, single cells and below. (factbites.com)
  • Thus, Reinhart says, "We developed an innovative neuroscience method that involved noninvasively and safely stimulating the human brain with extremely weak electrical currents in a very specific way. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For example, when certain areas of the brain are over-aroused, an individual may experience anxiety , nightmares or other sleep problems, impulsivity, and aggression. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Ramachandran says that since the areas of the brain that are activated by color are adjacent to those activated by number, synesthesia might be a result of some kind of "cross wiring" in the brain . (factbites.com)
  • The authors note that, so far, the working theory has been: This type of memory takes a hit later in life as a result of brain areas that would normally work together falling out of sync. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This balance is important: When one's brainwaves are not balanced properly, that individual may experience both emotional and neuro-physical health concerns. (goodtherapy.org)
  • He turned to a modified EEG, what he calls a Brain Pulse Machine, to measure the brain waves of earthquake victims and play them back as music. (fastcompany.com)
  • Unlike the remaining villains who captured their target, Brain Wave left Green Lantern for dead in a ravine, an act which ultimately led to the rescue of the captured heroes and the villains' defeat. (factbites.com)
  • This is a great way to study how the brain functions. (reed.edu)
  • The present art for measurement of brain waves employs electroencephalographs including probes with sensors which are attached to the skull of the subject under study at points proximate to the regions of the brain being monitored. (factbites.com)
  • I went to my friend George Pierson, who is trained in the study of brain waves. (beliefnet.com)
  • This approach yielded promising results: As they received brain stimulation, the older participants began to perform better at working memory tasks - almost as well, in fact, as their younger counterparts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Is it really a wave form The only time I perceived some (magic ones to do with someone else) in my brain, they had regular wave shape, but only as long as the other was constant on a 'setting', when he fuzzed to another one there were loads of energies that I did not track. (bio.net)
  • These "states" are identifiable through measuring the actual brainwaves of people when such states are induced. (psychcentral.com)
  • What about people with brain damage? (reed.edu)
  • But such hypotheses require brain waves to be synchronous, producing "standing" waves (analogous to two people swinging a jump rope up and down) rather than traveling waves (as in a crowd doing "the wave" at a sports event). (scientificamerican.com)