Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.

Millimeter-scale positioning of a nerve-growth-factor source and biological activity in the brain. (1/294)

Toxicity prevents the systemic administration of many therapeutic proteins, and attempts at protein targeting via the circulatory system (i.e., "magic bullets") have failed in all but a few special cases. Direct administration at the target site is a logical alternative, particularly in the central nervous system, but the limits of direct administration have not been defined clearly. Nerve growth factor (NGF) enhances survival of cholinergic neurons and, therefore, has generated considerable interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the effectiveness of local delivery by implanting small polymer pellets that slowly released NGF into the central nervous system of adult rats at controlled distances from a target site containing transplanted fetal cholinergic cells. NGF-releasing implants placed within 1-2 mm of the treatment site enhanced the biological function of cellular targets, whereas identical implants placed approximately 3 mm from the target site of treatment produced no beneficial effect. Effective NGF therapy required millimeter-scale positioning of the NGF source, and efficacy correlated with the spatial distribution of NGF concentration in the tissue; this result suggests that NGF must be delivered within several millimeters of the target to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease. Because the human brain is divided into functional regions that are typically several centimeters in diameter and often irregular in shape, new methods for sculpting larger-scale drug fields are needed. We illustrate a concept, called pharmacotectonics, in which drug-delivery systems are arranged spatially in tissues to shape concentration fields for potent agents.  (+info)

Sequential bilateral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: effects of the second graft. (2/294)

Five parkinsonian patients who had received implants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue unilaterally in the striatum 10-56 months earlier were grafted with tissue from four to eight donors into the putamen (four patients) or the putamen plus the caudate nucleus (one patient) on the other side, and were followed for 18-24 months. After 12-18 months, PET showed a mean 85% increase in 6-L-[18F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen with the second graft, whereas there was no significant further change in the previously transplanted putamen. Two patients exhibited marked additional improvements after their second graft: 'on-off' fluctuations virtually disappeared, movement speed increased, and L-dopa could be withdrawn in one patient and reduced by 70% in the other. The improvement in one patient was moderate. Two patients with atypical features, who responded poorly to the first graft, worsened following the second transplantation. These findings indicate that sequential transplantation in patients does not compromise the survival and function of either the first or the second graft. Moreover, putamen grafts that restore fluorodopa uptake to normal levels can give improvements of major therapeutic value.  (+info)

Specification of somatosensory area identity in cortical explants. (3/294)

The H-2Z1 transgene is restricted to a subset of layer IV neurons in the postnatal mouse cortex and delineates exactly the somatosensory area. Expression of the H-2Z1 transgene was used as an areal marker to determine when the parietal cortex becomes committed to a somatosensory identity. We have shown previously that grafts dissected from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) H-2Z1 cortex and transplanted into the cortex of nontransgenic newborns express H-2Z1 according to their site of origin. Expression was not modified on heterotopic transplantation (). In the present study, whole cortical explants were isolated at E12.5 from noncortical tissues. The explants developed a regionalized expression of H-2Z1, indicating that regionalization takes place and is maintained in vitro. We used this property and confronted embryonic H-2Z1 cortex with presumptive embryonic sources of regionalizing signals in an in vitro grafting procedure. A great majority of E11.5-E13.5 grafts maintained their presumptive expression of H-2Z1 when grafted heterotopically on nontransgenic E13.5-E15.5 explants. However, a significantly lower proportion of E11.5 parietal grafts expressed H-2Z1 in occipital compared with parietal cortex, indicating that somatosensory identity may be partially plastic at E11.5. Earlier stages could not be tested because the E10.5 grafts failed to develop in vitro. The data suggest that commitment to the expression of a somatosensory area-specific marker coincides with the onset of neurogenesis and occurs well before the birth of the non-GABAergic neurons that express H-2Z1 in vivo.  (+info)

Site-specific migration and neuronal differentiation of human neural progenitor cells after transplantation in the adult rat brain. (4/294)

Neural progenitor cells obtained from the embryonic human forebrain were expanded up to 10(7)-fold in culture in the presence of epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and leukemia inhibitory growth factor. When transplanted into neurogenic regions in the adult rat brain, the subventricular zone, and hippocampus, the in vitro propagated cells migrated specifically along the routes normally taken by the endogenous neuronal precursors: along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb and within the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus, and exhibited site-specific neuronal differentiation in the granular and periglomerular layers of the bulb and in the dentate granular cell layer. The cells exhibited substantial migration also within the non-neurogenic region, the striatum, in a seemingly nondirected manner up to approximately 1-1.5 mm from the graft core, and showed differentiation into both neuronal and glial phenotypes. Only cells with glial-like features migrated over longer distances within the mature striatum, whereas the cells expressing neuronal phenotypes remained close to the implantation site. The ability of the human neural progenitors to respond in vivo to guidance cues and signals that can direct their differentiation along multiple phenotypic pathways suggests that they can provide a powerful and virtually unlimited source of cells for experimental and clinical transplantation.  (+info)

Anterior cephalic neural crest is required for forebrain viability. (5/294)

The prosencephalon, or embryonic forebrain, grows within a mesenchymal matrix of local paraxial mesoderm and of neural crest cells (NCC) derived from the posterior diencephalon and mesencephalon. Part of this NCC population forms the outer wall of capillaries within the prosencephalic leptomeninges and neuroepithelium itself. The surgical removal of NCC from the anterior head of chick embryos leads to massive cell death within the forebrain neuroepithelium during an interval that precedes its vascularization by at least 36 hours. During this critical period, a mesenchymal layer made up of intermingled mesodermal cells and NCC surround the neuroepithelium. This layer is not formed after anterior cephalic NCC ablation. The neuroepithelium then undergoes massive apoptosis. Cyclopia ensues after forebrain deterioration and absence of intervening frontonasal bud derivatives. The deleterious effect of ablation of the anterior NC cannot be interpreted as a deficit in vascularization because it takes place well before the time when blood vessels start to invade the neuroepithelium. Thus the mesenchymal layer itself exerts a trophic effect on the prosencephalic neuroepithelium. In an assay to rescue the operated phenotype, we found that the rhombencephalic but not the truncal NC can successfully replace the diencephalic and mesencephalic NC. Moreover, any region of the paraxial cephalic mesoderm can replace NCC in their dual function: in their early trophic effect and in providing pericytes to the forebrain meningeal blood vessels. The assumption of these roles by the cephalic neural crest may have been instrumental in the rostral expansion of the vertebrate forebrain over the course of evolution.  (+info)

Ethical aspects of neural tissue transplantation. (6/294)

The method of neural grafting is considered to be a very promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's disease. During the last 15 years, clinical transplantation studies have been carried out worldwide in several hundreds of patients with Parkinson's disease. In these studies, primarily fetal mesencephalic tissue derived from aborted human fetuses has been used for implantation. Neural tissue transplantation gives rise to ethical issues in two different areas that need careful examination: the first, ethical problems linked to the use of tissue from aborted human fetuses; and the second, ethical issues concerning the graft recipients in clinical trials, i.e., his or her well-being, personality, and personal identity.  (+info)

Serial MR imaging of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by human white matter or by chimeric myelin-basic and proteolipid protein in the common marmoset. (7/294)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the marmoset was monitored by serial MR imaging to determine correlates to the natural-history MR studies in multiple sclerosis (MS). The relationships of MR-revealed lesions to clinical status and histopathologic findings were also explored. METHODS: We induced EAE by subcutaneous inoculation in two marmosets by human white matter (HWM) and in seven marmosets by MP4 (a chimeric recombinant fusion protein of myelin-basic and proteolipid protein) in adjuvant along with intravenous inactivated pertussis vaccine to facilitate the disease process. The HWM-inoculated animals were induced with Freund's adjuvant as the established model of marmoset EAE. The MP4-inoculated animals were induced with either Freund's incomplete adjuvant or TiterMax as part of a preclinical treatment trial. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T at baseline, and repeated at 1- to 2-week intervals for a period of up to 16 weeks in six EAE-induced marmosets, and intermittently for up to 70 weeks in three EAE-induced and two control marmosets. Proton density- (PD-) and T2-weighted, pre- and postgadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement, T1-weighted, and magnetization transfer (MT) images were obtained. The brains were prepared for histologic evaluation of lesion distribution and counts, characterization of lesions as demyelinating or inflammatory, and histopathologic scoring. The clinical, MR, and pathologic scoring were done on grading systems, and correlated for evaluation. RESULTS: White matter (WM) changes after EAE induction were observed first at 9 days in the HWM-induced animals and at 2.5 weeks in the MP4-induced animals, with subsequent week-to-week fluctuations on PD- and T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhancing lesions were not observed in all animals. MR-revealed WM lesions correlated to histopathologic analysis of EAE lesions, measuring from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. The lesion count and extent of demyelination was greater in the HWM-induced animals than in the MP4-induced animals. Some MR-revealed lesions correlated directly to clinical symptoms, but the majority of lesions were clinically silent. CONCLUSION: On MR images, lesions in the EAE marmoset model were confined to the WM, and their development, resolution, distribution, and enhancing characteristics fluctuated over the duration of the study. The dynamic presentation of MR-revealed lesions confirms the parallels between EAE in the marmoset and relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical symptoms alone were not representative of ongoing pathologic brain lesions. Therefore, serial MR imaging serves as a very important adjunct to clinical and histologic surveillance of the development of new and the persistence of existing brain lesions in this animal model of MS.  (+info)

Regeneration of isthmic tissue is the result of a specific and direct interaction between rhombomere 1 and midbrain. (8/294)

The midbrain-hindbrain boundary, or isthmus, is the source of signals that are responsible for regional specification of both the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) is expressed specifically at the isthmus and there is now good evidence that it forms at least part of the patterning signal. In this study, we use Fgf8 as a marker for isthmic cells to examine how interactions between midbrain and hindbrain can regenerate isthmic tissue and, thereby, gain insight into the normal formation and/or maintenance of the isthmus. We show that Fgf8-expressing tissue with properties of the isthmic organiser is generated when midbrain and rhombomere 1 tissue are juxtaposed but not when midbrain contacts any other rhombomere. The use of chick/quail chimeras shows that the isthmic tissue is largely derived from rhombomere 1. In a few cases a small proportion of the Fgf8-positive cells were of midbrain origin but this appears to be the result of a local respecification to a hindbrain phenotype, a process mimicked by ectopic FGF8. Studies in vitro show that the induction of Fgf8 is the result of a direct planar interaction between the two tissues and involves a diffusible signal.  (+info)

Brain tissue transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the surgical implantation of healthy brain tissue into a damaged or diseased brain. The goal of this procedure is to replace the non-functioning brain cells with healthy ones, in order to restore lost function or improve neurological symptoms.

The brain tissue used for transplantation can come from various sources, including fetal brain tissue, embryonic stem cells, or autologous cells (the patient's own cells). The most common type of brain tissue transplantation is fetal brain tissue transplantation, where tissue from aborted fetuses is used.

Brain tissue transplantation has been explored as a potential treatment for various neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and stroke. However, the procedure remains highly experimental and is not widely available outside of clinical trials. There are also ethical concerns surrounding the use of fetal brain tissue, which has limited its widespread adoption.

It is important to note that while brain tissue transplantation holds promise as a potential treatment for neurological disorders, it is still an area of active research and much more needs to be learned about its safety and efficacy before it becomes a standard treatment option.

Tissue transplantation is a medical procedure where tissues from one part of the body or from another individual's body are removed and implanted in a recipient to replace damaged, diseased, or missing tissues. The tissues may include skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, heart valves, corneas, or even entire organs such as hearts, lungs, livers, and kidneys.

The donor tissue must be compatible with the recipient's body to reduce the risk of rejection, which is the immune system attacking and destroying the transplanted tissue. This often requires matching certain proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) found on the surface of most cells in the body.

Tissue transplantation can significantly improve a patient's quality of life or, in some cases, save their life. However, it does carry risks such as infection, bleeding, and rejection, which require careful monitoring and management.

Complicity, in a medical context, generally refers to the state of being involved or associated with someone else's wrongful actions or negligence, typically as an accessory or partner. This can include situations where a healthcare professional knows about and fails to report or take action to prevent harm caused by another person, or where they actively assist in the commission of unethical or illegal acts. Complicity can also refer to the act of providing assistance or encouragement to someone who is engaging in harmful behavior, such as a patient who is abusing drugs or alcohol. In all cases, complicity implies a level of responsibility and accountability for the negative outcomes that result from the actions of oneself or others.

Fetal tissue transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the surgical implantation of tissue from developing fetuses into patients for therapeutic purposes. The tissue used in these procedures typically comes from elective abortions, and can include tissues such as neural cells, liver cells, pancreatic islets, and heart valves.

The rationale behind fetal tissue transplantation is that the developing fetus has a high capacity for cell growth and regeneration, making its tissues an attractive source of cells for transplantation. Additionally, because fetal tissue is often less mature than adult tissue, it may be less likely to trigger an immune response in the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection.

Fetal tissue transplantation has been explored as a potential treatment for a variety of conditions, including Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and heart disease. However, the use of fetal tissue in medical research and therapy remains controversial due to ethical concerns surrounding the sourcing of the tissue.

In medical and legal terms, "personhood" refers to the status of being a person, which is typically associated with certain legal rights, protections, and privileges. The concept of personhood is often discussed in the context of bioethics, particularly in relation to questions about the moral and legal status of entities such as fetuses, embryos, and individuals with severe cognitive impairments or in vegetative states.

The criteria for personhood are a subject of debate and vary depending on cultural, religious, philosophical, and legal perspectives. However, some common factors that are often considered include consciousness, the ability to feel pain, the capacity for self-awareness and self-reflection, the ability to communicate, and the presence of a distinct genetic identity.

In medical contexts, personhood may be relevant to issues such as end-of-life care, organ donation, and reproductive rights. For example, some argue that personhood should be granted to fetuses at the moment of conception, while others believe that personhood is only achieved when a fetus becomes viable outside the womb or when a child is born alive.

Overall, the concept of personhood is complex and multifaceted, and it continues to be debated and refined in various fields and disciplines.

Directed tissue donation is the process by which a person designates a specific individual as the recipient of their donated tissues, such as corneas, heart valves, or skin, after their death. This allows the donor to make a direct and meaningful impact on the life of someone they know or are related to who may be in need of a tissue transplant. It is important to note that the final determination of whether the tissues are suitable for transplantation will be made by medical professionals at the time of donation, taking into account various factors such as the donor's medical history and cause of death. Directed tissue donation can provide comfort and solace to both the donor and their loved ones, knowing that they have been able to help someone in need even after their passing.

Defining "life" is a complex question that has been debated by philosophers, scientists, and theologians for centuries. From a biological or medical perspective, life can be defined as a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) defines life as "the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death."

It's important to note that there is no one universally accepted definition of life, and different fields and disciplines may have slightly different definitions or criteria.

The "beginning of human life" is a term that is often used in the context of medical ethics, particularly in discussions about issues such as abortion and stem cell research. However, there is no universally accepted medical definition of this term, as it is also influenced by philosophical, religious, and legal considerations.

From a biological perspective, human life begins at fertilization, when a sperm cell successfully penetrates and fuses with an egg cell to form a zygote. This single cell contains the complete genetic makeup of the future individual and has the potential to develop into a fully formed human being, given the right conditions.

However, some people argue that personhood or moral status does not begin until later stages of development, such as at implantation, when the zygote attaches to the uterine wall and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's body, or at viability, when the fetus can survive outside the womb with medical assistance.

Ultimately, the definition of "beginning of human life" is a complex and controversial issue that depends on one's values and beliefs. It is important to recognize and respect the diversity of opinions on this matter and engage in thoughtful and respectful dialogue about its implications for medical practice and policy.

An aborted fetus refers to a developing human organism that is expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of an induced abortion. An abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally ends a pregnancy and can be performed through various methods, depending on the stage of the pregnancy.

It's important to note that the term "abortion" is often used in different contexts and may carry different connotations depending on one's perspective. In medical terminology, an abortion refers specifically to the intentional ending of a pregnancy before viability. However, in other contexts, the term may be used more broadly to refer to any spontaneous or induced loss of a pregnancy, including miscarriages and stillbirths.

The definition of "viable" can vary, but it generally refers to the point at which a fetus can survive outside the uterus with medical assistance, typically around 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal viability is a complex issue that depends on many factors, including the availability and accessibility of medical technology and resources.

In summary, an aborted fetus is a developing human organism that is intentionally expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of a medical procedure called an abortion.

Tissue and organ procurement is the process of obtaining viable tissues and organs from deceased or living donors for the purpose of transplantation, research, or education. This procedure is performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines. The tissues and organs that can be procured include hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, pancreases, intestines, corneas, skin, bones, tendons, and heart valves. The process involves a thorough medical evaluation of the donor, as well as consent from the donor or their next of kin. After procurement, the tissues and organs are preserved and transported to recipients in need.

A "State Hospital" is a term used in the United States to refer to a type of psychiatric hospital that is owned and operated by a state government. These hospitals provide inpatient mental health services to individuals who are suffering from severe and chronic mental illnesses, and who require long-term care and treatment.

State hospitals typically serve patients who are unable to receive adequate care in other settings, such as community mental health centers or private psychiatric hospitals. They often provide a range of services, including evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and habilitation.

State hospitals may also provide forensic services for individuals who are involved in the criminal justice system and have been found to be not guilty by reason of insanity or incompetent to stand trial due to mental illness. These hospitals often have specialized units that are designed to meet the unique needs of this population, such as secure facilities for patients who pose a risk to themselves or others.

It's important to note that the quality and availability of services at state hospitals can vary widely from one state to another, and even from one hospital to another within the same state. Some state hospitals have been criticized for providing substandard care and for overusing seclusion and restraint as a means of controlling patients. However, many state hospitals are also recognized as leaders in the field of psychiatric care and provide high-quality services to their patients.

Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure where an organ or tissue from one person (donor) is removed and placed into another person (recipient) whose organ or tissue is not functioning properly or has been damaged beyond repair. The goal of this complex procedure is to replace the non-functioning organ with a healthy one, thereby improving the recipient's quality of life and overall survival.

Organs that can be transplanted include the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and intestines. Tissues such as corneas, skin, heart valves, and bones can also be transplanted. The donor may be deceased or living, depending on the type of organ and the medical circumstances.

Organ transplantation is a significant and life-changing event for both the recipient and their families. It requires careful evaluation, matching, and coordination between the donor and recipient, as well as rigorous post-transplant care to ensure the success of the procedure and minimize the risk of rejection.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Hand transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves the attachment of a donor's hand or hands to a recipient who has lost their hand(s) due to trauma, illness, or congenital conditions. The procedure involves meticulous microvascular and nerve reconstruction to reconnect bones, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels, allowing for the recovery of sensory and motor functions in the transplanted hand. It is an advanced reconstructive option that requires a careful selection of candidates, rigorous postoperative care, and immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ.

Heterotopic transplantation is a type of organ or tissue transplant where the graft is placed in a different location from where it normally resides while still maintaining its original site. This is often done to supplement the function of the existing organ rather than replacing it. A common example of heterotopic transplantation is a heart transplant, where the donor's heart is placed in a new location in the recipient's body, while the recipient's own heart remains in place but is typically nonfunctional. This allows for the possibility of returning the function of the recipient's heart if the transplanted organ fails.

In heterotopic kidney transplantation, the donor kidney is placed in a different location, usually in the lower abdomen, while the recipient's own kidneys are left in place. This approach can be beneficial for recipients with poor renal function or other medical conditions that make traditional kidney transplantation too risky.

Heterotopic transplantation is also used in liver transplantation, where a portion of the donor liver is placed in a different location, typically in the recipient's abdomen, while the recipient's own liver remains in place. This approach can be useful for recipients with acute liver failure or other conditions that make traditional liver transplantation too risky.

One advantage of heterotopic transplantation is that it allows for the possibility of returning the function of the recipient's organ if the transplanted organ fails, as well as reducing the risk of rejection and improving overall outcomes for the recipient. However, this approach also has some disadvantages, such as increased complexity of the surgical procedure, potential for complications related to the placement of the graft, and the need for ongoing immunosuppression therapy to prevent rejection.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Transplantation is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a functioning one. The goal of transplantation is to restore normal function, improve quality of life, and extend lifespan in individuals with organ failure or severe tissue damage. Common types of transplants include kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and bone marrow transplantations. The success of a transplant depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the health of both individuals, and the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

Transplantation Immunology is a branch of medicine that deals with the immune responses occurring between a transplanted organ or tissue and the recipient's body. It involves understanding and managing the immune system's reaction to foreign tissue, which can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. This field also studies the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection and the potential risks and side effects associated with their use. The main goal of transplantation immunology is to find ways to promote the acceptance of transplanted tissue while minimizing the risk of infection and other complications.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Medical ethics is a branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical care, research, and practice. It provides a framework for addressing questions related to patient autonomy, informed consent, confidentiality, distributive justice, beneficentia (doing good), and non-maleficence (not doing harm). Medical ethics also involves the application of ethical principles such as respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to specific medical cases and situations. It is a crucial component of medical education and practice, helping healthcare professionals make informed decisions that promote patient well-being while respecting their rights and dignity.

Skin transplantation, also known as skin grafting, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of healthy skin from one part of the body (donor site) and its transfer to another site (recipient site) that has been damaged or lost due to various reasons such as burns, injuries, infections, or diseases. The transplanted skin can help in healing wounds, restoring functionality, and improving the cosmetic appearance of the affected area. There are different types of skin grafts, including split-thickness grafts, full-thickness grafts, and composite grafts, which vary in the depth and size of the skin removed and transplanted. The success of skin transplantation depends on various factors, including the size and location of the wound, the patient's overall health, and the availability of suitable donor sites.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

Lung transplantation is a surgical procedure where one or both diseased lungs are removed and replaced with healthy lungs from a deceased donor. It is typically considered as a treatment option for patients with end-stage lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, who have exhausted all other medical treatments and continue to suffer from severe respiratory failure.

The procedure involves several steps, including evaluating the patient's eligibility for transplantation, matching the donor's lung size and blood type with the recipient, and performing the surgery under general anesthesia. After the surgery, patients require close monitoring and lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the new lungs.

Lung transplantation can significantly improve the quality of life and survival rates for some patients with end-stage lung disease, but it is not without risks, including infection, bleeding, and rejection. Therefore, careful consideration and thorough evaluation are necessary before pursuing this treatment option.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure where stem cells, which are immature and unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types, are introduced into a patient. The main purpose of this procedure is to restore the function of damaged or destroyed tissues or organs, particularly in conditions that affect the blood and immune systems, such as leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, and inherited metabolic disorders.

There are two primary types of stem cell transplantation: autologous and allogeneic. In autologous transplantation, the patient's own stem cells are collected, stored, and then reinfused back into their body after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy the diseased cells. In allogeneic transplantation, stem cells are obtained from a donor (related or unrelated) whose human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type closely matches that of the recipient.

The process involves several steps: first, the patient undergoes conditioning therapy to suppress their immune system and make space for the new stem cells. Then, the harvested stem cells are infused into the patient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to differentiate and produce new blood cells. This procedure requires close monitoring and supportive care to manage potential complications such as infections, graft-versus-host disease, and organ damage.

Transplantation conditioning, also known as preparative regimen or immunoablative therapy, refers to the use of various treatments prior to transplantation of cells, tissues or organs. The main goal of transplantation conditioning is to suppress the recipient's immune system, allowing for successful engraftment and minimizing the risk of rejection of the donor tissue.

There are two primary types of transplantation conditioning: myeloablative and non-myeloablative.

1. Myeloablative conditioning is a more intensive regimen that involves the use of high-dose chemotherapy, radiation therapy or both. This approach eliminates not only immune cells but also stem cells in the bone marrow, requiring the recipient to receive a hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from the donor to reconstitute their blood and immune system.
2. Non-myeloablative conditioning is a less intensive regimen that primarily targets immune cells while sparing the stem cells in the bone marrow. This approach allows for mixed chimerism, where both recipient and donor immune cells coexist, reducing the risk of severe complications associated with myeloablative conditioning.

The choice between these two types of transplantation conditioning depends on various factors, including the type of transplant, patient's age, overall health, and comorbidities. Both approaches carry risks and benefits, and the decision should be made carefully by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals in consultation with the patient.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

Pancreas transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves implanting a healthy pancreas from a deceased donor into a recipient with diabetes. The primary goal of this procedure is to restore the recipient's insulin production and eliminate the need for insulin injections, thereby improving their quality of life and reducing the risk of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

There are three main types of pancreas transplantation:

1. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: This is the most common type of pancreas transplant, performed simultaneously with a kidney transplant in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The new pancreas not only restores insulin production but also helps prevent further kidney damage.
2. Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation: In this procedure, a patient receives a kidney transplant first, followed by a pancreas transplant at a later time. This is typically performed in patients who have already undergone a successful kidney transplant and wish to improve their diabetes management.
3. Pancreas transplantation alone (PTA): In rare cases, a pancreas transplant may be performed without a concurrent kidney transplant. This is usually considered for patients with brittle diabetes who experience severe hypoglycemic episodes despite optimal medical management and lifestyle modifications.

The success of pancreas transplantation has significantly improved over the years, thanks to advancements in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it is essential to weigh the benefits against the risks, such as potential complications related to surgery, infection, rejection, and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Ultimately, the decision to undergo pancreas transplantation should be made in consultation with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, considering each patient's unique medical history and personal circumstances.

Islets of Langerhans transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves the transplantation of isolated islets from a deceased donor's pancreas into another person with type 1 diabetes. The islets of Langerhans are clusters of cells within the pancreas that produce hormones, including insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels.

In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys these insulin-producing cells, leading to high blood sugar levels. Islet transplantation aims to replace the damaged islets with healthy ones from a donor, allowing the recipient's body to produce and regulate its own insulin again.

The procedure involves extracting the islets from the donor pancreas and infusing them into the recipient's liver through a small incision in the abdomen. Once inside the liver, the islets can sense glucose levels in the bloodstream and release insulin as needed to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Islet transplantation has shown promising results in improving blood sugar control and reducing the risk of severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in people with type 1 diabetes. However, it requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted islets, which can have side effects and increase the risk of infections.

Cell transplantation is the process of transferring living cells from one part of the body to another or from one individual to another. In medicine, cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for various diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. The goal of cell transplantation is to replace damaged or dysfunctional cells with healthy ones, thereby restoring normal function to the affected area.

In the context of medical research, cell transplantation may involve the use of stem cells, which are immature cells that have the ability to develop into many different types of specialized cells. Stem cell transplantation has shown promise in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including spinal cord injuries, stroke, and heart disease.

It is important to note that cell transplantation carries certain risks, such as immune rejection and infection. As such, it is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have failed or are unlikely to be effective.

A transplantation chimera is a rare medical condition that occurs after an organ or tissue transplant, where the recipient's body accepts and integrates the donor's cells or tissues to such an extent that the two sets of DNA coexist and function together. This phenomenon can lead to the presence of two different genetic profiles in one individual.

In some cases, this may result in the development of donor-derived cells or organs within the recipient's body, which can express the donor's unique genetic traits. Transplantation chimerism is more commonly observed in bone marrow transplants, where the donor's immune cells can repopulate and establish themselves within the recipient's bone marrow and bloodstream.

It is important to note that while transplantation chimerism can be beneficial for the success of the transplant, it may also pose some risks, such as an increased likelihood of developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), where the donated immune cells (graft) recognize the recipient's tissues (host) as foreign and attack them. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs, particularly the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver.

Acute GVHD typically occurs within 100 days of transplantation and is characterized by symptoms such as rash, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. Chronic GVHD, on the other hand, can occur after 100 days or even years post-transplant and may present with a wider range of symptoms, including dry eyes and mouth, skin changes, lung involvement, and issues with mobility and flexibility in joints.

GVHD is a significant complication following allogeneic HSCT and can have a substantial impact on the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis. Preventative measures, such as immunosuppressive therapy, are often taken to reduce the risk of GVHD, but its management remains a challenge in transplant medicine.

Isogeneic transplantation is a type of transplant where the donor and recipient are genetically identical, meaning they are identical twins or have the same genetic makeup. In this case, the immune system recognizes the transplanted organ or tissue as its own and does not mount an immune response to reject it. This reduces the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are typically required in other types of transplantation to prevent rejection.

In medical terms, isogeneic transplantation is defined as the transfer of genetic identical tissues or organs between genetically identical individuals, resulting in minimal risk of rejection and no need for immunosuppressive therapy.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Cord blood stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the infusion of stem cells derived from the umbilical cord blood into a patient. These stem cells, specifically hematopoietic stem cells, have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, including red and white blood cells and platelets.

Cord blood stem cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for patients with various malignant and non-malignant disorders, such as leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell disease, and metabolic disorders. The procedure involves collecting cord blood from the umbilical cord and placenta after the birth of a baby, processing and testing it for compatibility with the recipient's immune system, and then infusing it into the patient through a vein in a process similar to a blood transfusion.

The advantages of using cord blood stem cells include their availability, low risk of transmission of infectious diseases, and reduced risk of graft-versus-host disease compared to other sources of hematopoietic stem cells, such as bone marrow or peripheral blood. However, the number of stem cells in a cord blood unit is generally lower than that found in bone marrow or peripheral blood, which can limit its use in some patients, particularly adults.

Overall, cord blood stem cell transplantation is an important and promising area of regenerative medicine, offering hope for patients with a wide range of disorders.

Heart-lung transplantation is a surgical procedure where both the heart and lungs of a patient are replaced with those from a deceased donor. This complex and highly specialized surgery is typically considered as a last resort for patients suffering from end-stage lung or heart-lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or certain forms of congenital heart disease, who have exhausted all other treatment options and face imminent death.

The procedure involves removing the patient's diseased heart and lungs en bloc, followed by implanting the donor's heart and lungs in their place. The surgery requires a skilled multidisciplinary team of cardiothoracic surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, transplant coordinators, and intensive care specialists.

Following the transplantation, patients require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organs. Despite the significant risks associated with this procedure, including infection, bleeding, and rejection, heart-lung transplantation can significantly improve both survival and quality of life for carefully selected patients with advanced heart-lung disease.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Transplantation tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or transplant tolerance, is a state in which the immune system of a transplant recipient does not mount an immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is an important goal in transplantation medicine to prevent graft rejection and reduce the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy, which can have significant side effects.

Transplantation tolerance can be achieved through various mechanisms, including the deletion or regulation of donor-reactive T cells, the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune responses against the graft, and the modulation of innate immune responses. The development of strategies to induce transplantation tolerance is an active area of research in transplantation medicine.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (PBSCT) is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of stem cells, which are immature cells found in the bone marrow that can develop into different types of blood cells. In PBSCT, these stem cells are collected from the peripheral blood instead of directly from the bone marrow.

The process begins with mobilization, where a growth factor medication is given to the donor to stimulate the release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood. After several days, the donor's blood is then removed through a procedure called apheresis, where the stem cells are separated and collected while the remaining blood components are returned to the donor.

The collected stem cells are then infused into the recipient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to repopulate, leading to the production of new blood cells. This procedure is often used as a treatment for various malignant and non-malignant disorders, such as leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and aplastic anemia.

PBSCT offers several advantages over traditional bone marrow transplantation, including faster engraftment, lower risk of graft failure, and reduced procedure-related morbidity. However, it also has its own set of challenges, such as the potential for increased incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the need for more stringent HLA matching between donor and recipient.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Liver failure is a serious condition in which the liver is no longer able to perform its normal functions, such as removing toxins and waste products from the blood, producing bile to help digest food, and regulating blood clotting. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and an increased risk of bleeding. Liver failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (developing over time). Acute liver failure is often caused by medication toxicity, viral hepatitis, or other sudden illnesses. Chronic liver failure is most commonly caused by long-term damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

It's important to note that Liver Failure is a life threatening condition and need immediate medical attention.

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Heterologous transplantation is a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is transferred from one species to another. This is in contrast to allogeneic transplantation, where the donor and recipient are of the same species, or autologous transplantation, where the donor and recipient are the same individual.

In heterologous transplantation, the immune systems of the donor and recipient are significantly different, which can lead to a strong immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is known as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the immune cells in the transplanted tissue attack the recipient's body.

Heterologous transplantation is not commonly performed in clinical medicine due to the high risk of rejection and GVHD. However, it may be used in research settings to study the biology of transplantation and to develop new therapies for transplant rejection.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized, selective interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulating blood. It is formed by unique endothelial cells that line the brain's capillaries, along with tight junctions, astrocytic foot processes, and pericytes, which together restrict the passage of substances from the bloodstream into the CNS. This barrier serves to protect the brain from harmful agents and maintain a stable environment for proper neural function. However, it also poses a challenge in delivering therapeutics to the CNS, as most large and hydrophilic molecules cannot cross the BBB.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

A waiting list, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to a list of patients who are awaiting a particular medical service or procedure, such as surgery, consultation with a specialist, or therapy. These lists are often established when the demand for certain services exceeds the immediate supply of resources, including physician time, hospital beds, or specialized equipment.

Patients on waiting lists are typically ranked based on factors like the severity of their condition, the urgency of their need for treatment, and the date they were placed on the list. The goal is to ensure that those with the most pressing medical needs receive care as soon as possible, while also providing a fair and transparent system for allocating limited resources.

However, it's important to note that extended waiting times can have negative consequences for patients, including worsening of symptoms, decreased quality of life, and potential complications. As such, healthcare systems strive to minimize wait times through various strategies, such as increasing resource allocation, improving efficiency, and implementing alternative service delivery models.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation (MSCT) is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. These cells can be obtained from various sources, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, or dental pulp.

In MSCT, MSCs are typically harvested from the patient themselves (autologous transplantation) or from a donor (allogeneic transplantation). The cells are then processed and expanded in a laboratory setting before being injected into the patient's body, usually through an intravenous infusion.

MSCT is being investigated as a potential treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, including degenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, and tissue injuries. The rationale behind this approach is that MSCs have the ability to migrate to sites of injury or inflammation, where they can help to modulate the immune response, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue repair and regeneration.

However, it's important to note that while MSCT holds promise as a therapeutic option, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy for specific medical conditions.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Corneal transplantation, also known as keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced with healthy corneal tissue from a deceased donor. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye that plays an important role in focusing vision. When it becomes cloudy or misshapen due to injury, infection, or inherited conditions, vision can become significantly impaired.

During the procedure, the surgeon carefully removes a circular section of the damaged cornea and replaces it with a similarly sized piece of donor tissue. The new cornea is then stitched into place using very fine sutures that are typically removed several months after surgery.

Corneal transplantation has a high success rate, with more than 90% of procedures resulting in improved vision. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, rejection of the donor tissue, and bleeding. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for any signs of complications and ensure proper healing.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Histocompatibility is the compatibility between tissues or organs from different individuals in terms of their histological (tissue) structure and antigenic properties. The term is most often used in the context of transplantation, where it refers to the degree of match between the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and other proteins on the surface of donor and recipient cells.

A high level of histocompatibility reduces the risk of rejection of a transplanted organ or tissue by the recipient's immune system, as their immune cells are less likely to recognize the donated tissue as foreign and mount an attack against it. Conversely, a low level of histocompatibility increases the likelihood of rejection, as the recipient's immune system recognizes the donated tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Histocompatibility testing is therefore an essential part of organ and tissue transplantation, as it helps to identify the best possible match between donor and recipient and reduces the risk of rejection.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant drug that is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs. It works by inhibiting the activity of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the body's immune response. By suppressing the activity of these cells, tacrolimus helps to reduce the risk of an immune response being mounted against the transplanted organ.

Tacrolimus is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil, to provide a comprehensive approach to preventing organ rejection. It is available in various forms, including capsules, oral solution, and intravenous injection.

The drug was first approved for use in the United States in 1994 and has since become a widely used immunosuppressant in transplant medicine. Tacrolimus is also being studied as a potential treatment for a variety of other conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Cyclosporine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts. Cyclosporine works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce the risk of the body attacking the transplanted organ.

In addition to its use in organ transplantation, cyclosporine may also be used to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It does this by suppressing the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

Cyclosporine is available in capsule, oral solution, and injectable forms. Common side effects of the medication include kidney problems, high blood pressure, tremors, headache, and nausea. Long-term use of cyclosporine can also increase the risk of certain types of cancer and infections.

It is important to note that cyclosporine should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it requires regular monitoring of blood levels and kidney function.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Whole-Body Irradiation (WBI) is a medical procedure that involves the exposure of the entire body to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation, typically used in the context of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The purpose of WBI is to destroy cancer cells or suppress the immune system prior to a bone marrow transplant. It can be delivered using various sources of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, or electrons, and is carefully planned and monitored to minimize harm to healthy tissues while maximizing the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. Potential side effects include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection due to decreased white blood cell counts.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

Donor selection is the process of evaluating and choosing potential organ, tissue, or stem cell donors based on various medical and non-medical criteria to ensure the safety and efficacy of the transplantation. The goal of donor selection is to identify a compatible donor with minimal risk of rejection and transmission of infectious diseases while also considering ethical and legal considerations.

Medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Age: Donors are typically required to be within a certain age range, depending on the type of organ or tissue being donated.
2. Blood type and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing: Compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood types and HLA markers is crucial to reduce the risk of rejection.
3. Medical history: Donors must undergo a thorough medical evaluation, including a review of their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests to assess their overall health and identify any potential risks or contraindications for donation.
4. Infectious disease screening: Donors are tested for various infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), among others, to ensure they do not transmit infections to the recipient.
5. Tissue typing: For organ transplants, tissue typing is performed to assess the compatibility of the donor's and recipient's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, which play a significant role in the immune response and rejection risk.

Non-medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Consent: Donors must provide informed consent for organ or tissue donation, and their next of kin or legal representative may be involved in the decision-making process for deceased donors.
2. Legal considerations: There are specific laws and regulations governing organ and tissue donation that must be followed, such as age restrictions, geographical proximity between the donor and recipient, and cultural or religious beliefs.
3. Ethical considerations: Donor selection should adhere to ethical principles, such as fairness, respect for autonomy, and non-maleficence, to ensure that the process is transparent, equitable, and free from coercion or exploitation.

Facial transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves replacing all or part of a patient's face with facial tissue from a deceased donor. The procedure typically includes the skin, muscles, nerves, and bones of the face, and may also include the eyes and eyelids, ears, and tongue. Facial transplantation is performed to significantly improve the appearance and function of a person's face, usually in cases where the patient has suffered severe facial trauma or disfigurement due to burns, cancer, or other medical conditions.

The procedure requires extensive planning, coordination, and expertise from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including plastic surgeons, transplant specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychiatrists, and rehabilitation therapists. The surgery itself can take up to 30 hours or more, depending on the extent of the transplant.

Following the procedure, patients must undergo rigorous immunosuppressive therapy to prevent their immune system from rejecting the donor tissue. This involves taking medications that weaken the immune system and make the patient more susceptible to infections and other complications. Despite these risks, facial transplantation has been shown to significantly improve the quality of life for some patients who have undergone the procedure.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

A brain abscess is a localized collection of pus in the brain that is caused by an infection. It can develop as a result of a bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection that spreads to the brain from another part of the body or from an infection that starts in the brain itself (such as from a head injury or surgery).

The symptoms of a brain abscess may include headache, fever, confusion, seizures, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, and changes in vision, speech, or behavior. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection, as well as surgical drainage of the abscess to relieve pressure on the brain.

It is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent potentially life-threatening complications such as brain herniation or permanent neurological damage.

Organ preservation is a medical technique used to maintain the viability and functionality of an organ outside the body for a certain period, typically for transplantation purposes. This process involves cooling the organ to slow down its metabolic activity and prevent tissue damage, while using specialized solutions that help preserve the organ's structure and function. Commonly preserved organs include hearts, livers, kidneys, lungs, and pancreases. The goal of organ preservation is to ensure that the transplanted organ remains in optimal condition until it can be successfully implanted into a recipient.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Busulfan is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is an alkylating agent that works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing.

The medical definition of Busulfan is:

A white crystalline powder used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer. Busulfan works by alkylating and cross-linking DNA, which inhibits DNA replication and transcription, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. It is administered orally or intravenously and is often used in combination with other chemotherapy agents. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased susceptibility to infection. Long-term use of busulfan has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis, infertility, and an increased risk of secondary malignancies.

Foetal tissue transplantation is a foetal allograft procedure, using tissues from an aborted foetus and implanting it into a ... Foetal tissues have also been used in liver and thymus transplantations (1968). The widespread success of foetal tissue ... In 1928, one of the first foetal tissue transplantation attempt was made in Italy using aborted foetal tissues. After lots of ... Human foetal tissues have been widely used in transplantations to treat various conditions, which is mainly due to its unique ...
... tissue transplantation has shown to be able to reduce traumatic brain injury in rats. It is named for the ... "Wharton's Jelly Transplantation Improves Neurologic Function in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. ... These tissue fragments are subsequently placed in a sterile cell culture plate or cell culture flask, and the cell culture ... Lastly, the flask containing the tissue fragments is placed in a CO2 incubator for a duration of 1-2 weeks. This process ...
... since organ donor registries focus on tissue meant for transplantation. In the United States the nonprofit Brain Donor Project ... Donated brain tissue is a valuable resource for research into brain function, neurodiversity, neuropathology and possible ... Both divergent and healthy control brains are needed for comparison. Brain banks typically source tissue from donors that had ... Wicks, Mona Newsome (April 25, 2000). "Brain Death and Transplantation: The Japanese". Medscape Transplantation. Retrieved ...
... currently researching stem cell transplantation therapies to improve recovery of cebreral tissue in affected areas of the brain ... A watershed stroke is defined as a brain ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied ... Jablonska, A.; Lukomska, B. (2011). "Stroke induced brain changes: Implications for stem cell transplantation". Acta ... These events are localized to two primary regions of the brain: Cortical watershed strokes (CWS), or outer brain infarcts, are ...
"Transplantation of Human Brain Organoids: Revisiting the Science and Ethics of Brain Chimeras". Cell Stem Cell. 25 (4): 462-472 ... For example, potential future concerns of this type were described when human brain tissue organoids were transplanted into ... Neuroscience and brain imaging have allowed us to explore the brain activity of these patients more thoroughly. Recent findings ... "Human brain cells transplanted into baby rats' brains grow and form connections". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 17 November ...
... was crucial for various types of memory formation and established that transplantation of neural tissue into the brain could ... ". "Learning impaired following cholinergic lesions, Brain Research 1989". "Cell grafts restore learning, Brain 1999". " ... ". "Tactile and visuo-spatial discrimination performance in the monkey, Brain Research 1976". "An involvement of dopamine in ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can deform the brain tissue, leading to necrosis primary damage which can then cascade and ... Some possible routes of transplantation include intracerebral transplantation and xenotransplantation. An alternative ... The hGal-1-hNSCs induced better and faster brain recovery of the injured tissue as well as a reduction in motor and sensory ... of adult mice brain tissue. In the same year the team of Constance Cepko and Evan Y. Snyder were the first to isolate ...
... rheumatoid arthritis or during rejection of solid organ transplants and bone marrow transplantation as well as in brain tissues ... At the protein and mRNA level, its expression is induced in lymphocytes in synovial tissues obtained from patients with ... Transplantation Proceedings. 33 (1-2): 1610-1. doi:10.1016/S0041-1345(00)02613-0. PMID 11267440. Shulzhenko N, Morgun A, Rampim ... American Journal of Transplantation. 4 (4): 505-14. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00367.x. PMID 15023142. S2CID 36001054. ...
... a colorful reporter that is useful in the brain and other tissues to follow the differentiation path of a cell. During ... Transplantation experiments can also be used in conjunction with the genetic manipulation and lineage tracing. Newer cell fate ... the new forming tissue will be a back tissue. This result is seen because the surrounding cells and tissues influence the newly ... Therefore, if the tissue was ablated, the cell will be able to regenerate or signal to reform the initially ablated tissue. In ...
... the irreversible burning or freezing of brain tissue), stimulation surgery or deep brain stimulation (DBS), and transplantation ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is presently the most used method of surgical treatment because it does not destroy brain tissue, ... Platz T, Rothwell JC (2010). "Brain stimulation and brain repair - rTMS: from animal experiment to clinical trials - what do we ... since tissue is irreversibly damaged and removed and testing smaller areas of tissue is safer to prevent serious complications ...
Tissues may be recovered from donors who die of either brain or circulatory death. In general, tissues may be recovered from ... "Questions about Tissues - Tissue and Tissue Product Questions and Answers". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 22 January 2017. Len O, ... Autografts are the transplant of tissue to the same person. Sometimes this is done with surplus tissue, tissue that can ... Most deceased donors are those who have been pronounced brain dead. Brain dead means the cessation of brain function, typically ...
"Transplantation of Human Brain Organoids: Revisiting the Science and Ethics of Brain Chimeras". Cell Stem Cell. 25 (4): 462-472 ... The brain is an extremely complex system of heterogeneous tissues and consists of a diverse array of neurons. This complexity ... Neural tissue engineering Evolution of the brain#Genetic factors of recent evolution Lancaster MA, Renner M, Martin CA, Wenzel ... Cerebral organoids can be used as simple models of complex brain tissues to study the effects of drugs and to screen them for ...
In fact, 11 of the hamsters that received SCN grafting outlived 50% of all controls, with grafting of other brain tissue types ... A study conducted in 2020 explored whether the transplantation of functional tissue from induced-pluripotent stem cells could ... Ralph's SCN transplantation study not only showed the role of the SCN, but it also showed the ability of a neural transplant to ... Transplanting fetal brain grafts with SCN reversed the decline in behavioral rhythmicity naturally associated with age and ...
... a medical emergency in which arterial blockage deprives a region of brain of oxygen, causing tissue death. Promising studies ... 211 Clinical use of APC has also been proposed for improving the outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation in treating type I ... This reduces leukocyte adhesion and infiltration into tissues, while also limiting damage to underlying tissue. APC supports ... to protect the brain from tPA's very harmful side effects, in addition to preventing cell death from lack of oxygen (hypoxia ...
"Tissue bath" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-06-18. Retrieved 2019-06-30. Yeh, T.; Wechsler, A. S. (1998). "The ... organ transplantation, and organ injury recovery. The technique has been widely studied in animal and human for decades. Before ... brain, heart, lung, heart-lung, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, reproductive ... Technological advances in artificial perfusion allow effective isolated perfusion of a wide variety of organs and tissues, ...
Transplantation of neural stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells is currently being trialed in neonatal brain injury, but it ... which results from a lack of oxygen to the brain tissue, as well as some combination of the two. One treatment with some proven ... In order to model human fetal or neonatal brain injury, one needs a species in which a similar proportion of brain development ... This treatment does not completely protect the injured brain and may not improve the risk of death in the most severely hypoxic ...
The corneal clouding can be, at least, temporarily corrected by corneal transplantation. See the equivalent section in the main ... usually sparing the brain. ML IV causes affected cells to accumulate auto-fluorescent vacuoles considered to be aberrant ... and failure in the maintenance of retinal tissue. Diagnosis includes genetic testing and Gastrin blood test to check for low ... It is not yet clear why these abnormalities will cause incomplete development of the brain, achlorhydria, ...
... tissue transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.040 - bone marrow transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.090 - brain tissue transplantation ... fetal tissue transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.490 - liver transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.700 - skin transplantation MeSH ... brain tissue transplantation MeSH E04.525.160 - cerebral decortication MeSH E04.525.160.500 - hemispherectomy MeSH E04.525.170 ... heart transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.475.450 - heart-lung transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.485 - kidney transplantation MeSH ...
Drews K, Bashir T, Dörries K (January 2000). "Quantification of human polyomavirus JC in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid ... "Quantitation of viral DNA in renal allograft tissue from patients with BK virus nephropathy". Transplantation. 74 (4): 485-8. ... "Human polyomaviruses and brain tumors". Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 50 (1): 69-85. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev. ... is used to stain tissues directly for the presence of JC virus T antigen. PCR can be used on a biopsy of the tissue or ...
... has a proclivity for tissues in the central nervous system, including the brain. Patients with ... The onset of symptoms in immunosuppressed individuals after transplantation is very slow, almost several months to years after ... When it does occur in humans, a wide range of sites may become involved, including the lung, heart, brain, the superficial ... These drugs and surgical methods are the most effective when the fungus is yet disseminated into the brain. Survival rate of ...
The Fate of Skin Homographs Transplanted to the Brain, to Subcutaneous Tissue, and to the Anterior Chamber of the Eye". British ... In another study on type II diabetic and obese mice, the transplantation of microencapsulated Sertoli cells in the subcutaneous ... Inflammation in the brain or eye can lead to loss of organ function, while immune responses directed against a fetus can lead ... The blood-brain barrier plays an important role in maintaining the separation of CNS from the systemic immune system but the ...
... was the first multi-facility tissue bank in country. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by ... Healy, Melissa (24 January 2011). "Brain injuries: Changes in the treatment of brain injuries have improved survival rate". ... for collectively performing transplantation. This surgery involves the transfer of tissue or an organ from one part of a ... Modern organ transplantation in Iran dates to 1935, when the first cornea transplant in Iran was performed by Professor ...
... rhabdomyosarcoma and other soft tissue sarcomas. Central nervous system (brain) tumors are the second most common form of ... stem cell transplantation, behavioral sciences and survivorship. The COG is primarily funded by the NCI, the primary or Chair's ...
July 2009). "Generation and transplantation of an autologous vascularized bioartificial human tissue". Transplantation. 88 (2 ... While there are some ethical constraints to the use of human cells for in vitro studies (i.e. human brain tissue chimera ... Tissue engineering often involves the use of cells placed on tissue scaffolds in the formation of new viable tissue for a ... Cell-Based Bone Tissue Engineering Clinical Tissue Engineering Center State of Ohio Initiative for Tissue Engineering (National ...
In solid-organ transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury can occur when blood returns to tissue for the first time in the ... It has also been implicated in Alzheimer's disease triggered by the production of MEG3 in the brain cells. ... Necroptosis has been implicated in the pathology of many types of acute tissue damage, including myocardial infarction, stroke ... A major contributor to tissue damage results from activation of regulated necroptosis, which could include contributions from ...
In addition, immune responses to foreign tissues make transplantation within one species very complicated, let alone between ... In the episode "Brainwashed" (1998) of Pinky and the Brain, Snowball guides the protagonists to the lair of Dr. Mordaux. The ... Until recently, modern medicine has shown that non-human animals lack the necessary brain structure to emulate human faculties ... However, a team of researchers at Stanford University have successfully transplanted a cluster of living human brain cells from ...
It also identifies brain death as a form of death. The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO) functions as ... "Donation and Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues". National Health Portal. Archived from the original on 17 February ... Organ donation in India is regulated by the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994. The law allows both deceased ... Factors such as lack of awareness (about brain death), religious beliefs, and inadequate transplantation centers affect the ...
One of the most significant barriers to the procedure is the inability of nerve tissue to heal properly; scarred nerve tissue ... It is a procedure distinct from head transplantation, which involves transferring the entire head to a new body, as opposed to ... Cyborgs in fiction (for stories of brains transplanted into wholly artificial bodies) Donovan's Brain Isolated brain Robotics ... A brain transplant or whole-body transplant is a procedure in which the brain of one organism is transplanted into the body of ...
... (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess within the brain tissue caused by inflammation and collection of infected ... and Listeria monocytogenes Transplantation-Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mucorales, Nocardia, and T. gondii Neutropenia- ... Within 4-5 days the inflammation and the concomitant dead brain tissue are surrounded with a capsule, which gives the lesion ... Brain abscess at eMedicine MR Diagnosis[permanent dead link] MedPix Imaging Brain Abscess (Articles with short description, ...
... resulting in tissue death, while ischemic hemorrhages result in a lack of blood flow to certain tissues. Traumatic brain injury ... "Neural precursor differentiation following transplantation into neocortex is dependent on intrinsic developmental state and ... known as xenogeneic tissue). While these tissues have an advantage over autologous tissue grafts because the tissue does not ... Neural tissue engineering is a specific sub-field of tissue engineering. Neural tissue engineering is primarily a search for ...
"Analysis of a viral agent isolated from multiple sclerosis (MS) brain tissue: Characterization as a parainfluenza virus type I ... "Successful transplantation of human benign breast tumors in athymic nude-mouse and demonstration of enhanced DNA synthesis by ...
Living Tissues Propel Ethically Responsible Brain Research Researchers participating in a AAAS Annual Meeting news briefing ... Health and medicine/Clinical medicine/Medical treatments/Transplantation/Tissue transplantation/Human donor tissues. ... how the use of brain tissue from living donors has prompted a paradigm shift in the study and understanding of the human brain. ... Engineered Vocal Cord Tissue Could Help Treat Voice Disorders Researchers say they can grow large amounts of the transplantable ...
... transplantation of brain tissue; "fetal-maternal conflict"; the selling of blood and other body parts; the need to restore ... who should be allowed to donate an organ for transplantation; the alleged "myth" of informed consent; prior discussion with ... the ventilation of dying patients in order to preserve their organs for transplantation; smokers rights to health care; ...
Growth and pituitary function in children treated for brain tumours or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Horm Res. 1988. 30(2-3): ... Connective Tissue Oncology Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Childrens Oncology Group. Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. ... encoded search term (Long-Term Effects of Bone Marrow Transplantation) and Long-Term Effects of Bone Marrow Transplantation ... Physical Complications After Bone Marrow Transplantation. Survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in ...
Foetal tissue transplantation is a foetal allograft procedure, using tissues from an aborted foetus and implanting it into a ... Foetal tissues have also been used in liver and thymus transplantations (1968). The widespread success of foetal tissue ... In 1928, one of the first foetal tissue transplantation attempt was made in Italy using aborted foetal tissues. After lots of ... Human foetal tissues have been widely used in transplantations to treat various conditions, which is mainly due to its unique ...
Adipose tissue distribution from body MRI is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal brain age in adults. View ORCID ... Adipose tissue distribution from body MRI is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal brain age in adults ... Adipose tissue distribution from body MRI is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal brain age in adults ... Adipose tissue distribution from body MRI is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal brain age in adults ...
... and brain tissue is considered critical for postmortem confirmation. If time does not permit testing, the presence of ... On May 26, the boy died, and his kidneys and corneas were collected for transplantation; no other organs or tissues were used ... Vetter JM, Frisch L, Drosten C, Ross RS, Roggendorf M, Wolters B, Survival after transplantation of corneas from a rabies- ... was cremated after organs and tissues were collected for transplantation, and no clinical specimens were kept by the hospital. ...
Fetal cell/tissue transplantation has been arduously studied as a potential way to repair the injured brain. Embryonic cortical ... 1984) The survival of brain transplants is enhanced by extracts from injured brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81:6250-6254. doi: ... the effect of 7 d delay and immediate transplantation on survival and integration of grafted cells into host brain tissue at 4 ... that delaying transplantation within a specific time window increased graft survival and integration into host brain tissue. ...
In co-culture with human cortical neurons and after transplantation (AT) into human brain tissue resected... (More). Gamma- ... In co-culture with human cortical neurons and after transplantation (AT) into human brain tissue resected from patients with ... In co-culture with human cortical neurons and after transplantation (AT) into human brain tissue resected from patients with ... Therefore, this study supports the possibility of precise temporal control of network excitability by transplantation of light- ...
... neural stem cell transplantation for brain tissue regeneration; bone tissue engineering and cardiovascular tissue engineering. ... smart hydrogels and cell and drug delivery systems for cardiovascular and musculoskeletal tissue regeneration." ...
Cell Transplantation Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair. Journal. Cell Transplantation. Funder. Politicia Social e ... Many BMDC studies have been aimed at repairing damaged brain tissue or helping to restore lost neural function, with much ... Cell Transplantation Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair. [email protected] Office: 813-974-6169. ... The editorial offices for CELL TRANSPLANTATION are at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, College of Medicine ...
... a summary of our early success with embryonic stem cell transplantation and remyelination. Prog Brain Res 137: 299-309. ... A review and rationale for the use of cellular transplantation as a therapeutic strategy for traumatic brain injury. J ... Neural tissue formation within porous hydrogels implanted in brain and spinal cord lesions: ultrastructural, ... Development and characterization of a novel hybrid tissue engineering-based scaffold for spinal cord injury repair. Tissue Eng ...
An effective method for grafting tissue of defined and consistent size between planaria is described. Also included is a ... Injection of Hydrogel Biomaterial Scaffolds to The Brain After Stroke * Isolation Method for Long-Term and Short-Term ... Journal / Biology / Planarian Immobilization, Partial Irradiation, and Tissue Transplantation… Sign in or start your free trial ... Planarian Immobilization, Partial Irradiation, and Tissue Transplantation. Article DOI: 10.3791/4015 • 10:09 min • August 6th, ...
WASHINGTON, D.C. ? The continued use of cadaveric dura mater ? a membrane surrounding the brain ? for transplantation in ... Use of Cadaver Brain Tissue Threatens Safety of. Brain Surgery Patients. Public Citizen Calls on FDA to Ban Material That Risks ... Tissue from the side of a patient?s own leg or implants from animals also are widely accepted alternatives to cadaveric dura ... agency to ban the sale of all human cadaveric dura mater and recall all such tissue not yet used in surgery because the tissue ...
... tissue cultures that have started to revolutionize medical science in terms of understanding disease, testing pharmacologically ... Theoretically, several brain disorders can be modeled with the aid of human brain organoids, and hence the potential exists for ... Organoids of the liver, kidney, intestine, lung, and brain have been developed in recent years. Human brain organoids are used ... Several types of migraines are classified, for example, migraines with and without aura, and human brain organoids can be ...
Read chapter 2 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: With the potential for self-renewal and differentiation, the ... Bone and soft tissue sarcomas, Wilms tumor, brain tumors. * Very rarely indicated ... The major disadvantage of allogeneic transplantation is the use of non-native tissue for the graft, which necessitates the use ... Autologous Transplantation. Autologous transplantation is the process by which blood or bone marrow samples from a patient are ...
... cell/tissue bioengineering, cell transplantation, neuroscience, brain and spinal cord injury, spinal cord regeneration, and ... Micro-volumes of OECs were injected into spinal cord tissue directly above and below the site of injury for a total of ... Study in Cell Transplantation: Functional regeneration of supraspinal connections in a patient with transected spinal cord ... following transplantation of bulbar olfactory ensheathing cells with peripheral nerve bridging. University College London: UCL ...
ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION SOLUTION *BRAIN DAMAGE DUE TO ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION *PREVENTING ISCHEMIC/REPERFUSION INJURY IN CRYONICS * ... Unlike freezing damage, warm ischemia eventually leads to dissolution of brain tissue into a structureless soup. On the other ... Normal physiologic cerebral blood flow is about 50mL per 100 grams of brain tissue per minute. Good cardiopulmonary support can ... Minocycline can reduce inflammation, edema and damage to the blood-brain barrier, especially when tissue plasminogen activator ...
Brain tissue is very sensitive, so the ability to use autologous stem cells is a big deal in central nervous system [CNS] ... such as transplantation. In addition, working with an FDA-compliant cell-processing system makes it easier to commercialize ... But in adipose tissue there is a substantial reservoir of stem cells. In one hundred ccs of ADC we get about five hundred ... Our AD diagnostic is based on identifying the presence of the iron-regulatory protein 2 gene [IRP-2] in the brain. The goal is ...
95- 104). B. If there is no blood flow to the brain tissue, as would be the case for a person who is BD, and this can be ... Mordechai Halperin in Assia 12(3-4):5- 13, December 1989 discussing R. Moshes opinion on BD=D and heart transplantation. In ... Subject: Re: Brain Death. I reviewed the article which Josh cited (in Avodah v4, #120: Shewmon DA. Chronic "brain death": meta- ... irreversible cessation of spontaneous breathing or lack of blood flow to the brain tissue) is established, and permitted heart ...
... type of resident immune cells in the brain and other tissues. They have previously showed that tissue rescue was at least ... Development of autologous transplantation of genetically corrected hematopoietic stem cells for Friedreich Ataxia. PI/ ... In addition, they will measure the levels of metabolites in the brain, heart tissue and mitochondria under each condition. In ... In Friedreich Ataxia, affected tissues, such as heart or brain, cannot be assayed to quantify frataxin levels in response to ...
All nontransplanted donor organs and tissues were traced and destroyed or sent to CDC for testing, including plasma that was ... Imaging revealed a large intracerebral hemorrhage, and he was declared brain dead on March 24. Four patients received donated ... Notes from the Field: A Cluster of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections Transmitted Through Organ Transplantation - ... Transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by organ transplantation. N Engl J Med 2006;. 354:2235-49. ...
... scientists are breaking new ground in brain science. ... tissue transplantation. "We could conceivably reverse ... Using both brain and gastro-intestinal imaging, scientists are realizing just how closely the brains nervous system is tied to ... Last year, a study showed just how crucial it is to be able to turn off certain genes in the brain if you want to learn and ... "If you can come up with an accurate diagram and show where the wiring has started to fail, maybe you can do deep brain ...
Stem cells are found in humans in an array of tissues, including skin, blood vessels, teeth, heart, brain and liver. ... Stem cells have been used to treat illness in limited ways for decades, including transplantation from bone marrow. ... Hunting Brain Cancer Cells. Nov. 29, 2022 Understanding how cancer cells evolve from healthy brain cells and evade treatment ... Thats because theres a delicate balance to be struck in managing the proliferation of undifferentiated stem cells in tissue, ...
Liver Transplantation - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Nearly all donated livers come from size- and ABO-matched brain-dead (deceased), heart-beating donors. Prospective tissue ... See also Overview of Transplantation Overview of Transplantation Transplants may be The patients own tissue (autografts; eg, ... Prognosis for Liver Transplantation At 1 year after liver transplantation, survival rates are ...
Keywords: biomaterial technology; brain repair; hydrogel matrix; scaffold; stroke; tissue engineering. Copyright © 2021 ... Brain Ischemia* * Humans * Hydrogels / pharmacology * Hydrogels / therapeutic use * Stem Cell Transplantation * Stroke* / ... Specifically, we suggest that a better understanding of human host stroke tissue-hydrogel interactions in addition to the ...
Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck ... See also Overview of Transplantation Overview of Transplantation Transplants may be The patients own tissue (autografts; eg, ... A pancreas is removed from a brain-dead donor; collagenase is infused into the pancreatic duct to separate islets from ... Indications are the same as those for pancreas transplantation Pancreas Transplantation Pancreas transplantation is a form of ...
Spatiotemporal tissue maturation of thalamocortical pathways in the human fetal brain Siân Wilson, Maximilian Pietsch ... ... NSC-derived exosomes enhance therapeutic effects of NSC transplantation on cerebral ischemia in mice Ruolin Zhang, Weibing Mao ... Brain-Age delta is a non-invasive marker of biological brain aging that is sensitive to the presence of risk factors and ... The combination of NSCs with NSC-derived exosomes ameliorated the injury of brain tissue including cerebral infarction, ...
Adult stem cells exist in adult tissues throughout the body, such as bone marrow, brain, muscle and GI tract. Research with ... Stem cells are regarded as the ideal resource for tissue regeneration, outside of formal organ transplantation. Stem cells have ... Upper arm muscle biopsies from female patients are taken, and the muscle cells and connective tissue cells are grown in culture ...
... this technology has the potential to enhance neural transplantation procedures by reducing trauma to the host brain during ... novel technology has been developed that allows for the implantation of neural constructs or intact pieces of neural tissue ... Implanting pieces of tissue or scaffolding material into the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is wrought with ... implants and the ability to maintain the orientation and integrity of the constructs during and after their transplantation. ...
  • Laboratory-made "biosynthetic" corneas can spur damaged tissue and broken nerves to regenerate, restoring vision in human eyes just as well as donor corneas, according to a two-year study of 10 patients reported in Science Translational Medicine. (aaas.org)
  • Delayed graft transplantation also led to an increase in donor-derived blood vessels, resulting in a transient improvement of graft vascularization at 4 d after transplantation. (jneurosci.org)
  • All nontransplanted donor organs and tissues were traced and destroyed or sent to CDC for testing, including plasma that was donated 2 days before death. (cdc.gov)
  • eg, bone, bone marrow, and skin grafts) Genetically identical (syngeneic [between monozygotic twins]) donor tissue (isografts) Genetically. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Disadvantages to the donor include mortality risk of 1/600 to 700 (compared with 1/3300 in living-donor kidney transplantation) and complications (eg, bile leakage, bleeding) in up to one fourth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Patty Jo Herndon of Chelsea, Mich., has received the 2013 National Donor Memorial Award for Excellence for her volunteer efforts to promote organ, eye and tissue donation since 1997. (unos.org)
  • In 1997, Mrs. Herndon's sister, Ellen Sullivan, suffered a brain aneurysm and became an organ and tissue donor, leaving behind four young children whom Mrs. Herndon and her husband, Walt, raised, along with their own five children. (unos.org)
  • The National Donor Memorial Award for Excellence was established in 2010 to recognize exceptional advocates for organ and tissue donation. (unos.org)
  • The National Donor Memorial, supported entirely by private and charitable contributions, honors organ and tissue donors and their families who have saved and enhanced the lives of others through their generous gifts. (unos.org)
  • The basic research for the establishment of the donor for the neural transplantation with the miniature swine neuroepitherial stem cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1963 was also the year when the first organ recovery from a brain-dead donor was achieved, paving the way for the development of a definition of brain death based on neurological criteria five years later. (giftofhope.org)
  • The Gift of Hope Organ and Tissue Donor Network can help you find an answer to this question, so be sure to visit our website today and find out how one tiny decision can make a world of difference. (giftofhope.org)
  • Although previous recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through transplantation of human tissue and organs have markedly reduced the risk for this type of transmission, a case of HIV transmission from a screened, antibody-negative donor to several recipients raised questions about the need for additional federal oversight of transplantation of organs and tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • A 1991 investigation determined that several recipients had been infected with HIV by an organ/tissue donor who had tested negative for HIV antibody at the time of donation (4). (cdc.gov)
  • He said that in countries like Japan which did not have brain death laws, live transplants were done by taking half of the segment of a live related donor to save a patient. (tribuneindia.com)
  • BACKGROUND: In 2021, four patients who had received solid organ transplants in the USA developed encephalitis beginning 2-6 weeks after transplantation from a common organ donor. (cdc.gov)
  • We tested various specimens (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, intraocular fluid, serum, and tissues) from the organ donor and recipients by serology, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, metagenomic next-generation sequencing, and host gene expression, and conducted a traceback of blood transfusions received by the organ donor. (cdc.gov)
  • It's very important for everyone to consider giving consent to be an organ and tissue donor, and to share that decision with their family. (cdc.gov)
  • For blood, these questions can be asked directly of the donor, while for organs and tissues, the donor is most commonly deceased, so the history is obtained from next of kin or a very close friend. (cdc.gov)
  • In a study from the United States, long-term survivors of pediatric bone marrow transplantation followed in the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivors Study were compared with survivors of childhood cancer treated without bone marrow transplant from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 , 8 ] Survivors of bone marrow transplantation were more likely to have a severe or life threatening condition (relative risk [RR] = 3.9), more than one chronic condition (RR = 2.6), functional impairment (RR=3.5), and activity limitations (RR = 5.8) than conventionally treated patients. (medscape.com)
  • These data reinforce the need for marked vigilance in ensuring proper screening and management of long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • After lots of trial and error, bone marrow transplantation became successful in the 1970s, where there were no infectious complications or transplant rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone tissue engineering and cardiovascular tissue engineering. (wustl.edu)
  • Tampa, Fla. (Dec, 19 2011) - Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDCs) have been recognized as a source for transplantation because they can contribute to different cell populations in a variety of organs under both normal and pathological conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Six weeks after transplantation, however, more bone marrow-derived microglial cells were observed in the olfactory bulbs of the test animals where the degeneration of mitral cells was still in progress. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study shows a potential new contribution of bone marrow derived cells following transplantation into the brain, making these cells highly versatile, in their ability to both differentiate into and fuse with endogenous neurons" said Dr. Paul R. Sanberg , coeditor-in-chief of CELL TRANSPLANTATION and distinguished professor of Neuroscience at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, University of South Florida. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stem cells have been used to treat illness in limited ways for decades, including transplantation from bone marrow. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Adult stem cells exist in adult tissues throughout the body, such as bone marrow, brain, muscle and GI tract. (empowher.com)
  • Their orders come from the migratory bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that patrol our tissues via the vasculature. (barefacedtruth.com)
  • He said that while tissues such as cornea, bone and cartilage could be removed within hours of a cardiac arrest and still be suitable for transplantation, most other organs required persistent blood circulation to be viable so as to be of any use to the recipient after transplant. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Leukemia starts in blood-forming tissues such as the bone marrow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Likewise, many children are now surviving hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) (see related histology slide below) and require structured long-term follow-up care. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) initiated an investigation to determine if the virus was transmitted through organ transplantation and to identify and prevent rabies in other transplant recipients and persons who may have been exposed to potentially infectious material. (cdc.gov)
  • LCMV is a rodent-borne virus that most commonly causes nonfatal, influenza-like illness and occasional aseptic meningitis, but when transmitted through organ transplantation or in utero can cause severe, life-threatening disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Many BMDC studies have been aimed at repairing damaged brain tissue or helping to restore lost neural function, with much research focused on BMDC transplants to the cerebellum at the back of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Annually, more than 500 transplants in the US come from living donors, who can live without their right lobe (in adult-to-adult transplantation) or the lateral segment of their left lobe (in adult-to-child transplantation). (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, such heterotopic transplants, although capable of alleviating symptoms that benefit from neurotransmitter supplementation, do not re-establish the natural homeostatic regulation of neural activity in the brain and dramatically limit the cell/circuitry replacement strategy to practically only PD. (hindawi.com)
  • The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Ad-hoc Multi Organ Transplantation Committee has implemented several safety net policies to ensure patients in need of multiple organ transplants to get priority when they become medically eligible. (unos.org)
  • Every day people experience life-altering medical improvements through tissue transplants from organ and tissue donors. (giftofhope.org)
  • Transplantations of fetal tissue in the 1980s and 1990s provided proof-of-concept for the potential of cell replacement therapy for PD and some patients benefitted greatly from their transplants. (lu.se)
  • Our conversation is based on his report on infections in organ and tissue transplants, which appears in CDC's journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases . (cdc.gov)
  • Is it a problem for blood transfusions and tissue transplants, too? (cdc.gov)
  • It's been estimated that about one in 200, or half of one percent of organ transplants, possibly transmit unexpected infections, and this rate is likely much lower in blood and tissue. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers participating in a AAAS Annual Meeting news briefing discuss how the use of brain tissue from living donors has prompted a paradigm shift in the study and understanding of the human brain. (aaas.org)
  • Researchers say they can grow large amounts of the transplantable tissue using cells from a small number of donors. (aaas.org)
  • 2003). After the early success of transplantation of cord blood from related donors, cord blood banks were established to provide rapidly accessible, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed units predominantly for transplantation of HPCs from unrelated donors. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Blood and Marrow Transplant Research [CIBMTR] in 2004), the European Research Project on Cord Blood Transplantation (Eurocord) in 1993, and the Japanese Cord Blood Banking Network in 1996-expedited the clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of transplantation of cord blood from unrelated donors. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Nearly all donated livers come from size- and ABO-matched brain-dead (deceased), heart-beating donors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Which organs and tissues can come from living donors? (giftofhope.org)
  • and recall of stored tissues from donors found after donation to have been infected. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1985, when tests for HIV antibody became available, screening prospective donors of blood, organs, and other tissues also began (2,3). (cdc.gov)
  • Since organs are in such short supply compared with the thousands of people on the transplant waiting list, screening for infectious diseases in organ donors is not as restrictive as for blood and tissue donors. (cdc.gov)
  • Better screening of donors has reduced the risk of transmitting HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. However, there will always be a risk of infectious diseases being transmitted from donated blood, organs, and tissues - no matter what screening or testing is done - because pathogens can evade testing, and sometimes testing can't be done because laboratory methods have not been developed yet for the pathogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Foetal tissues have also been used in liver and thymus transplantations (1968). (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver transplantation is the 2nd most common type of solid organ transplantation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These criteria plus the absence of extrahepatic and major vessel involvement satisfy the Milan criteria, used to assess suitability of liver transplantation for patients who have cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For patients with liver metastases, transplantation is indicated only for neuroendocrine tumors without extrahepatic growth after removal of the primary tumor. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cancer progression also affected the redox potential of tissues distant from the primary tumor locus (liver and lung). (nih.gov)
  • After ingestion, Toxoplasma first multiplies asexually in the intestinal epithelia and then spreads through blood circulation to peripheral tissues, including the brain, liver, muscle, and spleen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Caused by the deficiency of a liver-specific substance (uridine diphosphate Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1), toxic unconjugated bilirubin is accumulated in serum and body tissue leading to irreversible neurological damage in the brain. (eurice.eu)
  • Currently, there is no curing treatment available apart from liver transplantation. (eurice.eu)
  • Up until this point, the issue of stem cell transplantation in the brain was making the proper neuronal connections. (dickinson.edu)
  • Since the majority of neurodegeneration takes place in older adults, the next step will be to explore stem cell transplantation in adult animals. (dickinson.edu)
  • Graft transplantation of embryonic cortical neurons may thus hold therapeutic potential and warrants further detailed analysis of its translational value. (jneurosci.org)
  • Determination of the optimal therapeutic window for transplantation is of paramount importance for allowing effective translation to the clinic, in part because a delay between injury and transplantation is inevitable in a clinical setting. (jneurosci.org)
  • This phase might provide an optimal therapeutic window for transplantation because it may increase functional integration of the graft into the host tissue. (jneurosci.org)
  • Human brain organoids are used for understanding pathogenesis and investigating therapeutic options for neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, and neurological disorders. (mdpi.com)
  • Transplantation of immature cells has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy for the damaged adult brain and spinal cord, and there is currently sustained interest in the generation of stem cell lines that could be used to treat certain CNS injuries or disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • The study aimed to clarify the dynamics of tissue redox activity (TRA) in cancer progression and assess the importance of this parameter for therapeutic strategies. (nih.gov)
  • The study also suggests that the noncancerous tissues of a cancer-bearing organism are susceptible to oxidative damage and should be considered a therapeutic target. (nih.gov)
  • Organ and tissue donation started out as a clinical experiment decades ago and has become one of the most extraordinary therapeutic advances in modern medicine. (giftofhope.org)
  • Direct neuronal reprogramming of a somatic cell into therapeutic neurons, without a transient pluripotent state, provides new promise for the large number of individuals afflicted by neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. (lu.se)
  • Therapeutic interventions for children with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) should occur under the direction or with the advice of an experienced physician. (medscape.com)
  • Over the past decades, many different strategies have been proposed to overcome the limited capacity of the mammalian brain to repair itself. (jneurosci.org)
  • Weimann's cells transmit information from the cortex, the neural tissue that is outermost part the mammalian brain, specifically areas needed for motor function. (dickinson.edu)
  • Emerging viruses already circulating in the Western Hemisphere could infect fetal tissue and might have the capacity to cause birth defects, according to preclinical findings published January 31 in Science Translational Medicine. (aaas.org)
  • Fetal tissue allografts in the central visual system of rodents. (org.es)
  • A standardised procedure is followed: the cells are usually obtained from a 7-8 weeks old foetus and the collected cells undergo testing to examine whether they are free from infectious agents and safe for transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foetal brain cells are unique as they are multi-potent and proliferate faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grafting is a surgical procedure involving the replacement of damaged or missing body tissues from a healthy body, in which blood supply of the surgical area integrates with the neighbouring cells in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Stem cells found in the foetal tissues can differentiate into any cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The widespread success of foetal tissue transplantation led to the use of foetal brain cells to treat neurological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human foetal tissues have been widely used in transplantations to treat various conditions, which is mainly due to its unique properties, containing a rich source of primordial stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also found that foetal cells can produce high levels of angiogenic and neurotrophic factors, which increases their growth rate after transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, the cells can survive in lower oxygen conditions, and tend to be more resistant to ischemic environments during transplantation or in vitro conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • performed additional studies to compare the effect of 7 d delay and immediate transplantation on survival and integration of grafted cells into host brain tissue at 4, 7, and 14 d after transplantation. (jneurosci.org)
  • But we also have provided the first evidence that BMDCs can contribute simultaneously to different encephalic areas through different mechanisms of plasticity - cell fusion for Purkinje cells - among the largest and most elaborately dendritic neurons in the human brain - and differentiation for olfactory bulb interneurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells Tissues Organs (2016) 202 (1-2): 85-101. (karger.com)
  • Bakshi, A., C.A. Keck, V.S. Koshkin, D.G. LeBold, R. Siman, E.Y. Snyder, T.K. McIntosh (2005) Caspase-mediated cell death predominates following engraftment of neural progenitor cells into traumatically injured rat brain. (karger.com)
  • Bible, E., D.Y. Chau, M.R. Alexander, J. Price, K.M. Shakesheff, M. Modo (2009) The support of neural stem cells transplanted into stroke-induced brain cavities by PLGA particles. (karger.com)
  • Smith and Broxmeyer, 1986), thereby making it a potential source of cells for transplantation (Bodger, 1987). (nationalacademies.org)
  • Micro-volumes of OECs were injected into spinal cord tissue directly above and below the site of injury for a total of approximately 100 injections of 500,000 cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Excessive glutamate release resulting in excessive Ca +2 entry into cells is the excitotoxicity which initiates the brain ischemic damage seen in stroke and cardiac arrest. (benbest.com)
  • Bucholz's own part in the HCP was to study the electrophysiology of the brain-the magnetic signals generated by the nerve cells every millisecond-in 100 of the HCP subjects. (stlmag.com)
  • The results show that the enzyme aminopeptidase in the stem cell niche -- in this case, the area where stem cells are found in the testicular tissue in fruit flies -- plays a role in both of these functions. (sciencedaily.com)
  • That's because there's a delicate balance to be struck in managing the proliferation of undifferentiated stem cells in tissue, Chen said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Stem cells are regarded as the ideal resource for tissue regeneration, outside of formal organ transplantation. (empowher.com)
  • Upper arm muscle biopsies from female patients are taken, and the muscle cells and connective tissue cells are grown in culture and then injected into the urethra of the same women. (empowher.com)
  • Past studies have shown that some fetal nigral cells transplanted in this way can grow a limited number of axonal projections towards the striatum, but most are generally incapable of growing over the distance required to establish functional connections in the striatum in the adult brain [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent research has shown that pieces of fetal nigral tissue placed in the striatum of 6-OHDA lesioned rats offer greater cell survival and predictability of graft function (in comparison to dissociated nigral cells) in the animal model of Parkinson's disease [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This finding is the first of its kind in that the stem cells can be directed to take on the jobs of specific brain cells while also making the correct connections with other cells. (dickinson.edu)
  • For example, the stem cells created in Weimann's lab must make connections with motor cortex in order to be an effective treatment for disorders like ALS or a traumatic brain injury. (dickinson.edu)
  • Parkinson's disease is a neurological disorder that targets brain cells that control movement. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Because Parkinson's patients have a loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, the coordination among nerve and muscle cells is disrupted. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • The parts of the brain responsible for awareness-the ability to think and perceive-are the neurons (brain cells) in the cortex (grey matter) of the two hemispheres and the axons (communicating projections) in the white matter between those neurons. (brainline.org)
  • The memory tests we investigated rely on the growth of new nerve cells in the hippocampus region of the brain. (iflscience.com)
  • We can take a skin sample, make stem cells from it and then direct these stem cells to grow into brain cells. (lifeafterlifeconspiracy.com)
  • Essentially, we are turning a person's skin cells into brain. (lifeafterlifeconspiracy.com)
  • This process gets rid of unneeded cells and is particularly important for "sculpting" tissue and organ structure during development of the embryo (or larval metamorphosis in insects), but may occur at any time even in adult cells when a tissue needs to be remodeled. (agemed.org)
  • Grafts of 'mini brains' grown from human cells (shown here in green) could one day be used in the treatment of brain injuries. (iflscience.com)
  • Mini brains" composed of lab-grown human cells can integrate into injured rat brains and respond to visual stimuli, a new study has reported. (iflscience.com)
  • Human brain organoids are miniature versions of brain tissue produced from pluripotent stem cells cultivated in the lab. (iflscience.com)
  • We focused on not just transplanting individual cells, but actually transplanting tissue," said senior author H. Isaac Chen in a statement . (iflscience.com)
  • Fibroblasts are nice enough cells and because our bodies contain enormous amounts of connective tissue, they are the second most abundant cell in the body, surpassed only by red blood cells. (barefacedtruth.com)
  • Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) have now shown for the first time that malignant brain tumors arise directly from brain stem cells. (dkfz.de)
  • In the adult brain, the Tlx protein is responsible for generating new neurons from tissue stem cells. (dkfz.de)
  • Overproduction of Tlx in mice stimulates the development of malignant brain tumors from brain stem cells. (dkfz.de)
  • This is where neural or brain stem cells reside, which are responsible for generating new neurons if needed. (dkfz.de)
  • Scientists from the divisions of Professor Dr. G nther Sch tz and Professor Dr. Peter Lichter at the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) have recently shown in mouse brains that brain stem cells in the subventricular zone are characterized by a specific molecule: Protein Tlx, a transcription factor, which stimulates the activity of various genes. (dkfz.de)
  • In the adult animal, Tlx is expressed exclusively in brain stem cells. (dkfz.de)
  • When the scientists switched off Tlx, there were no more detectable stem cells in the brain and the formation of new neurons ceased. (dkfz.de)
  • Using a molecular-biological trick, the investigators induced an overproduction of Tlx by the brain stem cells of mice. (dkfz.de)
  • As a result, cell division activity in the subventricular zone increased, the cells left their habitual environment called stem cell niche, and started forming glioblastoma-like tissue lesions. (dkfz.de)
  • This study investigated the effect of EZH2 expression on proliferation and tumorigenesis of brain glioma cells. (medscimonit.com)
  • Glioma tumor tissues were collected from 3 patients who received surgery, and the glioma stem cells were then separated, cultured, and identified by flow cytometry. (medscimonit.com)
  • The effect on tumorigenesis potency of glioma stem cells was determined by mouse transplantation assay. (medscimonit.com)
  • Our data demonstrated that in brain glioma cells, the decrease of EZH2 level could suppress cell proliferation and tumorigenesis potency, and meanwhile inhibit the expressions of oncogenes including c-myc and Akt. (medscimonit.com)
  • This research group investigated the effects of transplantation of vascular endothelial cells (cells that line the circulatory system) generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) on an animal model of white matter infarct. (tischms.org)
  • Their results demonstrated that transplantation of these cells suppressed the inflammatory response and remyelination was promoted. (tischms.org)
  • However, post-mortem analysis of transplanted tissue revealed accumulation of pathological Lewy bodies in a small subset of transplanted cells over time, revealing a host-to-graft disease propagation. (lu.se)
  • This approach could be potentially applied directly in the brain by targeting resident cells as a source of new neurons. (lu.se)
  • Direct neuronal conversion of resident glial cells is advantageous since they are ubiquitously distributed brain cells able to self-renew and replenish their number, making them ideal candidates for endogenous repair. (lu.se)
  • We show that human and chimpanzee cells differentiate in a similar man¬ner and that the difference in interspecies protein abundance is higher than transcript-level differences, suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms play a role in the difference between human and chim¬panzee brain development. (lu.se)
  • These abnormal cells can also spread to other parts of the body, including the brain and spinal cord. (medlineplus.gov)
  • sought to identify the optimal time for transplantation by comparing the effect of immediate and delayed transplantation of E14 motor cortical neurons on graft vascularization, survival, and contribution to long-term motor outcome. (jneurosci.org)
  • In co-culture with human cortical neurons and after transplantation (AT) into human brain tissue resected. (lu.se)
  • In co-culture with human cortical neurons and after transplantation (AT) into human brain tissue resected from patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, light-activated channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressing hdINs induced postsynaptic currents in human neurons, strongly suggesting functional efferent synapse formation. (lu.se)
  • Neuroscience focusing on human development and disease has long been hampered due to ethical rea¬sons, low tissue availability, and low translatability from animal models. (lu.se)
  • Reperfusion injury refers to the tissue damage inflicted when blood flow is restored after an ischemic period of more than about ten minutes. (benbest.com)
  • I focus my attention on ischemic/reperfusion injury to the brain. (benbest.com)
  • Advantages of living donation for the recipient include shorter waiting times and shorter cold ischemic times for explanted organs, largely because transplantation can be scheduled to optimize the patient's condition. (msdmanuals.com)
  • He also talked about the clinical diagnosis required to certify brain stem death. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Guan was elected by peers and members of the College of Fellows for "leading contributions in developing elastomers, smart hydrogels and cell and drug delivery systems for cardiovascular and musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. (wustl.edu)
  • Intracerebral grafting presently remains an experimental model used to address fundamental questions concerning brain development, neuronal plasticity, regeneration and formation of topographic connections. (org.es)
  • Four patients received donated organs or tissues on March 26, and three were hospitalized between April 12 and 16 with symptoms including fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, altered mental status, and respiratory compromise. (cdc.gov)
  • Matthew Kuehnert] First of all, I think it's important to say that organ transplantation is, for most people who get a transplant, a lifesaving procedure, and the biggest problem is that there aren't enough organs to go around. (cdc.gov)
  • In a petition filed with the FDA, Public Citizen called on the agency to ban the sale of all human cadaveric dura mater and recall all such tissue not yet used in surgery because the tissue has caused at least 114 cases of always-fatal CJD. (citizen.org)
  • Tissue from the side of a patient?s own leg or implants from animals also are widely accepted alternatives to cadaveric dura mater. (citizen.org)
  • However, neurons transplanted from embryonic tissue to adult brain grow. (rahulgladwin.com)
  • The primary indication for kidney transplantation is End-stage renal failure. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Simultaneous islet cell-kidney transplantation may be desirable in the future after the outcomes have improved. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The recommended treatment for LCMV infections obtained through organ transplantation includes reduced immunosuppression and ribavirin. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to complications seen from exposure to chemotherapy and radiation, patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation can experience unique late effects secondary to graft versus host disease (GVHD) and autoimmunity. (medscape.com)
  • Brain glioma is a type of common primary intracranial malignant tumor, the prognosis of which is frequently unfavorable. (medscimonit.com)
  • Firstly, while a PN graft is used to bridge two brain areas, an intracerebral embryonic tissue graft is meant to restore the function of the damaged area. (org.es)
  • Secondly, while all elements in PN grafting are at the same age, the intracerebral embryonic tissue graft is heterochronic with respect to the host tissue. (org.es)
  • Putting fetal brain tissue grafts in the mature central nervous system (CNS) differs from peripheral nerve (PN) grafting in at least the following two ways. (org.es)
  • Unfortunately, there is abundant literature suggesting that environmental constraints from the mature host brain alter the restorative capacities of fetal grafts in various ways. (org.es)
  • To stimulate and facilitate further research, the NCI and NHLBI held the First International Consensus Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation on April 28 and 29, 2011. (medscape.com)
  • Foetal brain cell graft is a surgical procedure that can be used as a regenerative treatment for various neurological conditions, but was mainly explored and used specifically for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). (wikipedia.org)
  • The dissection is targeted to isolate homogenous cell types from group of tissues in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These strategies range from cell transplantation to the administration of growth factors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Fetal cell/tissue transplantation has been arduously studied as a potential way to repair the injured brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Their results showed that delaying transplantation increased cell proliferation, without increasing apoptosis, consequently leading to increased graft size in the delayed condition. (jneurosci.org)
  • Their results are published in the current issue of Cell Transplantation (20:8) now freely available on-line at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/ . (eurekalert.org)
  • The editorial offices for CELL TRANSPLANTATION are at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, College of Medicine, the University of South Florida and the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • A secondary advantage is that islet cell transplantation appears to help maintain normoglycemia in patients who require total pancreatectomy for pain due to chronic pancreatitis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Pancreas Transplantation Pancreas transplantation is a form of pancreatic beta-cell replacement that can restore normoglycemia in diabetic patients. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The science of a fibroblast / fat stem cell culture combination doesn't confirm better, it confirms lack of understanding of the basic physiology of tissue healing and the negative role inflammation can and does play in that process. (barefacedtruth.com)
  • It has been previously demonstrated that endothelial cell transplantation improves outcomes of white matter infarct. (tischms.org)
  • These billions of neurons make trillions of connections via axons in the white matter, constituting functional neural networks that support all conscious effort of the brain, as well as many functions of the brain that do not require consciousness. (brainline.org)
  • Since the seventies, numerous investigations have focused on trying to restore lost function by replacement of injured brain structures with homologous allogeneic embryonic neural tissue. (org.es)
  • Recent infection with yellow fever virus was confirmed in all four organ recipients by identification of yellow fever virus RNA consistent with the 17D vaccine strain in brain tissue from one recipient and seroconversion after transplantation in three recipients. (cdc.gov)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing interneurons modulate neuronal network activity in the brain by inhibiting other neurons. (lu.se)
  • The combination of NSCs with NSC-derived exosomes ameliorated the injury of brain tissue including cerebral infarction, neuronal death, and glial scarring, and promoted the recovery of motor function. (elifesciences.org)
  • He further said that if organs could be removed from these individuals with brain stem death and a beating heart, they could be transplanted into the recipients suffering from various organ failures. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Aurand, E.R., K.J. Lampe, K.B. Bjugstad (2012) Defining and designing polymers and hydrogels for neural tissue engineering. (karger.com)
  • Here, novel technology has been developed that allows for the implantation of neural constructs or intact pieces of neural tissue into the CNS with low trauma. (hindawi.com)
  • Infection can also be transmitted through the placenta or via transplantation or transfusion [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both transfusion and transplantation are very, very safe, in terms of transmission of infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • these infections were spread through transfusion and transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 7 ] of 798 patients who survived more than 5 years after transplantation, 328 were children. (medscape.com)
  • for transplantation in neurosurgical patients unnecessarily exposes them to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and variant CJD, the human version of mad cow disease, Public Citizen told a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official today. (citizen.org)
  • Lundin, S & Widner, H 2000, ' Attitudes to xenotransplantation: interviews with patients suffering from Parkinson's disease focusing on the conception of risk ', Transplantation Proceedings , vol. 32, nr. 5, s. 1175-6. (lu.se)
  • Advise patients with mixed connective tissue disease who are pregnant to consult an obstetrician and a rheumatologist with experience in treating other patients in similar conditions. (medscape.com)
  • The most important tool in the treatment of individuals with mixed connective tissue disease is meticulous and frequent reevaluation of patients. (medscape.com)
  • Before transplantation, lesion was produced in adult mice by aspiration of the motor cortex, leaving the corpus callosum intact. (jneurosci.org)
  • The experiments were carried out on brain tissues of neuroblastoma-bearing, glioma-bearing, and healthy mice. (nih.gov)
  • Until now, no other vascular graft engineered from human tissue has tolerated simple storage. (aaas.org)
  • In a pilot study, transplanting the graft 4, 7, or 30 d after lesion induction indicated that a delay of 7 d was the optimal time for transplantation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The results thus demonstrated that delaying transplantation within a specific time window increased graft survival and integration into host brain tissue. (jneurosci.org)
  • It would be valuable for future studies to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhanced graft survival rate after delayed transplantation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, the fetal graft may produce trophic factors or signaling cues, which are present in the brain only at early developmental stages, and should reactivate neurotropic processes in a 'dormant' host neuron populations. (org.es)
  • Human organoids are small, self-organized, three-dimensional (3D) tissue cultures that have started to revolutionize medical science in terms of understanding disease, testing pharmacologically active compounds, and offering novel ways to treat disease. (mdpi.com)
  • With scans of more than 1,100 healthy young human brains, along with tons of information about how they think and live. (stlmag.com)
  • Prospective tissue typing and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching are not always required. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Specifically, we suggest that a better understanding of human host stroke tissue-hydrogel interactions in addition to the effects of scaling up hydrogel volume to human-sized cavities would help guide translation of these second-generation regenerative stroke therapies. (nih.gov)
  • The motor cortex in the human brain is mapped to match specific body parts. (dickinson.edu)
  • It administers the national Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network under contract with the Health Resources and Services Administration, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (unos.org)
  • Human brain organoids are a promising approach for repairing damaged brain regions. (iflscience.com)
  • Tlx also plays an important role in glioblastoma, the most malignant of human brain cancers. (dkfz.de)
  • More so, TEs are a rich source of genetic variation, which makes them an intriguing research avenue to investigate humanspecific traits, including their impact on human brain evolution and their relevance in disease. (lu.se)
  • Using a multi-omics approach, we demonstrate that TEs introduce a layer of transcriptome complexity to the human brain. (lu.se)
  • Overall, our findings highlight the importance of TEs as regulatory agents and their dynamic activity during development, adult life, and disease in the human brain. (lu.se)
  • All of these conditions lead to poor outcomes during or after transplantation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Focus: Factors influencing outcomes of microsurgical procedures, including the treatment and prevention of lymphedema and autologous tissue reconstruction. (wustl.edu)
  • TRA was visualized in vivo by nitroxide-enhanced MRI on anesthetized animals or in vitro by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on isolated tissue specimens. (nih.gov)
  • Mrs. Herndon serves as an inspiration to all of us who work in donation and transplantation. (unos.org)
  • Since that time, Mrs. Herndon has been an active advocate for organ, eye and tissue donation, sharing her sister's story at heath fairs, community events and other venues. (unos.org)
  • What is Tissue Donation? (giftofhope.org)
  • With a view to encouraging cadaver donations, Prof Kahn emphasised on the need to educate public on brain stem death and organ donation. (tribuneindia.com)
  • He pointed out that in most of the developing countries like India the concept of brain death was not clear and the people were are also not willing to accept the idea of organ donation. (tribuneindia.com)
  • In order to facilitate organ and tissue donation to meet the shortage of organs, Prof Kahn stressed on the need to encourage people to talk of brain stem death under normal circumstances so that no time was lost before the organs were removed. (tribuneindia.com)
  • For blood and tissues, the screening is more stringent, and any risk for infection found, either through behavior history or laboratory testing, results in the donation being declined. (cdc.gov)
  • Brief report: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus transmitted through solid organ transplantation-Massachusetts, 2008. (cdc.gov)
  • Dopamine is a chemical messenger that transmits signals within the brain. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Based on these observations, the dopamine neu- from dopamine neurons implanted into the brain pa- rons used for transplantation in these experiments renchyma with the goal of reinnervating the dener- were neuroblasts obtained from mid-trimester rat vated striatum.8,9 Rats with unilateral, 6-hydroxydo- fetuses. (lu.se)
  • In the chickenpox affected people, the virus rests near the brain and spinal cord tissue. (lcarscom.net)
  • To access the ventral midbrain for tissue dissection, cover tissues are removed from the aborted foetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning and MRI studies of the brain may be important in ruling out intracranial lesions when the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy is in question. (medscape.com)
  • Although Matt's vital organs were not seriously injured, a CT scan showed widespread swelling of the brain. (brainline.org)
  • The part of the brain responsible for wakefulness is the reticular activating system (RAS), a collection of neurons in the upper brainstem that sends widespread stimulatory projections to the areas of the brain responsible for awareness. (brainline.org)
  • In the last decade, the number of transplantations of HPCs derived from cord blood has increased, particularly for children. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Ischemia is the condition suffered by tissues & organs when deprived of blood flow -- mostly the effects of inadequate nutrient & oxygen. (benbest.com)
  • In the first minute after stoppage of blood flow to the brain, ATP in neurons is primarily regenerated from ADP by phosphate from PhosphoCreatine ( PCr ). (benbest.com)
  • He received treatments, such as medications to elevate blood pressure, ventilator support of breathing, and IV fluids for hydration, all of which are necessary to support the brain and the body so that the brain can recover from injury. (brainline.org)
  • The related concept of Longevity Determination , however, is the result of a species-specific genomic expression during early development that positions the somatic tissues of an organism to survive long after its reproductive period has been completed. (agemed.org)
  • The "cradle" of new neurons in the adult brain is well known. (dkfz.de)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that post-transcriptional mechanisms play an important role in the brain both during development and in the adult brain. (lu.se)
  • Injury to the brain areas concerned with vision can cause a variety of disorders ranging from visual field defects to much more complex deficits like visual agnosia. (org.es)
  • It would be fascinating, the two agree, to see what the HCP brains look like a few decades from now, when the twins' early shared environments are a smaller fraction of their life experience. (stlmag.com)
  • Why would anyone want to apply daily skincare products that promote inflammation when it has been known for decades that inflammation actually promotes tissue aging? (barefacedtruth.com)