Brain Stem Neoplasms
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
Brain Stem Infarctions
Stem Cell Transplantation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Selective innervation of retinorecipient brainstem nuclei by retinal ganglion cell axons regenerating through peripheral nerve grafts in adult rats. (1/149)The pattern of axonal regeneration, specificity of reinnervation, and terminal arborization in the brainstem by axotomized retinal ganglion cell axons was studied in rats with peripheral nerve grafts linking the retina with ipsilateral regions of the brainstem, including dorsal and lateral aspects of the diencephalon and lateral aspect of the superior colliculus. Four to 13 months later, regenerated retinal projections were traced using intraocular injection of cholera toxin B subunit. In approximately one-third of the animals, regenerated retinal axons extended into the brainstem for distances of up to 6 mm. Although axons followed different patterns of ingrowth depending on their site of entry to the brainstem, within the pretectum, they innervated preferentially the nucleus of the optic tract and the olivary pretectal nucleus in which they formed two types of terminal arbors. Within the superior colliculus, axons extended laterally and formed a different terminal arbor type within the stratum griseum superficiale. In the remaining two-thirds of the animals, retinal fibers formed a neuroma-like structure at the site of entry into the brainstem, or a few fibers extended for very short distances within the neighboring neuropil. These experiments suggest that regenerated retinal axons are capable of a highly selective reinnervation pattern within adult denervated retinorecipient nuclei in which they form well defined terminal arbors that may persist for long periods of time. In addition, these studies provide the anatomical correlate for our previous functional study on the re-establishment of the pupillary light reflex in this experimental paradigm. (+info)
Radiation therapy and high-dose tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with diffuse brainstem gliomas: results of a Brazilian cooperative study. Brainstem Glioma Cooperative Group. (2/149)PURPOSE: The efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) combined with tamoxifen (TX) was tested in patients diagnosed with diffuse brainstem gliomas in a multicenter trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: TX was administered orally (maintenance dose: 200 mg/m(2) per day) along with conventional local RT and then continued for 52 additional weeks. Survival, tumoral radiologic response, and toxicity were evaluated. Compliance was assessed using pharmacokinetic measurements. RESULTS: Of 29 patients, 27 completed RT (median dose, 54 Gy). Of 22 assessable patients, 11 (50%) had an objective radiologic response. The mean TX steady-state serum level was 2.44 micromol/L +/- 1.02 micromol/L. Only three patients completed the entire course of treatment without tumoral progression or significant toxicity. Common side effects included nausea and vomiting. Hepatotoxicity (five patients), neurotoxicity (two patients), venous thrombosis (one patient), bilateral ovarian cysts (two patients), and transient neutropenia (one patient) were also observed. Median survival was 10.3 months. Only four patients remain alive without tumoral progression. The 1-year survival rate (mean +/- SD) was 37.0% +/- 9.5%. CONCLUSION: This treatment combination produced no significant change in the overall poor prognosis of these patients. Most tumors responded initially to treatment but recurred as the study progressed. A minority of patients seemed to benefit from the extended use of TX. Generally, treatment was well tolerated, with good patient compliance, but we recommend continuous close monitoring for side effects. Based on our poor results, we recommend that alternative treatments be tested in patients with this type of tumor. (+info)
Intramedullar stimulation of the facial and hypoglossal nerves: estimation of the stimulated site. (3/149)AIM: To determine the stimulation site of both facial and hypoglossal nerves after transcranial magnetic stimulation. METHODS: After surgical exposure of the brainstem in 22 patients with intrinsic pontine (n=9) or medullary (n=13) tumors, the facial colliculus and the hypoglossal triangle were electrically stimulated. The EMG responses were recorded with flexible wire electrodes from the orbicularis oculi/orbicularis oris muscles, and genioglossal muscles. Patients had no preoperative deficit of the nerves. RESULTS: The EMG mean latencies of the unaffected facial nerve were 5.2+/-0.6 ms for the orbicularis oculi, and 5.2+/-0.5 ms for the orbicularis oris muscle. After the stimulation of 18 possibly affected facial nerves, the EMG mean latencies were 5.3+/-0.3 ms for the orbicularis oculi (p=0.539, unpaired Student's t-test), and 5.4+/-0.2 ms for the orbicularis oris (p=0.122). The EMG mean latency of the unaffected hypoglossal nerve was 4.1+/-0.6 ms for the genioglossal muscle. After the stimulation of 26 possibly affected hypoglossal nerves, the EMG mean latency for the genioglossal muscle was 5.3+/-0.3 ms. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) in latency for genioglossal EMG responses between the patients with pontine and those with medullary tumors. CONCLUSION: Shorter EMG mean latencies of unaffected facial nerves obtained after direct stimulation of the facial colliculi confirm that magnetic stimulation is most likely to occur closer to the nerve's exit from the brainstem than to its entrance into the internal auditory meatus. The hypoglossal nerve seems to have the site of excitation at the axon hillock of the hypoglossal motor neurons. (+info)
Intra-axial tumors of the medullocervical junction: diagnosis and microsurgical treatment. (4/149)OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features, operative methods and postoperative management of the intra-axial tumors of medullocervical junction, and to make differential diagnosis for different subtypes. METHODS: Fifteen patients with intra-axial tumors of medullocervical junction were treated from August 1988 to June 1997. The diagnoses were confirmed by MRI and histological examinations. The tumors were divided into two subtypes according to the clinical features and the main body of the tumor. The distinctive points of the two subtypes and the appropriate surgical methods of different pathological type tumors were expounded. RESULTS: Tumors were totally removed in 10 patients and subtotally in 5. There was no death caused by operation. Postoperative complications included respiratory disturbance in six cases, upper digestive tract bleeding in one, depressed cough reflex in two, most of which recovered after proper treatment. On discharge, the nervous system status was improved in 11 cases, stable in 2 and worsened in 2. CONCLUSIONS: The intra-axial tumors of medullocervical junction can be divided into cervicomedullary and medullocervical subtypes. The MRI examination is decisive in the distinction of the diagnosis, and is important in the determination of the nature of the medullar cystic lesions and the guidance of the resection of tumor extent. The cervicomedullary tumors are more amenable to an aggressive surgical treatment, during which the surgeon should remove the tumors first in the cervical spinal cord area, then in the medullar area with the tumor resection expanding rostrally. It can make the operation safer to remove the tumors using appropriate techniques varied with pathological types of the tumors. Managing postoperative respiratory disturbances without delay is one of the important points in improving the therapeutic effect. (+info)
Paroxysmal alternating skew deviation and nystagmus after partial destruction of the uvula. (5/149)A patient with suspected brain stem glioma involving the area of the left vestibular nuclei and cerebellar peduncle, developed paroxysmal alternating skew deviation and direction changing nystagmus after biopsy of the inferior cerebellar vermis resulting in destruction of the uvula. Between attacks she had right over left skew deviation with asymptomatic right beating horizontal nystagmus. Slow phases of the resting nystagmus showed increasing velocity, similar to congenital nystagmus. At intervals of 40-50 seconds, paroxysmal reversal of her skew deviation occurred, accompanied by violent left beating horizontal torsional nystagmus lasting 10-12 seconds and causing severe oscillopsia. It is proposed that this complex paroxysmal eye movement disorder results from (1) a lesion in the left vestibular nuclei causing right over left skew and right beating resting nystagmus and (2) a disruption of cerebellar inhibition of vestibular nuclei, causing alternating activity in the vestibular system with intermittent reversal of the skew deviation and paroxysmal nystagmus towards the side of the lesion. (+info)
Perfusion-sensitive MR imaging of gliomas: comparison between gradient-echo and spin-echo echo-planar imaging techniques. (6/149)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The different sensitivities to vessel size of gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) and spin-echo EPI (SE-EPI) might indicate the relative cerebral blood volumes (rCBVs) of different tumor sizes. The techniques of GE-EPI and SE-EPI were compared for detecting low- versus high-grade gliomas. METHODS: Six patients with low-grade gliomas and 19 patients with high-grade gliomas underwent two perfusion-sensitive MR procedures, one produced by a GE- and the other by an SE-EPI technique. Maximum rCBV ratios normalized with rCBV of contralateral white matter were calculated for evaluation. P <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Maximum rCBV ratios of high-grade gliomas obtained with the GE-EPI technique (mean, 5.0 +/- 2.9) were significantly higher than those obtained with the SE-EPI technique (mean, 2.9 +/- 2.3) (P =.02). Maximum rCBV ratios of low-grade gliomas obtained with the GE-EPI technique (mean, 1.2 +/- 0.7) were almost equal to those obtained with the SE-EPI technique (mean, 1.2 +/- 0.6), and there was no significant difference (P =.66). The difference in the maximum rCBV ratios between the low- and high-grade gliomas reached significance when obtained with the GE-EPI technique (P =.01). CONCLUSION: The GE-EPI technique seems more useful for detecting low- versus high-grade gliomas than the SE-EPI technique. (+info)
The causes of dysphagia in carcinoma of the lung. (7/149)Dysphagia occurs in only a small percentage of patients with lung cancer, but the frequency of this cancer means that large numbers are affected. Non-quantitative analysis of a large Scottish series of lung cancer cases indicates the following eight broad categories of dysphagia according to underlying mechanisms: mediastinal disease; cervical lymphadenopathy; brainstem lesions; gastrointestinal tract metastases; associated systemic disorders; second primaries; oropharyngeal and oesophageal infections; and radiation-induced oesophageal toxicity. (+info)
Brainstem gliomas in adults: prognostic factors and classification. (8/149)In contrast to childhood brainstem gliomas, adult brainstem gliomas are rare and poorly understood. The charts of 48 adults suffering from brainstem glioma were reviewed in order to determine prognostic factors, evaluate the effect of treatment and propose a classification of these tumours. Mean age at onset was 34 years (range 16-70 years). The main presenting symptoms were gait disturbance (61%), headache (44%), weakness of the limbs (42%) and diplopia (40%). Four patterns were identified on MRI, representing non-enhancing, diffusely infiltrative tumours (50%), contrast-enhancing localized masses (31%), isolated tectal tumours (8%) and other patterns (11%). Treatment consisted of partial resection (8%), radiotherapy (94%) and chemotherapy (56%). Overall median survival was 5.4 years. On univariate analysis, the following favourable prognostic factors were identified (P< 0.01): age of onset <40 years, duration of symptoms before diagnosis >3 months, Karnofski performance status >70, low-grade histology, absence of contrast enhancement and 'necrosis' on MRI. On multivariate analysis, the duration of symptoms, the appearance of 'necrosis' on MRI and the histological grade of the tumour remained significant and independent prognostic factors (P< 0.05). Eighty-five percent of the tumours could be classified into one of the following three groups on the basis of clinical, radiological and histological features. (i) Diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas (46%) usually occurred in young adults with a long clinical history before diagnosis and a diffusely enlarged brainstem on MRI that did not show contrast enhancement. These patients were improved by radiotherapy in 62% of cases and had a long survival time (median 7.3 years). Anaplastic transformation (appearance of contrast enhancement, 27%) and relentless growth without other changes (23%) were the main causes of death. (ii) Malignant gliomas (31%) occurred in elderly patients with a short clinical history. Contrast enhancement and necrosis were the rule on MRI. These tumours were highly resistant to treatment and the patients had a median survival time of 11.2 months. (iii) Focal tectal gliomas (8%) occurred in young patients and were often revealed by isolated hydrocephalus. The course was indolent and the projected median survival period exceeded 10 years. In conclusion, adult brainstem gliomas are different from the childhood forms and resemble supratentorial gliomas in adults. Low-grade tumours have a clinicoradiological pattern that is so characteristic that the need for a potentially harmful biopsy is debatable. The optimum timing of treatment for supratentorial low-grade tumours remains unclear. In high-grade gliomas, the prognosis remains extremely poor despite aggressive treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (+info)
Causes and risk factors:
The exact cause of brain stem neoplasms is not fully understood, but they can occur due to genetic mutations or exposure to certain environmental factors. Some risk factors that have been linked to brain stem neoplasms include:
* Family history of cancer
* Exposure to radiation therapy in childhood
* Previous head trauma
* Certain genetic conditions, such as turcot syndrome
The symptoms of brain stem neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and severity. Some common symptoms include:
* Vision problems
* Weakness or numbness in the limbs
* Slurred speech
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain)
To diagnose a brain stem neoplasm, a doctor will typically perform a physical exam and ask questions about the patient's medical history. They may also order several tests, such as:
* CT or MRI scans to visualize the tumor
* Electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure electrical activity in the brain
* Blood tests to check for certain substances that are produced by the tumor
The treatment of brain stem neoplasms depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the type of tumor. Some possible treatment options include:
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Observation and monitoring for small, slow-growing tumors that do not cause significant symptoms
The prognosis for brain stem neoplasms varies depending on the type of tumor and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is poor for patients with brain stem tumors, as they can be difficult to treat and may recur. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients may experience a good outcome.
There are no specific lifestyle changes that can cure a brain stem neoplasm, but some changes may help improve the patient's quality of life. These may include:
* Avoiding activities that exacerbate symptoms, such as heavy lifting or bending
* Taking regular breaks to rest and relax
* Eating a healthy diet and getting plenty of sleep
* Reducing stress through techniques such as meditation or deep breathing exercises.
It's important for patients with brain stem neoplasms to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their symptoms and monitor their condition. With prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients may experience a good outcome.
There are several different types of brain injuries that can occur, including:
1. Concussions: A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken, often due to a blow to the head.
2. Contusions: A contusion is a bruise on the brain that can occur when the brain is struck by an object, such as during a car accident.
3. Coup-contrecoup injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is injured as a result of the force of the body striking another object, such as during a fall.
4. Penetrating injuries: A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the brain, such as during a gunshot wound or stab injury.
5. Blast injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is exposed to a sudden and explosive force, such as during a bombing.
The symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage in the brain. Some common symptoms include:
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Slurred speech or difficulty with communication
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Personality changes
* Difficulty with coordination and balance
In some cases, brain injuries can be treated with medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. However, in more severe cases, the damage may be permanent and long-lasting. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.
There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:
1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.
These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.
Signs and Symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of BSI vary depending on the severity and location of the infarction. Common symptoms include sudden onset of headache, confusion, dizziness, slurred speech, weakness or paralysis of the face or limbs, double vision, and difficulty with swallowing. Patients may also experience vomiting, seizures, and loss of consciousness.
BSI is diagnosed using a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. A complete neurological examination is crucial to identify any deficits in vision, hearing, balance, and sensation. Imaging studies are used to confirm the presence of an infarction and to identify the location and extent of the damage. Laboratory tests such as blood chemistry and coagulation studies may be performed to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms.
The treatment of BSI depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the infarction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve the blockage or to repair any blood vessel damage. Medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and blood pressure-lowering drugs may also be used to manage the condition. Rehabilitation therapy is often necessary to help patients regain lost function and improve their quality of life.
The prognosis for BSI varies depending on the severity and location of the infarction, as well as the underlying cause. In general, patients with a small infarct in a critical area of the brainstem have a poorer prognosis than those with larger infarctions in less critical areas. However, early recognition and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as seizures, hydrocephalus, and respiratory failure.
BSI can be associated with a number of complications, including:
1. Seizures: BSI can cause seizures, which can be challenging to treat and may require medication or surgical intervention.
2. Hydrocephalus: Fluid buildup in the brain can occur as a result of BSI, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
3. Respiratory failure: Damage to the brainstem can lead to respiratory failure, which may require mechanical ventilation.
4. Cardiac arrhythmias: BSI can cause cardiac arrhythmias, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
5. Cerebral edema: Swelling in the brain can occur as a result of BSI, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
6. Pneumonia: BSI can increase the risk of developing pneumonia, particularly in individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
7. Meningitis: BSI can increase the risk of developing meningitis, particularly in individuals with pre-existing immune compromise.
8. Stroke: BSI can cause stroke, which may be related to the infarction itself or to the underlying condition that caused the infarction.
9. Cognitive and behavioral changes: BSI can result in cognitive and behavioral changes, including difficulty with concentration, memory loss, and personality changes.
10. Long-term sequelae: BSI can have long-term consequences, including chronic cognitive impairment, seizures, and changes in behavior and mood.
Treatment and management:
The treatment and management of BSI depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the infarction. Some common approaches include:
1. Antibiotics: If the infarction is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection and prevent further spread of the infection.
2. Supportive care: Patients with BSI may require supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, or cardiac support, depending on the severity of the infarction.
3. Surgical intervention: In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to relieve pressure or remove infected tissue.
4. Rehabilitation: Patients who survive BSI may require rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.
5. Close monitoring: Patients with BSI should be closely monitored for signs of complications, such as seizures, confusion, or changes in vital signs.
Preventing BSI is critical to reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes. Some strategies for preventing BSI include:
1. Immunization: Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b can help prevent BSI caused by these organisms.
2. Proper hygiene: Proper hand washing and hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of transmission of BSI-causing pathogens.
3. Use of contact precautions: Use of contact precautions, such as wearing gloves and gowns, can help prevent the spread of BSI-causing pathogens.
4. Proper use of invasive devices: Proper use of invasive devices, such as central lines and urinary catheters, can help reduce the risk of BSI.
5. Antibiotic stewardship: Proper use of antibiotics can help reduce the risk of BSI caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
6. Early detection and treatment: Early detection and treatment of underlying infections can help prevent the progression to BSI.
7. Avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures: Avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures, such as central lines or urinary catheters, can reduce the risk of BSI.
8. Use of antimicrobial-impregnated devices: Use of antimicrobial-impregnated devices, such as central lines and urinary catheters, can help reduce the risk of BSI.
9. Proper hand hygiene: Proper hand hygiene practices, including hand washing and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, can help reduce the transmission of BSI-causing pathogens.
10. Environmental cleaning and disinfection: Regular environmental cleaning and disinfection can help reduce the presence of BSI-causing pathogens in the hospital environment.
It is important to note that these strategies should be tailored to the specific needs of each patient and healthcare facility, and may need to be adjusted based on the local prevalence of BSI-causing pathogens and the patient's medical condition.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.
Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.
The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
List of diseases (B)
List of MeSH codes (C10)
Stem cell marker
Somatic evolution in cancer
Altered level of consciousness
List of MeSH codes (C21)
Neuronal lineage marker
Acute myeloid leukemia
List of MeSH codes (C04)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder
Mir-708 microRNA precursor family
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2
Nuclear protein in testis gene
Mir-25 microRNA precursor family
Plasma cell dyscrasias
Glycogen storage disease type I
Subjects: Brain Stem Neoplasms - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
Molecular Analysis of Samples From Patients With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma and Brainstem Glioma - Full Text View -...
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Brainstem cavernous malformations: surgical results in 104 patients and a proposed grading system to predict neurological...
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Tene Aneka Cage's Profile | Stanford Profiles
Neoplasia of the Nervous System | IVIS
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Therapeutic strategies targeting brain tumor stem cells - Fingerprint - Keio University
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Outcome and prognostic factors in cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme in adults: A retrospective study from the Rare Cancer...
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- Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are brain tumors. (nih.gov)
- High grade diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) accounts for approximately 80% of pediatric brainstem tumors and 10% of pediatric brain tumors, and is the most lethal form of brainstem gliomas in children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Intracranial injection of purified CD133+, not CD133- GBM daughter cells, can lead to the development of YKL-40+ infiltrating tumors that display hypervascularity and pseudopalisading necrosis-like features in mouse brain. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Cage has comprehensive neurosurgical training in treating traumatic brain injury, traumatic spine injury, degenerative and oncologic spine disorders, as well as extra-axial and intra-axial brain tumors. (stanford.edu)
- Primary nervous system tumors originate from neuroectodermal, ectodermal, and/or mesodermal cells normally present in, or associated with brain, spinal cord or peripheral nerves. (ivis.org)
- The osseous tentorium may be used as a reference point for localizing different areas of the brain within the cranial vault: tumors occurring in the brainstem and cerebellum may be called "infratentorial" or "posterior fossa" tumors, whereas those occurring in the cerebral hemispheres are often referred to as "supratentorial" or "anterior fossa" tumors. (ivis.org)
- Other tumors of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), skin and eye are also common. (nih.gov)
- These versatile properties prompted us to explore their possible relationship to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to search for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in phyllodes tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
- SAN FRANCISCO - A team of neurosurgeons and scientists from Italy is looking into whether stem cells derived from a brain tumor patient's own skin can be used to fight the tumors. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers successfully grew stem cells from skin samples of adult patients with brain tumors. (eurekalert.org)
- Researchers found that mice with brain tumors that were treated with stem cells showed both increased blood supply and decreased tumor growth into the surrounding brain. (eurekalert.org)
Benign or Malignant1
- These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. (edu.au)
- Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. (edu.au)
- To illuminate mechanisms governing these hallmark features, we developed a de novo glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) model derived from immortalized human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSCs) to enable precise system-level comparisons of pre-malignant and oncogene-induced malignant states of NSCs. (nih.gov)
- Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are implicated in tumor neovascularization, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this study is to prospectively collect specimens from pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma or brainstem glioma, either during therapy or at autopsy, in order to characterize the molecular abnormalities of this tumor. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The aim of this trial is to collect specimens from pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma including serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, brain tumor and other constitutional tissue, during therapy and/or at autopsy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Thus, the PAX6/DLX5-WNT5A axis governs the diffuse spread of glioma cells throughout the brain parenchyma, contributing to the lethality of GBM. (nih.gov)
- A spinal MRI, brain MRI, and/or brain MRI with diffusion, every few courses. (nih.gov)
- She also has completed a Neurotrauma fellowship at UCSF and San Francisco General Hospital with Geoff Manley, MD, PhD where she received specialized training in caring for patients after traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. (stanford.edu)
- Tumor emboli can lodge and grow anywhere in the brain, meninges, choroid plexus, or spinal cord. (ivis.org)
- The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord , including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves . (lookformedical.com)
- Here, we discuss how the finite ESC components mediate the intriguing task of brain development and exhibit biomedical potentials to cure diverse neurological disorders. (nih.gov)
- The versatile property of PTs to convert into various sarcoma types is reminiscent of the features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (biomedcentral.com)
- Clinical potentials of human pluripotent stem cells. (nih.gov)
- Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are endowed with the ability to generate multiple cell lineages and carry great therapeutic potentials in regenerative medicine. (nih.gov)
- The sensory nerve fibers conveyed by the cranial laryngeal nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve terminate in the solitary tract and nucleus (NTS) in the brainstem. (vin.com)
- The major afferents for swallowing, the SLN fibers running within the solitary tract, are not connected directly to the cranial motor nuclei involved in swallowing--V, VII, IX, X, and XII--in the brainstem. (vin.com)
- The motor neurons of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X, and XII are located bilaterally in the brainstem. (vin.com)
- The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. (lookformedical.com)
- Her research has been recognized with the Lucien J. Rubenstein Memorial Award from the American Brain Tumor Association, the Young Investigator Award from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation, and the Best Basic Science Research Paper Award from UCSF Neurological Surgery residency program. (stanford.edu)
- Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Rural-Urban Disparities and Considerations. (stanford.edu)
- The taxonomy of brain cancer stem cells: What's in a name? (wustl.edu)
- Emerging concepts in neural stem cell research: autologous repair and cell-based disease modelling. (nih.gov)
- They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. (lookformedical.com)
- The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei ( COCHLEAR NUCLEUS ) of the BRAIN STEM. (lookformedical.com)
- Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. (nih.gov)
- Most series report that about 80% of parotid neoplasms are benign, with the relative proportion of malignancy increasing in the smaller glands. (medscape.com)
- Medulloblastoma is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "an embryonal neuroepithelial tumor arising in the cerebellum or dorsal brainstem, presenting mainly in childhood and consisting of densely packed small round undifferentiated cells with mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism and high mitotic count. (medscape.com)
- C3268 Nervous System Neoplasm C132009 C9381 Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Maturation Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Maturation An acute myeloid leukemia with maturation occurring in children. (nih.gov)
- C5132 Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm C7928 Childhood Germ Cell Tumor C132009 C5969 Childhood Brain Stem Neoplasm Childhood Brain Stem Tumor Childhood Brain Stem Neoplasm A neoplasm that affects the brain stem and occurs during childhood. (nih.gov)
- A neoplasm that affects the brain stem and occurs during childhood. (nih.gov)
- C35876 Childhood Intracranial Neoplasm C132009 C9158 Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia without Maturation Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia without Maturation An acute myeloid leukemia without maturation occurring in children. (nih.gov)
- Salivary gland neoplasms occurred with slightly greater frequency in girls (57.4% of patients) than in boys. (medscape.com)
- Salivary gland neoplasms most commonly appear in the sixth decade of life. (medscape.com)
- During a 4-day visit, she underwent 2 lumbar punctures for intrathecal injection of donor umbilical cord stem cells programmed to treat MS. She pursued treatment at this clinic after reviewing its associated website as part of her research on stem cell treatments for MS. (cdc.gov)
- A retrospective analysis of 139 patients with brain stem cavernous malformations is presented. (nih.gov)
- We report M. abscessus meningitis in a patient who traveled from Colorado, USA, to Mexico to receive intrathecal stem cell injections as treatment for multiple sclerosis. (cdc.gov)
- Some common salivary gland neoplasms are listed in the table below. (medscape.com)
- Common salivary gland neoplasms. (medscape.com)
- The most common tumor of the parotid gland is the pleomorphic adenoma , which represents about 60% of all parotid neoplasms, as seen in the table below. (medscape.com)
- Common parotid neoplasms. (medscape.com)
- Common submandibular neoplasms. (medscape.com)