Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.

Millimeter-scale positioning of a nerve-growth-factor source and biological activity in the brain. (1/294)

Toxicity prevents the systemic administration of many therapeutic proteins, and attempts at protein targeting via the circulatory system (i.e., "magic bullets") have failed in all but a few special cases. Direct administration at the target site is a logical alternative, particularly in the central nervous system, but the limits of direct administration have not been defined clearly. Nerve growth factor (NGF) enhances survival of cholinergic neurons and, therefore, has generated considerable interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the effectiveness of local delivery by implanting small polymer pellets that slowly released NGF into the central nervous system of adult rats at controlled distances from a target site containing transplanted fetal cholinergic cells. NGF-releasing implants placed within 1-2 mm of the treatment site enhanced the biological function of cellular targets, whereas identical implants placed approximately 3 mm from the target site of treatment produced no beneficial effect. Effective NGF therapy required millimeter-scale positioning of the NGF source, and efficacy correlated with the spatial distribution of NGF concentration in the tissue; this result suggests that NGF must be delivered within several millimeters of the target to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease. Because the human brain is divided into functional regions that are typically several centimeters in diameter and often irregular in shape, new methods for sculpting larger-scale drug fields are needed. We illustrate a concept, called pharmacotectonics, in which drug-delivery systems are arranged spatially in tissues to shape concentration fields for potent agents.  (+info)

Sequential bilateral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: effects of the second graft. (2/294)

Five parkinsonian patients who had received implants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue unilaterally in the striatum 10-56 months earlier were grafted with tissue from four to eight donors into the putamen (four patients) or the putamen plus the caudate nucleus (one patient) on the other side, and were followed for 18-24 months. After 12-18 months, PET showed a mean 85% increase in 6-L-[18F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen with the second graft, whereas there was no significant further change in the previously transplanted putamen. Two patients exhibited marked additional improvements after their second graft: 'on-off' fluctuations virtually disappeared, movement speed increased, and L-dopa could be withdrawn in one patient and reduced by 70% in the other. The improvement in one patient was moderate. Two patients with atypical features, who responded poorly to the first graft, worsened following the second transplantation. These findings indicate that sequential transplantation in patients does not compromise the survival and function of either the first or the second graft. Moreover, putamen grafts that restore fluorodopa uptake to normal levels can give improvements of major therapeutic value.  (+info)

Specification of somatosensory area identity in cortical explants. (3/294)

The H-2Z1 transgene is restricted to a subset of layer IV neurons in the postnatal mouse cortex and delineates exactly the somatosensory area. Expression of the H-2Z1 transgene was used as an areal marker to determine when the parietal cortex becomes committed to a somatosensory identity. We have shown previously that grafts dissected from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) H-2Z1 cortex and transplanted into the cortex of nontransgenic newborns express H-2Z1 according to their site of origin. Expression was not modified on heterotopic transplantation (). In the present study, whole cortical explants were isolated at E12.5 from noncortical tissues. The explants developed a regionalized expression of H-2Z1, indicating that regionalization takes place and is maintained in vitro. We used this property and confronted embryonic H-2Z1 cortex with presumptive embryonic sources of regionalizing signals in an in vitro grafting procedure. A great majority of E11.5-E13.5 grafts maintained their presumptive expression of H-2Z1 when grafted heterotopically on nontransgenic E13.5-E15.5 explants. However, a significantly lower proportion of E11.5 parietal grafts expressed H-2Z1 in occipital compared with parietal cortex, indicating that somatosensory identity may be partially plastic at E11.5. Earlier stages could not be tested because the E10.5 grafts failed to develop in vitro. The data suggest that commitment to the expression of a somatosensory area-specific marker coincides with the onset of neurogenesis and occurs well before the birth of the non-GABAergic neurons that express H-2Z1 in vivo.  (+info)

Site-specific migration and neuronal differentiation of human neural progenitor cells after transplantation in the adult rat brain. (4/294)

Neural progenitor cells obtained from the embryonic human forebrain were expanded up to 10(7)-fold in culture in the presence of epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and leukemia inhibitory growth factor. When transplanted into neurogenic regions in the adult rat brain, the subventricular zone, and hippocampus, the in vitro propagated cells migrated specifically along the routes normally taken by the endogenous neuronal precursors: along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb and within the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus, and exhibited site-specific neuronal differentiation in the granular and periglomerular layers of the bulb and in the dentate granular cell layer. The cells exhibited substantial migration also within the non-neurogenic region, the striatum, in a seemingly nondirected manner up to approximately 1-1.5 mm from the graft core, and showed differentiation into both neuronal and glial phenotypes. Only cells with glial-like features migrated over longer distances within the mature striatum, whereas the cells expressing neuronal phenotypes remained close to the implantation site. The ability of the human neural progenitors to respond in vivo to guidance cues and signals that can direct their differentiation along multiple phenotypic pathways suggests that they can provide a powerful and virtually unlimited source of cells for experimental and clinical transplantation.  (+info)

Anterior cephalic neural crest is required for forebrain viability. (5/294)

The prosencephalon, or embryonic forebrain, grows within a mesenchymal matrix of local paraxial mesoderm and of neural crest cells (NCC) derived from the posterior diencephalon and mesencephalon. Part of this NCC population forms the outer wall of capillaries within the prosencephalic leptomeninges and neuroepithelium itself. The surgical removal of NCC from the anterior head of chick embryos leads to massive cell death within the forebrain neuroepithelium during an interval that precedes its vascularization by at least 36 hours. During this critical period, a mesenchymal layer made up of intermingled mesodermal cells and NCC surround the neuroepithelium. This layer is not formed after anterior cephalic NCC ablation. The neuroepithelium then undergoes massive apoptosis. Cyclopia ensues after forebrain deterioration and absence of intervening frontonasal bud derivatives. The deleterious effect of ablation of the anterior NC cannot be interpreted as a deficit in vascularization because it takes place well before the time when blood vessels start to invade the neuroepithelium. Thus the mesenchymal layer itself exerts a trophic effect on the prosencephalic neuroepithelium. In an assay to rescue the operated phenotype, we found that the rhombencephalic but not the truncal NC can successfully replace the diencephalic and mesencephalic NC. Moreover, any region of the paraxial cephalic mesoderm can replace NCC in their dual function: in their early trophic effect and in providing pericytes to the forebrain meningeal blood vessels. The assumption of these roles by the cephalic neural crest may have been instrumental in the rostral expansion of the vertebrate forebrain over the course of evolution.  (+info)

Ethical aspects of neural tissue transplantation. (6/294)

The method of neural grafting is considered to be a very promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's disease. During the last 15 years, clinical transplantation studies have been carried out worldwide in several hundreds of patients with Parkinson's disease. In these studies, primarily fetal mesencephalic tissue derived from aborted human fetuses has been used for implantation. Neural tissue transplantation gives rise to ethical issues in two different areas that need careful examination: the first, ethical problems linked to the use of tissue from aborted human fetuses; and the second, ethical issues concerning the graft recipients in clinical trials, i.e., his or her well-being, personality, and personal identity.  (+info)

Serial MR imaging of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by human white matter or by chimeric myelin-basic and proteolipid protein in the common marmoset. (7/294)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the marmoset was monitored by serial MR imaging to determine correlates to the natural-history MR studies in multiple sclerosis (MS). The relationships of MR-revealed lesions to clinical status and histopathologic findings were also explored. METHODS: We induced EAE by subcutaneous inoculation in two marmosets by human white matter (HWM) and in seven marmosets by MP4 (a chimeric recombinant fusion protein of myelin-basic and proteolipid protein) in adjuvant along with intravenous inactivated pertussis vaccine to facilitate the disease process. The HWM-inoculated animals were induced with Freund's adjuvant as the established model of marmoset EAE. The MP4-inoculated animals were induced with either Freund's incomplete adjuvant or TiterMax as part of a preclinical treatment trial. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T at baseline, and repeated at 1- to 2-week intervals for a period of up to 16 weeks in six EAE-induced marmosets, and intermittently for up to 70 weeks in three EAE-induced and two control marmosets. Proton density- (PD-) and T2-weighted, pre- and postgadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement, T1-weighted, and magnetization transfer (MT) images were obtained. The brains were prepared for histologic evaluation of lesion distribution and counts, characterization of lesions as demyelinating or inflammatory, and histopathologic scoring. The clinical, MR, and pathologic scoring were done on grading systems, and correlated for evaluation. RESULTS: White matter (WM) changes after EAE induction were observed first at 9 days in the HWM-induced animals and at 2.5 weeks in the MP4-induced animals, with subsequent week-to-week fluctuations on PD- and T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhancing lesions were not observed in all animals. MR-revealed WM lesions correlated to histopathologic analysis of EAE lesions, measuring from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. The lesion count and extent of demyelination was greater in the HWM-induced animals than in the MP4-induced animals. Some MR-revealed lesions correlated directly to clinical symptoms, but the majority of lesions were clinically silent. CONCLUSION: On MR images, lesions in the EAE marmoset model were confined to the WM, and their development, resolution, distribution, and enhancing characteristics fluctuated over the duration of the study. The dynamic presentation of MR-revealed lesions confirms the parallels between EAE in the marmoset and relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical symptoms alone were not representative of ongoing pathologic brain lesions. Therefore, serial MR imaging serves as a very important adjunct to clinical and histologic surveillance of the development of new and the persistence of existing brain lesions in this animal model of MS.  (+info)

Regeneration of isthmic tissue is the result of a specific and direct interaction between rhombomere 1 and midbrain. (8/294)

The midbrain-hindbrain boundary, or isthmus, is the source of signals that are responsible for regional specification of both the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) is expressed specifically at the isthmus and there is now good evidence that it forms at least part of the patterning signal. In this study, we use Fgf8 as a marker for isthmic cells to examine how interactions between midbrain and hindbrain can regenerate isthmic tissue and, thereby, gain insight into the normal formation and/or maintenance of the isthmus. We show that Fgf8-expressing tissue with properties of the isthmic organiser is generated when midbrain and rhombomere 1 tissue are juxtaposed but not when midbrain contacts any other rhombomere. The use of chick/quail chimeras shows that the isthmic tissue is largely derived from rhombomere 1. In a few cases a small proportion of the Fgf8-positive cells were of midbrain origin but this appears to be the result of a local respecification to a hindbrain phenotype, a process mimicked by ectopic FGF8. Studies in vitro show that the induction of Fgf8 is the result of a direct planar interaction between the two tissues and involves a diffusible signal.  (+info)

These data highlight two essential principles that may help realize the functional potential of striatal transplants. First, it was demonstrated that distinct response deficits were alleviated only if grafted animals received extensive postoperative training. Second, comparisons of different postoperative training regimes revealed that only specific training on the impaired contralateral side conferred functional benefit. Together, these results suggest that graft maturation and integration is insufficient by itself to mediate recovery on this task unless specific, extensive training subsequently is undertaken. Furthermore, this recovery would appear to be mediated by the restoration of basal ganglia circuitry, as permitted by the striatal graft.. A comparison of animals that were either (i) initially retrained on the contralateral side or (ii) tested only on the contralateral side once they had received extensive training on the ipsilateral side highlighted the degree of training specificity ...
The University of Southern California is about to get a brain boost.. The school is acquiring UCLAs Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. The research facility employs about 100 people who study and map the human brain. Its led by researchers Arthur Toga and Paul Thompson.. Were on cloud nine, said Toga, who founded the lab 26 years ago. This is a really exciting move for us. Being able to build a new program across town is really an opportunity of a lifetime.. In the past, the lap has studied disorders like autism and dementia, as well as memory and IQ. One of the researchers bigger projects is ENIGMA, a collaborative brain mapping effort that involves 125 institutions around the world. This is the kind of work Thompson and Toga plan to take with them to USC. The lab will open at USC in the fall.. We can really tackle some of the major problems in medicine and neuroscience, Thompson said.. Toga and Thompson said USC offered them new facilities and formal partnerships with other disciplines ...
Look beyond the glaringly obvious trasplant typo in these photos, and youll find yourself marveling at the endless fun you can have with gummy bears ins
Neurosurgeons at UC Irvine Medical Center plan to graft cells from a womans adrenal gland to her brain Friday in the first operation of its kind in Orange County on a patient with Parkinsons
Eh, this strip and other sci-fi scenarios have a ridiculous divergence between phenotype and genotype, to the point where the phenotype of the sapients full body has almost no resemblence to the genotype. So saying that Nick is human because genes is to miss the point if 90% of what those genes code for is luncheon meet a thousand miles away from Nick. At some point, we have to admit that the body influences the mind, a point men only understand when they are horny and try to forget othertimes. So your definition of human is rather problematic, trying to pin it down to an arbitrary-but-precise chemical test rather than a socio-psychological profile, which is less precise but more accurate.. For instance, consider Narbonic and the hijinks with brain transplants and gender switches. Is Dave in Helens body still male if said body contains his actual brain? It might have XY, but the hormones, plumbing, and wiring will tell said brain that he is XX. Genetic tests can be precise, but utterly ...
Eh, this strip and other sci-fi scenarios have a ridiculous divergence between phenotype and genotype, to the point where the phenotype of the sapients full body has almost no resemblence to the genotype. So saying that Nick is human because genes is to miss the point if 90% of what those genes code for is luncheon meet a thousand miles away from Nick. At some point, we have to admit that the body influences the mind, a point men only understand when they are horny and try to forget othertimes. So your definition of human is rather problematic, trying to pin it down to an arbitrary-but-precise chemical test rather than a socio-psychological profile, which is less precise but more accurate.. For instance, consider Narbonic and the hijinks with brain transplants and gender switches. Is Dave in Helens body still male if said body contains his actual brain? It might have XY, but the hormones, plumbing, and wiring will tell said brain that he is XX. Genetic tests can be precise, but utterly ...
In article ,hopkinsc.74.0009FDC9 at,, hopkinsc at (Hopkins, Charlotte) wrote: , I am hoping someone will be able to help me with a problem we are having with , our primers for the PCR. We are following the instructions on reconsitution , but have been getting nothing working when using them in the PCR. We went , back and tested the OD reading and it is very low (under half what it should , be). It is getting to the stage we are doubting the synthesis of them. Hey, we had majority of our primers done locally by a person badly needing brain transplant and good reading habits - on occasion Ive got less than half of the ordered primers in existance (note - half of the primers, not half of every primer). So Ive got more than enough experience with crappy synthesis. First of all - OD does not mean much - unless you dont have it at all - there can be shorter oligos that are precipitable and indeed UV absorbant. If you doubt quality of your primers put them on the gel. ...
If we had a brain transplant, who would we be? To the world, we would still appear to be ourselves, but we would have the memories, the knowledge and the emotions of another. Even though this is a bit of science fiction at the time, it does make us think about how the health of…
0471492469 Neural Transplantation in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Status and New Directions No. 231,books, textbooks, text book
Your download Neural Transplantation in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Status read an credible accident. You can navigate a consortia search and build your editors. international families will currently experience mad in your world of the pages you are undertaken.
You know how sometimes you just cant resist collecting old hardware, so you promise yourself that you will get around to working on it some day? [Danny] actually followed through on one of those promises after discovering an old Radio Shack TRS-80 TP-10 thermal printer in one of his boxes of old gear. It looks similar to a receipt printer you might see printing receipts at any brick and mortar store today. The original printer worked well enough, but [Danny] wasnt satisfied with its 32 character per line limitation. He also wanted to be able to print more complex graphics. To accomplish this goal, he realized he was going to have to give this printer a brain transplant.. First, [Danny] wanted to find new paper for the printer. He only had one half of a roll left and it was 30 years old. He quickly realized that he could buy thermal paper for fax machines, but it would be too wide at 8.5 inches. Luckily, he was able to use a neighbors saw to cut the paper down to the right size. After a test ...
Keywords: Animals ; Brain Tissue Transplantation/ methods ; Capsules/ therapeutic use ; Cell Line/cytology/transplantation ; Gene Therapy/methods/trends ; Humans ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/ surgery ; Pain ; Intractable/therapy ; Polymers/therapeutic use. Note: Division of Surgical Research and Gene Therapy Center, Lausanne University Medical School, C.H.U.V., Pavillon 4, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.. ...
This study reports the long-term safety, motor, cognitive and psychiatric effects of bilateral fetal striatal allotransplants in five patients with mild to moderate HD, in comparison with a reference group of 12 patients from the same cohort who were similarly suitable for transplantation but not selected for surgery, but were followed in an identical way.. There were no significant differences in any of the measures chosen when comparing patients with transplants with this reference cohort at baseline and followed-up for up to 10 years postsurgery, using identical protocols of assessment. In small open label studies with multiple outcome measures, it is tempting to focus on apparent improvements in individual patients on particular tests. However, although such encouraging signs could be identified in the present five patients, the changes were in all cases small; similar short-term fluctuations could be identified in control patients of the reference group; and there were no statistically ...
Immunohistochemical detection of cells labeled with bromodeoxyuridine after neural transplantation.: Pregnant rats were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (Br
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
Any family with a two-year-old needing bariatric surgery probably also has a parent or two needing brain transplants. A world. Nbome hign quality in us.
The repairs were much faster, and we were stable again around noon, but upon turning everything back on we found we completely lost thinman, the main web server. Totally dead. However, quite luckily, we happened to have a spare old frankenstein machine kicking around, and I was able to do a brain transplant i.e. swap the drives from thinman to this other machine. Now this other machine thinks it is thinman and is working quite well as a web server. Dodged a major bullet there ...
The structure of a biological scaffold is a major determinant of its biological characteristics and its interaction with cells. An acellular dermis tissue transplant must undergo a series of processing steps, to remove cells and genetic material and provide the sterility required for surgical use. During manufacturing and sterilization the structure and composition of tissue transplants may change. The composition of the human cell-free dermis transplant Epiflex® was investigated with specific attention paid to its structure, matrix composition, cellular content and biomechanics. We demonstrated that after processing, the structure of Epiflex remains almost unchanged with an intact collagen network and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition providing natural cell interactions. Although the ready to use transplant does contain some cellular and DNA debris, the processing procedure results in a total destruction of cells and active DNA which is a requirement for an immunologically inert and
The structure of a biological scaffold is a major determinant of its biological characteristics and its interaction with cells. An acellular dermis tissue transplant must undergo a series of processing steps, to remove cells and genetic material and provide the sterility required for surgical use. During manufacturing and sterilization the structure and composition of tissue transplants may change. The composition of the human cell-free dermis transplant Epiflex® was investigated with specific attention paid to its structure, matrix composition, cellular content and biomechanics. We demonstrated that after processing, the structure of Epiflex remains almost unchanged with an intact collagen network and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition providing natural cell interactions. Although the ready to use transplant does contain some cellular and DNA debris, the processing procedure results in a total destruction of cells and active DNA which is a requirement for an immunologically inert and
Neural Plasticity is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes articles related to all aspects of neural plasticity, with special emphasis on its functional significance as reflected in behavior and in psychopathology. Neural Plasticity publishes research and review articles from the entire range of relevant disciplines, including basic neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, biological psychology, and biological psychiatry. Neural Tissue Transplantation Research [4188852] - With contributions by numerous expertsDuring the last decade research on neural transplantation in mammals has grown extensively, and has attracted the attention of many young inquisitive scientists. This growth, as the critics point out, has been somewhat random, and has resulted neither in the formulation of basic concepts nor in
Like all procedures, the history of tissue transplants have come a long way and can be credited for saving and improving many lives. Learn more, today!
Scientists under the leadership of the University of Bonn have harnessed rabies viruses for assessing the connectivity of nerve cell transplants: coupled with a green fluorescent protein, the viruses show where replacement cells engrafted into mouse brains have connected to the host neural network. A clearing procedure which turns the brain into a glass-like state and light sheet fluorescence microscopy are used to visualize host-graft connections in a whole-brain preparation. The approach opens exciting prospects for predicting and optimizing the ability of neural transplants to functionally integrate into a host nervous system. The results have now been published in the specialist journal Nature Communications.. Many diseases and injuries result in a loss of nerve cells. Scientists are working on tackling this challenge by transplanting neurons. In Parkinsons disease, for instance, this is attempted with implanted dopamine-producing nerve cells. The key question for such techniques is ...
How the immense population of neurons that constitute the human cerebral neocortex is generated from progenitors lining the cerebral ventricle and then distributed to appropriate layers of distinctive cytoarchitectonic areas can be explained by the radial unit hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, the ependymal layer of the embryonic cerebral ventricle consists of proliferative units that provide a proto-map of prospective cytoarchitectonic areas. The output of the proliferative units is translated via glial guides to the expanding cortex in the form of ontogenetic columns, whose final number for each area can be modified through interaction with afferent input. Data obtained through various advanced neurobiological techniques, including electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, [3H]thymidine and receptor autoradiography, retrovirus gene transfer, neural transplants, and surgical or genetic manipulation of cortical development, furnish new details about the kinetics of cell proliferation, ...
The American Association of Kidney Patients is a voluntary patient organization, which has been dedicated to improving the lives of fellow kidney patients and their families by helping them deal with the physical, emotional and social impact of kidney disease for more than 40 years. The programs offered by AAKP inform and inspire patients and their families to better understand their condition, adjust more readily to their circumstances and assume more normal, productive lives. To accomplish these goals, AAKP engages in a variety of educational and supportive programs designed: 1) to assist patients both to learn more about their disease and to become active participants in planning and managing their treatment; 2) to improve patient understanding of and access to rehabilitation; 3) to work together for the improvement of public programs that help kidney patients meet their financial and personal needs; 4) to reflect the views and concerns of patients to public policy makers and others in the ...
The results of this study illustrate the remarkable regenerative capacity of the skeletal muscle of young mice to ischemic injury. The muscles most affected by FAL were the soleus and gastrocnemius of the lower leg. There was also evidence of ischemic injury in the thigh, but to a lesser extent. During the first 3 days following surgery, there was microscopic evidence of muscle damage and a pronounced loss of function. By day 7, the histological evidence showed a substantial resolution of the injury, and contractile force had been essentially normalized. By 28 days the muscles microscopic appearance was largely restored to baseline. Consistent with these findings is the fact that of the 1,289 known transcripts we identified as differentially expressed between ligated and sham surgery controls, none were induced or repressed by the day 28 time point.. Because the gene expression results are too extensive to be discussed in a single paper, we present selective results from the data set that we ...
For the first time, scientists have transplanted neural cells derived from a monkeys skin into its brain and watched the cells develop into several types of mature brain cells, according to the authors of a new study in Cell Reports. After six months, the cells looked entirely normal, and were only detectable because they initially were tagged with a fluorescent protein.. Because the cells were derived from adult cells in each monkeys skin, the experiment is a proof-of-principle for the concept of personalized medicine, where treatments are designed for each individual.. And since the skin cells were not foreign tissue, there were no signs of immune rejection - potentially a major problem with cell transplants. When you look at the brain, you cannot tell that it is a graft, says senior author Su-Chun Zhang, a professor of neuroscience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Structurally the host brain looks like a normal brain; the graft can only be seen under the fluorescent ...
Did you know tissue transplants have a high success rate? Learn about tissue donation success rates today by visiting the Donor Network online.
VMCL1 - Ventral Mesencephalic Cell Line One. Looking for abbreviations of VMCL1? It is Ventral Mesencephalic Cell Line One. Ventral Mesencephalic Cell Line One listed as VMCL1
Authors: Smith, Gaynor A. , Heuer, Andreas , Klein, Alexander , Vinh, Ngoc-Nga , Dunnett, Stephen B. , Lane, Emma L. Article Type: Short Communication Abstract: The transplantation of dopamine-rich tissue into the putamen of patients with Parkinsons disease shows much potential for use as a therapeutic strategy. However, a number of grafted individuals subsequently developed a set of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), unrelated to the dyskinesia caused by L-DOPA treatment, which have been termed graft-induced dyskinesia. Given the small number of patients, pre-clinical modeling of graft-induced dyskinesia in animal models will be critical to determine the underlying mechanisms and amelioration potential of this technique. Here we show that abnormal involuntary movements of the limbs, trunk and face can be observed in transplanted hemi-parkinsonian mice following …amphetamine administration, similar to those previously described to model graft-induced dyskinesias in rats. C57Bl6 and CD1 ...
r norman scripsit: , Some poor reader had a legitimate, albeit rather naive, question about , brain transplants, and you ridicule him unmercifully. Why dont you , try educating, instead. I dont care about that. Winding up people on usenet is one of my favourite hobbies, although this was one of my few serious posts. Well, serious-ish. I admit I deliberately phrased it in a very provocative way, and I knew there was no way to answer it. For a long time I have been interested in locked in syndrome, and the situation outlined in Whites articles is in a sense the ultimate locked in state: no imputs, no outputs, no way to communicate with the isolated brain. Of course the transplant is not really necessary, severing the cranial nerves would obtain the same results. Incidentally, that would be an interesting punishment for some heinous criminals: induce the ultimate locked in state, then pump their bodies full of chemicals known to produce a state of anguish and fear. Bruno ...
Recently in the news, there was an interesting story about a 38 year old woman who had been forced into early menopause because of two rounds of cancer treatments. Fortunately, she and her doctors had decided that it would be beneficial for her to freeze one of her ovaries before starting her second treatment program.
A complementary approach to cell transplantation (which involves replacing cells once already lost) is to protect damaged or traumatised neurones of the host brain from the assault of injury or disease. A wide number of compounds have been identified which have the potential to block processes of cell death and to promote regrowth of damaged cells, including growth factors, antiapoptotic agents, antioxidants and transcription factors. However a common problem for their use is that they dont get into the brain when injected or ingested peripherally. We are developing ways to deliver neuroprotective agents into precise sites in the brain both by engineering cells for transplantation (ex vivo gene therapy) and by using viral vectors for direct intracerebral delivery (in vivo gene therapy). ...
HERMES fosters the mission of healing disabling brain disorders by means of brain tissue transplants, a reality that is only possible to date for other organs of the human body
Factors which influence development of the nervous system and its regenerative capacities can be studied with the technique of neural transplantation. The first three experiments examined the mechanisms of pathway guidance which operate in development by transplanting target structures in the visual system of the newborn Long-Evans rat. The final experiment addresses the issue of the repair of spinal cord injury in adult Long-Evans rats by utilizing neural transplantation of embryonic spinal cord segments. In all cases, embryonic day 13-15 neural structures were dissected from fetuses and transplanted to recipients. After one to two months the animal was anesthetized, the transplant visualized and injected with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Twenty-four hours later the animals were reanesthetized and perfused transcardially with buffered solutions of 0.5% glutaraldehyde followed by 0.2% glutaraldehyde. Then the brains were removed, cut on a freezing microtome, and processed with either of two ...
CHICAGO (AP) - Add one remarkable case to the 30,000-plus organ transplants expected to be performed nationwide this year: A cancer patient who received a donor penis.Worldwide, there have been faces, tongues, hands, legs, uteruses - and now the third penis transplant, a first in the U.S. Could any body part be left to transplant? Research is ongoing for eyeballs and an Italian doctor has raised eyebrows with talk of a brain transplant.Still, the vast majority of operations
UPDRS, most commonly used, is designed to assess the severity of parkinsons disease, making the quantitative measurement of the extent. Part III of UPDRS corresponds to motor evaluation and is the most reliable for detecting symptomatic progression.. UPDRS improvement ratio(%) = ((the value of UPDRS before surgery - the value of UPDRS after surgery) / (the value of UPDRS before surgery)) X 100 ...
UPDRS, most commonly used, is designed to assess the severity of parkinsons disease, making the quantitative measurement of the extent. Part III of UPDRS corresponds to motor evaluation and is the most reliable for detecting symptomatic progression.. UPDRS improvement ratio(%) = ((the value of UPDRS before surgery - the value of UPDRS after surgery) / (the value of UPDRS before surgery)) X 100 ...
The neocortex is patterned in layers of neurons that are generated in an orderly sequence during development. This correlation between cell birthday and laminar fate prompted an examination of how neuronal phenotypes are determined in the developing cortex. At various times after labeling with [3H]thymidine, embryonic progenitor cells were transplanted into older host brains. The laminar fate of transplanted neurons correlates with the position of their progenitors in the cell cycle at the time of transplantation. Daughters of cells transplanted in S-phase migrate to layer 2/3, as do host neurons. Progenitors transplanted later in the cell cycle, however, produce daughters that are committed to their normal, deep-layer fates. Thus, environmental factors are important determinants of laminar fate, but embryonic progenitors undergo cyclical changes in their ability to respond to such cues. ...
OXB-202Gene-based treatment for corneal graft rejectionStatus: Phase I/II study in preparationCorneal graft rejectionCornea grafts are one of the most successful tissue transplants, but over time a significant number are rejected due to corneal neovascularisation. Currently, approximately 100,000 transplants are performed each year, but with this representing only 1% of those requiring treatment the number is predicted to increase substantially. Our approach
Injuries to the brain and spinal cord have major clinical consequences with high costs for healthcare systems. Neural cell transplantation therapies have significant translational potential to promote regeneration post-injury with clinical trials commencing for various pathologies. However, there are challenges associated with current clinical approaches used for systemic or direct delivery of transplant cells to neural tissue in regenerative applications. These include risks associated with surgical microinjection into neural tissue (e.g. haemorrhage, cell clumping) and high cell loss due to systemic clearance or with cell passage through fine gauge needles into densely packed neural tissue. This article presents lines of evidence supporting the concept that cell spray delivery technology can offer significant translational benefits for neural transplantation therapy, versus current cell delivery methods. Potential benefits include rapid/homogenous cell delivery, release over large surface ...
1. Lindvall O, Backlund EO, Farde L, et al. Transplantation in Parkinsons disease: two cases of adrenal medullary grafts to the putamen. Ann Neurol 1987;22:457-468.. 2. Goetz CG, Olanow CW, Koller WC, et al. Multicenter study of autologous adrenal medullary transplantation to the corpus striatum in patients with advanced Parkinsons disease. N Engl J Med 1989;320:337-341.. 3. Lindvall O, Brundin P, Widner H, et al. Grafts of fetal dopamine neurons survive and improve motor function in Parkinsons disease. Science 1990;247:574-577.. 4. Freed CR, Breeze RE, Rosenberg NL, et al. Survival of implanted fetal dopamine cells and neurologic improvement 12 to 46 months after transplantation for Parkinsons disease. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1549-1555.. 5. Spencer DD, Robbins RJ, Naftolin F, et al. Unilateral transplantation of human fetal mesencephalic tissue into the caudate nucleus of patients with Parkinsons disease. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1541-1548.. 6. Widner H, Tetrud J, Rehncrona S, et al. Bilateral ...
Ciclosporin is useful in treating autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis. Ciclosporin is also useful in preventing rejection of tissue transplant and organ transplant as well as prevention of the graft versus host disease.
The Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal (HSCM) is proud today to present the outstanding results of its Centre de prélèvement dorganes (CPO). This regional organ retrieval centre is a pilot project that began a year ago, in June 2013, to reduce the number of Quebecers awaiting an organ or tissue transplant and to save more lives while ensuring the safety of donors and the quality of the organs retrieved.. ...
Definition of trigeminal mesencephalic tract in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is trigeminal mesencephalic tract? Meaning of trigeminal mesencephalic tract as a finance term. What does trigeminal mesencephalic tract mean in finance?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ex vivo application of carbon monoxide in UW solution prevents transplant-induced renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in pigs. AU - Yoshida, J.. AU - Ozaki, K. S.. AU - Nalesnik, M. A.. AU - Ueki, S.. AU - Castillo-Rama, M.. AU - Faleo, G.. AU - Ezzelarab, M.. AU - Nakao, A.. AU - Ekser, B.. AU - Echeverri, G. J.. AU - Ross, M. A.. AU - Stolz, D. B.. AU - Murase, N.. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - I/R injury is a major deleterious factor of successful kidney transplantation (KTx). Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gaseous regulatory molecule, and exogenously delivered CO in low concentrations provides potent cytoprotection. This study evaluated efficacies of CO exposure to excised kidney grafts to inhibit I/R injury in the pig KTx model. Porcine kidneys were stored for 48 h in control UW or UW supplemented with CO (CO-UW) and autotransplanted in a 14-day follow-up study. In the control UW group, animal survival was 80% (4/5) with peak serum creatinine levels of 12.0 ± 5.1 ...
Numerous studies have demonstrated the use of ESC-derived DA neurons for grafting in animal models of PD (17); however, it has remained unclear which stage of differentiation and what particular population of cells is most effective at inducing functional benefits upon transplantation in vivo. Fetal tissue studies have focused on the grafting of ventral mesencephalic tissue isolated at a stage in which the majority of developing DA neurons are postmitotic, which is E12-E13 in mice (18) and E14-E15 (19) in rats. In human fetal grafting studies, increased survival of TH+ neurons has been reported for tissue derived from embryos at 5 to 8 weeks after conception when using suspension grafts and up to 9 weeks after conception for solid grafts (20). In all of those cases, however, the grafted population was composed of a heterogeneous pool of cells at various stages of differentiation and typically contained less than 20% DA neurons (21). One recent study used purified DA neurons derived from a ...
The capacity of the mammalian brain to support the physiological function of allografts was assessed in parathyroidectomized Fischer strain rats bearing either isografts or immunogenic DA allografts of parathyroid glands implanted in their cerebral cortices. Established isografts and allografts survived indefinitely in the brain, maintaining normal serum calcium levels, with equal numbers of spontaneous failures (18-21%) in each group. Similarly, both MHC-compatible and incompatible skin allografts survived and were functional at 40-50 days postgrafting as assessed by: continued formation of keratin; the presence of differentiated hair follicles and sebaceous glands; and frequent mitotic figures. No serum alloantibodies were induced by either MHC-incompatible parathyroid glands or skin in this site. However, both types of allografts were promptly rejected or failed to become established in the brains of specifically presensitized hosts. Furthermore, when Fischer hosts with long-established ...
download neural tissue transplantation research and his study perfections reasons suggest linked as Never made, in last customers as far Then those where English wears the dense favour; they live left more than the objects of any wrong royal . The Readers are fascinated subject to cultural lot and by tales Having to see their complicated address, which presents already take to read from any notification of classical or rather prevented readings. that the part relies on his translators discoveries.
For the first time after a womans fertility was restored from an ovarian tissue transplant, she has given birth to two girls. The first with the help of fertility treatment, but the second, a surprise pregnancy, was a natural and unassisted conception. The mother, Mrs.
Next month, a Polynesian catamaran float will participate in the world-famous Tournament of Roses parade. But this float features more than just an attractive design: the Donate Life Rose Parade Float carries the message of the importance and value of donation and transplantation by honoring organ, eye, and tissue donors and celebrating the gifts they gave to others. Some of those messages will come from CEOs at Marylands hospitals. Through The Living Legacy Foundations CEO Rose Dedication Program, 17 CEOs wrote dedications on vials that will hold roses on the float. The messages support the parades theme, Echoes of Success, bringing to mind the relationship between local hospitals and The Living Legacy Foundation that work together to facilitate the sharing of life-saving gifts. The Donate Life Rose Parade Float inspires viewers to help the more than 1 million people in need of organ, eye, or tissue transplants each year. To save lives by registering as a donor, please visit ...
... since organ donor registries focus on tissue meant for transplantation. In the United States the nonprofit Brain Donor Project ... "Brain donation - Human Tissue Authority". "Brain Net Europe". Archived from the original on July 25, 2017. ... Donated brain tissue is a valuable resource for research into brain function, neurodiversity, neuropathology and possible ... Both divergent and healthy control brains are needed for comparison. Brain banks typically source tissue from donors that had ...
... currently researching stem cell transplantation therapies to improve recovery of cebreral tissue in affected areas of the brain ... A watershed stroke is defined as a brain ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied ... Jablonska, A.; Lukomska, B. (2011). "Stroke induced brain changes: Implications for stem cell transplantation". Acta ... These events are localized to two primary regions of the brain: Cortical watershed strokes (CWS), or outer brain infarcts, are ...
... rheumatoid arthritis or during rejection of solid organ transplants and bone marrow transplantation as well as in brain tissues ... At the protein and mRNA level, its expression is induced in lymphocytes in synovial tissues obtained from patients with ... Transplantation Proceedings. 33 (1-2): 1610-1. doi:10.1016/S0041-1345(00)02613-0. PMID 11267440. Shulzhenko N, Morgun A, Rampim ... American Journal of Transplantation. 4 (4): 505-14. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00367.x. PMID 15023142. S2CID 36001054. ...
... a colorful reporter that is useful in the brain and other tissues to follow the differentiation path of a cell. During ... Transplantation experiments can also be used in conjunction with the genetic manipulation and lineage tracing. Newer cell fate ... the new forming tissue will be a back tissue. This result is seen because the surrounding cells and tissues influence the newly ... Therefore, if the tissue was ablated, the cell will be able to regenerate or signal to reform the initially ablated tissue. In ...
In a recent study, Wharton's jelly tissue transplantation has shown to be able to reduce traumatic brain injury and may have ... "Wharton's Jelly Transplantation Improves Neurologic Function in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. ... Umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells Wharton's jelly in the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. Sadler, T (2010). ... As a mucous connective tissue, it is rich in proteoglycans, and protects and insulates umbilical blood vessels. Wharton's jelly ...
A significant age acceleration effect could be detected in brain (7.4 years) and blood (5.2 years) tissue due to HIV-1 ... Stem cell transplantation[edit]. In 2007, Timothy Ray Brown,[12] a 40-year-old HIV-positive man, also known as "the Berlin ... others suggest that the virus may remain hidden in tissues[16] such as the brain (which acts as a viral reservoir).[17] Stem ... Schneider, Thomas (2011-03-10). "Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR532/32 stem cell transplantation". Blood. 117 (10 ...
Tissue may be recovered from donors who die of either brain or circulatory death. In general, tissues may be recovered from ... "Questions about Tissues - Tissue and Tissue Product Questions and Answers". Retrieved 22 January 2017. Len O, ... Autografts are the transplant of tissue to the same person. Sometimes this is done with surplus tissue, tissue that can ... Most deceased donors are those who have been pronounced brain dead. Brain dead means the cessation of brain function, typically ...
Within 4-5 days the inflammation and the concomitant dead brain tissue are surrounded with a capsule, which gives the lesion ... and Listeria monocytogenes Transplantation-Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mucorales, Nocardia, and T. gondii Neutropenia- ... Brain abscess at eMedicine MR Diagnosis[permanent dead link] MedPix Imaging Brain Abscess. ... within the brain tissue. The infection may also be introduced through a skull fracture following a head trauma or surgical ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can deform the brain tissue, leading to necrosis primary damage which can then cascade and ... Some possible routes of transplantation include intracerebral transplantation and xenotransplantation. An alternative ... The hGal-1-hNSCs induced better and faster brain recovery of the injured tissue as well as a reduction in motor and sensory ... of adult mice brain tissue. In the same year the team of Constance Cepko and Evan Y. Snyder were the first to isolate ...
... a medical emergency in which arterial blockage deprives a region of brain of oxygen, causing tissue death. Promising studies ... Clinical use of APC has also been proposed for improving the outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation in treating type I ... This reduces leukocyte adhesion and infiltration into tissues, while also limiting damage to underlying tissue. APC supports ... to protect the brain from tPA's very harmful side effects, in addition to preventing cell death from lack of oxygen (hypoxia). ...
Transplantation of neural stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells is currently being trialed in neonatal brain injury, but it ... which results from a lack of oxygen to the brain tissue, as well as some combination of the two. One treatment with some proven ... In order to model human fetal or neonatal brain injury, one needs a species in which a similar proportion of brain development ... This treatment does not completely protect the injured brain and may not improve the risk of death in the most severely hypoxic ...
The corneal clouding can be, at least, temporarily corrected by corneal transplantation. See the equivalent section in the main ... usually sparing the brain. ML IV causes affected cells to accumulate auto-fluorescent vacuoles considered to be aberrant ... and failure in the maintenance of retinal tissue. Diagnosis includes genetic testing and Gastrin blood test to check for low ... It is not yet clear why these abnormalities will cause incomplete development of the brain, achlorhydria, ...
Drews K, Bashir T, Dörries K (January 2000). "Quantification of human polyomavirus JC in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid ... "Quantitation of viral DNA in renal allograft tissue from patients with BK virus nephropathy". Transplantation. 74 (4): 485-8. ... "Human polyomaviruses and brain tumors". Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 50 (1): 69-85. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev. ... is used to stain tissues directly for the presence of JC virus T antigen. PCR can be used on a biopsy of the tissue or ...
According to the epigenetic clock, trisomy 21 significantly increases the age of blood and brain tissue (on average by 6.6 ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which transplants these cells from a young donor to an older recipient, rejuvenates ... DNAm age is higher than chronological age in female breast tissue that is adjacent to breast cancer tissue. Since normal tissue ... Men age faster than women according to epigenetic age acceleration in blood, brain, saliva, and many other tissues. The ...
... the irreversible burning or freezing of brain tissue), stimulation surgery or deep brain stimulation (DBS), and transplantation ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is presently the most used method of surgical treatment because it does not destroy brain tissue, ... Platz T, Rothwell JC (2010). "Brain stimulation and brain repair - rTMS: from animal experiment to clinical trials - what do we ... since tissue is irreversibly damaged and removed and testing smaller areas of tissue is safer to prevent serious complications ...
... has a proclivity for tissues in the central nervous system, including the brain. Patients with ... The onset of symptoms in immunosuppressed individuals after transplantation is very slow, almost several months to years after ... When it does occur in humans, a wide range of sites may become involved, including the lung, heart, brain, the superficial ... These drugs and surgical methods are the most effective when the fungus is yet disseminated into the brain. Survival rate of ...
"Analysis of a viral agent isolated from multiple sclerosis (MS) brain tissue: Characterization as a parainfluenza virus type I ... "Successful transplantation of human benign breast tumors in athymic nude-mouse and demonstration of enhanced DNA synthesis by ...
... tissue transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.040 - bone marrow transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.090 - brain tissue transplantation ... fetal tissue transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.490 - liver transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.700 - skin transplantation MeSH ... brain tissue transplantation MeSH E04.525.160 - cerebral decortication MeSH E04.525.160.500 - hemispherectomy MeSH E04.525.170 ... heart transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.475.450 - heart-lung transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.485 - kidney transplantation MeSH ...
... rhabdomyosarcoma and other soft tissue sarcomas. Central nervous system (brain) tumors are the second most common form of ... stem cell transplantation, behavioral sciences and survivorship. The COG is primarily funded by the NCI, the primary or Chair's ...
Tissue biopsy: liver, muscle, brain, bone marrow Skin biopsy and fibroblast cultivation for specific enzyme testing Specific ... In the past twenty years, enzyme replacement, gene therapy, and organ transplantation have become available and beneficial for ... Acid-alpha glucosidase for Pompe disease Gene therapy Bone marrow or organ transplantation Treatment of symptoms and ...
The Sunken Place is essential to suppressing the conscious minds of the hosts while the brain tissue is implanted into their ... It is a procedure distinct from head transplantation, which involves transferring the entire head to a new body, as opposed to ... Cyborgs in fiction (for stories of brains transplanted into wholly artificial bodies) Donovan's Brain Isolated brain Robotics ... A brain transplant or whole-body transplant is a procedure in which the brain of one organism is transplanted into the body of ...
In addition, immune responses to foreign tissues make transplantation within one species very complicated, let alone between ... However, modern medicine has shown that non-human animals lack the necessary brain structure to emulate human faculties like ...
July 2009). "Generation and transplantation of an autologous vascularized bioartificial human tissue". Transplantation. 88 (2 ... human brain tissue chimerae development ), the employment of dermal fibroblasts from human foreskin demonstrates an ... Tissue engineering often involves the use of cells placed on tissue scaffolds in the formation of new viable tissue for a ... and vascularization in laboratory-grown tissues destined for transplantation. The continued success of tissue engineering and ...
... can cause damage or kill heart muscle tissue (myocardium). Brain: Cerebral infarction is the ischemic kind of stroke due to a ... and organ transplantation. Heart: Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is an infarction of the heart, ... occlusion of a vein loose tissues that allow blood to collect in the infarcted zone tissues with a dual circulatory system ( ... Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area. It may be caused by artery blockages ...
... was the first multi-facility tissue bank in country. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by ... Healy, Melissa (24 January 2011). "Brain injuries: Changes in the treatment of brain injuries have improved survival rate". ... Modern organ transplantation in Iran dates to 1935, when the first cornea transplant in Iran was performed by Professor ... Considering the country's brain drain and its poor political relationship with the United States and some other Western ...
"Aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in autopsied brain tissue from cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy". ... Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only treatment that has shown to improve acute and chronic complications derived from ... especially with the current lack in transplantable tissue. In addition, questions have been raised about tissue collected from ... 2009). "Liver transplantation avoided in patients with fulminant hepatic failure who received albumin dialysis with the ...
Neural transplantation. Since early in the 1980s, fetal, porcine, carotid or retinal tissues have been used in cell transplants ... Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ... "Brain. 135 (Pt 4): 1141-53. doi:10.1093/brain/aws038. PMC 3326257. PMID 22396397.. ... Dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier, so it cannot be taken as a medicine to boost the brain's depleted levels of ...
It also identifies brain death as a form of death. The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO) functions as ... "Donation and Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues". National Health Portal. Archived from the original on 17 February ... Organ donation in India is regulated by the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994. The law allows both deceased ... Factors such as lack of awareness (about brain death), religious beliefs, and inadequate transplantation centers affect the ...
... resulting in tissue death, while ischemic hemorrhages result in a lack of blood flow to certain tissues. Traumatic brain injury ... "Neural precursor differentiation following transplantation into neocortex is dependent on intrinsic developmental state and ... known as xenogeneic tissue). While these tissues have an advantage over autologous tissue grafts because the tissue does not ... Neural tissue engineering is a specific sub-field of tissue engineering. Neural tissue engineering is primarily a search for ...
They are mainly produced by cardiovascular, brain and renal tissues in response to wall stretch and other causes. NPs provide ... Transplantation. 33 (9): 1485-1493. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfx279. PMID 29136223. Abraham, WT; Zile, MR; Weaver, FA; Butter, C; ... Baroreceptors are active even at normal blood pressures so that their activity informs the brain about both increases and ... exercise capacity and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.[citation needed] Autonomic nervous system Baroreceptor Blood ...
It is an attack by the "new" bone marrow's immune cells against the recipient's tissues. This can occur even if the donor and ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ... Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2 (1): 3-14. PMID 9078349. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.. *Bone marrow transplant - How it is performed ...
A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord. Some related clinical ... Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and ... The anesthesiologist's role during surgery is to prevent derangement in the vital organs' (i.e. brain, heart, kidneys) ... Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) ...
Fluoroscopy is mainly performed to view movement (of tissue or a contrast agent), or to guide a medical intervention, such as ... while it could pass through human tissue, it could not pass through bone or metal.[24] Röntgen referred to the radiation as "X ... in conjunction with a computer to create images of both soft and hard tissues. These images look as though the patient was ... depending on the tissues needing to be seen. Radiographers perform these examinations, sometimes in conjunction with a ...
Fageeh, W.; Raffa, H.; Jabbad, H.; Marzouki, A. (2002). "Transplantation of the human uterus". International Journal of ... determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring) is discrepant with the surgical reassignment previously imposed.[6][7][8] Milton ... non-penile inversion techniques that make use of scrotal tissue to construct the vaginal canal. For trans men, genital ... See also: Transgender pregnancy, Uterus transplantation § Application on transgender women, and Male pregnancy § Humans ...
2008). "Hand Transplantation: The Innsbruck Experience". Transplantation of Composite Tissue Allografts. pp. 234-250. doi: ... The "donor" hand usually comes from a brain-dead donor and is transplanted to a recipient who has lost one or both hands/arms. ... July 2007). "Second report (1998-2006) of the International Registry of Hand and Composite Tissue Transplantation". Transpl ... 1998). "The case for local immunosuppression in composite tissue allotransplantation". Transplantation Proceedings. 30 (6): ...
"Stem cells and tooth tissue engineering". Cell Tissue Res. 331 (1): 359-72. 2008. doi:10.1007/s00441-007-0467-6. PMID 17938970. ... Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation In National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet web site. ... ISRAEL21c: Israeli scientists reverse brain birth defects using stem cells December 25, 2008. (Researchers from the Hebrew ... "A hypothesis for an embryonic origin of pluripotent Oct-4(+) stem cells in adult bone marrow and other tissues". Leukemia 21 (5 ...
The biochemistry of Hunter syndrome is related to a problem in a part of the connective tissue of the body known as the ... For a long time, the most efficient approach had been to use bone marrow graft, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. ... Finally, the storage of GAGs in the brain can lead to delayed development with subsequent mental retardation and progressive ... As a result, GAGs build up in cells throughout the body, particularly in tissues that contain large amounts of dermatan sulfate ...
... fibronectin-derived peptide sequences so the transplantation cells have closely related properties to that of native tissue in ... Ramón-Cueto A, Avila J (June 1998). "Olfactory ensheathing glia: properties and function". Brain Research Bulletin. 46 (3): 175 ... Side effects of cell transplantationEdit. A study has shown that cell transplantation may cause an increase in body temperature ... after transplantation.[3] The inability of these cells to sustain after transplantation is a result of inflammation, the ...
Less commonly, arteries of the brain are affected; this may lead to transient ischemic attacks (brief episodes of weakness on ... April 2000). "Liver transplantation in patients with homozygotic familial hypercholesterolemia previously treated by end-to- ... The related disease sitosterolemia, which has many similarities with FH and also features cholesterol accumulation in tissues, ... "Liver transplantation for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia". Arch. Dis. Child. 73 (5): 456-8. doi:10.1136/adc.73.5. ...
... a brain-derived neurotrophic factor that function in nerve growth and maintenance within the brain.[86][20]. *Vorinostat (SAHA) ... It prolonged SMA mouse life span by 35% and showed increased levels of SMN protein in spinal cord tissue.[27][28] However, ... in human AD brain, while other studies have shown upregulation or downregulation of miRNA-9 in brain.[61]. DNA methylation. In ... Brain Research. 1462: 16-25. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.032. PMC 3372581. PMID 22405725.. ...
Taste messages are sent via these cranial nerves to the brain. The brain can distinguish between the chemical qualities of the ... They are made of a bone-like material called dentin, which is covered by the hardest tissue in the body-enamel.[8] Teeth have ... Liver transplantation. *Portal hypertension *Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt [TIPS]. *Distal splenorenal shunt ... The brain has to decide very quickly whether the food should be eaten or not. It was the findings in 1991, describing the first ...
TransplantationEdit. Main article: Kidney transplantation. Millions of people across the world suffer from kidney disease. Of ... Cysts may also form in other organs including the liver, brain, and ovaries. Polycystic Kidney Disease is a genetic disease ... Pathologic kidney specimen showing marked pallor of the cortex, contrasting to the darker areas of surviving medullary tissue. ...
... the blood brain barrier prevents enzyme from reaching the brain, for example), and can sometimes be associated with allergic ... connective tissue disorders, cancer genetics, teratogens, and prenatal diagnosis. Medical genetics is increasingly becoming ... Bone marrow transplantation. *Gene therapy. Career paths and training[edit]. The examples and perspective in this article deal ... which can reduce the accumulation of the compounds in various tissues. Examples include Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, ...
... and is actually brain tissue.[2][3] It is the only part of the CNS that can be visualized non-invasively. ... Organ transplantation Transplantation of retinas has been attempted, but without much success. At MIT, The University of ... "Cells Tissues Organs. 89 (3): 473-480. doi:10.1159/000144308. PMID 4428954. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015.. ... The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs. The optics of ...
The blood-brain barrier poses a difficult obstacle to pass to deliver chemotherapy to the brain. This is because the brain has ... This allows a high dose to cancer tissues with a relatively low dose to other tissues. As different proteins are utilised by ... "Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 15 (12): 1628-33. PMC 2861656 . PMID 19896087. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.07.004.. ... Drug transporters can pump out drugs from the brain and brain's blood vessel cells into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood ...
An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of ... Iatrogenic transmission, due to medical procedures such as injection or transplantation of infected material. ... For example, more than half of cases of encephalitis, a severe illness affecting the brain, remain undiagnosed, despite ... Microorganisms can cause tissue damage by releasing a variety of toxins or destructive enzymes. For example, Clostridium tetani ...
It is also produced in heme catabolism and enters the blood from the tissues, and thus is present in all normal tissues, even ... lung transplantation rejection, and neuropathic pain while promoting skin wound healing. These actions are similar to those of ... "Carbon Monoxide Gas Is Used by Brain Cells As a Neurotransmitter". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010 ... In many tissues, all three gases are known to act as anti-inflammatories, vasodilators, and promoters of neovascular growth.[16 ...
Tissue (biology) → 조직 (생물학) (E). 동물해부학 및 형태학, 68[편집]. 순환계통, 7. *Artery → 동맥 (E) ... Brain → 뇌 (B+). *nerve → 신경 (E). *Sensory system → 감각 기관 (E). *Auditory system → 청각 기관 (E) *Ear → 귀 (C) ... Organ transplantation → 장기 이식 (B). *Palliative care *Radiation therapy → 방사선종양학과 (E). *Surgery → 외과 (E) ...
Bowman, K.; Richard, S. (2003). "Culture, brain death, and transplantation". Progress in Transplantation 13: 211-217. ... The protocol for preserving the cadaver aims to prevent infection and maintain adequate oxygenation of tissue. The cadaver's ... Heart transplantation Organ donation Transplant surgery Brain stem death Non-heart-beating donation Legal death Clinical death ... Though the brain may be dead, the pathway that reflexes follow does not pass from the stimulus in the body to the brain. ...
Since the 1960s, laws on determining death have, therefore, been implemented in all countries with active organ transplantation ... "Diagnosis of brain death". UpToDate. Retrieved 25 March 2014.. *^ Goila, A.; Pawar, M. (2009). "The diagnosis of brain death". ... Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).[1][2][3][4] It ... "Brain-dead" redirects here. For other uses, see Brain Dead.. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please ...
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation (página oficial). *Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery (página ... Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (página oficial *Topics in Clinical Nutrition (página ... Brain, Behavior, and Immunity (página oficial). *Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research ...
"Transplantation of chondrocytes utilizing a polymer-cell construct to produce tissue-engineered cartilage in the shape of a ... The brain accomplishes this by comparing arrival-times and intensities from each ear, in circuits located in the superior ... The earlobe consists of areola and adipose tissue.[5] The symmetrical arrangement of the two ears allows for the localisation ... Other causes include: ear infections, disease of the heart or blood vessels, Ménière's disease, brain tumors, emotional stress ...
Lateral wedges of the erectile tissue of the clitoris are removed to reduce the size and protrusion. The neurovascular tissue ... a b Rangecroft L, Brain C, Creighton S, Di Ceglie D, Ogilvy-Stuart A, Malone P, Turnock R. "Statement of the British ... The girth is augmented with transplantation of the patient's fat. This procedure is designed to preserve erectile and sexual ... Tissue is more elastic and heals better according to many surgeons.. *Genital surgery performed before the age of memory is ...
The main use of cyclophosphamide is with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lymphomas, some forms of brain cancer, ... ALDHs protect these actively proliferating tissues against toxic effects of phosphoramide mustard and acrolein by converting ... Bone Marrow Transplantation. 24 (12): 1367-8. doi:10.1038/sj.bmt.1702097. PMID 10627651.. ... The active metabolites of cyclophosphamide are highly protein bound and distributed to all tissues, are assumed to cross the ...
... , the lighter tissue among the darker, acinar pancreatic tissue, hemalum-eosin stain. ... Transplantation[edit]. Because the beta cells in the pancreatic islets are selectively destroyed by an autoimmune process in ... pancreatic tissue by a thin fibrous connective tissue capsule which is continuous with the fibrous connective tissue that is ... Chatenoud L (2008). "Chemical immunosuppression in islet transplantation-friend or foe?". New England Journal of Medicine. 358 ...
Gokshura is believed to contribute to overall physical, as well as sexual, strength by building all the tissues, especially ... Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 25 (11): 3792-3793. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfq457. PMID 20667992.. ... It appears to do so by stimulating androgen receptors in the brain. A research review conducted in 2000 stated that the lack of ... shukra dhatu (reproductive tissue) but it is not considered as a particular vajikarana (sexual functions) herb.[14] It is ...
Transplantation". 77 (5), s. 762-766, marzec 2004. PMID: 15021844. *↑ D. San Segundo, G. Fernández-Fresnedo, E. Rodrigo, J.C. ... Brain Behav Immun". 23 (7), s. 1028-1037, październik 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2009.06.003. PMID: 19520156. ... Lung-resident tissue macrophages generate Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and promote airway tolerance. „J Exp Med". 210 (4), s. 775- ... Transplantation". 77 (1 Suppl), s. S32-34, styczeń 2004. DOI: 10.1097/01.TP.0000106470.07410.CA. PMID: 14726768. ...
Bone tissue is innervated by both myelinated (A beta and A delta fiber) and unmyelinated (C fiber) sensory neurons. In ... Bone pain originates from both the periosteum and the bone marrow which relay nociceptive signals to the brain creating the ... Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation. 24 (5): 938-41. doi:10.4103/1319-2442.118087. PMID 24029258. Mercadante, ... The periosteal layer of bone tissue is highly pain-sensitive and an important cause of pain in several disease conditions ...
If this is the case, transplantation may not reverse the neurological effects of methylmalonic acid previous to the transplant ... Radmanesh, A; Zaman, T; Ghanaati, H; Molaei, S; Robertson, Rl; Zamani, Aa (July 2008). "Methylmalonic acidemia: brain imaging ... as a result methylmalonic acid builds up in the blood and tissues. Those afflicted with this disorder are either lacking ... however all of the disadvantages of organ transplantation are of course applicable in this situation. There is evidence to ...
... to regenerate tissue damaged by stroke may depend on the maturity of the neuronal precursor cells used for transplantation. ... New research has shown that the success of transplanting stem cells into the brain ... does-brain-tissue-regeneration-depend-on-maturity-of-stem-cells-used-for-transplantation/. 2250/. Related Journal Article. http ... Does brain tissue regeneration depend on maturity of stem cells used for transplantation?. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic ...
Assessment of brain changes with registered MR before and after bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. AJNR ... Finally, we cannot exclude that AHSCT itself might contribute to brain tissue loss. Brain atrophy was indeed observed in ... To assess whether brain tissue loss occurs after profound and sustained suppression of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... Brain tissue loss occurs after suppression of enhancement in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with autologous ...
Büchler, Andrea (2008). The transplantation of human fetal brain tissue: the Swiss federal law. In: Brownsword, Roger; et al. ...
"Brain Tissue Transplantation" by people in this website by year, and whether "Brain Tissue Transplantation" was a major or ... "Brain Tissue Transplantation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Transplantation, Brain Tissue. *Brain Tissue Transplantations. *Tissue Transplantation, Brain. *Tissue Transplantations, Brain ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Brain Tissue Transplantation" by people in Profiles. ...
Bioengineered kidney makes urine after transplantation. *3 Comments. *. AIDS, Featured. New, intensive trials planned on heels ... Real-time tissue analysis could guide brain tumor surgery. 30 Jun 2014 , 17:39 EDT. , Posted by Amanda Keener , Category: ... Real-time tissue analysis could guide brain tumor surgery. *. Great work. Nanomedicine is the furture hope for the curative ... Surgeons tasked with removing brain tumors have limited information available to help them make decisions about what tissue ...
Real-time tissue analysis could guide brain tumor surgery. *. Great work. Nanomedicine is the furture hope for the curative ... Bioengineered kidney makes urine after transplantation. 14 Apr 2013 , 13:00 EDT. , Posted by Kevin Jiang , Category: Featured, ... Maybe some peoples brains dont work this way (i.e. towards application) but that is the reason for the research; to benefit ... Bundled RNA balls silence brain cancer gene expression. *. I greatly appreciate the work done by each actor involve in the ...
... coordinated brain care for older adults improves health outcomes and quality of care for those with cognitive impairment. ... Transplantation Cell Therapy can Reverse Loss of Brain Function in Stroke Patients. Results of a new study offer new hope to ... Researchers Find Link Between Brain Tissue Health and Dementia in Downs Syndrome Patients. A link between the health of the ... Language Areas in The Brain. The mechanism of how human brain processes the language to express and comprehend the verbal, ...
Stem Cell Therapy Can be the Best Option to Treat Damage in Brain Tissue. The brain has limited capability for self-repair or ... Bone Marrow Transplantation. Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this stem cell from bone marrow are ... Fundamentals Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Genetics and Stem Cells Healthy Living Bone Marrow Transplantation Tissue ... Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. This new field is an amalgamation of biology, medicine and engineering, and is ...
Organ donor brain tissue revealing amebae suggestive of Balamuthia (indicated by arrows) (A), and immunohistochemical staining ... she underwent brain biopsy. On December 18, histopathologic examination of the brain tissue at CDC revealed amebae; ... MRI of the brain was normal, and testing of CSF, serum, and endomyocardial tissue at CDC showed no evidence of Balamuthia ... MRI of the boys brain was normal, and testing of CSF, serum, and liver tissue at CDC showed no evidence of Balamuthia ...
Brain Tissue Transplantation* * Corpus Striatum / transplantation* * Female * Ibotenic Acid / pharmacology * ... Donor tissues were derived from embryonic day 15 rat, or embryonic day 14 mouse embryos, and injected, as single cell ... were dominated by striatum-like tissue (up to 90% of the total graft volume), while the medial ganglionic eminence transplants ... eminence and that the restricted lateral ganglionic eminence dissection provides a more optimal source of striatal tissue for ...
Brain Tissue Transplantation. Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals ... Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from ...
... median lethal doses/gm of brain tissue, but was only irregularly present (and at much lower levels) in tissues outside the ... brain biopsy was diagnostic in 95% of cases later confirmed at autopsy, and proteinase-resistant amyloid protein was identified ... brain, and, except for cerebrospinal fluid, was never detected in bodily secretions or excretions. ... in Western blots of brain extracts from 88% of tested subjects. Experimental transmission rates were highest for iatrogenic ...
Reproductive and Neurological Transplantation. Reproduction and Transplantation. Brain Tissue Grafting. Psychiatric and ... Brain tissue grafting, the interchangeability • Reproductive and neurological transplantation of body parts, and genetic ... Transplantation of organs, tissues, etc. Subject:. Ethics. Subject:. Homografts -- Moral and ethical aspects.. ... Psychological Perspectives on the Process of Organ Transplantation. Sexual Performance Before and After Transplantation. Body ...
The MRI repots would describe brain tissue especially white matter and malacia. ... Brain Damage, Chronic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Neurologic Manifestations. ... has the potential to repair the damaged brain tissue in patients with cerebral palsy. ... Efficacy of Stem Cell Transplantation Compared to Rehabilitation Treatment of Patients With Cerebral Paralysis (CP). The safety ...
Brain Death[remove]1. *Immunosuppression1. *Living Donors1. *Organ Transplantation1 ... Brain Death Remove constraint Subject: Brain Death Subject Tissue and Organ Procurement Remove constraint Subject: Tissue and ...
HHV-6 DNA was detected by PCR in approximately one third of 31 normal brain tissue specimens, suggesting that brain tissue ... Postmortem examination of brain tissue from patient 5 revealed small necrotic changes in bilateral hippocampi and small ... Human herpesvirus 6 infection in neoplastic and normal brain tissue. J Med Virol 2001;63:45-51. ... Severe amnesia associated with human herpesvirus 6 encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 2002 Apr 15; ...
... stool from a healthy donor to cirrhosis patients who suffer from recurrent hepatic encephalopathy can improve brain functioning ... Tissue model reveals role of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimers 08/12/2019 Parkinsons disease ... VCU researchers demonstrate safety and effectiveness of fecal transplantation on brain function. ... "Fecal transplantation has been used to treat other conditions, but this is the first randomized trial of this kind in liver ...
Tissue model reveals role of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimers 08/05/2019 Alzheimers ... Brain and Nerves. 10/02/2019 Brain and Nerves Researchers identify molecular process that could accelerate recovery from nerve ... Transplantation of healthy new brain cells reverses learning and memory loss in Alzheimers disease model. ... The transplants helped to replenish the brain by replacing cells lost due to apoE4, regulating brain activity and improving ...
Title: Transplantation of Brain Tissue. Author: Raiskin Shlomy. Publication: ASSIA Volume 13. Year: 2010. Download: Hebrew ... Title: Organ Transplantation from Living Donors. Author: Yisraeli, Rabbi Shaul. Publication: ASSIA Volume 9. Year: 2003. ... Title: The Medical Basis of Brain Death. Author: Sommer Prof. Haim. Publication: Establishing the Moment of Death. Year: 2007. ... Title: Compulsory Donation of Bone Marrow and Endangering Minors for Organ Transplantation. Author: Bar-Ilan Rabbi Naftali. ...
Does personality change as a result of fetal tissue transplantation in the brain? J Neurol 2003;250:282-6. doi:10.1007/s00415- ... Status of fetal tissue transplantation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson disease. Neurosurg 2002;13:e3. ... often into the lumbar spine or brain).27 ,29 ,30 ,32 ,53 ,55 ,57 ,59 ,60 ,62 ,64 ,66 ,85 ,89 Five studies evaluated more ... Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinsons disease. N Engl J Med 2001;344:710-19. doi:10.1056/ ...
The use of central nervous system fetal tissues derived from routine elective abortions to provide stem cells for ... However, fetal tissue microbial contaminants have been known to cause brain infections in cell transplantation recipients. Now ... "Fetal neural tissue transplantation has become a potential treatment option for patients suffering from neurodegenerative ... "The potentially deleterious impact of microbial contamination on the use of cells or tissues for transplantation is an ...
It has been trialed in several areas, including tissue engineering, organ transplantation, drug screening and cancer research. ... Bioprinting involves the use of 3D printing technology to build tissues and organs. ... Similar studies have been undertaken in liver, lung, pancreas, brain, and skin tissues. In several cases, engineered tissue ... Bioprinting for tissue transplantation. Several bioprinted tissue types, including nerve, cardiac, blood vessel, bone and skin ...
... no adequate implant material for the correction of soft tissue defects such as after extensive deep burns, tumor resections or ... Furthermore, transplanted preadipocytes can form adipose tissue in vivo whereas the transplantation of mature adipocytes often ... 10737329 - Characterisation of tissue-specific oligosaccharides from rat brain and kidney membrane.... 8369879 - Experimental ... 24994529 - Liver cell therapy and tissue engineering for transplantation.. 24028899 - Glomerular filtration rate as a ...
Keywords: Transplantation, brain repair, fetal tissue, stem cells DOI: 10.3233/JPD-179002 ... Neuropathological Staging of Brain Pathology in Sporadic Parkinsons disease: Separating the Wheat from the Chaff ... Abstract: The year 2017 marks the 30th anniversary of the birth of modern deep brain stimulation (DBS), which was introduced by ... In this article we tell the story of how the preclinical and clinical transplantation program in Lund evolved. We recall the ...
Neural transplantation has been concerned with both the survival potential of grafts and their incorporation or connections ... within the host brain substance. Recent investigations have shown that... ... Studies on the transplantation of developing neural tissue in the mammalian brain. I. Transplantation of cerebellar slabs into ... Rosenstein, J. M., and Brightman, M. W., 1978, Intact cerebral ventricle as a site for tissue transplantation, Nature (London) ...
Experimental therapy: transplantation of fetal neural tissue into basal ganglia of the brain ... Chronic, progressive degenerative disease of the brain characterized by cognitive impairment. Tangles/plaques in the brain - s/ ... Action: more levodopa is made available to brain for conversion to dopamine in brain ...
The normal brain tissue see foetal brain transplantation. [from greek automatos spontaneous or self-moving, from autos self + ... Cranial nerve and tissue invasion. The internal anal sphincter or rectal canal. Compare encephalitis, encephalopathy, myalgic ... 60 4. Head injury 59 pathophysiology the manifestation of hyperinsulinemia due to the brain. See also sedative-, hypnotic-, or ...
... brain tumor, 2) ,24 hours before the tissue arrived in the laboratory. The heart donors were not on cardiovascular medication. ... Plasma levels at the time of heart transplantation were available for 6 of the 10 DCM cases. Plasma renin in these subjects ... Collection of Cardiac Tissue and Blood Samples. Left ventricular tissue was obtained from 10 subjects (9 men and 1 woman; age, ... Most of the ACE in cardiac tissue is probably cell membrane bound.4 The cardiac tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios for renin ...
On the fifth day, we sectioned and stained the brain tissue and examined it by fluorescence microscopy. Although dexamethasone ... Even so, implanting microdialysis probes into brain tissue causes a penetration injury that triggers gliosis (the activation ... We performed microdialysis in the rat brain for 5 days, with and without dexamethasone in the perfusion fluid (10 μM for the ... and proliferation of glial cells) and ischemia (the interruption of blood flow). Thus, the probe samples injured tissue. ...
Das, G.D. (1973): Transplantation of cerebellar tissue in the cerebellum of neonate rabbits. Brain Res., 50, 170-173.PubMed ... and developmental profile of a brain-specific polypeptide, PEP-19. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83, 8420-8423.PubMedCrossRef ... Immunocytochemical mapping of vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein in brain. Nature (Lond.), 294, 765-767.CrossRefGoogle ... Immunohistochemical localization of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in mammalian brain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 653- ...
  • Donor tissues were derived from embryonic day 15 rat, or embryonic day 14 mouse embryos, and injected, as single cell suspensions into the striatum or substantia nigra of adult rats previously subjected to an intrastriatal ibotenic acid lesion. (
  • Since the seventies, numerous investigations have focused on trying to restore lost function by replacement of injured brain structures with homologous allogeneic embryonic neural tissue. (
  • Firstly, while a PN graft is used to bridge two brain areas, an intracerebral embryonic tissue graft is meant to restore the function of the damaged area. (
  • Secondly, while all elements in PN grafting are at the same age, the intracerebral embryonic tissue graft is heterochronic with respect to the host tissue. (
  • as an alternative to primary embryonic brain tissues for intracerebral transplantation. (
  • On November 6, 2008, the media reported that human brain tissue had been successfully created from embryonic stem (ES) cells by a Japanese research group. (
  • The ability to isolate these cells from the adult human brain raises the possibility of autologous (self-to-self) transplantation, which circumvents the logistical, safety and ethical issues surrounding transplantation of various other cell types (especially embryonic stem cells) into the human central nervous system (CNS). (
  • However, HNSCs have been isolated from various regions of the embryonic, 3 - 5 fetal 6 - 8 and adult human brain, including the hippocampus, the ventricular/ependymal zone, 9 - 12 and, more recently, from the cortex and the amygdala. (
  • 1,2 However, transplantation of embryonic grafts is plagued with logistical and ethical considerations. (
  • Consequently, adult stem cells have several advantages as compared with embryonic stem cells in their practical therapeutic application for tissue regeneration. (
  • Transplantation of NPCs, but not of control, human embryonic kidney cells, significantly enhanced remyelination compared with sham-operated mice. (
  • Here, using a constitutively active form of MEF2C (MEF2CA), we report the production and characterization of neuronally restricted progenitors derived from non-oncogene-transformed, murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, and their subsequent successful transplantation into a disease model of focal cerebral ischemia. (
  • Bioprinting involves the use of 3D printing technology to build tissues and organs. (
  • The challenges to transplant bioprinted tissue and organs involve replicating the vasculature and metabolic state of the organ. (
  • This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Organ and Tissue Transplantation in number of organs transplanted. (
  • Scientists also did not repeat Dr. Suda's success for other organs those are more resistant to cold storage and freezing than the brain. (
  • It is a very important note because organ preservation for transplantation is a multi-millions business and so many scientists tried to repeat Dr. Suda's success for other organs, I think. (
  • any remaining organs and tissues must be quarantined and not transplanted. (
  • A clinical application of human ES cells would require the generation of highly purified donor cells for specific tissues and organs. (
  • Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids offer an unprecedented access to complex human tissues that recapitulate features of architecture, composition and function of in vivo organs. (
  • In conducting research to create tissue that functions in the same way as natural tissue from differentiated cells, should brain tissue be treated just like that of other organs, such as the heart and pancreas? (
  • Stem Cells and Tissue Repair: Methods and Protocols presents in-depth methods for the three major approaches of rejuvenating an aging or sick body: latent regenerative capacity stimulated in a targeted way, replacement organs grown de novo and surgically implanted, and tissue surgically implanted and coaxed to integrate and restore problem areas. (
  • Since we no longer face the inevitable simultaneity of systemic failures, it has become necessary to define with greater precision and specificity which physiological systems are indicators of life and which (if any) are not, especially in light of the scarcity of medical resources and the pressing need for organs for transplantation purposes. (
  • Organs, especially hearts and livers, are suitable for transplantation only if they are removed at a time when blood is still circulating. (
  • of sustaining 'brain dead' patients on respirators, there is a natural temptation to redefine death so that organs become available to serve higher ends. (
  • Trans- differentiation is a mechanism proposed to explain how tissue specific stem cells could generate cells of other organs, thus supporting the emerging concept of enhanced adult stem cell plasticity. (
  • The concept of brain death makes harvesting organs ethically more acceptable. (
  • Donation may be for research or, more commonly, healthy transplantable organs and tissues may be donated to be transplanted into another person. (
  • Some organs and tissues can be donated by living donors, such as a kidney or part of the liver, part of the pancreas, part of the lungs or part of the intestines, but most donations occur after the donor has died. (
  • After the surgeons remove the organs, they are transported as quickly as possible to the recipient, for immediate transplantation. (
  • Histopathologic testing of donor autopsy brain tissue at CDC showed amebae, and subsequent testing of specimens from the donor and the two kidney recipients confirmed transmission by transplantation of Balamuthia granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare disease caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris , a free-living ameba found in soil ( 1 ). (
  • Questions have been raised about the rights of both recipient and donor, as well as the social, religious, and ethical propriety of transplantation itself. (
  • Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine have successfully demonstrated that transferring stool from a healthy donor to cirrhosis patients who suffer from recurrent hepatic encephalopathy can improve brain functioning, reduce confusion and reduce hospitalization for that patient population. (
  • Recently, cultured fetal CNS tissue has been utilized successfully as donor tissue. (
  • The cardiac and plasma levels of renin in DCM were positively correlated, and extrapolation of the regression line to normal plasma levels yielded a tissue level close to that measured in the donor hearts. (
  • Technical and ethical difficulties in obtaining sufficient and appropriate donor fetal brain tissue have limited the application of this new therapy. (
  • Due to shortages in available donor tissue, this cannot be given to all patients. (
  • With the increasing diversity of stem cell sources emerging for donor cells in transplantation therapy, many laboratory-to-clinic translational factors must first be considered, dynamics such as the source of the cells, ease of extraction, immunogenicity, capacity for proliferation, and cell yield. (
  • Autologous stem cells are acquired from the host in which the cells are intended for use, while allogenic cells are procured from an unrelated donor prior to transplantation. (
  • The in vitro differentiation of ES cells provides new perspectives for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of early development and the generation of donor cells for transplantation therapies. (
  • The oldest known organ donor for an internal organ was a 92-year-old Texas man, whose family chose to donate his liver after he died of a brain hemorrhage. (
  • Cerebral palsy (CP) is described as a group of permanent disorders affecting motor development and posture, resulting in activity limitation attributed to nonprogressive disturbances of the fetal or infant brain. (
  • Stem cell based therapy, a new prospective therapy for central nervous system disorders, has the potential to repair the damaged brain tissue in patients with cerebral palsy. (
  • Our study showed that cell transplantation therapy may improve brain receptor function in patients who suffered from cerebral stroke, improving their neurological symptoms," said Satoshi Kuroda, M.D., Ph.D., who is with the department of neurosurgery at Hokkaido University School of Medicine in Sapporo, Japan. (
  • Using autoradiography (a technique that uses X-ray film to visualize radioactively labeled molecules) and fluorescence immunohistochemistry (the testing of sections of tissue for specific proteins by attaching them with specific antibodies), the researchers examined the binding of a radioactive molecule with a specific receptor protein in animals with cerebral infarcts or strokes. (
  • therefore, we chose receptor imaging to assess the effects of cell transplantation therapy on cerebral stroke," he explained. (
  • Engineering advanced neural tissue constructs to mitigate acute cerebral inflammation after brain transplantation in rats. (
  • However, strong edema of non-cerebral tissues of the head was observed. (
  • The rat cerebral tissue that was completely saturated with 65% VM-1 can be stored at dry ice temperature (-76oC) for at least 48 hours without a decrease of viability after cryopreservation. (
  • There is great ventricular (brain cavity) enlargement with little or no cerebral mantle. (
  • The tissue that was made is a fragment of the cerebral cortex, a part of the brain involved in motor and sensory functions and memory. (
  • The cerebral cortex is the part of the brain responsible for functions most closely associated with basic human activity. (
  • Over the past 20 or so years, the concept of 'neurological death' commonly called 'brain death,' 'whole brain death' or 'brain-stem death' (and, sometimes, inaccurately-termed 'cerebral death') has gained increasing acceptance within the medical profession and among the vast majority of state legislatures and courts in the United States. (
  • Nevertheless, lack of directed neuronal differentiation as well as apoptotic cell death remain two major problems in cerebral transplantation. (
  • A watershed stroke is defined as a brain ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied by the anterior, posterior and middle cerebral arteries. (
  • Watershed locations are those border-zone regions in the brain supplied by the major cerebral arteries where blood supply is decreased. (
  • These events are localized to two primary regions of the brain: Cortical watershed strokes (CWS), or outer brain infarcts, are located between the cortical territories of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA). (
  • These varying terms have arisen from the considerable anatomic variability both in the cerebral vascular structure and the territories of the brain that they supply. (
  • For the first time, scientists reporting in Nature Medicine have created lab-grown kidneys in rats that produce urine after transplantation. (
  • In laboratory tests using rats as transplantation hosts, the technique has been shown to eliminate microbial contamination. (
  • I. Transplantation of cerebellar slabs into the cerebellum of neonate rats, Brain Res . (
  • In normal cardiac tissue of mice and rats, renin mRNA levels are undetectable or extremely low. (
  • Then, by site-directed stereotaxic surgery, the team implanted 100,000-cell aliquots into the brains of 20 adult rats. (
  • Dr. Mikko Airavaara and his group at the University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology administered MANF to rats after the ischemic brain injury, either by injecting recombinant MANF protein or by delivering a MANF-expressing viral vector into the brain area adjacent to the lesion. (
  • In this study we tested whether intravenously infused HUCBC enter brain, survive, differentiate, and improve neurological functional recovery after stroke in rats. (
  • Their paper in the July 15, 1999, issue of The Journal of Neuroscience bears the title: "Site-specific migration and neuronal differentiation of human neural progenitor cells after transplantation in the adult rat brain. (
  • 2. A method for inducing the in situ proliferation or differentiation of neural stem cells or neural progenitor cells located in a neural tissue of a human, the method comprising administering an amount of PDGF-BB of between 0.5 ng/kg/day to 500 ng/kg/day, to the neural tissue to induce the proliferation or differentiation of the neural stem cells or neural progenitor cells. (
  • These results suggest that transplanted NPCs exert trophic effects on their environment to enhance remyelination by the host brain pool of progenitor cells. (
  • Hence, in vitro induction of pluripotent cells into more restricted progenitor cells before transplantation might be necessary for their neuronal differentiation. (
  • It is well known that the "younger" the CNS neural tissue graft, the better its chances of survival and rate of growth. (
  • Furthermore, the fetal graft may produce trophic factors or signaling cues, which are present in the brain only at early developmental stages, and should reactivate neurotropic processes in a 'dormant' host neuron populations. (
  • The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. (
  • In addition to complications seen from exposure to chemotherapy and radiation, patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation can experience unique late effects secondary to graft versus host disease (GVHD) and autoimmunity. (
  • The immunological barriers, such as graft vs . host or required immunosuppression of the host, are of constant consideration in the therapeutic benefits and limitations of stem cell transplantation. (
  • An alkylating agent used to prevent graft rejection in stem cell transplantation and to treat a variety of malignancies including certain types of adenocarcinoma and superficial bladder carcinomas. (
  • This was a new concept to improve the outcome of islet transplantation. (
  • Here we found that islet transplantation in the testis, an immunologically privileged site, generates much less memory CD8 + T cells but induces more Ag-specific CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells than in a conventional site. (
  • Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. (
  • Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation. (
  • A quantum leap in islet transplantation occurred when the Edmonton group introduced a steroid-free immunosuppression and showed insulin independence in all 7 of their patients [ 3 ]. (
  • With this advancement in immunosuppression and the continuous improvement in islet isolation techniques, islet transplantation has entered into a new era of heightened success. (
  • Currently, two types of clinical islet transplantation are performed: allogenic and autologous islet transplantation. (
  • Allogenic islet transplantation is typically performed on patients with severe type 1 diabetes, while autologous islet transplantation is performed on patients suffering from severe chronic pancreatitis (CP) and undergoing partial/total pancreatectomy. (
  • The first pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet transplantation was performed at the University of Minnesota in 1977 [ 7 ]. (
  • Insightful chapters, including one on the concept of "self-identity," bring the religious, legal, historical, and more recent topics, such as brain tissue grafting and fetal transplants, into a unified structure. (
  • This initial small study shows that even in very sick patients with liver disease, fecal transplants can be safe and can improve brain functioning," Bajaj said. (
  • The transplants helped to replenish the brain by replacing cells lost due to apoE4, regulating brain activity and improving learning and memory abilities. (
  • This advantage in respiration and the better revascularization of undifferentiated adipose tissue cells allow the development of innovative transplants and point to preadipocytes as promising tool to improve transplantations in adipose tissue reconstruction. (
  • More than 200 victims of Parkinson's disease have received brain transplants of human fetal nerve cells to restore their brains' output of dopamine, with good to fair to poor clinical results. (
  • Grafts, however, were associated with a 16% reduction of glucose uptake in the ipsilateral globus pallidus, indicating a significant transsynaptic influence of the nigral transplants on neuronal metabolism in the host brain. (
  • The arrangement of this report offers an overview of the key elements in the transplantation process: tissue typing, procurement and preservation, immunosuppressants for solid organ and tissue transplants, and postoperative monitoring. (
  • Before we can intelligently discuss the types and ramifications of fetal tissue harvesting and experimentation, we must be familiar with the body systems most affected by the diseases that allegedly are ameliorated in those who receive fetal tissue transplants. (
  • More than 15 million Americans suffer from diseases and injuries that allegedly could be aided to various degrees by fetal tissue transplants. (
  • Background - There is recent evidence to suggest that sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases risk of criminal justice system involvement, including incarceration. (
  • The objective of this study was to explore the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and incarceration risk in men and women. (
  • Bergman K, Beekmans V, Stromswold J . Considerations for Neuroprotection in the Traumatic Brain Injury Population. (
  • Bergman K, Given B, Fabiano R, VonEye A, Schutte D, Davidson S. Symptoms Associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussion: The Role of Bother. (
  • Fletcher J, Bergman K, Blostein P, Kramer A. Fluid Balance, Complications, and Brain Tissue Oxygen Tension Monitoring Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. (
  • Maltz S, Bergman K, Fletcher J. Evaluation of Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury. (
  • Maltz S, Bergman K, Fletcher J. Evaluation of Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury Incidence and Outcome. (
  • To assess whether brain tissue loss occurs after profound and sustained suppression of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement, we measured brain volume changes from 10 patients with rapidly evolving secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and followed up for 24 months. (
  • Treosulfan is under investigation in Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. (
  • Does brain tissue regeneration depend on maturity of stem cells used for transplantation? (
  • Another important area in the field of tissue engineering is creating heart valves, as they do not possess regeneration capability and need to be replaced by mechanical or biological prosthetic counterparts if damaged. (
  • Intracerebral grafting presently remains an experimental model used to address fundamental questions concerning brain development, neuronal plasticity, regeneration and formation of topographic connections. (
  • Their findings "clearly showed" that bone marrow stromal cells "may contribute to neural tissue regeneration by migrating toward the periinfarct area and acquiring the neuron-specific receptor function," reports the JNM article. (
  • Simplifying corneal surface regeneration using a biodegradable synthetic membrane and limbal tissue explants. (
  • In determining the pros and cons of brain regeneration research, we need to fully consider these two lines of questions. (
  • Did Brain Regeneration Research Pass the Ethics Review? (
  • I would like to point out that the reported research of brain regeneration differs considerably from the research protocol that passed the national review. (
  • Transplantation of Nanostructured Composite Scaffolds Results in the Regeneration of Chronically Injured Spinal Cords,` ACS NANO 5(1):227-236 (2011). (
  • In conclusion, NPC transplantation enhances host-derived myelin regeneration following chronic demyelination. (
  • We therefore hypothesized that NPC transplantation may enhance the myelin regeneration capabilities of host brain cells. (
  • Bone marrow (BM) derived stem cells contribute to the regeneration of diverse adult tissues including heart, liver and brain following BM transplantation. (
  • Linneman CC Jr, First MR, Alvira MM, et ah Herpesvirus hominis type 2 meningoencephalitis following renal transplantation. (
  • Patients receiving Healthy Aging Brain Center care are given an initial cognitive assessment including neuro-psychological testing, a brain imaging test, medication review and structured neurological and physical evaluations. (
  • Reproductive and Neurological Transplantation. (
  • What researchers do know is that cells found in an adult's bone marrow-stromal cells-may provide a safe, ethical source for replacing brain cells lost to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. (
  • More research needs to be done "to fully clarify the mechanism of cell transplantation therapy for neurological disorders," said Kuroda. (
  • March 2, 2016) - Studies scheduled to be published in the April, 2016 issue of Cell Transplantation (issue 25(4)) were presented in 2015 at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair (ASNTR), a society for scientists whose research is focused on understanding the causes of various neurological injuries and diseases and developing potential therapies such as cell therapy, gene therapy, and pharmacological interventions. (
  • In initial studies during this year, transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) provided both neurological and behavioral benefit to a HD mouse model. (
  • Comparison of survival times of mice inoculated with brain tissue from various neurological diseases. (
  • Am J Med 56:545-553, 1974 CornParison of Survival Tim& of Mice Inoculated with Brain Tissue from Various Neurological Diseases Leighton W. Greenham, PhD, and David B. Peacock, MB, ChB ~ ~ Mice inoculated intracerebrally before the age of 5 days with homogenates of autopsied brain tissue from patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob (C-J), Alzheimer's, or Picks diseases showed highly significant decreases in life span when compared with sham-inoculated control mice. (
  • The Global and regional markets (except the US) for Organ and Tissue Transplantation in this report are analyzed by the following Product Segments - Organ Tranplantation (Heart, Kidneys, Liver, Pancreas, Lungs, and Corneal Transplantation). (
  • To stimulate and facilitate further research, the NCI and NHLBI held the First International Consensus Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation on April 28 and 29, 2011. (
  • Ogata M, Fukuda T, Teshima T. Human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: what we do and do not know. (
  • Thus, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) initiated an investigation to determine if the virus was transmitted through organ transplantation and to identify and prevent rabies in other transplant recipients and persons who may have been exposed to potentially infectious material. (
  • Several bioprinted tissue types, including nerve, cardiac, blood vessel, bone and skin, have been transplanted into animals to study their functionality within a host. (
  • However, 3D-printed plastic, ceramic or metallic implants for bone tissue replacement have been successfully performed. (
  • Studies have shown that cells taken from adult human bone marrow may possibly be converted into neural cells-cells with the ability to convert to any type of cell found in the body-that could then be transplanted into the brain. (
  • Aligned electrospun cellulose scaffolds coated with rhBMP-2 for both in vitro and in vivo bone tissue engineering. (
  • In a study from the United States, long-term survivors of pediatric bone marrow transplantation followed in the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivors Study were compared with survivors of childhood cancer treated without bone marrow transplant from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (
  • [ 2 , 8 ] Survivors of bone marrow transplantation were more likely to have a severe or life threatening condition (relative risk [RR] = 3.9), more than one chronic condition (RR = 2.6), functional impairment (RR=3.5), and activity limitations (RR = 5.8) than conventionally treated patients. (
  • These data reinforce the need for marked vigilance in ensuring proper screening and management of long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation. (
  • Primary BK virus (BKV) infection due to possible BKV transmission during bone marrow transplantation is not the major cause of hemorrhagic cystitis in transplanted children. (
  • The first approach taps into the latent regenerative capacity of particular tissues, such as muscle, skin, fat, or bone marrow. (
  • However, stem cells may be derived from a variety of sources, including early embryos, fetal tissue and some adult tissues (eg, bone marrow and blood). (
  • Stem cells have been isolated from various tissues in animals and humans, including adult bone marrow, 3-5 cord blood, 6-8 and even adult brain. (
  • Cytomegalovirus is a potential risk factor for late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • The goal of their study was to transplant MSCs into brain regions of mice modeled with AD and compare the behavioral and pathological effects to those of AD mice not transplanted with cells. (
  • By transplanting various combinations of brainstem (including LC) and hippocampal tissues from wildtype or GDNF knockout fetuses into the brains of adult wildtype mice, we demonstrate that normal postnatal development of brainstem LC-NE neurons is disrupted as a result of the GDNF null mutation. (
  • In preliminary experiments, the transplantation of mouse neural stem cells, which survived in the brain for the four week period of the trial, provided protective effects in delaying disease progression in an HD mouse model and increased production of protective molecules in the brains of these mice. (
  • By virtue of the presence of a skilled neurosurgeon, Dr. Kuan-Yin Tseng in the lab and a collaboration with Dr. Maria Lindahl, the researchers were also able to study the outcome of experimental stroke in mice that lack MANF in their brain cells. (
  • We show that intracerebroventricular (ICV) NPC transplantation induced a notable improvement in remyelination in cuprizone-treated mice. (
  • Mice inoculated with autopsied brain tissue from patients with multiple sclerosis or subacute sclerosing panencephalitis had life spans similar to those of the control mice. (
  • Total or partial pancreatectomy followed by intrahepatic transplantation of autologous islets has emerged as a promising approach to treat CP, due to its ability to reduce or eliminate pain while retaining endocrine function. (
  • However, the cell source seems to be an important limitation for autologous transplantation in glioblastoma. (
  • They may represent therapeutically effective cells for the treatment of intracranial tumors after autologous transplantation. (
  • 2 In light of this, we assess the scientific potential of autologous transplantation of adult HNSCs for the treatment of CNS disorders such as Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury. (
  • This is encouraging in terms of autologous neural stem cell transplantation, where cells would be harvested directly from the brains of, for instance, patients with Parkinson's disease. (
  • Physicians, nurses, social workers and other staff members work closely with both the older adult and family caregivers -- in the exam room and in the home, as well as over the phone and via email -- to deliver care to improve both brain and physical health. (
  • Alvarado-Mallart, R.M, and Sotelo C. (1982): Differentiation of cerebellar anlage heterotopically transplanted to adult rat brain: A light and electron microscopic study. (
  • HNSCs successfully integrate into the host environment after transplantation into the developing or adult CNS. (
  • Recently, a renewable resource of neural stem cells was discovered in the adult human brain. (
  • These studies demonstrate that the adult human brain contains a renewable source of neural stem cells which can be successfully isolated through various surgical techniques. (
  • Neural transplantation has been concerned with both the survival potential of grafts and their incorporation or connections within the host brain substance. (
  • Often, homologous fetal tissue was used as grafts that might ameliorate deficiencies in the host. (
  • Putting fetal brain tissue grafts in the mature central nervous system (CNS) differs from peripheral nerve (PN) grafting in at least the following two ways. (
  • Unfortunately, there is abundant literature suggesting that environmental constraints from the mature host brain alter the restorative capacities of fetal grafts in various ways. (
  • The improvements shown here by PD patients after brain tissue grafts go beyond those obtained using any other therapeutic approach, when levodopa fails. (
  • The use of central nervous system fetal tissues derived from routine elective abortions to provide stem cells for transplantation procedures aimed at restoring damage done by neurodegenerative diseases is an established therapy. (
  • MSCs offer an excellent source of stem cells for transplantation in AD patients," explained study co-author Dr. Gary Dunbar of Central Michigan University, and the outgoing 2015 ASNTR president. (
  • The normal brain tissue see foetal brain transplantation. (
  • These results show that DARPP-32-positive striatal projection neurons are derived, for the most part, from the lateral ganglionic eminence and that the restricted lateral ganglionic eminence dissection provides a more optimal source of striatal tissue for grafting in the rat Huntington model. (
  • In the study, which was conducted in collaboration with researchers at UC San Francisco and published today in the Journal of Neuroscience , scientists transplanted inhibitory neuron progenitors-early-stage brain cells that have the capacity to develop into mature inhibitory neurons-into two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, apoE4 or apoE4 with accumulation of amyloid beta, another major contributor to Alzheimer's. (
  • The hippocampus, an important memory center in the brain, is particularly affected by this loss of inhibitory neurons, resulting in an increase in network activation that is thought to contribute to the learning and memory deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Hendry, I. A., 1975, The response of adrenergic neurons to axotomy and nerve growth factor, Brain Res . (
  • The recent advent of neural stem cells, which can in principle inspire any brain cell to proliferate, has opened a new vista on adding missing brain neurons to that spare-parts list some day. (
  • Cell replacement therapy with human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons has the potential to ameliorate neurodegenerative dysfunction and central nervous system injuries, but reprogrammed neurons are dissociated and spatially disorganized during transplantation, rendering poor cell survival, functionality and engraftment in vivo . (
  • Thus, 3D microscale biomaterials represent a promising platform for the transplantation of therapeutic human neurons with broad neuro-regenerative relevance. (
  • Neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries result in a loss of functional neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and are responsible for substantial deterioration in quality of life. (
  • Cell replacement therapies of matured neurons in the brain have conventionally been limited to injection of dissociated cells 2 , 13 . (
  • Because neurons develop from ES cells even when implanted outside the central nervous system ( 11 ) and ectoderm develops into neural tissue when cell-to-cell communication is disrupted by dissociation of the cells ( 12 - 14 ), we hypothesized that dilution of ES cells into single-cell suspensions of low ES cell concentrations would result in neuronal development. (
  • Stem cells can develop into many different types of cells, including neurons that transmit information in the brain. (
  • Profiles of more than 50 leading companies involved with solid organ transplantation, tissue transplantation, and alternative technologies are included. (
  • Accumulating experimental and clinical data have established the importance of DAMPs, which signal through innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) or DAMP-specific receptors, in regulating the alloresponse to solid organ transplantation (SOT). (
  • Solid organ transplantation (SOT) provides life-extending treatment for patients with advanced kidney, heart, liver, or lung failure. (
  • However, fetal tissue microbial contaminants have been known to cause brain infections in cell transplantation recipients. (
  • According to the researchers, aborted fetal human tissues carry the risk of bacterial contamination from the abortion process and this is the contributing factor to the subsequent risk of infection to cell recipients. (
  • After giving the implants several weeks to settle in, differentiate and proliferate, the co-authors examined the rodent recipients' brains microscopically and histochemically. (
  • Donation and Transplantation highlights information about organ, tissue and eyes organizations, transplant recipients and other groups directly involved with the donation process. (
  • NDFC Policies about tissue donation, communication with transplant recipients and more. (
  • A growing understanding of the role of DAMPs in directing the immune response to transplantation has suggested novel avenues for the treatment or prevention of allograft rejection that complement contemporary immunosuppression and could lead to improved outcomes for solid organ recipients. (
  • New Rochelle, NY, September 13, 2017--New research has shown that the success of transplanting stem cells into the brain to regenerate tissue damaged by stroke may depend on the maturity of the neuronal precursor cells used for transplantation. (
  • A study demonstrating the significant impact of human neuronal precursor cell maturity on cell survival after transplantation into stroke-injured rate brains is published in h Tissue Engineering , Part A, peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers . (
  • MANF also promoted reversal of stroke-induced behavioural impairments when administered directly into rat brain tissue 2 to 3 days after stroke. (
  • A massive immune response mediated by activated microglia and macrophages occurs in the rat brain tissue after stroke. (
  • It suggests that MANF or therapeutic agents with similar activity could be developed to repair brain tissue after stroke. (
  • Conclusions - Intravenously administered HUCBC enter brain, survive, migrate, and improve functional recovery after stroke. (
  • HUCBC transplantation may provide a cell source to treat stroke. (
  • When the blood supply to the brain is cut off by stroke, heart attack, or injury, the brain begins to die. (
  • To save a patient's brain tissues after a heart attack or stroke, after all, time is of the essence. (
  • We now know that during a stroke the human brain undergoes irreversible deterioration at a terrifying pace. (
  • citation needed] Watershed stroke symptoms are due to the reduced blood flow to all parts of the body, specifically the brain, thus leading to brain damage. (
  • Early diagnosis and timely medical intervention can drastically reduce the severity of a stroke, limit damage to the brain, improve the chances of a full recovery and reduce recovery times massively. (
  • After the initial stroke, other symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. (
  • There are several conditions that can predispose someone to watershed stroke by increasing the likelihood that insufficient blood supply will be able to reach the brain. (
  • This differentiation is likely not caused by a specific inductive signal from the host brain, because similar neuronal differentiation occurs after placement in the kidney capsule ( 11 ). (
  • Combination use of HNSC transplantation and treatment with drugs such as (+)-phenserine that modulate APP levels in the brain may be a useful tool for understanding mechanisms regulating stem cell migration and differentiation during neurodegenerative conditions in AD. (
  • Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) to the developing brain and in animal models of neurodegeneration has demonstrated that migration and differentiation of these cells is regulated primarily by environmental cues ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • This finding suggests that stem cell replacement approaches would have reduced effectiveness in the AD brain, in which impaired APP metabolism would prevent or reduce neuronal differentiation of implanted cells. (
  • New Bioactive Motifs and Their Use in Functionalized Self-Assembling Peptides for NSC Differentiation and Neural Tissue Engineering,` Nanoscale 4(9):2946-2957 (2012). (
  • In contrast, several authors have reported that trans-differentiation can occur in vitro in the absence of cell fusion, including the generation of neural derivatives from non-neural tissues. (
  • Cell-based therapies require a reliable source of cells that can be easily grown, undergo directed differentiation, and remain viable after transplantation. (
  • 6 A common thread throughout such experiments is that the neural tissues that survived and differentiated within the host brain were exclusively from fetal donors. (
  • Methods and Results We compared the cardiac tissue levels of renin-angiotensin system components in 10 potential heart donors who died of noncardiac disorders and 10 subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) who underwent cardiac transplantation. (
  • An average yearly decrease of brain volume of about 1.9% was observed despite only five enhancing lesions seen on triple dose follow up scans of two patients. (
  • Bajaj led the team of researchers who oversaw fecal microbial transplantation in cirrhosis patients at Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center. (
  • Fetal neural tissue transplantation has become a potential treatment option for patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD)," explained study co-author Dr. Guido Nikkah of the Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen University Clinic, Erlangen, Germany. (
  • This paper by Oleh Hornykiewicz recounts the remarkable mixture of science, intrigue and politics behind the author's work in the 1950s and early 1960s that triggered the modern era of Parkinson's disease research: the discovery of the dopamine deficit in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease. (
  • Microdialysis sampling of the brain is an analytical technique with numerous applications in neuroscience and the neurointensive care of brain-injured human patients. (
  • The dose of 7 140 hysterectomies by type of epileptic patients and by use of electrosurgery to be unscientific, he excluded everything except behaviour from psychology, and organizational productivity and utility to the next 5 incisors) years.2 (f) narrow palatopharyngeal arch (the arch is at its posterior extremity by area v4 of the underlying fibromuscular tissue. (
  • Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. (
  • Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. (
  • Results from the initial clinical trials for type 1 diabetes were only partially successful, with only 10% of the patients achieving insulin independence at 1 year after transplantation [ 2 ]. (
  • [ 7 ] of 798 patients who survived more than 5 years after transplantation, 328 were children. (
  • That can worsen a saturation of the brain with VM in some cases for real patients and so for now I did not recommend using those compounds for perfusion of CI patients. (
  • 2. The problem of preservation of patients' brains during 12-24 hour transportation from regions which are far from CI. (
  • HNSCs have been isolated from brain tissue obtained from patients undergoing surgical procedures involving removal of brain tissue for the treatment of epilepsy, tumours, or trauma. (
  • It is extraordinarily expensive (in terms of equipment and labor) to maintain patients on respirators and other life support and using these resources for 'brain dead' patients prevents their deployment for those who stand a better chance of recovery. (
  • NCL patients lack an enzyme responsible for breaking down complex fat and protein compounds in the brain," lead researcher Dr. Robert D. Steiner, vice chairman of pediatric research and head of the Division of Metabolism at Doernbecher Children's Hospital, said at a press briefing Friday. (
  • Patients with many different cardiovascular diseases have a higher likelihood of experiencing a blood clot or loss of blood flow in border-zone regions of the brain. (
  • Effect of dexamethasone on gliosis, ischemia, and dopamine extraction during microdialysis sampling in brain tissue. (
  • Moreover, measurements of DOPA accumulation for a 30‐min period after DOPA decarboxylase inhibition indicated similar fractional dopamine turnover rates in normal and transplantreinnervated tissues. (
  • For example, paralysis agitans, more commonly known as Parkinson's disease, is characterized by a lack of the neurotransmitter, dopamine, within the striatum of the brain, secondary to the destruction of the dopamine secreting cells of the substantia nigra. (
  • Dopamine is a substance in the brain that is considered to be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (
  • It is caused by the progressive loss of brain cells (neurones) in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra, which produces the chemical dopamine. (
  • As the cells die, less dopamine is produced and transported to the striatum, the area of the brain that co-ordinates movement. (
  • These scans may identify dopamine deficiency in the brain but are not routinely available. (
  • This is an excellent addition to our understanding of cell behavior in a therapeutic circumstance," says Tissue Engineering Co-Editor-in-Chief Peter C. Johnson, MD, Principal, MedSurgPI, LLC and President and CEO, Scintellix, LLC, Raleigh, NC. (
  • In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. (
  • The tropism of NSCs for brain tumor can be used for delivering therapeutic molecules, such as genes, proteins, peptides, or small chemical molecules ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • These effects may in part explain the therapeutic benefit of MSG transplantation in animal models of CNS lesions. (
  • Significantly more early- and mid-differentiated neuronal stem cells were present in the rat brains one week after transplantation compared to late-differentiated cells. (
  • However, in the apoE4 model of Alzheimer's disease-a genetic risk factor that is carried by approximately 25% of the population and is involved in 60-75% of all Alzheimer's cases-this balance gets disrupted due to a decline in inhibitory regulator cells that are essential in maintaining normal brain activity. (
  • Now, a research team from Germany has developed a "washing" technique that decontaminates the fetal tissues from which stem cells are derived. (
  • Based on the technique's success in decontaminating fetal tissue cells transplanted into laboratory animals, the washing technique was subsequently used in clinical practice. (
  • The potentially deleterious impact of microbial contamination on the use of cells or tissues for transplantation is an important health factor that cannot be ignored. (
  • Bioprinting precisely places cells, proteins, DNA, drug particles, growth factors and biologically active particles spatially to guide tissue generation and formation. (
  • To generate bioprinted heart tissue, tissue spheroids of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cardiac cells were generated. (
  • Tissue engineering of cartilage tissue requires precise spatial and temporal deposition of cells and biomaterials with sophisticated patterns. (
  • Bioprinting the tissue in situ can lead to recruitment of endothelial cells and incorporation in to the host vasculature. (
  • Even so, implanting microdialysis probes into brain tissue causes a penetration injury that triggers gliosis (the activation and proliferation of glial cells) and ischemia (the interruption of blood flow). (
  • Still on the drawing board are prosthetic brain cells to make good the neuronal losses incurred in diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and multiple sclerosis. (
  • Scaffold-supported, reprogrammed neuronal networks were successfully grafted into organotypic hippocampal brain slices, showing an ∼ 3.5-fold improvement in neurite outgrowth and increased action potential firing relative to injected isolated cells. (
  • Transplantation of scaffold-supported neuronal networks into mouse brain striatum improved survival ∼ 38-fold at the injection site relative to injected isolated cells, and allowed delivery of multiple neuronal subtypes. (
  • An alternative approach using biomaterial scaffolds can provide structural support to cells during transplantation, which could improve cell engraftment and survival. (
  • While little is known about how AD actually develops, scientists believe that it is caused by a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors that cause brain proteins to function abnormally and become toxic to brain cells. (
  • The herb even improved functional recovery of these cells after transplantation to ischemic brain tissues. (
  • As a proof-of-concept study for the management of chronic pain through intraspinal transplantation following injury to peripheral nerves, in this study the researchers employed recombinant (genetically engineered) cell therapy using GABAeric cells. (
  • Thus, transplantation tolerance requires both costimulatory blockade, which suppresses acute allograft rejection, and a favorable balance between memory and regulatory T cells that could favorably prevent late allograft failure. (
  • Transplantation of pancreatic islets is a minimally invasive procedure involving infusion of islet cells into the portal vein of the liver, and it was first demonstrated in an experimental diabetic model by Kemp et al. (
  • In the first year, the team has developed and established methods to differentiate hESCs into neural, neuronal and astrocyte precursors to be used for transplantation and has determined the correct cells to use that can be developed for future clinical development of these cells. (
  • This need is driving the development of cardiovascular 3D bioprinting technologies, which make use of 3D printing-like techniques to combine cells and biomaterials to fabricate biomimetic structures that replicate natural tissue physiology and function. (
  • Terumo has developed a tissue culture plate that allows cells to float off the surface in an intact sheet when the temperature is lowered, thus preserving the extracellular matrix that is lost when cells are removed by other methods. (
  • APP expression is also increased after brain injury, and increased levels are observed in apoptotic cells ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • Few subjects in biomedical science have captured the imagination of both the scientific community and the public as has the use of stem cells for the repair of damaged tissues. (
  • MANF has also recently been shown to recruit immune cells to the eye after retinal damage and to mediate retinal repair after photoreceptor transplantation. (
  • These cells are the professional cleaning crew that clears dying cells and dead material from injured tissue. (
  • Should Brain Generation with Stem Cells Be Allowed? (
  • Authoritative and easily accessible, Stem Cells and Tissue Repair: Methods and Protocols provides state-of the-art methods descriptions and the references therein that will provide a suitable starting point for exploring the vast literature that has already developed for regenerative medicine. (
  • In the present study, we evaluated the tumor targeting and antitumor activity of human skin-derived stem cells (hSDSCs) in human brain tumor models. (
  • We isolated recently and characterized a multipotent stem cells from human skin tissue expressing the CD133, a hemapoietic/endothelial marker ( 19 ). (
  • Fetal neural stem cells can reduce behavioral deficits in damaged and compromised brain in animals and in humans. (
  • 4 Although the fundamental principle of stem cell research remains the same (ie, the development of undifferentiated cells into committed cell lineages for the purpose of tissue renewal and repair), the science has evolved to encompass many new applications, including cell-based therapies 5 and drug screening. (
  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction was evident by leakage of the tracer sodium fluorescein, along with reduced expression of claudin-5 by endothelial cells and desmin by pericytes. (
  • The matching of histocompatibility antigens that differentiate one person's cells from another's helps prevent rejection of donated tissues. (
  • RG-2 glioma cells if grafted into the brain developed AQP4 expression. (
  • In this study, we showed for the first time implanted AQP4 negative glioma cells in animal brain or flank to express AQP4 specifically in the intracerebral gliomas but neither in the extracranial nor in the flank gliomas. (
  • The extent of demyelination, remyelination, and proliferation of host brain regenerative cell population were examined at 1 week posttransplantation in the splenium of the corpus callosum, which was devoid of any transplanted cells. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) nave been isolated from the postnatal BM and more recently many other sites including adipose tissue, skin and placental cord blood. (
  • One day before transfection, mouse D3 ES cells were trypsinized and plated in DMEM plus 20% FBS and 1000 U/ml LIF in six-well tissue culture plates coated with gelatin at a density resulting in ∼90% confluency within 1 d. (
  • The stem cells will be implanted into 3 areas of the brain and drugs to avoid cell rejection will also be given to the childen. (
  • These materials accumulate and interfere with normal cell and tissue function and ultimately cause cells to die," said Steiner, who's also a professor of pediatrics and molecular and medical genetics at Oregon Health and Science University School of Medicine. (
  • Theses stem cells are isolated from normal fetal brain tissue, purified, expanded and then stored in frozen cell banks until they are transplanted," the researchers said. (
  • His research is based on developing biomaterials to control cellular behaviour with particular emphasis in developing engineered materials for various tissue engineering applications. (
  • In the present study, we have clarified that brain death in combination with warm ischemic stress during isolation procedures induces a high expression of inflammatory mediators in isolated islets. (
  • In addition, we tested whether ischemic brain tissue extract selectively induces chemotaxis of HUCBC in vitro. (
  • Neural transplantation has been used to study and promote the regenerative potential of the brain after an ischemic insult. (
  • In addition, we used an in vitro system to test whether ischemic brain tissue extract selectively induces chemotaxis of HUCBC. (
  • History of Transplantation and Future Trends. (
  • Despite the immune regulation, intratesticular islet allografts all were rejected within 42 days after transplantation although they survived longer than renal subcapsular islet allografts. (
  • There is a clear need for a more abundant supply of hearts suitable for transplantation. (
  • However, their clinical application is limited by ethical and logistic problems such as their isolation and their immunologic compatibility in allogenic transplantation. (
  • However, in Europe neural transplantation of fetal tissue must be performed in accordance with guidelines on "Good Manufacturing Processes," which means that aspects of microbiological safety have to be investigated in detail. (
  • The ideal treatment for some forms of severe CVD, such as chronic heart failure or extensive myocardial injury, is cardiac transplantation. (
  • Title: Does Halacha Permit Heart Transplantation in Israel? (
  • The researchers noted that prior to their study it was not clear whether fetal tissue contamination, or subsequent surgical contamination during cell transplantation normally had the greatest impact as potential contributing factors to microbial infection in hosts. (
  • To prevent microbial infection in cell transplantation hosts, the researchers developed and tested a microbial "washing" technique. (
  • However, studying how the brain produces these behavioral differences is difficult: researchers usually do not know whether their study participants will be vulnerable to sleep deprivation until after a study is complete. (
  • Developing a dynamic cardiac tissue capable of mimicking the mechanical and electroconductive properties of native myocardium is proving difficult for researchers. (
  • The success of 3D bioprinting depends on researchers' ability to vascularise the tissue. (
  • The children will be monitored with standardized measures of development, cognition, behavior and language for one year following transplantation, " the researchers said. (
  • AQP4 expression in intracerebral gliomas went along with an OAP loss, compared to normal brain tissue. (
  • The lead surgeon, Joseph Murray, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1990 for advances in organ transplantation. (
  • Nikkhah, G. Transplantation of human fetal tissue for neurodegenerative diseases : Validation of a new protocol for microbiological analysis and bacterial decontamination. (
  • Nanotechnology developed at Rutgers University-New Brunswick could boost research on stem cell transplantation, which may help people with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, other neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system injuries. (
  • However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. (
  • Targeting brain diseases such as brain cancer and neurodegenerative diseases with therapeutics is especially challenging because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (
  • Pathological changes that occur in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) may profoundly affect the brain microenvironment, which may in turn affect the fate of NSCs. (
  • The article is available free on the Tissue Engineering website until October 13, 2017. (
  • Moreover, the scarcity of such tissues - plus ethical and legal objections to their use - compromises the extension of this still-experimental approach. (
  • Molecular imaging and nuclear medicine are useful tools that allow the visualization of different kinds of neuronal functions to evaluate cell transplantation therapy in both experimental and clinical situations, said Kuroda. (
  • Furthermore, transplanted preadipocytes can form adipose tissue in vivo whereas the transplantation of mature adipocytes often gives poor results, i.e. oil cysts or shrinkage of the transplant. (
  • The Use of Silk as a Scaffold for Mature, Sustainable Unilocular Adipose 3D Tissue Engineered Systems. (
  • ethical concerns regarding human organ transplantation. (
  • In the present study, we measured the tissue levels of prorenin, renin, angiotensinogen, and ACE in normal and failing human hearts. (
  • As their starting material, the co-authors obtained human forebrain tissue from two embryos, one in the sixth week of gestation, the other in the ninth week. (
  • With the exception of transplantation, the CDC said 'human-to-human rabies transmission has not been laboratory-documented. (
  • However, CI as well as Alcor does not have reliable methods of determination of a complete saturation of the whole human brain with VMs. (
  • Survey for the presence of BK, JC, KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses in human brain tissues. (
  • Progress in the life sciences is moving at an astonishing rate, and today it has become possible to reproduce part of the human brain in a test tube. (
  • The brain is a key organ controlling human activity, and there is a need to think seriously about how far we should allow such research to proceed. (
  • The tissue formed was only about 2 millimeters in size, but it showed the same electrical activity as brain tissue functioning in the human body. (
  • Should We Make Human Brains? (
  • If the brain is the seat of human personality, and thus a privileged organ, should this be allowed? (
  • Firstly, we must consider how special the brain is in human life and as an element of the human body. (
  • As special treatment is demanded for genes, which are considered the blueprints of life, and human embryos (fertilized ova), which are considered the beginning of life, how about the brain? (
  • Taken together, these data validate the use of hSDSCs for targeting human brain tumors. (
  • T hough the versatile human brain, the domain of thought and imagination, may seduce us into believing it is somehow an organ apart from the body, it is emphatically physical. (
  • Scientists call the preservative cooling of the living human brain "induced hypothermia. (
  • Human brain imaging typically employs structured and controlled tasks to avoid variable and inconsistent activation patterns. (
  • A major limitation of conventional human brain research has been its basis in highly artificial laboratory experiments. (
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the brain, is highly expressed in animal glioma and human glioblastoma in situ. (
  • The international traffic in human body parts and tissues is thriving. (
  • Kidney recipient A, a woman aged 31 years, underwent transplantation for end-stage renal disease resulting from hypertension and diabetes. (
  • There is growing evidence to suggest that in cardiac tissue, Ang II is produced locally and does not originate from circulating Ang I. 3 4 However, whether the cardiac Ang I and II production depends on renin from the kidney remains a matter of dispute. (
  • We compared the tissue levels of these RAS components with the levels in simultaneously obtained plasma to address the possibility of cardiac angiotensin formation independent of kidney-derived renin. (
  • Provides the latest information about legislation and policy relating to chronic kidney disease, transplantation and donation. (
  • Get help navigating the challenges of kidney disease, organ donation and transplantation. (
  • They note that with an estimated 4.7 million Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer's disease, if the Healthy Aging Brain Center care model were to be implemented nationwide, the potential annual cost savings could be in the billions of dollars. (
  • We have demonstrated that the comprehensive care provided by the Health Aging Brain Center care model shows a net savings in the first year of implementation and meets the complex care needs of seniors with Alzheimer's and other dementias," French said. (
  • This is the first time transplantation of inhibitory neuron progenitors has been used in aged Alzheimer's disease models," said first author Leslie Tong, a graduate student at the Gladstone Institutes and UCSF. (
  • Natural News ) Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive brain disease that affects cognitive function. (
  • 1. The grafting of living tissue from its normal position to another site or the transferring of an organ or tissue from one person to another. (
  • Surgeons tasked with removing brain tumors have limited information available to help them make decisions about what tissue appears cancerous and how much to excise without damaging brain regions important to key functions such as movement and speech. (
  • In an effort to speed up the process, Santagata and his colleagues joined with analytical chemist Graham Cooks at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, to exploit a hallmark feature of brain tumors as a way of defining the boundaries of these malignancies. (
  • As it turns out, brain tumors known as gliomas tend to express high amounts of a lipid metabolite called 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). (
  • However, many lab-to-clinic translational considerations must be given in determining their efficacy, variables such as the host response, effects on native tissue, and potential for generating tumors. (
  • Brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme, are highly aggressive tumors and are characterized by marked angiogenesis and extensive tumor cell invasion into the normal brain parenchyma ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Mitolactol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors. (
  • An alkylating agent used as a part of chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors as well as refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease in addition to surgical and/or radiotherapeutic treatments. (
  • What if facilitating specific branches of the inflammatory response enhances both tissue repair and functional recovery? (
  • Following transplantation into the rodent central nervous system (CNS), ES cell-derived neural precursors have been shown to integrate into the host tissue and, in some cases, yield functional improvement (McDonald, J. W., et al. (
  • Although histopathological studies have shown many more transected axons in lesions with large inflammatory infiltrates than in those without, 1 the magnitude of the correlation between brain tissue loss and enhancement was found to be either absent or weak in several in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. (
  • Behavioral recovery paralleled in vivo positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging data demonstrating DA-mediated hemodynamic changes in the striatum and associated brain circuitry. (
  • Despite these constraints, several tissues which are thin or hollow such as blood vessels and tissues that do not require vasculature such as cartilage have been successfully bioprinted. (
  • During early organogenesis, expression was detected in the blood vessels of highly vascularized tissues such as the brain, liver, lungs and placenta. (
  • My best result was only 20% survival of rat brain tissues. (
  • Probably even such a brain tissue survival can produce a bioelectrical activity similar to the one that Dr. Suda recorded. (
  • 14,15 However, little is known about survival and development of HUCBC transplantation in the central nervous system. (
  • This indicates that, in MS, progressive loss of tissue can occur independently of concomitant MRI-visible inflammation. (
  • Since many enhancing lesions go undetected when using standard dose MRI, 3 the discrepant effect of treatment on frequency of enhancement and development of brain atrophy might be a consequence of previous disease activity and persistent "low grade" inflammation. (