Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Fluorocarbon PolymersImage Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.High-Energy Shock Waves: High-amplitude compression waves, across which density, pressure, and particle velocity change drastically. The mechanical force from these shock waves can be used for mechanically disrupting tissues and deposits.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Mice, Inbred C57BLCerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Pulse Wave Analysis: Evaluation of the contour of the PULSE waves which vary in different parts of the circulation and depend on physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions of the individual.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Silver Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tin Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.Subdural Space: Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Neurophysiology: The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Scala Tympani: The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Neural Prostheses: Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
  • placing the medical lead into an expanded state to locate the electrode in contact with the spinal tissue by releasing the compressive force from the tubular membrane to expand the lumen, whereby the resilient spring element facilitates expansion of the medical lead. (google.com)
  • prestimulus alpha waves traveling in the frontal-to-occipital direction are found to be most correlated to reaction speeds. (nih.gov)
  • A third group received the treatment intervention - a 10-Hertz tACS electrical current that targeted each individual's naturally occurring alpha waves. (unc.edu)
  • Prior to the study, Frohlich set the primary outcome at four weeks, meaning that the main goal of the study was to assess whether tACS could bring each individual's alpha waves back into balance and decrease symptoms of depression four weeks after the five-day intervention. (unc.edu)
  • Stages 1-4 When people are relaxed and ready to fall asleep, their EEG will show mostly alpha waves. (wikibooks.org)
  • Alpha waves were more abundant in the posterior parts of the brain during meditation than during simple relaxation. (skininc.com)
  • The amount of alpha waves increases when the brain relaxes from intentional, goal-oriented tasks.This is a sign of deep relaxation-but it does not mean that the mind is void. (skininc.com)
  • What are Alpha Waves? (wisegeek.com)
  • Alpha waves are one type of brain wave that can be recorded by an electroencephalograph (EEG). (wisegeek.com)
  • A predominance of alpha waves in the brain wave pattern indicates an individual is in a relaxed but aware state. (wisegeek.com)
  • Yoga and meditation practices can help increase the flow of alpha waves in the brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • Alpha waves have a slower frequency of 8-13 Hz, corresponding to a state of relaxation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Meditation can also produce alpha waves and the alpha pattern plays a significant role in the dream state. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some types of alternative medicines promote purposely changing the brain wave pattern to produce calming alpha waves. (wisegeek.com)
  • Simple techniques such as closing the eyes and sitting quietly while letting stress "drain" from the body might have the effect of increasing alpha waves and altering the mood. (wisegeek.com)
  • Other disciplines geared towards increasing alpha waves include meditation, yoga and chanting. (wisegeek.com)
  • The processor is also external and converts sounds picked up by the microphone to digital information (in cochlear implants) or to sound waves (in BAHAs and middle ear implants). (consumeraffairs.com)
  • According to Kraus, sound waves contain a lot of information that changes very rapidly - sometimes in fractions of nanoseconds. (foxnews.com)
  • Kraus said this approach to understanding how children process sound is important, because children who are poor readers or have trouble encoding sound waves can end up poorly "train" their nervous systems over time. (foxnews.com)
  • By keeping the ultrasound frequency and power low, sound waves penetrate the skull and cause brain cells to temporarily change polarity. (utne.com)
  • In acoustic implants such as BAHAs and middle ear implants, the receiver is fused to the bone or cochlea to receive sound waves. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • The number of neurons in the human brain is vast - many billions (although glial cells, which provide various support functions, are even more numerous). (encyclopedia.com)
  • A wireless neural prosthetic device for a primary auditory cortex of a patient includes either a speech processor or a stimulating device for receiving and processing information and a wireless electrode arranged in the primary auditory cortex having a plurality of electrical contacts. (google.com)
  • 2. The wireless neural prosthetic device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said plurality of electrical contacts comprise a plurality of metal pads arranged on said electrode support as a three-dimensional array, and wherein said plurality of electrical contacts are adapted for geometric arrangement within said brain target zone. (google.com)
  • 3. The wireless neural prosthetic device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said electrode support is substantially cylindrical, and wherein said plurality of contacts are electrically coupled to said circuitry by a respective plurality of conductive media. (google.com)
  • 4. The wireless neural prosthetic device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said plurality of electrical contacts are spaced less than about 2 millimeters apart, and said circuitry is at least partially contained within said electrode support. (google.com)
  • 5. The wireless neural prosthetic device as claimed in claim 1, wherein said electrode support has an attachment end and a penetrating end, wherein said penetrating end is adapted to penetrate brain tissue to arrive at said brain target zone, and wherein said circuitry is arranged approximately at said attachment end. (google.com)
  • 6. The wireless neural prosthetic device as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a brain anchor attached to said electrode support for allowing said electrode support to remain within said brain target zone despite brain pulsing. (google.com)
  • 7. The wireless neural prosthetic device as claimed in claim 6, wherein said brain anchor comprises an inflatable brain anchor. (google.com)
  • 8. The wireless neural prosthetic device as claimed in claim 6, wherein said brain anchor comprises at least one of rubber and plastic. (google.com)
  • Back in 1929, H. Berger revealed that weak electric currents generated in the brain can be non-invasively detected, despite the cerebrospinal fluid and the resistant layer of skull which protects the brain by creating a barrier for signal propagation 1 . (nature.com)
  • The vertebral arteries join to form a single basilar artery near the brain stem, which is located near the base of the skull. (aans.org)
  • The electrode assemblies, which were connected to a McPherson skull plug, consisted of a plastic styled, 1.2mm in diameter, with 15 stainless steel 3mm wide contacts attached at 3mm intervals, plus one thermistor and three other contacts at the tip. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • During an epileptic seizure, large nerve cell clusters in the brain discharge simultaneously. (innovations-report.com)
  • Epileptologists, physicists and mathematicians have therefore been trying to predict the dangerous malfunctions of the brain for more than three decades - so far with mixed success: There certainly are systems that can detect seizure precursors (using indicators other than "critical slowing down"), but at present they work only for about half of the subjects and are not particularly reliable. (innovations-report.com)
  • The non-invasive test detects what happens during a seizure or other brain event. (iuhealth.org)
  • These can be important clues about the type of seizure and the part of the brain that was affected during the seizure. (uptodate.com)
  • The ACS also state that around half of people with brain tumors suffer a seizure at some point. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Flatlining is also called the "postictal suppression" or "electrical silence" of the brain waves and brain function that routinely follows the ECT seizure (Suppes et al. (breggin.com)
  • This allows for more precise mapping of brain function and targeting seizure origins. (dukehealth.org)
  • Sensorineural hearing: When the three small bones move, they start waves of fluid in the cochlea, and these waves stimulate more than 16,000 delicate hearing cells (hair cells). (entnet.org)
  • Earlier this year, he and colleagues reported the results of experiments in humans that showed that tACS at a specific frequency of wave did not boost individuals' episodic memories or change the excitability of nerve cells in the motor cortex. (the-scientist.com)
  • The findings, made with consistency in humans and mice, can not only refine ongoing research into how beta waves arise and work in the brain, Jones said, but also provide guidance to clinicians as they develop therapies that seek to modulate beta waves. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The research team, led by graduate student Hyeyoung Shin, acquired the data through a series of experiments in which they measured beta waves in the somatosensory neocortex of humans and mice in the second leading up to inducing (or not inducing) varying amounts of a tactile sensation. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Humans wore a cap of magnetoencephalography sensors, while mice had implanted electrodes. (sciencecodex.com)
  • A study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Radboud University Medical Centre in the Netherlands, and Stanford University has shown that disrupting just one night of sleep in healthy, middle-aged adults causes an increase in amyloid beta, a brain protein associated with Alzheimer's disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • You might remember from my last column that music education involves continuous co-stimulation of multiple brain regions and this is possibly the reason that it benefits children in other academic areas. (musicedmagic.com)
  • Brainwave entrainment, also referred to as brainwave synchronization and neural entrainment, refers to the capacity of the brain to naturally synchronize its brainwave frequencies with the rhythm of periodic external stimuli, most commonly auditory, visual, or tactile. (wikipedia.org)
  • During an EEG, a technician will place electrodes on the person's head. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that studies how the structure and composition of a person's nervous system and brain affects how that per. (reference.com)
  • According to lead author of the study Nina Kraus, Hugh Knowles Professor of Neurobiology, Physiology and Communication at Northwestern, the biological underpinnings all revolve around the brain and a seemingly unrelated action - a person's hearing ability. (foxnews.com)
  • By now many people have heard of the experiments at Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research, known as PEAR , in which ordinary people sit in front of a machine and send it an intention-a thought, a prayer, even a wave of love- to behave in a particular way. (beliefnet.com)
  • In most people, one of the four brain waves is dominant most of the time. (beliefnet.com)
  • To explore how people understand what they see and hear when the brain processes sights and sounds. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • But such hypotheses require brain waves to be synchronous, producing "standing" waves (analogous to two people swinging a jump rope up and down) rather than traveling waves (as in a crowd doing "the wave" at a sports event). (scientificamerican.com)
  • When people were trying to block distraction in a brain area, the probability of seeing these beta events went up," said senior author Stephanie R. Jones, an associate professor of neuroscience at Brown. (sciencecodex.com)
  • This is a study of the genetic basis of brain dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • People then pass into slow-wave sleep, which occurs during stages 3 and 4. (wikibooks.org)
  • Natural News ) The people who are closest to you are subtly shaping your brain and influencing the way you behave and think . (naturalnews.com)
  • Fath's pitch at the masterclass was certainly persuasive: worldwide, some 3.7m people suffer from severe communication and learning disabilities due to conditions such as ALS, stroke, multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury. (theguardian.com)
  • Despite the symptoms listed above, some people may have experienced no symptoms at all when their brain tumor is discovered. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • NEW YORK - Zapping the brains of people over 60 with a mild electrical current improved a form of memory enough that they performed like people in their 20s, a new study found. (nypost.com)
  • The brains of people with Alzheimer's are dotted with plaques of amyloid beta protein and tangles of tau protein, which together cause brain tissue to atrophy and die. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team assembled 10 electrodes into a flexible silicon cap and measured their performance when worn by people with shaved or hairy heads. (phys.org)
  • In "Spock's Brain," an episode from the original Star Trek series, a beautiful Eymorg extracted the brain from Mr. Spock's body and used it to control things like air circulation in the underground complex where her people lived. (listverse.com)
  • The study suggests that when people do activities together, called ' interpersonally coordinated actions ,' these acts are preceded and accompanied by brain wave coordination-- "the between-brain oscillatory couplings. (amoeba.com)
  • In another recent study, scientists also linked synchronized ripples in two parts of the brain to better memories of word pairs ( SN Online: 3/5/19 ). (sciencenews.org)
  • I went to my friend George Pierson, who is trained in the study of brain waves. (beliefnet.com)
  • On average, in the study, brain waves told the car to hit the brakes 130 milliseconds faster than the driver's foot did. (go.com)
  • Now a new study from a team at Columbia University led by neuroscientist Joshua Jacobs suggests traveling waves are widespread in the human cortex-the seat of higher cognitive functions-and that they become more organized depending on how well the brain is performing a task. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The Neuro-Learning and Performance Lab is seeking children and adolescents (age 10-17 years) and adults (23-29 years) to participate in a study researching brain development and decision-making processes. (umass.edu)
  • did not affect brain waves," study coauthor Anli Liu , a neurologist at NYU School of Medicine, told The Scientist by email. (the-scientist.com)
  • This is a well thought out and carefully conducted study, and the data clearly support the claim that tACS does not alter the endogenous brain rhythms measured in their study," Carmen Westerberg , a psychologist at Texas State University, writes in an email to The Scientist . (the-scientist.com)
  • Your child's healthcare provider may also order a video EEG to give more time to study the brain waves. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The new study is not the first to show that stimulating the brain can boost working memory. (nypost.com)
  • For study participants, that current felt like a slight tingling, itching or poking sensation under the electrodes for about 30 seconds, Reinhart said. (nypost.com)
  • The brain works like a series of computers and they have to hook to one another through nerves in the brain in order to connect and function together," says study author Dr. Frank H. Duffy of the department of psychiatry at Boston Children's Hospital. (time.com)
  • This study focused mainly on a form of auditory neuropathy that arises due to damage to the nerve cells that carry sound from the inner ear to the brain. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This month, we will summarize and elaborate on the robust study you heard about in early October through MEF tweets and Facebook updates, which reported that verbal intelligence and brain plasticity were enhanced in a group of children following music training.1 Let’s review and elaborate on the results so that MEF has more in its armamentarium to defend and expand rigorous music education in our children’s schools. (musicedmagic.com)
  • Hartelius (1952) performed the most important study using cats which led a reviewer of his book (Hartelius, 1953) in a neurology journal to conclude that brain damage had been proven. (breggin.com)
  • Originally published in the Brain Journal, the study, Slow wave sleep disruption increases cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β levels, observed 17 adults between ages 35 and 65. (afar.org)