Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Complicity: Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Beginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Hospitals, State: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Hand Transplantation: The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Heart-Lung Transplantation: The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Mice, Inbred C57BLMesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Facial Transplantation: The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.

Millimeter-scale positioning of a nerve-growth-factor source and biological activity in the brain. (1/294)

Toxicity prevents the systemic administration of many therapeutic proteins, and attempts at protein targeting via the circulatory system (i.e., "magic bullets") have failed in all but a few special cases. Direct administration at the target site is a logical alternative, particularly in the central nervous system, but the limits of direct administration have not been defined clearly. Nerve growth factor (NGF) enhances survival of cholinergic neurons and, therefore, has generated considerable interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the effectiveness of local delivery by implanting small polymer pellets that slowly released NGF into the central nervous system of adult rats at controlled distances from a target site containing transplanted fetal cholinergic cells. NGF-releasing implants placed within 1-2 mm of the treatment site enhanced the biological function of cellular targets, whereas identical implants placed approximately 3 mm from the target site of treatment produced no beneficial effect. Effective NGF therapy required millimeter-scale positioning of the NGF source, and efficacy correlated with the spatial distribution of NGF concentration in the tissue; this result suggests that NGF must be delivered within several millimeters of the target to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease. Because the human brain is divided into functional regions that are typically several centimeters in diameter and often irregular in shape, new methods for sculpting larger-scale drug fields are needed. We illustrate a concept, called pharmacotectonics, in which drug-delivery systems are arranged spatially in tissues to shape concentration fields for potent agents.  (+info)

Sequential bilateral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: effects of the second graft. (2/294)

Five parkinsonian patients who had received implants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue unilaterally in the striatum 10-56 months earlier were grafted with tissue from four to eight donors into the putamen (four patients) or the putamen plus the caudate nucleus (one patient) on the other side, and were followed for 18-24 months. After 12-18 months, PET showed a mean 85% increase in 6-L-[18F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen with the second graft, whereas there was no significant further change in the previously transplanted putamen. Two patients exhibited marked additional improvements after their second graft: 'on-off' fluctuations virtually disappeared, movement speed increased, and L-dopa could be withdrawn in one patient and reduced by 70% in the other. The improvement in one patient was moderate. Two patients with atypical features, who responded poorly to the first graft, worsened following the second transplantation. These findings indicate that sequential transplantation in patients does not compromise the survival and function of either the first or the second graft. Moreover, putamen grafts that restore fluorodopa uptake to normal levels can give improvements of major therapeutic value.  (+info)

Specification of somatosensory area identity in cortical explants. (3/294)

The H-2Z1 transgene is restricted to a subset of layer IV neurons in the postnatal mouse cortex and delineates exactly the somatosensory area. Expression of the H-2Z1 transgene was used as an areal marker to determine when the parietal cortex becomes committed to a somatosensory identity. We have shown previously that grafts dissected from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) H-2Z1 cortex and transplanted into the cortex of nontransgenic newborns express H-2Z1 according to their site of origin. Expression was not modified on heterotopic transplantation (). In the present study, whole cortical explants were isolated at E12.5 from noncortical tissues. The explants developed a regionalized expression of H-2Z1, indicating that regionalization takes place and is maintained in vitro. We used this property and confronted embryonic H-2Z1 cortex with presumptive embryonic sources of regionalizing signals in an in vitro grafting procedure. A great majority of E11.5-E13.5 grafts maintained their presumptive expression of H-2Z1 when grafted heterotopically on nontransgenic E13.5-E15.5 explants. However, a significantly lower proportion of E11.5 parietal grafts expressed H-2Z1 in occipital compared with parietal cortex, indicating that somatosensory identity may be partially plastic at E11.5. Earlier stages could not be tested because the E10.5 grafts failed to develop in vitro. The data suggest that commitment to the expression of a somatosensory area-specific marker coincides with the onset of neurogenesis and occurs well before the birth of the non-GABAergic neurons that express H-2Z1 in vivo.  (+info)

Site-specific migration and neuronal differentiation of human neural progenitor cells after transplantation in the adult rat brain. (4/294)

Neural progenitor cells obtained from the embryonic human forebrain were expanded up to 10(7)-fold in culture in the presence of epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and leukemia inhibitory growth factor. When transplanted into neurogenic regions in the adult rat brain, the subventricular zone, and hippocampus, the in vitro propagated cells migrated specifically along the routes normally taken by the endogenous neuronal precursors: along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb and within the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus, and exhibited site-specific neuronal differentiation in the granular and periglomerular layers of the bulb and in the dentate granular cell layer. The cells exhibited substantial migration also within the non-neurogenic region, the striatum, in a seemingly nondirected manner up to approximately 1-1.5 mm from the graft core, and showed differentiation into both neuronal and glial phenotypes. Only cells with glial-like features migrated over longer distances within the mature striatum, whereas the cells expressing neuronal phenotypes remained close to the implantation site. The ability of the human neural progenitors to respond in vivo to guidance cues and signals that can direct their differentiation along multiple phenotypic pathways suggests that they can provide a powerful and virtually unlimited source of cells for experimental and clinical transplantation.  (+info)

Anterior cephalic neural crest is required for forebrain viability. (5/294)

The prosencephalon, or embryonic forebrain, grows within a mesenchymal matrix of local paraxial mesoderm and of neural crest cells (NCC) derived from the posterior diencephalon and mesencephalon. Part of this NCC population forms the outer wall of capillaries within the prosencephalic leptomeninges and neuroepithelium itself. The surgical removal of NCC from the anterior head of chick embryos leads to massive cell death within the forebrain neuroepithelium during an interval that precedes its vascularization by at least 36 hours. During this critical period, a mesenchymal layer made up of intermingled mesodermal cells and NCC surround the neuroepithelium. This layer is not formed after anterior cephalic NCC ablation. The neuroepithelium then undergoes massive apoptosis. Cyclopia ensues after forebrain deterioration and absence of intervening frontonasal bud derivatives. The deleterious effect of ablation of the anterior NC cannot be interpreted as a deficit in vascularization because it takes place well before the time when blood vessels start to invade the neuroepithelium. Thus the mesenchymal layer itself exerts a trophic effect on the prosencephalic neuroepithelium. In an assay to rescue the operated phenotype, we found that the rhombencephalic but not the truncal NC can successfully replace the diencephalic and mesencephalic NC. Moreover, any region of the paraxial cephalic mesoderm can replace NCC in their dual function: in their early trophic effect and in providing pericytes to the forebrain meningeal blood vessels. The assumption of these roles by the cephalic neural crest may have been instrumental in the rostral expansion of the vertebrate forebrain over the course of evolution.  (+info)

Ethical aspects of neural tissue transplantation. (6/294)

The method of neural grafting is considered to be a very promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's disease. During the last 15 years, clinical transplantation studies have been carried out worldwide in several hundreds of patients with Parkinson's disease. In these studies, primarily fetal mesencephalic tissue derived from aborted human fetuses has been used for implantation. Neural tissue transplantation gives rise to ethical issues in two different areas that need careful examination: the first, ethical problems linked to the use of tissue from aborted human fetuses; and the second, ethical issues concerning the graft recipients in clinical trials, i.e., his or her well-being, personality, and personal identity.  (+info)

Serial MR imaging of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by human white matter or by chimeric myelin-basic and proteolipid protein in the common marmoset. (7/294)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the marmoset was monitored by serial MR imaging to determine correlates to the natural-history MR studies in multiple sclerosis (MS). The relationships of MR-revealed lesions to clinical status and histopathologic findings were also explored. METHODS: We induced EAE by subcutaneous inoculation in two marmosets by human white matter (HWM) and in seven marmosets by MP4 (a chimeric recombinant fusion protein of myelin-basic and proteolipid protein) in adjuvant along with intravenous inactivated pertussis vaccine to facilitate the disease process. The HWM-inoculated animals were induced with Freund's adjuvant as the established model of marmoset EAE. The MP4-inoculated animals were induced with either Freund's incomplete adjuvant or TiterMax as part of a preclinical treatment trial. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T at baseline, and repeated at 1- to 2-week intervals for a period of up to 16 weeks in six EAE-induced marmosets, and intermittently for up to 70 weeks in three EAE-induced and two control marmosets. Proton density- (PD-) and T2-weighted, pre- and postgadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement, T1-weighted, and magnetization transfer (MT) images were obtained. The brains were prepared for histologic evaluation of lesion distribution and counts, characterization of lesions as demyelinating or inflammatory, and histopathologic scoring. The clinical, MR, and pathologic scoring were done on grading systems, and correlated for evaluation. RESULTS: White matter (WM) changes after EAE induction were observed first at 9 days in the HWM-induced animals and at 2.5 weeks in the MP4-induced animals, with subsequent week-to-week fluctuations on PD- and T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhancing lesions were not observed in all animals. MR-revealed WM lesions correlated to histopathologic analysis of EAE lesions, measuring from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. The lesion count and extent of demyelination was greater in the HWM-induced animals than in the MP4-induced animals. Some MR-revealed lesions correlated directly to clinical symptoms, but the majority of lesions were clinically silent. CONCLUSION: On MR images, lesions in the EAE marmoset model were confined to the WM, and their development, resolution, distribution, and enhancing characteristics fluctuated over the duration of the study. The dynamic presentation of MR-revealed lesions confirms the parallels between EAE in the marmoset and relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical symptoms alone were not representative of ongoing pathologic brain lesions. Therefore, serial MR imaging serves as a very important adjunct to clinical and histologic surveillance of the development of new and the persistence of existing brain lesions in this animal model of MS.  (+info)

Regeneration of isthmic tissue is the result of a specific and direct interaction between rhombomere 1 and midbrain. (8/294)

The midbrain-hindbrain boundary, or isthmus, is the source of signals that are responsible for regional specification of both the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) is expressed specifically at the isthmus and there is now good evidence that it forms at least part of the patterning signal. In this study, we use Fgf8 as a marker for isthmic cells to examine how interactions between midbrain and hindbrain can regenerate isthmic tissue and, thereby, gain insight into the normal formation and/or maintenance of the isthmus. We show that Fgf8-expressing tissue with properties of the isthmic organiser is generated when midbrain and rhombomere 1 tissue are juxtaposed but not when midbrain contacts any other rhombomere. The use of chick/quail chimeras shows that the isthmic tissue is largely derived from rhombomere 1. In a few cases a small proportion of the Fgf8-positive cells were of midbrain origin but this appears to be the result of a local respecification to a hindbrain phenotype, a process mimicked by ectopic FGF8. Studies in vitro show that the induction of Fgf8 is the result of a direct planar interaction between the two tissues and involves a diffusible signal.  (+info)

These data highlight two essential principles that may help realize the functional potential of striatal transplants. First, it was demonstrated that distinct response deficits were alleviated only if grafted animals received extensive postoperative training. Second, comparisons of different postoperative training regimes revealed that only specific training on the impaired contralateral side conferred functional benefit. Together, these results suggest that graft maturation and integration is insufficient by itself to mediate recovery on this task unless specific, extensive training subsequently is undertaken. Furthermore, this recovery would appear to be mediated by the restoration of basal ganglia circuitry, as permitted by the striatal graft.. A comparison of animals that were either (i) initially retrained on the contralateral side or (ii) tested only on the contralateral side once they had received extensive training on the ipsilateral side highlighted the degree of training specificity ...
The University of Southern California is about to get a brain boost.. The school is acquiring UCLAs Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. The research facility employs about 100 people who study and map the human brain. Its led by researchers Arthur Toga and Paul Thompson.. "Were on cloud nine," said Toga, who founded the lab 26 years ago. "This is a really exciting move for us. Being able to build a new program across town is really an opportunity of a lifetime.". In the past, the lap has studied disorders like autism and dementia, as well as memory and IQ. One of the researchers bigger projects is ENIGMA, a collaborative brain mapping effort that involves 125 institutions around the world. This is the kind of work Thompson and Toga plan to take with them to USC. The lab will open at USC in the fall.. "We can really tackle some of the major problems in medicine and neuroscience," Thompson said.. Toga and Thompson said USC offered them new facilities and formal partnerships with other disciplines ...
Look beyond the glaringly obvious trasplant typo in these photos, and youll find yourself marveling at the endless fun you can have with gummy bears ins
Neurosurgeons at UC Irvine Medical Center plan to graft cells from a womans adrenal gland to her brain Friday in the first operation of its kind in Orange County on a patient with Parkinsons
Eh, this strip and other sci-fi scenarios have a ridiculous divergence between phenotype and genotype, to the point where the phenotype of the sapients full body has almost no resemblence to the genotype. So saying that Nick is human because genes is to miss the point if 90% of what those genes code for is luncheon meet a thousand miles away from Nick. At some point, we have to admit that the body influences the mind, a point men only understand when they are horny and try to forget othertimes. So your definition of "human" is rather problematic, trying to pin it down to an arbitrary-but-precise chemical test rather than a socio-psychological profile, which is less precise but more accurate.. For instance, consider Narbonic and the hijinks with brain transplants and gender switches. Is Dave in Helens body still male if said body contains his actual brain? It might have XY, but the hormones, plumbing, and wiring will tell said brain that he is XX. Genetic tests can be precise, but utterly ...
Eh, this strip and other sci-fi scenarios have a ridiculous divergence between phenotype and genotype, to the point where the phenotype of the sapients full body has almost no resemblence to the genotype. So saying that Nick is human because genes is to miss the point if 90% of what those genes code for is luncheon meet a thousand miles away from Nick. At some point, we have to admit that the body influences the mind, a point men only understand when they are horny and try to forget othertimes. So your definition of "human" is rather problematic, trying to pin it down to an arbitrary-but-precise chemical test rather than a socio-psychological profile, which is less precise but more accurate.. For instance, consider Narbonic and the hijinks with brain transplants and gender switches. Is Dave in Helens body still male if said body contains his actual brain? It might have XY, but the hormones, plumbing, and wiring will tell said brain that he is XX. Genetic tests can be precise, but utterly ...
In article ,hopkinsc.74.0009FDC9 at,, hopkinsc at (Hopkins, Charlotte) wrote: , I am hoping someone will be able to help me with a problem we are having with , our primers for the PCR. We are following the instructions on reconsitution , but have been getting nothing working when using them in the PCR. We went , back and tested the OD reading and it is very low (under half what it should , be). It is getting to the stage we are doubting the synthesis of them. Hey, we had majority of our primers done locally by a person badly needing brain transplant and good reading habits - on occasion Ive got less than half of the ordered primers in existance (note - half of the primers, not half of every primer). So Ive got more than enough experience with crappy synthesis. First of all - OD does not mean much - unless you dont have it at all - there can be shorter oligos that are precipitable and indeed UV absorbant. If you doubt quality of your primers put them on the gel. ...
If we had a brain transplant, who would we be? To the world, we would still appear to be ourselves, but we would have the memories, the knowledge and the emotions of another. Even though this is a bit of science fiction at the time, it does make us think about how the health of…
0471492469 Neural Transplantation in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Status and New Directions No. 231,books, textbooks, text book
Your download Neural Transplantation in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Status read an credible accident. You can navigate a consortia search and build your editors. international families will currently experience mad in your world of the pages you are undertaken.
Keywords: Animals ; Brain Tissue Transplantation/ methods ; Capsules/ therapeutic use ; Cell Line/cytology/transplantation ; Gene Therapy/methods/trends ; Humans ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/ surgery ; Pain ; Intractable/therapy ; Polymers/therapeutic use. Note: Division of Surgical Research and Gene Therapy Center, Lausanne University Medical School, C.H.U.V., Pavillon 4, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.. ...
This study reports the long-term safety, motor, cognitive and psychiatric effects of bilateral fetal striatal allotransplants in five patients with mild to moderate HD, in comparison with a reference group of 12 patients from the same cohort who were similarly suitable for transplantation but not selected for surgery, but were followed in an identical way.. There were no significant differences in any of the measures chosen when comparing patients with transplants with this reference cohort at baseline and followed-up for up to 10 years postsurgery, using identical protocols of assessment. In small open label studies with multiple outcome measures, it is tempting to focus on apparent improvements in individual patients on particular tests. However, although such encouraging signs could be identified in the present five patients, the changes were in all cases small; similar short-term fluctuations could be identified in control patients of the reference group; and there were no statistically ...
Immunohistochemical detection of cells labeled with bromodeoxyuridine after neural transplantation.: Pregnant rats were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (Br
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
Any family with a two-year-old needing bariatric surgery probably also has a parent or two needing brain transplants. A world. Nbome hign quality in us.
The repairs were much faster, and we were stable again around noon, but upon turning everything back on we found we completely lost thinman, the main web server. Totally dead. However, quite luckily, we happened to have a spare old frankenstein machine kicking around, and I was able to do a "brain transplant" i.e. swap the drives from thinman to this other machine. Now this other machine thinks it is thinman and is working quite well as a web server. Dodged a major bullet there ...
The structure of a biological scaffold is a major determinant of its biological characteristics and its interaction with cells. An acellular dermis tissue transplant must undergo a series of processing steps, to remove cells and genetic material and provide the sterility required for surgical use. During manufacturing and sterilization the structure and composition of tissue transplants may change. The composition of the human cell-free dermis transplant Epiflex® was investigated with specific attention paid to its structure, matrix composition, cellular content and biomechanics. We demonstrated that after processing, the structure of Epiflex remains almost unchanged with an intact collagen network and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition providing natural cell interactions. Although the ready to use transplant does contain some cellular and DNA debris, the processing procedure results in a total destruction of cells and active DNA which is a requirement for an immunologically inert and
The structure of a biological scaffold is a major determinant of its biological characteristics and its interaction with cells. An acellular dermis tissue transplant must undergo a series of processing steps, to remove cells and genetic material and provide the sterility required for surgical use. During manufacturing and sterilization the structure and composition of tissue transplants may change. The composition of the human cell-free dermis transplant Epiflex® was investigated with specific attention paid to its structure, matrix composition, cellular content and biomechanics. We demonstrated that after processing, the structure of Epiflex remains almost unchanged with an intact collagen network and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition providing natural cell interactions. Although the ready to use transplant does contain some cellular and DNA debris, the processing procedure results in a total destruction of cells and active DNA which is a requirement for an immunologically inert and
Neural Plasticity is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes articles related to all aspects of neural plasticity, with special emphasis on its functional significance as reflected in behavior and in psychopathology. Neural Plasticity publishes research and review articles from the entire range of relevant disciplines, including basic neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, biological psychology, and biological psychiatry. Neural Tissue Transplantation Research [4188852] - With contributions by numerous expertsDuring the last decade research on neural transplantation in mammals has grown extensively, and has attracted the attention of many young inquisitive scientists. This growth, as the critics point out, has been somewhat random, and has resulted neither in the formulation of basic concepts nor in
Like all procedures, the history of tissue transplants have come a long way and can be credited for saving and improving many lives. Learn more, today!
The American Association of Kidney Patients is a voluntary patient organization, which has been dedicated to improving the lives of fellow kidney patients and their families by helping them deal with the physical, emotional and social impact of kidney disease for more than 40 years. The programs offered by AAKP inform and inspire patients and their families to better understand their condition, adjust more readily to their circumstances and assume more normal, productive lives. To accomplish these goals, AAKP engages in a variety of educational and supportive programs designed: 1) to assist patients both to learn more about their disease and to become active participants in planning and managing their treatment; 2) to improve patient understanding of and access to rehabilitation; 3) to work together for the improvement of public programs that help kidney patients meet their financial and personal needs; 4) to reflect the views and concerns of patients to public policy makers and others in the ...
The results of this study illustrate the remarkable regenerative capacity of the skeletal muscle of young mice to ischemic injury. The muscles most affected by FAL were the soleus and gastrocnemius of the lower leg. There was also evidence of ischemic injury in the thigh, but to a lesser extent. During the first 3 days following surgery, there was microscopic evidence of muscle damage and a pronounced loss of function. By day 7, the histological evidence showed a substantial resolution of the injury, and contractile force had been essentially normalized. By 28 days the muscles microscopic appearance was largely restored to baseline. Consistent with these findings is the fact that of the 1,289 known transcripts we identified as differentially expressed between ligated and sham surgery controls, none were induced or repressed by the day 28 time point.. Because the gene expression results are too extensive to be discussed in a single paper, we present selective results from the data set that we ...
For the first time, scientists have transplanted neural cells derived from a monkeys skin into its brain and watched the cells develop into several types of mature brain cells, according to the authors of a new study in Cell Reports. After six months, the cells looked entirely normal, and were only detectable because they initially were tagged with a fluorescent protein.. Because the cells were derived from adult cells in each monkeys skin, the experiment is a proof-of-principle for the concept of personalized medicine, where treatments are designed for each individual.. And since the skin cells were not "foreign" tissue, there were no signs of immune rejection - potentially a major problem with cell transplants. "When you look at the brain, you cannot tell that it is a graft," says senior author Su-Chun Zhang, a professor of neuroscience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Structurally the host brain looks like a normal brain; the graft can only be seen under the fluorescent ...
Did you know tissue transplants have a high success rate? Learn about tissue donation success rates today by visiting the Donor Network online.
Authors: Smith, Gaynor A. , Heuer, Andreas , Klein, Alexander , Vinh, Ngoc-Nga , Dunnett, Stephen B. , Lane, Emma L. Article Type: Short Communication Abstract: The transplantation of dopamine-rich tissue into the putamen of patients with Parkinsons disease shows much potential for use as a therapeutic strategy. However, a number of grafted individuals subsequently developed a set of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), unrelated to the dyskinesia caused by L-DOPA treatment, which have been termed graft-induced dyskinesia. Given the small number of patients, pre-clinical modeling of graft-induced dyskinesia in animal models will be critical to determine the underlying mechanisms and amelioration potential of this technique. Here we show that abnormal involuntary movements of the limbs, trunk and face can be observed in transplanted hemi-parkinsonian mice following …amphetamine administration, similar to those previously described to model graft-induced dyskinesias in rats. C57Bl6 and CD1 ...
r norman scripsit: , Some poor reader had a legitimate, albeit rather naive, question about , brain transplants, and you ridicule him unmercifully. Why dont you , try educating, instead. I dont care about that. Winding up people on usenet is one of my favourite hobbies, although this was one of my few serious posts. Well, serious-ish. I admit I deliberately phrased it in a very provocative way, and I knew there was no way to answer it. For a long time I have been interested in locked in syndrome, and the situation outlined in Whites articles is in a sense the ultimate locked in state: no imputs, no outputs, no way to communicate with the isolated brain. Of course the transplant is not really necessary, severing the cranial nerves would obtain the same results. Incidentally, that would be an interesting punishment for some heinous criminals: induce the ultimate locked in state, then pump their bodies full of chemicals known to produce a state of anguish and fear. Bruno ...
Recently in the news, there was an interesting story about a 38 year old woman who had been forced into early menopause because of two rounds of cancer treatments. Fortunately, she and her doctors had decided that it would be beneficial for her to freeze one of her ovaries before starting her second treatment program.
UPDRS, most commonly used, is designed to assess the severity of parkinsons disease, making the quantitative measurement of the extent. Part III of UPDRS corresponds to motor evaluation and is the most reliable for detecting symptomatic progression.. UPDRS improvement ratio(%) = ((the value of UPDRS before surgery - the value of UPDRS after surgery) / (the value of UPDRS before surgery)) X 100 ...
UPDRS, most commonly used, is designed to assess the severity of parkinsons disease, making the quantitative measurement of the extent. Part III of UPDRS corresponds to motor evaluation and is the most reliable for detecting symptomatic progression.. UPDRS improvement ratio(%) = ((the value of UPDRS before surgery - the value of UPDRS after surgery) / (the value of UPDRS before surgery)) X 100 ...
The neocortex is patterned in layers of neurons that are generated in an orderly sequence during development. This correlation between cell birthday and laminar fate prompted an examination of how neuronal phenotypes are determined in the developing cortex. At various times after labeling with [3H]thymidine, embryonic progenitor cells were transplanted into older host brains. The laminar fate of transplanted neurons correlates with the position of their progenitors in the cell cycle at the time of transplantation. Daughters of cells transplanted in S-phase migrate to layer 2/3, as do host neurons. Progenitors transplanted later in the cell cycle, however, produce daughters that are committed to their normal, deep-layer fates. Thus, environmental factors are important determinants of laminar fate, but embryonic progenitors undergo cyclical changes in their ability to respond to such cues. ...
OXB-202Gene-based treatment for corneal graft rejectionStatus: Phase I/II study in preparationCorneal graft rejectionCornea grafts are one of the most successful tissue transplants, but over time a significant number are rejected due to corneal neovascularisation. Currently, approximately 100,000 transplants are performed each year, but with this representing only 1% of those requiring treatment the number is predicted to increase substantially. Our approach
Ciclosporin is useful in treating autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis. Ciclosporin is also useful in preventing rejection of tissue transplant and organ transplant as well as prevention of the graft versus host disease.
The Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal (HSCM) is proud today to present the outstanding results of its Centre de prélèvement dorganes (CPO). This regional organ retrieval centre is a pilot project that began a year ago, in June 2013, to reduce the number of Quebecers awaiting an organ or tissue transplant and to save more lives while ensuring the safety of donors and the quality of the organs retrieved.. ...
Definition of trigeminal mesencephalic tract in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is trigeminal mesencephalic tract? Meaning of trigeminal mesencephalic tract as a finance term. What does trigeminal mesencephalic tract mean in finance?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ex vivo application of carbon monoxide in UW solution prevents transplant-induced renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in pigs. AU - Yoshida, J.. AU - Ozaki, K. S.. AU - Nalesnik, M. A.. AU - Ueki, S.. AU - Castillo-Rama, M.. AU - Faleo, G.. AU - Ezzelarab, M.. AU - Nakao, Atsunori. AU - Ekser, B.. AU - Echeverri, G. J.. AU - Ross, M. A.. AU - Stolz, D. B.. AU - Murase, N.. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - I/R injury is a major deleterious factor of successful kidney transplantation (KTx). Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gaseous regulatory molecule, and exogenously delivered CO in low concentrations provides potent cytoprotection. This study evaluated efficacies of CO exposure to excised kidney grafts to inhibit I/R injury in the pig KTx model. Porcine kidneys were stored for 48 h in control UW or UW supplemented with CO (CO-UW) and autotransplanted in a 14-day follow-up study. In the control UW group, animal survival was 80% (4/5) with peak serum creatinine levels of 12.0 ± ...
Numerous studies have demonstrated the use of ESC-derived DA neurons for grafting in animal models of PD (17); however, it has remained unclear which stage of differentiation and what particular population of cells is most effective at inducing functional benefits upon transplantation in vivo. Fetal tissue studies have focused on the grafting of ventral mesencephalic tissue isolated at a stage in which the majority of developing DA neurons are postmitotic, which is E12-E13 in mice (18) and E14-E15 (19) in rats. In human fetal grafting studies, increased survival of TH+ neurons has been reported for tissue derived from embryos at 5 to 8 weeks after conception when using suspension grafts and up to 9 weeks after conception for solid grafts (20). In all of those cases, however, the grafted population was composed of a heterogeneous pool of cells at various stages of differentiation and typically contained less than 20% DA neurons (21). One recent study used purified DA neurons derived from a ...
The capacity of the mammalian brain to support the physiological function of allografts was assessed in parathyroidectomized Fischer strain rats bearing either isografts or immunogenic DA allografts of parathyroid glands implanted in their cerebral cortices. Established isografts and allografts survived indefinitely in the brain, maintaining normal serum calcium levels, with equal numbers of spontaneous failures (18-21%) in each group. Similarly, both MHC-compatible and incompatible skin allografts survived and were functional at 40-50 days postgrafting as assessed by: continued formation of keratin; the presence of differentiated hair follicles and sebaceous glands; and frequent mitotic figures. No serum alloantibodies were induced by either MHC-incompatible parathyroid glands or skin in this site. However, both types of allografts were promptly rejected or failed to become established in the brains of specifically presensitized hosts. Furthermore, when Fischer hosts with long-established ...
... and his study perfections reasons suggest linked as Never made, in last customers as far Then those where English wears the dense favour; they live left more than the objects of any wrong royal . The Readers are fascinated subject to cultural lot and by tales Having to see their complicated address, which presents already take to read from any notification of classical or rather prevented readings. that the part relies on his translators discoveries.
For the first time after a womans fertility was restored from an ovarian tissue transplant, she has given birth to two girls. The first with the help of fertility treatment, but the second, a surprise pregnancy, was a natural and unassisted conception. The mother, Mrs.
Next month, a Polynesian catamaran float will participate in the world-famous Tournament of Roses parade. But this float features more than just an attractive design: the Donate Life Rose Parade Float carries the message of the importance and value of donation and transplantation by honoring organ, eye, and tissue donors and celebrating the gifts they gave to others. Some of those messages will come from CEOs at Marylands hospitals. Through The Living Legacy Foundations CEO Rose Dedication Program, 17 CEOs wrote dedications on vials that will hold roses on the float. The messages support the parades theme, Echoes of Success, bringing to mind the relationship between local hospitals and The Living Legacy Foundation that work together to facilitate the sharing of life-saving gifts. The Donate Life Rose Parade Float inspires viewers to help the more than 1 million people in need of organ, eye, or tissue transplants each year. To save lives by registering as a donor, please visit ...
Cultured limbal tissue transplants have become widely used over the last decade as a treatment for limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). While the number of patients afflicted with LSCD in Australia and New Zealand is considered to be relatively low, the impact of this disease on quality of life is so severe that the potential efficacy of cultured transplants has necessitated investigation. We presently review the basic biology and experimental strategies associated with the use of cultured limbal tissue transplants in Australia and New Zealand. In doing so, we aim to encourage informed discussion on the issues required to advance the use of cultured limbal transplants in Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, we propose that a collaborative network could be established to maintain access to the technology in conjunction with a number of other existing and emerging treatments for eye diseases. ...
article{28c9af32-4b1b-4483-abac-a5452b281786, author = {Widner, H and Brundin, P and Rehncrona, S and Gustavii, B and Frackowiak, R S and Leenders, K L and Sawle, G V and Rothwell, J C and Marsden, C D and Björklund, A and Lindvall, Olle}, issn = {0041-1345}, keyword = {Abortion, Spontaneous,Brain Tissue Transplantation,Dopamine,Female,Fetal Tissue Transplantation,Humans,Male,Mesencephalon,Middle Aged,Motor Activity,Neurons,Parkinson Disease,Pregnancy,Case Reports,Journal Article,Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt}, language = {eng}, number = {1 Pt I}, pages = {5--793}, publisher = {Elsevier}, series = {Transplantation Proceedings}, title = {Transplanted allogeneic fetal dopamine neurons survive and improve motor function in idiopathic Parkinsons disease}, volume = {23}, year = {1991 ...
For more than 20 years, the non-profit German Society for Tissue Transplantation (DGFG) has been supplying patients in Germany with high-quality and safe cornea, amniotic membrane, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal tissue transplants. Since the start, the development of tissue donation in Germany as well as supporting the tissue banks and transplantation centres have been the core…. Read more. ...
article{9fbb1b35-100c-4956-9da0-cee45e196e94, abstract = {,p,Release properties of intrahippocampal transplants of noradrenergic neurons were monitored by microdialysis in awake and halothane-anaesthetized rats. Fetal locus coeruleus neurons were implanted as a cell suspension into hippocampi deprived of their innate noradrenalin (NA) innervation by intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. Dialysis probes of the loop type were implanted into the dorsal hippocampus 1 - 2 days before each experiment, i.e. 7 - 11 months after grafting. Age-matched intact and lesion-only animals served as controls. Microscopic analysis showed a graft-derived tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive, presumably noradrenergic, fibre network throughout the dorsal hippocampal formation, surrounding the probe site. The innervation density varied from sub- to supranormal. The grafts restored baseline NA release in the graft-reinnervated hippocampus to near-normal levels both in awake and halothane-anaesthetized animals. ...
‎Author Katie Davis hosts Brain Burps About Books as a fly on the wall show. Its all about the craft and business of publishing, now including all genres--not just childrens books. Interviews with experts cover publishing, creating, promoting, and writing them. Are you an aspiring writer whod…
Bornavirus (BDV) owes its name to the town of Borna, Germany, where a virus epidemic in 1885 wiped out a regiment of cavalry horses. BDV infects a range of birds and mammals, including humans. It is unique because it infects only neurons, establishing a persistent infection in its hosts brain, and its entire life cycle takes place in the nucleus of the infected cells. Feschotte said this intimate association of BDV with the cell nucleus prompted researchers to investigate whether bornaviruses may have left behind a record of past infection in the form of endogenous elements. They searched the 234 known eukaryotic genomes (those genomes that have been fully sequenced) for sequences that are similar to that of BDV. "The researchers unearthed a plethora of endogenous Borna-like N (EBLN) elements in many diverse mammals, " Feschotte said ...
In the past 50 years, isolated blood platelets have had restricted use in wound healing, cancer therapy, and organ and tissue transplant, to name a few. The major obstacle for its unrestricted use has been, among others, the presence of ultrahigh concentrations of growth factors and the presence of both pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins. To overcome this problem requires the isolation and separation of the membrane bound secretory vesicles containing the different factors. In the current study, high-resolution imaging of isolated secretory vesicles from human platelets using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry enabled characterization of the remaining vesicles size and composition following their immunoseparation ...
Various media channels have commented on a study published in Nature Protocols by Fabrizio Rossi, postdoctoral fellow at IRB Barcelona, and Cayetano González, ICREA researcher and group leader of the Cell division laboratory. The study addresses a recovered technique for tissue transplants in Drosophila. This method was originally invented in 1935, but had fallen into misuse.
So: the schistosomes life cycle. They start out as little eggs which leave the adults host (humans) through the waste systems in urine or feces. These eggs then hatch into the first larval stage, which is called a miracidium. The miracidium seeks out a snail and burrows through its tissues to get to its gonads. There, it asexually reproduces to create sporocysts, and in the process thousands of copies of itself while castrating the unlucky mollusk. When the time is right, these copies transform again into cercaria, which kind of look like sperm, and for the same function: swimming. Upon bursting out of the snail, these little swimmers hunt down the nearest suitable host they can find by actually swimming towards them ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ali Jahed, James W Rowland, Todd McDonald, J Gordon Boyd, Ronald Doucette, Michael D Kawaja].
Parkinsons disease is a disorder mainly characterized by progressive degeneration of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. The most commonly used treatment strategy is to pharmacologically restore the lost function by the administration of the dopaminergic precursor L-DOPA. Another treatment strategy is to replace the degenerated neurons with immature fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, or ultimately stem cell-derived tissue. Grafting trials have, however, revealed poor reinnervation capacity of the grafts, leaving much of the striata dopamine-denervated. An additional drawback is the upcoming of dyskinesia (involuntary movements), a phenomenon also observed during L-DOPA treatment of Parkinsons disease patients. Attempts to characterize nerve fiber formation from dopamine neurons have demonstrated that the nerve fibers are formed in two morphologically diverse outgrowth patterns, one early outgrowth seen in the absence of astrocytes and one later appearing ...
Parkinsons disease is a disorder mainly characterized by progressive degeneration of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. The most commonly used treatment strategy is to pharmacologically restore the lost function by the administration of the dopaminergic precursor L-DOPA. Another treatment strategy is to replace the degenerated neurons with immature fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, or ultimately stem cell-derived tissue. Grafting trials have, however, revealed poor reinnervation capacity of the grafts, leaving much of the striata dopamine-denervated. An additional drawback is the upcoming of dyskinesia (involuntary movements), a phenomenon also observed during L-DOPA treatment of Parkinsons disease patients. Attempts to characterize nerve fiber formation from dopamine neurons have demonstrated that the nerve fibers are formed in two morphologically diverse outgrowth patterns, one early outgrowth seen in the absence of astrocytes and one later appearing ...
Parkinsons disease is a disorder mainly characterized by progressive degeneration of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. The most commonly used treatment strategy is to pharmacologically restore the lost function by the administration of the dopaminergic precursor L-DOPA. Another treatment strategy is to replace the degenerated neurons with immature fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, or ultimately stem cell-derived tissue. Grafting trials have, however, revealed poor reinnervation capacity of the grafts, leaving much of the striata dopamine-denervated. An additional drawback is the upcoming of dyskinesia (involuntary movements), a phenomenon also observed during L-DOPA treatment of Parkinsons disease patients. Attempts to characterize nerve fiber formation from dopamine neurons have demonstrated that the nerve fibers are formed in two morphologically diverse outgrowth patterns, one early outgrowth seen in the absence of astrocytes and one later appearing ...
IRI. Warm renal ischemia-reperfusion injury was performed on 10- to 12-week-old (25-28 g) C57BL/6CN male mice from Charles River. All the mice received an intraperitoneal injection of a ketamine/xylazine mix (105 mg ketamine/kg; 10 mg xylazine/kg), and body temperature was maintained at 36°C throughout the procedure. Midline abdominal incision was performed for the exposure of both renal pedicles, which were clamped for 21 minutes using nontraumatic microaneurysm clips (Roboz Surgical Instrument Co.). Occlusion of blood flow was monitored by color change from normal to dark purple immediately after the clamping; blood returned to its normal original color after removal of the clamps. Mice underwent the same procedure; mice with clamping of the pedicles were used as sham surgery controls.. RNA-seq. RNA samples were provided to the University of Southern California Epigenome Center Data Production Core Facility for library construction and sequencing. RNA integrity was verified by Bio-Rad ...
[Original Price: $4795] [Discount Price: $4315.5] You Will Get Custom Report at Syndicated Price on Organ and Tissue Transplantation and Alternatives Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019
The use of human bone grafts will help to replace accident- or operation-related bone loss, to effect a faster cure or to avoid cancer as well as amputations. Tissue transplants would contribute to a significant improvement in the quality of life and social reintegration and ability to work faster. In many cases allografts can help to avoid additional surgery to remove bone from the patient and prevent complications resulting from the donor site.. Tendon grafts, such as the knee allow patients to return to an active life and prevent the artificial stiffening of the joint. In many cases, transmission of the corneas of the eyes, the patients receive vision and prevent blindness. For large-scale burns, associated with high mortality, life can be saved through skin donation. Chronic wounds (e.g. leg ulcers), tumor-related soft tissue loss and hernias can be treated successfully with special skin transplants.. Furthermore a rarer, but important example is the use of the connective tissue covering the ...
SHIP INHIBITORS AND USES THEREOF - The present invention relates to SHIP inhibitor compounds and methods for using these compounds. In particular, the present invention discloses the following methods: (i) a method of treating graft versus host disease in a subject; (ii) a method of inhibiting a SHIP1 protein in a cell; (iii) a method of selectively inhibiting a SHIP1 protein in a cell; (iv) a method for treating or preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a recipient of an organ or tissue transplant; (v) a method of modulating SHIP activity in a cell expressing SHIP1 or SHIP2; (vi) a method of ex vivo or in vitro treatment of transplants; (vii) a method of inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis in a subject; (viii) a method of treating a hematologic malignancy in a subject; (ix) a method of inducing apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells; (x) a method of treating multiple myeloma in a subject; (xi) a method of inhibiting the proliferation of a human breast cancer cell; and (xii) a method of ...
Today, a blood donor is banned from giving blood just on the basis of their sexual orientation for fear of spreading HIV/AIDS, but an transplant doctors accept organs from donors who have worked as prostitutes or have a history of injecting drugs. Blood banks are so wary that they ask people who have had any organ or tissue transplant to wait 12 months before giving blood. After the mad cow scare of the 1990s, Americans who have lived in some European countries for only a year are banned as blood donors. "The risks of transmission are approximately the same, and the tests that are applied to donated blood are, with respect to some diseases, actually more accurate than those used for organ donations," said Dr. James AuBuchon, professor of pathology at Dartmouth Universitys Hitchcock Medical Center in New Hampshire. But, the guidelines for accepting organs is not as "codified" as for blood donations, according to AuBuchon, who serves on the board of the American Association of Blood Banks. "The ...
With our dedicated customer support team, 30-day no-questions-asked return policy, and our price match guarantee, you can rest easy knowing that were doing everything we can to save you time, money, and stress.. ...
Dr. David Bennett, MD of Chattaroy, WA patient reviews, appointments, phone number and quality report. Compare Dr. Bennett to other nearby Adolescent Medicine Physicians in Washington.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low-dose curcumin stimulates proliferation, migration and phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells. AU - Velasquez, Johana Tello. AU - Watts, Michelle E.. AU - Todorovic, Michael. AU - Nazareth, Lynnmaria. AU - Pastrana, Erika. AU - Diaz-Nido, Javier. AU - Lim, Filip. AU - Ekberg, Jenny A K. AU - Quinn, Ronald J.. AU - St John, James A.. PY - 2014/10/31. Y1 - 2014/10/31. N2 - One of the promising strategies for neural repair therapies is the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) which are the glial cells of the olfactory system. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the behaviour of mouse OECs to determine if it could be of use to further enhance the therapeutic potential of OECs. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol compound found in the spice turmeric, is known for its anti-cancer properties at doses over 10 μM, and often at 50 μM, and it exerts its effects on cancer cells in part by activation of MAP kinases. In contrast, we found that low-dose curcumin ...
This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Organ and Tissue Transplantation in number of organs transplanted. The Global and regional markets (except
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A kit for implantation of material into a body, a kit for extraction of tissue from a body and a tissue transplantation kit. A method for implanting material into a body, a method for extracting tissue from a body and a method for transplanting tissue into a body.
StemCells, Inc. announced that a paper regarding the efficacy of transplanting human neural stem cells in an animal model of retinal degeneration will be
A significant age acceleration effect could be detected in brain (7.4 years) and blood (5.2 years) tissue due to HIV-1 ... Stem cell transplantation[edit]. In 2007, Timothy Ray Brown,[12] a 40-year-old HIV-positive man, also known as "the Berlin ... others suggest that the virus may remain hidden in tissues[16] such as the brain (which acts as a viral reservoir).[17] Stem ... Schneider, Thomas (2011-03-10). "Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR532/32 stem cell transplantation". Blood. 117 (10 ...
... currently researching stem cell transplantation therapies to improve recovery of cebreral tissue in affected areas of the brain ... Jablonska, A.; Lukomska, B. (2011). "Stroke induced brain changes: Implications for stem cell transplantation". Acta ... These events are localized to two primary regions of the brain: Cortical watershed strokes (CWS), or outer brain infarcts, are ... inner brain) infarcts. Besides watershed, border-zone is another common term used to refer to areas of the brain between the ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can deform the brain tissue, leading to necrosis primary damage which can then cascade and ... Some possible routes of transplantation include intracerebral transplantation and xenotransplantation. An alternative ... The hGal-1-hNSCs induced better and faster brain recovery of the injured tissue as well as a reduction in motor and sensory ... of adult mice brain tissue. In the same year the team of Constance Cepko and Evan Y. Snyder were the first to isolate ...
However, more extensive research into the transplantation of individual neurons and supportive brain tissue, or groups thereof ... transplantation research (i.e., into neural or brain region transplantation), obstetric transplantation (of pregnant women), ... and subdermal tissue, connective tissue, musculoskeletal tissue, and corneas are commonly grafted). Sometimes, the separation ... While the use of tissue grafts- which is much more common- is not transplantation, since an entire organ is not transferred, ...
... was crucial for various types of memory formation and established that transplantation of neural tissue into the brain could ... "Learning impaired following cholinergic lesions, Brain Research 1989". ResearchGate. "Cell grafts restore learning, Brain 1999 ... "Tactile and visuo-spatial discrimination performance in the monkey, Brain Research 1976". ResearchGate. "An involvement of ...
Within 4-5 days the inflammation and the concomitant dead brain tissue are surrounded with a capsule, which gives the lesion ... and Listeria monocytogenes Transplantation-Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mucorales, Nocardia, and T. gondii Neutropenia- ... Brain abscess at eMedicine MR Diagnosis[permanent dead link] MedPix Imaging Brain Abscess. ... within the brain tissue. The infection may also be introduced through a skull fracture following a head trauma or surgical ...
In a recent study, Wharton's Jelly tissue transplantation has shown to be able to reduce traumatic brain injury and may have ... "Wharton's Jelly Transplantation Improves Neurologic Function in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury". Cell Mol Neurobiol. 35 ... As a mucous tissue, it protects and insulates umbilical blood vessels. Wharton's jelly, when exposed to temperature changes, ...
... rheumatoid arthritis or during rejection of solid organ transplants and bone marrow transplantation as well as in brain tissues ... its expression is induced in lymphocytes in synovial tissues obtained from patients with ...
... the irreversible burning or freezing of brain tissue), stimulation surgery or deep brain stimulation (DBS), and transplantation ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is presently the most used method of surgical treatment because it does not destroy brain tissue, ... Platz T, Rothwell JC (2010). "Brain stimulation and brain repair - rTMS: from animal experiment to clinical trials - what do we ... Brain. 119 (2): 551-68. doi:10.1093/brain/119.2.551. Miyai I.; Fujimoto Y.; Yamamoto H.; et al. (2002). "Long-term effect of ...
... a medical emergency in which arterial blockage deprives a region of brain of oxygen, causing tissue death. Promising studies ... Clinical use of APC has also been proposed for improving the outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation in treating type I ... This reduces leukocyte adhesion and infiltration into tissues, while also limiting damage to underlying tissue. APC supports ... to protect the brain from tPA's very harmful side effects, in addition to preventing cell death from lack of oxygen (hypoxia). ...
"Analysis of a viral agent isolated from multiple sclerosis (MS) brain tissue: Characterization as a parainfluenza virus type I ... "Successful transplantation of human benign breast tumors in athymic nude-mouse and demonstration of enhanced DNA synthesis by ...
The corneal clouding can be, at least, temporarily corrected by corneal transplantation. See the equivalent section in the main ... usually sparing the brain. ML IV causes affected cells to accumulate auto-fluorescent vacuoles considered to be aberrant ... and failure in the maintenance of retinal tissue. Diagnosis includes genetic testing and Gastrin blood test to check for low ... It is not yet clear why these abnormalities will cause incomplete development of the brain, achlorhydria, ...
Drews K, Bashir T, Dörries K (January 2000). "Quantification of human polyomavirus JC in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid ... "Quantitation of viral DNA in renal allograft tissue from patients with BK virus nephropathy". Transplantation. 74 (4): 485-8. ... "Human polyomaviruses and brain tumors". Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 50 (1): 69-85. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev. ... is used to stain tissues directly for the presence of JC virus T antigen. PCR can be used on a biopsy of the tissue or ...
... has a proclivity for tissues in the central nervous system, including the brain. Patients with ... The onset of symptoms in immunosuppressed individuals after transplantation is very slow, almost several months to years after ... When it does occur in humans, a wide range of sites may become involved, including the lung, heart, brain, the superficial ... These drugs and surgical methods are the most effective when the fungus is yet disseminated into the brain. Survival rate of ...
... tissue transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.040 --- bone marrow transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.090 --- brain tissue ... fetal tissue transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.490 --- liver transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.700 --- skin transplantation MeSH ... brain tissue transplantation MeSH E04.525.160 --- cerebral decortication MeSH E04.525.160.500 --- hemispherectomy MeSH E04.525. ... heart-lung transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.485 --- kidney transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.490 --- liver transplantation MeSH ...
According to the epigenetic clock, trisomy 21 significantly increases the age of blood and brain tissue (on average by 6.6 ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which transplants these cells from a young donor to an older recipient, rejuvenates ... DNAm age is higher than chronological age in female breast tissue that is adjacent to breast cancer tissue. Since normal tissue ... Men age faster than women according to epigenetic age acceleration in blood, brain, saliva, and many other tissues. The ...
... rhabdomyosarcoma and other soft tissue sarcomas. Central nervous system (brain) tumors are the second most common form of ... stem cell transplantation, behavioral sciences and survivorship. The COG is primarily funded by the NCI, the primary or Chair's ...
... resulting in tissue death, while ischemic hemorrhages result in a lack of blood flow to certain tissues. Traumatic brain injury ... "Neural precursor differentiation following transplantation into neocortex is dependent on intrinsic developmental state and ... known as xenogeneic tissue). While these tissues have an advantage over autologous tissue grafts because the tissue does not ... Neural tissue engineering is a specific sub-field of tissue engineering. Neural tissue engineering is primarily a search for ...
Tissue biopsy or necropsy: liver, muscle, brain, bone marrow Skin biopsy and fibroblast cultivation for specific enzyme testing ... In the past twenty years, enzyme replacement, gene therapy, and organ transplantation have become available and beneficial for ... Acid-alpha glucosidase for Pompe disease Gene therapy Bone marrow or organ transplantation Treatment of symptoms and ...
Neural transplantation. Since early in the 1980s, fetal, porcine, carotid or retinal tissues have been used in cell transplants ... Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ... "Brain. 135 (Pt 4): 1141-53. doi:10.1093/brain/aws038. PMC 3326257. PMID 22396397.. ... Dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier, so it cannot be taken as a medicine to boost the brain's depleted levels of ...
Transplantation of neural stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells is currently being trialed in neonatal brain injury, but it ... which results from a lack of oxygen to the brain tissue, as well as some combination of the two. A neonatal stroke occurs in ... In order to model human fetal or neonatal brain injury, one needs a species in which a similar proportion of brain development ... This treatment does not completely protect the injured brain and may not improve the risk of death in the most severely hypoxic ...
"Aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in autopsied brain tissue from cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy". ... Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only treatment that has shown to improve acute and chronic complications derived from ... 2009). "Liver transplantation avoided in patients with fulminant hepatic failure who received albumin dialysis with the ... Nevertheless, due to the scarcity of organs to carry out liver transplantations, it is estimated that one third of patients ...
The Dublin Brain Bank, a research facility for post mortem storage and examination of brain tissue, opened at Beaumont Hospital ... It is also the National Referral Centre for Neurosurgery and Neurology, Renal Transplantation, and Cochlear Implantation. It is ... National referral Centre for Neurosurgery National Referral Centre for Kidney transplantation (including living donors) and ... Other major areas of research undertaken at Beaumont Hospital include Kidney transplantation, Neurosurgery, Allergic rhinitis, ...
Wicks, Mona Newsome (April 25, 2000). "Brain Death and Transplantation: The Japanese". Medscape Transplantation. Medscape. ... This is to ensure research is thorough, as it is important to have access to brain tissues from people who did not have the ... and if brain death is acceptable, whether the person's whole brain needs to have died, or if the death of a part of the brain ( ... Most organ donation for organ transplantation is done in the setting of brain death. However, in Japan this is a fraught point ...
MRI can aid in the detection of injured brain tissue; however, the severity and extent of the damage demonstrated by imaging ... Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 17 (3): 300-308. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.04.003. González-Suárez I, Aguilar-Amat ... Brain regions affected by toxic leukoencephalopathy have been seen to be affected by this disease as well; however, ... Other toxins have been shown to extend damage to other structures of the brain, including the hippocampus, dorsal medulla, and ...
It is an attack by the "new" bone marrow's immune cells against the recipient's tissues. This can occur even if the donor and ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ... Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2 (1): 3-14. PMID 9078349. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.. *Bone marrow transplant - How it is performed ...
Within 4-5 days the inflammation and the concomitant dead brain tissue are surrounded with a capsule, which gives the lesion ... and Listeria monocytogenes Transplantation-Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mucorales, Nocardia, and T. gondii Neutropenia- ... Brain abscess at eMedicine MR Diagnosis[permanent dead link] MedPix Imaging Brain Abscess. ... within the brain tissue. The infection may also be introduced through a skull fracture following a head trauma or surgical ...
... to regenerate tissue damaged by stroke may depend on the maturity of the neuronal precursor cells used for transplantation. ... New research has shown that the success of transplanting stem cells into the brain ... does-brain-tissue-regeneration-depend-on-maturity-of-stem-cells-used-for-transplantation/. 2250/. Related Journal Article. http ... Does brain tissue regeneration depend on maturity of stem cells used for transplantation?. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic ...
Büchler, Andrea (2008). The transplantation of human fetal brain tissue: the Swiss federal law. In: Brownsword, Roger; et al. ...
... coordinated brain care for older adults improves health outcomes and quality of care for those with cognitive impairment. ... Transplantation Cell Therapy can Reverse Loss of Brain Function in Stroke Patients. Results of a new study offer new hope to ... Researchers Find Link Between Brain Tissue Health and Dementia in Downs Syndrome Patients. A link between the health of the ... Language Areas in The Brain. The mechanism of how human brain processes the language to express and comprehend the verbal, ...
Stem Cell Therapy Can be the Best Option to Treat Damage in Brain Tissue. The brain has limited capability for self-repair or ... Bone Marrow Transplantation. Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this stem cell from bone marrow are ... Fundamentals Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Genetics and Stem Cells Healthy Living Bone Marrow Transplantation Tissue ... Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. This new field is an amalgamation of biology, medicine and engineering, and is ...
Organ donor brain tissue revealing amebae suggestive of Balamuthia (indicated by arrows) (A), and immunohistochemical staining ... she underwent brain biopsy. On December 18, histopathologic examination of the brain tissue at CDC revealed amebae; ... MRI of the brain was normal, and testing of CSF, serum, and endomyocardial tissue at CDC showed no evidence of Balamuthia ... MRI of the boys brain was normal, and testing of CSF, serum, and liver tissue at CDC showed no evidence of Balamuthia ...
Brain Tissue Transplantation. Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals ... Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from ...
Zika Virus RNA Replication and Persistence in Brain and Placental Tissue. EID. 2017;March 23(3):405-14. ... Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus through Combined Liver-Small Intestine-Pancreas Transplantation. EID. 2017;April 23(4):590-6. ... Potential of Minimally Invasive Tissue Sampling for Attributing Specific Causes of Childhood Deaths in South Africa: A Pilot, ... Unraveling Specific Causes of Neonatal Mortality Using Minimally Invasive Tissue Sampling: An Observational Study.external icon ...
... form new brain cells have been discovered by researchers from Lund University leading to hopes for people with serious brain ... Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Genetics and Stem Cells Brain Brain Facts Ataxia Bone Marrow Transplantation Tissue ... Analysing brain tissue from biopsies, the researchers for the first time found stem cells locatedaround small blood vessels in ... Bone Marrow Transplantation. Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this stem cell from bone marrow are ...
Reproductive and Neurological Transplantation. Reproduction and Transplantation. Brain Tissue Grafting. Psychiatric and ... Brain tissue grafting, the interchangeability • Reproductive and neurological transplantation of body parts, and genetic ... Transplantation of organs, tissues, etc. Subject:. Ethics. Subject:. Homografts -- Moral and ethical aspects.. ... Psychological Perspectives on the Process of Organ Transplantation. Sexual Performance Before and After Transplantation. Body ...
The MRI repots would describe brain tissue especially white matter and malacia. ... Brain Damage, Chronic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Neurologic Manifestations. ... has the potential to repair the damaged brain tissue in patients with cerebral palsy. ... Efficacy of Stem Cell Transplantation Compared to Rehabilitation Treatment of Patients With Cerebral Paralysis (CP). The safety ...
Toxoplasma gondii cyst in brain tissue.. Cysts of Toxoplasma gondii usually range in size from 5-50 µ in diameter. Cysts are ... blood transfusion or organ transplantation .. *transplacentally from mother to fetus .. In the human host, the parasites form ... Figure A: Toxoplasma gondii cyst in brain tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... These tachyzoites localize in neural and muscle tissue and develop into tissue cyst bradyzoites . Cats become infected after ...
In the human host, the parasites form tissue cysts, most commonly in skeletal muscle, myocardium, brain, and eyes; these cysts ... Blood transfusion or organ transplantation .. *Transplacentally from mother to fetus .. ... These tachyzoites localize in neural and muscle tissue and develop into tissue cyst bradyzoites . Cats become infected after ... Eating undercooked meat of animals harboring tissue cysts .. *Consuming food or water contaminated with cat feces or by ...
HHV-6 DNA was detected by PCR in approximately one third of 31 normal brain tissue specimens, suggesting that brain tissue ... Postmortem examination of brain tissue from patient 5 revealed small necrotic changes in bilateral hippocampi and small ... Human herpesvirus 6 infection in neoplastic and normal brain tissue. J Med Virol 2001;63:45-51. ... Severe amnesia associated with human herpesvirus 6 encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 2002 Apr 15; ...
... stool from a healthy donor to cirrhosis patients who suffer from recurrent hepatic encephalopathy can improve brain functioning ... Tissue model reveals role of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimers 08/12/2019 Parkinsons disease ... VCU researchers demonstrate safety and effectiveness of fecal transplantation on brain function. ... "Fecal transplantation has been used to treat other conditions, but this is the first randomized trial of this kind in liver ...
Tissue model reveals role of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimers 08/05/2019 Alzheimers ... Brain and Nerves. 10/02/2019 Brain and Nerves Researchers identify molecular process that could accelerate recovery from nerve ... Transplantation of healthy new brain cells reverses learning and memory loss in Alzheimers disease model. ... The transplants helped to replenish the brain by replacing cells lost due to apoE4, regulating brain activity and improving ...
Does personality change as a result of fetal tissue transplantation in the brain? J Neurol 2003;250:282-6. doi:10.1007/s00415- ... Status of fetal tissue transplantation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson disease. Neurosurg 2002;13:e3. ... often into the lumbar spine or brain).27 ,29 ,30 ,32 ,53 ,55 ,57 ,59 ,60 ,62 ,64 ,66 ,85 ,89 Five studies evaluated more ... Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinsons disease. N Engl J Med 2001;344:710-19. doi:10.1056/ ...
The use of central nervous system fetal tissues derived from routine elective abortions to provide stem cells for ... However, fetal tissue microbial contaminants have been known to cause brain infections in cell transplantation recipients. Now ... "Fetal neural tissue transplantation has become a potential treatment option for patients suffering from neurodegenerative ... "The potentially deleterious impact of microbial contamination on the use of cells or tissues for transplantation is an ...
... no adequate implant material for the correction of soft tissue defects such as after extensive deep burns, tumor resections or ... Furthermore, transplanted preadipocytes can form adipose tissue in vivo whereas the transplantation of mature adipocytes often ... 10737329 - Characterisation of tissue-specific oligosaccharides from rat brain and kidney membrane.... 8369879 - Experimental ... 24994529 - Liver cell therapy and tissue engineering for transplantation.. 24028899 - Glomerular filtration rate as a ...
Keywords: Transplantation, brain repair, fetal tissue, stem cells DOI: 10.3233/JPD-179002 ... Neuropathological Staging of Brain Pathology in Sporadic Parkinsons disease: Separating the Wheat from the Chaff ... Abstract: The year 2017 marks the 30th anniversary of the birth of modern deep brain stimulation (DBS), which was introduced by ... In this article we tell the story of how the preclinical and clinical transplantation program in Lund evolved. We recall the ...
Neural transplantation has been concerned with both the survival potential of grafts and their incorporation or connections ... within the host brain substance. Recent investigations have shown that... ... Studies on the transplantation of developing neural tissue in the mammalian brain. I. Transplantation of cerebellar slabs into ... Rosenstein, J. M., and Brightman, M. W., 1978, Intact cerebral ventricle as a site for tissue transplantation, Nature (London) ...
Experimental therapy: transplantation of fetal neural tissue into basal ganglia of the brain ... Chronic, progressive degenerative disease of the brain characterized by cognitive impairment. Tangles/plaques in the brain - s/ ... Action: more levodopa is made available to brain for conversion to dopamine in brain ...
... brain tumor, 2) ,24 hours before the tissue arrived in the laboratory. The heart donors were not on cardiovascular medication. ... Plasma levels at the time of heart transplantation were available for 6 of the 10 DCM cases. Plasma renin in these subjects ... Collection of Cardiac Tissue and Blood Samples. Left ventricular tissue was obtained from 10 subjects (9 men and 1 woman; age, ... Most of the ACE in cardiac tissue is probably cell membrane bound.4 The cardiac tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios for renin ...
... the use of central nervous system fetal tissues derived from routine elective abortions aimed at restoring damage done by ... However, fetal tissue microbial contaminants have been known to cause brain infections in cell transplantation recipients. Now ... "Fetal neural tissue transplantation has become a potential treatment option for patients suffering from neurodegenerative ... To provide stem cells for transplantation procedures, the use of central nervous system fetal tissues derived from routine ...
On the fifth day, we sectioned and stained the brain tissue and examined it by fluorescence microscopy. Although dexamethasone ... Even so, implanting microdialysis probes into brain tissue causes a penetration injury that triggers gliosis (the activation ... We performed microdialysis in the rat brain for 5 days, with and without dexamethasone in the perfusion fluid (10 μM for the ... and proliferation of glial cells) and ischemia (the interruption of blood flow). Thus, the probe samples injured tissue. ...
  • The "donor" hand usually comes from a brain-dead donor and is transplanted to a recipient who has lost one or both hands/arms. (
  • Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material, coming from local (ear infection, dental abscess, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, epidural abscess) or remote (lung, heart, kidney etc.) infectious sources, within the brain tissue. (
  • In contrast to the earlier attempts at hand transplantation, the Louisville group had performed extensive basic science research and feasibility studies for many years prior to their first clinical procedure (for example, Shirbacheh et al. (
  • These symptoms are caused by a combination of increased intracranial pressure due to a space-occupying lesion (headache, vomiting, confusion, coma), infection (fever, fatigue etc.) and focal neurologic brain tissue damage (hemiparesis, aphasia etc. (
  • Organisms that are most frequently associated with brain abscess in patients with AIDS are poliovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, though in infection with the latter organism, symptoms of meningitis generally predominate. (
  • Parkinson s disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss. (
  • This paper by Oleh Hornykiewicz recounts the remarkable mixture of science, intrigue and politics behind the author's work in the 1950s and early 1960s that triggered the modern era of Parkinson's disease research: the discovery of the dopamine deficit in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease. (
  • Effect of dexamethasone on gliosis, ischemia, and dopamine extraction during microdialysis sampling in brain tissue. (
  • Moreover, measurements of DOPA accumulation for a 30‐min period after DOPA decarboxylase inhibition indicated similar fractional dopamine turnover rates in normal and transplantreinnervated tissues. (
  • For example, paralysis agitans, more commonly known as Parkinson's disease, is characterized by a lack of the neurotransmitter, dopamine, within the striatum of the brain, secondary to the destruction of the dopamine secreting cells of the substantia nigra. (
  • He is a developmental biologist and neuroscientist who is pioneering the generation of midbrain dopamine neurons for transplantation and clinical applications. (
  • In long-term studies, Studer demonstrated that these cells are non-tumorigenic, can integrate into the host brain and may serve as functional replacements for the substantia nigra dopamine neurons which die in Parkinson's disease. (
  • It is outlined as a progressive disorder that affects movement and results in the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells, causing tremor in the hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face and/or rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and trunk. (
  • The goal of the most common Antiparkinson drugs is to either replace the dopamine levels in the brain, or mimic the actions of dopamine. (
  • As stated before, dopaminergic drugs aim to replace dopamine or inhibit the degradation of dopamine in the brain. (
  • This helps restore the acetylcholine/dopamine balance within the brain. (
  • Thus, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) initiated an investigation to determine if the virus was transmitted through organ transplantation and to identify and prevent rabies in other transplant recipients and persons who may have been exposed to potentially infectious material. (
  • Patients receiving Healthy Aging Brain Center care are given an initial cognitive assessment including neuro-psychological testing, a brain imaging test, medication review and structured neurological and physical evaluations. (
  • Reproductive and Neurological Transplantation. (
  • More research needs to be done "to fully clarify the mechanism of cell transplantation therapy for neurological disorders," said Kuroda. (
  • March 2, 2016) - Studies scheduled to be published in the April, 2016 issue of Cell Transplantation (issue 25(4)) were presented in 2015 at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair (ASNTR), a society for scientists whose research is focused on understanding the causes of various neurological injuries and diseases and developing potential therapies such as cell therapy, gene therapy, and pharmacological interventions. (
  • Future clinical applications are expected to involve the development of new therapeutic strategies for transplantation and various inflammatory cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. (
  • In initial studies during this year, transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) provided both neurological and behavioral benefit to a HD mouse model. (
  • In this study we tested whether intravenously infused HUCBC enter brain, survive, differentiate, and improve neurological functional recovery after stroke in rats. (
  • Neurostimulators, including deep brain stimulators, send electrical impulses to the brain in order to treat neurological and movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, treatment resistant depression, and other conditions such as urinary incontinence. (
  • Elsewhere in the world the concept upon which the certification of death on neurological grounds is based is that of permanent cessation of all function in all parts of the brain-whole brain death-with which the reductionist United Kingdom concept should not be confused. (
  • In MDDS associated with mutations in MPV17 that primarily affect the brain and the liver, the symptoms are similar to those caused by DGUOK and also emerge shortly after birth, generally with fewer and less severe neurological problems. (
  • The American Academy of Neurology created a prerequisite and neurological clinical assessment to be used as guidelines for determining brain death published in 2010. (
  • To be considered for brain death the body must have a determinant cause of coma, have normal systolic blood pressure, and pass two neurological tests. (
  • New Rochelle, NY, September 13, 2017--New research has shown that the success of transplanting stem cells into the brain to regenerate tissue damaged by stroke may depend on the maturity of the neuronal precursor cells used for transplantation. (
  • A study demonstrating the significant impact of human neuronal precursor cell maturity on cell survival after transplantation into stroke-injured rate brains is published in h Tissue Engineering , Part A, peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers . (
  • Significantly more early- and mid-differentiated neuronal stem cells were present in the rat brains one week after transplantation compared to late-differentiated cells. (
  • Intracerebral grafting presently remains an experimental model used to address fundamental questions concerning brain development, neuronal plasticity, regeneration and formation of topographic connections. (
  • Here, we present the design of three-dimensional (3D) microtopographic scaffolds, using tunable electrospun microfibrous polymeric substrates that promote in situ stem cell neuronal reprogramming, neural network establishment and support neuronal engraftment into the brain. (
  • Scaffold-supported, reprogrammed neuronal networks were successfully grafted into organotypic hippocampal brain slices, showing an ∼ 3.5-fold improvement in neurite outgrowth and increased action potential firing relative to injected isolated cells. (
  • Transplantation of scaffold-supported neuronal networks into mouse brain striatum improved survival ∼ 38-fold at the injection site relative to injected isolated cells, and allowed delivery of multiple neuronal subtypes. (
  • Molecular imaging and nuclear medicine are useful tools that allow the visualization of different kinds of neuronal functions to evaluate cell transplantation therapy in both experimental and clinical situations, said Kuroda. (
  • In the first year, the team has developed and established methods to differentiate hESCs into neural, neuronal and astrocyte precursors to be used for transplantation and has determined the correct cells to use that can be developed for future clinical development of these cells. (
  • This finding suggests that stem cell replacement approaches would have reduced effectiveness in the AD brain, in which impaired APP metabolism would prevent or reduce neuronal differentiation of implanted cells. (
  • This particular type of stem cell has the future potential to differentiate into a variety of other cell types including: Myocardiocytes to repair damaged cardiac tissue following a heart attack Neuronal to generate nerve and brain tissue Myocytes to repair muscle Osteocytes to generate bone Chondrocytes to generate cartilage Adipocytes to generate fat Bone and tissue from the oral cavity. (
  • This was a new concept to improve the outcome of islet transplantation. (
  • Here we found that islet transplantation in the testis, an immunologically privileged site, generates much less memory CD8 + T cells but induces more Ag-specific CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells than in a conventional site. (
  • Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. (
  • A quantum leap in islet transplantation occurred when the Edmonton group introduced a steroid-free immunosuppression and showed insulin independence in all 7 of their patients [ 3 ]. (
  • With this advancement in immunosuppression and the continuous improvement in islet isolation techniques, islet transplantation has entered into a new era of heightened success. (
  • Currently, two types of clinical islet transplantation are performed: allogenic and autologous islet transplantation. (
  • Allogenic islet transplantation is typically performed on patients with severe type 1 diabetes, while autologous islet transplantation is performed on patients suffering from severe chronic pancreatitis (CP) and undergoing partial/total pancreatectomy. (
  • The first pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet transplantation was performed at the University of Minnesota in 1977 [ 7 ]. (
  • Since the seventies, numerous investigations have focused on trying to restore lost function by replacement of injured brain structures with homologous allogeneic embryonic neural tissue. (
  • In addition to complications seen from exposure to chemotherapy and radiation, patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation can experience unique late effects secondary to graft versus host disease (GVHD) and autoimmunity. (
  • MANF also promoted reversal of stroke-induced behavioural impairments when administered directly into rat brain tissue 2 to 3 days after stroke. (
  • A massive immune response mediated by activated microglia and macrophages occurs in the rat brain tissue after stroke. (
  • By virtue of the presence of a skilled neurosurgeon, Dr. Kuan-Yin Tseng in the lab and a collaboration with Dr. Maria Lindahl, the researchers were also able to study the outcome of experimental stroke in mice that lack MANF in their brain cells. (
  • Conclusions - Intravenously administered HUCBC enter brain, survive, migrate, and improve functional recovery after stroke. (
  • HUCBC transplantation may provide a cell source to treat stroke. (
  • There are several conditions that can predispose someone to watershed stroke by increasing the likelihood that insufficient blood supply will be able to reach the brain. (
  • Early diagnosis and timely medical intervention can drastically reduce the severity of a stroke, limit damage to the brain, improve the chances of a full recovery and reduce recovery times massively. (
  • After the initial stroke, other symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. (
  • Neonatal Stroke, similar to a stroke which occurs in adults, is defined as a disturbance to the blood supply of the developing brain in the first 28 days of life. (
  • A neonatal stroke in the developing brain involves excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which accelerate cell death through necrosis or apoptosis, depending on the region of the brain and severity of stroke. (
  • Apoptosis mechanisms may have a more prominent role in developing an ischemic brain injury in neonatal humans than in adult brain ischemia, as a majority of cells die in the environment where edema developed after a neonatal stroke. (
  • Reperfusion injury plays a part in the brain's ischemic cascade, which is involved in stroke and brain trauma. (
  • His work may lead to methods of replacing brain tissue lost to stroke or Alzheimer's disease and repairing spinal cords damaged by trauma. (
  • Precisely what causes it is not fully known, but diabetics have increased risk of both heart attack and stroke, so some of the tissue damage diabetes produces may be involved. (
  • Human breast cancer metastasizes to multiple distant organs such as the brain, lungs, bones and liver. (
  • Traditionally Judaism defined death as the absence of a cardiac/respiratory beat, but with advances in modern medicine and the advent of the concept of brain or brain stem death, which may occur whilst the heart and lungs are maintained artificially in a viable state, disagreement has arisen as to when organs may be harvested. (
  • Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs). (
  • The recipient reported that, before his heart transplantation, he went outside his home infrequently and applied mosquito repellent when going outside. (
  • A new kind of stem cell that can form new brain cells have been discovered by researchers from Lund University leading to hopes for people with serious brain injuries. (
  • The next step is to try to control and enhance stem cell self-healing properties with the aimof carrying out therapies targeted to a specific area of the brain. (
  • The results contribute to better understanding of how brain cell plasticity works and opens up new opportunities to exploit these very features. (
  • However, fetal tissue microbial contaminants have been known to cause brain infections in cell transplantation recipients. (
  • The study appears as an early e-publication for the journal Cell Transplantation , and is now freely available on-line at . (
  • According to the researchers, aborted fetal human tissues carry the risk of bacterial contamination from the abortion process and this is the contributing factor to the subsequent risk of infection to cell recipients. (
  • The researchers noted that prior to their study it was not clear whether fetal tissue contamination, or subsequent surgical contamination during cell transplantation normally had the greatest impact as potential contributing factors to microbial infection in hosts. (
  • To prevent microbial infection in cell transplantation hosts, the researchers developed and tested a microbial "washing" technique. (
  • Cell membranes from porcine cardiac tissue bound porcine renin with high affinity. (
  • The possibility of sequestration of circulating renin by cardiac tissue through binding to cardiac cell membranes was investigated in renin-binding studies with the use of cardiac membranes from freshly obtained porcine hearts. (
  • An alternative approach using biomaterial scaffolds can provide structural support to cells during transplantation, which could improve cell engraftment and survival. (
  • As a proof-of-concept study for the management of chronic pain through intraspinal transplantation following injury to peripheral nerves, in this study the researchers employed recombinant (genetically engineered) cell therapy using GABAeric cells. (
  • 2006) in Cell and Tissue Engineering from Keele University (UK). (
  • It further appears that the spatial and temporal expression of NTPDases by various cell types within the vasculature, the nervous tissues and other tissues impacts on several patho-physiological processes. (
  • Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. (
  • Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. (
  • To stimulate and facilitate further research, the NCI and NHLBI held the First International Consensus Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation on April 28 and 29, 2011. (
  • Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and cell-based approaches. (
  • Survey for the presence of BK, JC, KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses in human brain tissues. (
  • Many challenges stand in their way including, among others, re-creating tissue matrix and providing an adequate oxygen supply to each cell. (
  • An important innovation as we move towards 3D bioprinting cardiac tissue is the development of cell sheets. (
  • Combination use of HNSC transplantation and treatment with drugs such as (+)-phenserine that modulate APP levels in the brain may be a useful tool for understanding mechanisms regulating stem cell migration and differentiation during neurodegenerative conditions in AD. (
  • This study demonstrated that the aged rat brain was capable of providing necessary environmental conditions for HNSCs to retain their multipotency and provided some evidence for the potential of stem cell replacement therapies to improve memory and cognitive deficits in AD. (
  • Following transplantation into the rodent central nervous system (CNS), ES cell-derived neural precursors have been shown to integrate into the host tissue and, in some cases, yield functional improvement (McDonald, J. W., et al. (
  • Efforts to induce vascular growth into tissue-engineered scaffolds have recently been dedicated to developing novel strategies to deliver specific biological factors that direct the recruitment of endothelial cell (EC) progenitors and their differentiation. (
  • Moreover, a novel strategy for tissue injury based on the concept of stem cell-derived mitochondrial transplantation is pointed out, and the advantages and challenges are summarized. (
  • Brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme, are highly aggressive tumors and are characterized by marked angiogenesis and extensive tumor cell invasion into the normal brain parenchyma ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • The risks associated with stem cell transplantation trials are difficult to assess, but have not become overtly apparent throughout preclinical investigations. (
  • Nucleated HUCBC were counted with a cytometer to ensure adequate cell number for transplantation. (
  • An epigenetic clock is a type of DNA clock based on measuring natural DNA methylation levels to estimate the biological age of a tissue, cell type or organ. (
  • The age estimator was developed using 8,000 samples from 82 Illumina DNA methylation array datasets, encompassing 51 healthy tissues and cell types. (
  • Salient features of Horvath's epigenetic clock include its high accuracy and its applicability to a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. (
  • In addition to disease specific research, COG conducts studies in developmental therapeutics (new cancer drug development), supportive care, epidemiology, stem cell transplantation, behavioral sciences and survivorship. (
  • Ischemic tissue would have decreased function of these scavengers because of cell injury. (
  • Human cell lines can be used to model disease but it is difficult to study processes at the tissue level, within an organ or across the entire body. (
  • Cell isolation is the process of separating individual living cells from a solid block of tissue or cell suspension. (
  • While some types of cell naturally exist in a separated form, for example blood cells, other cell types that are found in solid tissue requiring specific techniques to separate into individual cells. (
  • He did his post-doctoral work at Lund University in Sweden, under the direction of cell transplantation pioneer Anders Bjorklund. (
  • Cell-type specific genome assays Organoids can be used to study the crucial early stages of brain development, test drugs and, because they can be made from living cells, study individual patients. (
  • Dr. Saltzman's research interests include controlled drug delivery to the brain, polymers for supplementing or stimulating the immune system, cell interactions with polymers, and tissue engineering. (
  • Sustained delivery of pro-angiogenic microRNA-132 by nanoparticle transfection improves endothelial cell transplantation, FASEB Journal 28(2): 908-922 (2014). (
  • 3D cell culture by the magnetic levitation method (MLM) is the application of growing 3D tissue by inducing cells treated with magnetic nanoparticle assemblies in spatially varying magnetic fields using neodymium magnetic drivers and promoting cell to cell interactions by levitating the cells up to the air/liquid interface of a standard petri dish. (
  • Standard monolayer cell culturing on tissue culture plastic has notably improved our understanding of basic cell biology, but it does not replicate the complex 3D architecture of in vivo tissue, and it can significantly modify cell properties. (
  • Adult stem cells are generally limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. (
  • The formation of the neural tube polarizes the neuroepithelial cells by orienting the apical side of the cell to face inward, which later becomes the ventricular zone, and the basal side is oriented outward, which contacts the pial, or outer surface of the developing brain. (
  • At a later stage of brain development, neuroepithelial cells begin to self renew and give rise to non-stem cell progenitors, such as radial glial cells simultaneously by undergoing asymmetric division. (
  • AIF1 expression has been seen to increase in vascular tissue in response to arterial injury, specifically it is found in activated vascular smooth muscle cells in response to IFN-γ, IL-1β, and T-cell conditioned media. (
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. (
  • Therefore, the three-dimensional structure, including the establishment of complex cell adhesions and paracrine signaling within the EB microenvironment, enables differentiation and morphogenesis which yields microtissues that are similar to native tissue structures. (
  • demonstrate a generalized method for organ bud formation from diverse tissues by combining pluripotent stem cell-derived tissue-specific progenitors or relevant tissue samples with endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. (
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (
  • The first evidence that neurogenesis occurs in certain regions of the adult mammalian brain came from [3H]-thymidine labeling studies conducted by Altman and Das in 1965 which showed postnatal hippocampal neurogensis in young rats. (
  • Small populations of immature nerve cells are found in the adult mammalian brain, and Gage is working to understand how these cells can be induced to become mature nerve cells. (
  • In the intact adult mammalian brain, neuroregeneration maintains the function and structure of the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • The ideal treatment for some forms of severe CVD, such as chronic heart failure or extensive myocardial injury, is cardiac transplantation. (
  • Provides the latest information about legislation and policy relating to chronic kidney disease, transplantation and donation. (
  • This modifies hepatic glucose homeostasis and may contribute to patterns of GLUT expression in chronic disease, as insulin resistance in humans have been linked to altered expression of GLUT isoforms by granulosa cells and adipose tissues. (
  • Intestine transplantation, intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation is the surgical replacement of the small intestine for chronic and acute cases of intestinal failure. (
  • The excess of adipose tissue found in obese patients is found to cause chronic inflammation with an increase in the number of activated macrophages. (
  • It is important to distinguish between brain death and states that may be difficult to differentiate from brain death, (such as barbiturate overdose, alcohol intoxication, sedative overdose, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, coma, and chronic vegetative states). (
  • Bajaj led the team of researchers who oversaw fecal microbial transplantation in cirrhosis patients at Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center. (
  • Fetal neural tissue transplantation has become a potential treatment option for patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD)," explained study co-author Dr. Guido Nikkah of the Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen University Clinic, Erlangen, Germany. (
  • Microdialysis sampling of the brain is an analytical technique with numerous applications in neuroscience and the neurointensive care of brain-injured human patients. (
  • MSCs offer an excellent source of stem cells for transplantation in AD patients," explained study co-author Dr. Gary Dunbar of Central Michigan University, and the outgoing 2015 ASNTR president. (
  • [ 7 ] of 798 patients who survived more than 5 years after transplantation, 328 were children. (
  • That can worsen a saturation of the brain with VM in some cases for real patients and so for now I did not recommend using those compounds for perfusion of CI patients. (
  • 2. The problem of preservation of patients' brains during 12-24 hour transportation from regions which are far from CI. (
  • In addition, health-care providers should consider WNND as a possible cause of neurologic complications in patients after blood transfusion or organ transplantation. (
  • HNSCs have been isolated from brain tissue obtained from patients undergoing surgical procedures involving removal of brain tissue for the treatment of epilepsy, tumours, or trauma. (
  • Patients with many different cardiovascular diseases have a higher likelihood of experiencing a blood clot or loss of blood flow in border-zone regions of the brain. (
  • Organisms that are most frequently associated with brain abscess in patients with AIDS are poliovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, though in infection with the latter organism, symptoms of meningitis generally predominate. (
  • Nevertheless, due to the scarcity of organs to carry out liver transplantations, it is estimated that one third of patients with ALF die while waiting to be transplanted. (
  • Along with neuro-ethicist Guy Kahane, Savulescu's article "Brain Damage and the Moral Significance of Consciousness" appears to be the first mainstream publication to argue that increased evidence of consciousness in patients diagnosed with being in persistent vegetative state actually supports withdrawing or withholding care. (
  • He also created drug-impregnated implants from polymers that slowly and steadily release medicines for long periods-work that now helps patients in the form of GLIADEL, a chemotherapy-loaded polymer wafer that neurosurgeons implant in the brain to combat glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), one of the most aggressive types of malignant brain tumors. (
  • They were drafted in response to a perceived need for guidance in the management of deeply comatose patients with severe brain damage who were being kept alive by mechanical ventilators but showing no signs of recovery. (
  • Patients classified as brain-dead can have their organs surgically removed for organ donation. (
  • The cardiac tissue-to-plasma concentration (T/P) ratios for renin and prorenin were threefold the ratio for albumin, which indicates that the tissue levels were too high to be accounted for by admixture with blood and diffusion into the interstitial fluid. (
  • There is growing evidence to suggest that in cardiac tissue, Ang II is produced locally and does not originate from circulating Ang I. 3 4 However, whether the cardiac Ang I and II production depends on renin from the kidney remains a matter of dispute. (
  • In normal cardiac tissue of mice and rats, renin mRNA levels are undetectable or extremely low. (
  • Angiotensinogen and ACE mRNAs have been detected in normal cardiac tissue. (
  • We compared the tissue levels of these RAS components with the levels in simultaneously obtained plasma to address the possibility of cardiac angiotensin formation independent of kidney-derived renin. (
  • Developing a dynamic cardiac tissue capable of mimicking the mechanical and electroconductive properties of native myocardium is proving difficult for researchers. (
  • The engineered cardiac tissue, which often comes in the form of a "patch", is implanted directly onto scar tissue. (
  • The blood flow to her heart will become blocked and cardiac muscle cells will start to die off and get replaced with scar tissue. (
  • In the initial stages, perfusing the tissue with a solution that does not contain calcium is useful particularly when isolating cardiac myocytes, as the absence of calcium causes separation of the intercalated disks. (
  • Finally, in the body's attempt to recover from the cellular damage, fibrosis begins in the cardiac tissue. (
  • However most organs must be transplanted before the heart has ceased, and this has led to much discussion and assessment of Jewish law so that today, whilst there continues to be opposition to transplantation before cardiac/respiratory death, there are several authorities which argue that it is allowed, and this is now the official position of the government of the State of Israel and its Chief Rabbinate. (
  • A person is declared brain dead if there is complete loss of all brain function Donation after cardiac death. (
  • Thorough testing is carried out prior to confirming a person brain dead or cardiac dead. (
  • Physicians, nurses, social workers and other staff members work closely with both the older adult and family caregivers -- in the exam room and in the home, as well as over the phone and via email -- to deliver care to improve both brain and physical health. (
  • Alvarado-Mallart, R.M, and Sotelo C. (1982): Differentiation of cerebellar anlage heterotopically transplanted to adult rat brain: A light and electron microscopic study. (
  • HNSCs successfully integrate into the host environment after transplantation into the developing or adult CNS. (
  • In 1992, Brent A. Reynolds and Samuel Weiss were the first to isolate neural progenitor and stem cells from the adult striatal tissue, including the SVZ - one of the neurogenic areas - of adult mice brain tissue. (
  • It is hypothesized that neurogenesis in the adult brain originates from NSCs. (
  • The origin and identity of NSCs in the adult brain remain to be defined. (
  • Laminin-111 is predominantly expressed in the embryonic epithelium, but can also be found in some adult epithelium such as the kidney, liver, testis, ovaries, and brain blood vessels. (
  • However, in the mid-20th century, evidence of adult mammalian neurogenesis was found in rodent hippocampus and other region of the brain. (
  • The most adult stem cells in the brain are found in the subventricular zone at the lateral walls of the lateral ventricle. (
  • Another region where neurogenesis takes place in the adult brain is the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. (
  • In the adult CNS, neuroepithelial cells arise in several different areas of the brain: the subventricular zone (SVZ), the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. (
  • More recent findings suggest that pluripotent stem cells may reside in blood and adult tissues in a dormant state. (
  • It is well known that the "younger" the CNS neural tissue graft, the better its chances of survival and rate of growth. (
  • Firstly, while a PN graft is used to bridge two brain areas, an intracerebral embryonic tissue graft is meant to restore the function of the damaged area. (
  • Secondly, while all elements in PN grafting are at the same age, the intracerebral embryonic tissue graft is heterochronic with respect to the host tissue. (
  • Furthermore, the fetal graft may produce trophic factors or signaling cues, which are present in the brain only at early developmental stages, and should reactivate neurotropic processes in a 'dormant' host neuron populations. (
  • The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. (
  • Tissue Engineering is the official journal of the Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS). (
  • Stem Cells and Tissue Repair: Methods and Protocols presents in-depth methods for the three major approaches of rejuvenating an aging or sick body: latent regenerative capacity stimulated in a targeted way, replacement organs grown de novo and surgically implanted, and tissue surgically implanted and coaxed to integrate and restore problem areas. (
  • Authoritative and easily accessible, Stem Cells and Tissue Repair: Methods and Protocols provides state-of the-art methods descriptions and the references therein that will provide a suitable starting point for exploring the vast literature that has already developed for regenerative medicine. (
  • Neural transplantation has been used to study and promote the regenerative potential of the brain after an ischemic insult. (
  • Results suggest that these metaphosphates may be candidates for dental pulp tissue engineering and regenerative endodontics. (
  • Some researchers in this area, and "life extensionists", "immortalists" or "longevists" (those who wish to achieve longer lives themselves), believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation, stem cells, regenerative medicine, molecular repair, gene therapy, pharmaceuticals, and organ replacement (such as with artificial organs or xenotransplantations) will eventually enable humans to have indefinite lifespans (agerasia) through complete rejuvenation to a healthy youthful condition. (
  • To date, no adequate implant material for the correction of soft tissue defects such as after extensive deep burns, tumor resections or in congenital defects is available. (
  • Gliomas penetrate throughout the brain and extend far beyond the tumor mass that is visible with neuroimaging, making them difficult to treat ( 3 ). (
  • The tumor is classified as a soft tissue sarcoma. (
  • Its Centers of Excellence include cardiovascular care from minimally invasive heart surgery to transplantation, cancer care, and women's and children's care including The Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital at RWJUH, which has several areas of pediatric care. (
  • Analysing brain tissue from biopsies, the researchers for the first time found stem cells locatedaround small blood vessels in the brain. (
  • However, studying how the brain produces these behavioral differences is difficult: researchers usually do not know whether their study participants will be vulnerable to sleep deprivation until after a study is complete. (
  • The success of 3D bioprinting depends on researchers' ability to vascularise the tissue. (
  • But a vest that cools-rather than warms-could fire up studies of brown fat as researchers seek drugs that turn on this calorie-burning tissue. (
  • In the past, researchers believed only babies made use of brown adipose tissue. (
  • Brown adipose tissue has receptors for norepinephrine, so researchers reasoned the drug would activate this type of fat. (
  • Two new papers in Nature this week - one from the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Germany and the other from a collaborative effort between researchers at Harvard and Carnegie Mellon - provide a stunning view into how brain cells communicate. (
  • Orexin was discovered in 1998 almost simultaneously by two independent groups of rat-brain researchers. (
  • In particular, hydrogen peroxide, released during the deamination of SSAO, acts as a signal-transducing molecule, affecting GLUT1 and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane by granulosa cells and adipose tissue. (
  • Obesity in orexin knockout mice is a result of inability of brown preadipocytes to differentiate into brown adipose tissue (BAT), which in turn reduces BAT thermogenesis. (
  • Typical mineralocorticoid side-effects are hypertension (abnormally high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels in the blood), hypernatremia (high sodium levels in the blood) without causing peripheral edema, metabolic alkalosis and connective tissue weakness. (