Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Selective innervation of retinorecipient brainstem nuclei by retinal ganglion cell axons regenerating through peripheral nerve grafts in adult rats. (1/149)

The pattern of axonal regeneration, specificity of reinnervation, and terminal arborization in the brainstem by axotomized retinal ganglion cell axons was studied in rats with peripheral nerve grafts linking the retina with ipsilateral regions of the brainstem, including dorsal and lateral aspects of the diencephalon and lateral aspect of the superior colliculus. Four to 13 months later, regenerated retinal projections were traced using intraocular injection of cholera toxin B subunit. In approximately one-third of the animals, regenerated retinal axons extended into the brainstem for distances of up to 6 mm. Although axons followed different patterns of ingrowth depending on their site of entry to the brainstem, within the pretectum, they innervated preferentially the nucleus of the optic tract and the olivary pretectal nucleus in which they formed two types of terminal arbors. Within the superior colliculus, axons extended laterally and formed a different terminal arbor type within the stratum griseum superficiale. In the remaining two-thirds of the animals, retinal fibers formed a neuroma-like structure at the site of entry into the brainstem, or a few fibers extended for very short distances within the neighboring neuropil. These experiments suggest that regenerated retinal axons are capable of a highly selective reinnervation pattern within adult denervated retinorecipient nuclei in which they form well defined terminal arbors that may persist for long periods of time. In addition, these studies provide the anatomical correlate for our previous functional study on the re-establishment of the pupillary light reflex in this experimental paradigm.  (+info)

Radiation therapy and high-dose tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with diffuse brainstem gliomas: results of a Brazilian cooperative study. Brainstem Glioma Cooperative Group. (2/149)

PURPOSE: The efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) combined with tamoxifen (TX) was tested in patients diagnosed with diffuse brainstem gliomas in a multicenter trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: TX was administered orally (maintenance dose: 200 mg/m(2) per day) along with conventional local RT and then continued for 52 additional weeks. Survival, tumoral radiologic response, and toxicity were evaluated. Compliance was assessed using pharmacokinetic measurements. RESULTS: Of 29 patients, 27 completed RT (median dose, 54 Gy). Of 22 assessable patients, 11 (50%) had an objective radiologic response. The mean TX steady-state serum level was 2.44 micromol/L +/- 1.02 micromol/L. Only three patients completed the entire course of treatment without tumoral progression or significant toxicity. Common side effects included nausea and vomiting. Hepatotoxicity (five patients), neurotoxicity (two patients), venous thrombosis (one patient), bilateral ovarian cysts (two patients), and transient neutropenia (one patient) were also observed. Median survival was 10.3 months. Only four patients remain alive without tumoral progression. The 1-year survival rate (mean +/- SD) was 37.0% +/- 9.5%. CONCLUSION: This treatment combination produced no significant change in the overall poor prognosis of these patients. Most tumors responded initially to treatment but recurred as the study progressed. A minority of patients seemed to benefit from the extended use of TX. Generally, treatment was well tolerated, with good patient compliance, but we recommend continuous close monitoring for side effects. Based on our poor results, we recommend that alternative treatments be tested in patients with this type of tumor.  (+info)

Intramedullar stimulation of the facial and hypoglossal nerves: estimation of the stimulated site. (3/149)

AIM: To determine the stimulation site of both facial and hypoglossal nerves after transcranial magnetic stimulation. METHODS: After surgical exposure of the brainstem in 22 patients with intrinsic pontine (n=9) or medullary (n=13) tumors, the facial colliculus and the hypoglossal triangle were electrically stimulated. The EMG responses were recorded with flexible wire electrodes from the orbicularis oculi/orbicularis oris muscles, and genioglossal muscles. Patients had no preoperative deficit of the nerves. RESULTS: The EMG mean latencies of the unaffected facial nerve were 5.2+/-0.6 ms for the orbicularis oculi, and 5.2+/-0.5 ms for the orbicularis oris muscle. After the stimulation of 18 possibly affected facial nerves, the EMG mean latencies were 5.3+/-0.3 ms for the orbicularis oculi (p=0.539, unpaired Student's t-test), and 5.4+/-0.2 ms for the orbicularis oris (p=0.122). The EMG mean latency of the unaffected hypoglossal nerve was 4.1+/-0.6 ms for the genioglossal muscle. After the stimulation of 26 possibly affected hypoglossal nerves, the EMG mean latency for the genioglossal muscle was 5.3+/-0.3 ms. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) in latency for genioglossal EMG responses between the patients with pontine and those with medullary tumors. CONCLUSION: Shorter EMG mean latencies of unaffected facial nerves obtained after direct stimulation of the facial colliculi confirm that magnetic stimulation is most likely to occur closer to the nerve's exit from the brainstem than to its entrance into the internal auditory meatus. The hypoglossal nerve seems to have the site of excitation at the axon hillock of the hypoglossal motor neurons.  (+info)

Intra-axial tumors of the medullocervical junction: diagnosis and microsurgical treatment. (4/149)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features, operative methods and postoperative management of the intra-axial tumors of medullocervical junction, and to make differential diagnosis for different subtypes. METHODS: Fifteen patients with intra-axial tumors of medullocervical junction were treated from August 1988 to June 1997. The diagnoses were confirmed by MRI and histological examinations. The tumors were divided into two subtypes according to the clinical features and the main body of the tumor. The distinctive points of the two subtypes and the appropriate surgical methods of different pathological type tumors were expounded. RESULTS: Tumors were totally removed in 10 patients and subtotally in 5. There was no death caused by operation. Postoperative complications included respiratory disturbance in six cases, upper digestive tract bleeding in one, depressed cough reflex in two, most of which recovered after proper treatment. On discharge, the nervous system status was improved in 11 cases, stable in 2 and worsened in 2. CONCLUSIONS: The intra-axial tumors of medullocervical junction can be divided into cervicomedullary and medullocervical subtypes. The MRI examination is decisive in the distinction of the diagnosis, and is important in the determination of the nature of the medullar cystic lesions and the guidance of the resection of tumor extent. The cervicomedullary tumors are more amenable to an aggressive surgical treatment, during which the surgeon should remove the tumors first in the cervical spinal cord area, then in the medullar area with the tumor resection expanding rostrally. It can make the operation safer to remove the tumors using appropriate techniques varied with pathological types of the tumors. Managing postoperative respiratory disturbances without delay is one of the important points in improving the therapeutic effect.  (+info)

Paroxysmal alternating skew deviation and nystagmus after partial destruction of the uvula. (5/149)

A patient with suspected brain stem glioma involving the area of the left vestibular nuclei and cerebellar peduncle, developed paroxysmal alternating skew deviation and direction changing nystagmus after biopsy of the inferior cerebellar vermis resulting in destruction of the uvula. Between attacks she had right over left skew deviation with asymptomatic right beating horizontal nystagmus. Slow phases of the resting nystagmus showed increasing velocity, similar to congenital nystagmus. At intervals of 40-50 seconds, paroxysmal reversal of her skew deviation occurred, accompanied by violent left beating horizontal torsional nystagmus lasting 10-12 seconds and causing severe oscillopsia. It is proposed that this complex paroxysmal eye movement disorder results from (1) a lesion in the left vestibular nuclei causing right over left skew and right beating resting nystagmus and (2) a disruption of cerebellar inhibition of vestibular nuclei, causing alternating activity in the vestibular system with intermittent reversal of the skew deviation and paroxysmal nystagmus towards the side of the lesion.  (+info)

Perfusion-sensitive MR imaging of gliomas: comparison between gradient-echo and spin-echo echo-planar imaging techniques. (6/149)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The different sensitivities to vessel size of gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) and spin-echo EPI (SE-EPI) might indicate the relative cerebral blood volumes (rCBVs) of different tumor sizes. The techniques of GE-EPI and SE-EPI were compared for detecting low- versus high-grade gliomas. METHODS: Six patients with low-grade gliomas and 19 patients with high-grade gliomas underwent two perfusion-sensitive MR procedures, one produced by a GE- and the other by an SE-EPI technique. Maximum rCBV ratios normalized with rCBV of contralateral white matter were calculated for evaluation. P <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Maximum rCBV ratios of high-grade gliomas obtained with the GE-EPI technique (mean, 5.0 +/- 2.9) were significantly higher than those obtained with the SE-EPI technique (mean, 2.9 +/- 2.3) (P =.02). Maximum rCBV ratios of low-grade gliomas obtained with the GE-EPI technique (mean, 1.2 +/- 0.7) were almost equal to those obtained with the SE-EPI technique (mean, 1.2 +/- 0.6), and there was no significant difference (P =.66). The difference in the maximum rCBV ratios between the low- and high-grade gliomas reached significance when obtained with the GE-EPI technique (P =.01). CONCLUSION: The GE-EPI technique seems more useful for detecting low- versus high-grade gliomas than the SE-EPI technique.  (+info)

The causes of dysphagia in carcinoma of the lung. (7/149)

Dysphagia occurs in only a small percentage of patients with lung cancer, but the frequency of this cancer means that large numbers are affected. Non-quantitative analysis of a large Scottish series of lung cancer cases indicates the following eight broad categories of dysphagia according to underlying mechanisms: mediastinal disease; cervical lymphadenopathy; brainstem lesions; gastrointestinal tract metastases; associated systemic disorders; second primaries; oropharyngeal and oesophageal infections; and radiation-induced oesophageal toxicity.  (+info)

Brainstem gliomas in adults: prognostic factors and classification. (8/149)

In contrast to childhood brainstem gliomas, adult brainstem gliomas are rare and poorly understood. The charts of 48 adults suffering from brainstem glioma were reviewed in order to determine prognostic factors, evaluate the effect of treatment and propose a classification of these tumours. Mean age at onset was 34 years (range 16-70 years). The main presenting symptoms were gait disturbance (61%), headache (44%), weakness of the limbs (42%) and diplopia (40%). Four patterns were identified on MRI, representing non-enhancing, diffusely infiltrative tumours (50%), contrast-enhancing localized masses (31%), isolated tectal tumours (8%) and other patterns (11%). Treatment consisted of partial resection (8%), radiotherapy (94%) and chemotherapy (56%). Overall median survival was 5.4 years. On univariate analysis, the following favourable prognostic factors were identified (P< 0.01): age of onset <40 years, duration of symptoms before diagnosis >3 months, Karnofski performance status >70, low-grade histology, absence of contrast enhancement and 'necrosis' on MRI. On multivariate analysis, the duration of symptoms, the appearance of 'necrosis' on MRI and the histological grade of the tumour remained significant and independent prognostic factors (P< 0.05). Eighty-five percent of the tumours could be classified into one of the following three groups on the basis of clinical, radiological and histological features. (i) Diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas (46%) usually occurred in young adults with a long clinical history before diagnosis and a diffusely enlarged brainstem on MRI that did not show contrast enhancement. These patients were improved by radiotherapy in 62% of cases and had a long survival time (median 7.3 years). Anaplastic transformation (appearance of contrast enhancement, 27%) and relentless growth without other changes (23%) were the main causes of death. (ii) Malignant gliomas (31%) occurred in elderly patients with a short clinical history. Contrast enhancement and necrosis were the rule on MRI. These tumours were highly resistant to treatment and the patients had a median survival time of 11.2 months. (iii) Focal tectal gliomas (8%) occurred in young patients and were often revealed by isolated hydrocephalus. The course was indolent and the projected median survival period exceeded 10 years. In conclusion, adult brainstem gliomas are different from the childhood forms and resemble supratentorial gliomas in adults. Low-grade tumours have a clinicoradiological pattern that is so characteristic that the need for a potentially harmful biopsy is debatable. The optimum timing of treatment for supratentorial low-grade tumours remains unclear. In high-grade gliomas, the prognosis remains extremely poor despite aggressive treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.  (+info)

Causes and risk factors:

The exact cause of brain stem neoplasms is not fully understood, but they can occur due to genetic mutations or exposure to certain environmental factors. Some risk factors that have been linked to brain stem neoplasms include:

* Family history of cancer
* Exposure to radiation therapy in childhood
* Previous head trauma
* Certain genetic conditions, such as turcot syndrome


The symptoms of brain stem neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and severity. Some common symptoms include:

* Headaches
* Vision problems
* Weakness or numbness in the limbs
* Slurred speech
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Seizures
* Hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain)


To diagnose a brain stem neoplasm, a doctor will typically perform a physical exam and ask questions about the patient's medical history. They may also order several tests, such as:

* CT or MRI scans to visualize the tumor
* Electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure electrical activity in the brain
* Blood tests to check for certain substances that are produced by the tumor

Treatment options:

The treatment of brain stem neoplasms depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the type of tumor. Some possible treatment options include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Observation and monitoring for small, slow-growing tumors that do not cause significant symptoms


The prognosis for brain stem neoplasms varies depending on the type of tumor and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is poor for patients with brain stem tumors, as they can be difficult to treat and may recur. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients may experience a good outcome.

Lifestyle changes:

There are no specific lifestyle changes that can cure a brain stem neoplasm, but some changes may help improve the patient's quality of life. These may include:

* Avoiding activities that exacerbate symptoms, such as heavy lifting or bending
* Taking regular breaks to rest and relax
* Eating a healthy diet and getting plenty of sleep
* Reducing stress through techniques such as meditation or deep breathing exercises.

It's important for patients with brain stem neoplasms to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their symptoms and monitor their condition. With prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients may experience a good outcome.

There are several different types of brain injuries that can occur, including:

1. Concussions: A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken, often due to a blow to the head.
2. Contusions: A contusion is a bruise on the brain that can occur when the brain is struck by an object, such as during a car accident.
3. Coup-contrecoup injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is injured as a result of the force of the body striking another object, such as during a fall.
4. Penetrating injuries: A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the brain, such as during a gunshot wound or stab injury.
5. Blast injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is exposed to a sudden and explosive force, such as during a bombing.

The symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage in the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Headaches
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Slurred speech or difficulty with communication
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Personality changes
* Difficulty with coordination and balance

In some cases, brain injuries can be treated with medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. However, in more severe cases, the damage may be permanent and long-lasting. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.

There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:

1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.

These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

Signs and Symptoms:

The signs and symptoms of BSI vary depending on the severity and location of the infarction. Common symptoms include sudden onset of headache, confusion, dizziness, slurred speech, weakness or paralysis of the face or limbs, double vision, and difficulty with swallowing. Patients may also experience vomiting, seizures, and loss of consciousness.


BSI is diagnosed using a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. A complete neurological examination is crucial to identify any deficits in vision, hearing, balance, and sensation. Imaging studies are used to confirm the presence of an infarction and to identify the location and extent of the damage. Laboratory tests such as blood chemistry and coagulation studies may be performed to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms.


The treatment of BSI depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the infarction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve the blockage or to repair any blood vessel damage. Medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and blood pressure-lowering drugs may also be used to manage the condition. Rehabilitation therapy is often necessary to help patients regain lost function and improve their quality of life.


The prognosis for BSI varies depending on the severity and location of the infarction, as well as the underlying cause. In general, patients with a small infarct in a critical area of the brainstem have a poorer prognosis than those with larger infarctions in less critical areas. However, early recognition and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as seizures, hydrocephalus, and respiratory failure.


BSI can be associated with a number of complications, including:

1. Seizures: BSI can cause seizures, which can be challenging to treat and may require medication or surgical intervention.
2. Hydrocephalus: Fluid buildup in the brain can occur as a result of BSI, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
3. Respiratory failure: Damage to the brainstem can lead to respiratory failure, which may require mechanical ventilation.
4. Cardiac arrhythmias: BSI can cause cardiac arrhythmias, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
5. Cerebral edema: Swelling in the brain can occur as a result of BSI, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
6. Pneumonia: BSI can increase the risk of developing pneumonia, particularly in individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
7. Meningitis: BSI can increase the risk of developing meningitis, particularly in individuals with pre-existing immune compromise.
8. Stroke: BSI can cause stroke, which may be related to the infarction itself or to the underlying condition that caused the infarction.
9. Cognitive and behavioral changes: BSI can result in cognitive and behavioral changes, including difficulty with concentration, memory loss, and personality changes.
10. Long-term sequelae: BSI can have long-term consequences, including chronic cognitive impairment, seizures, and changes in behavior and mood.

Treatment and management:

The treatment and management of BSI depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the infarction. Some common approaches include:

1. Antibiotics: If the infarction is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection and prevent further spread of the infection.
2. Supportive care: Patients with BSI may require supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, or cardiac support, depending on the severity of the infarction.
3. Surgical intervention: In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to relieve pressure or remove infected tissue.
4. Rehabilitation: Patients who survive BSI may require rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.
5. Close monitoring: Patients with BSI should be closely monitored for signs of complications, such as seizures, confusion, or changes in vital signs.


Preventing BSI is critical to reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes. Some strategies for preventing BSI include:

1. Immunization: Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b can help prevent BSI caused by these organisms.
2. Proper hygiene: Proper hand washing and hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of transmission of BSI-causing pathogens.
3. Use of contact precautions: Use of contact precautions, such as wearing gloves and gowns, can help prevent the spread of BSI-causing pathogens.
4. Proper use of invasive devices: Proper use of invasive devices, such as central lines and urinary catheters, can help reduce the risk of BSI.
5. Antibiotic stewardship: Proper use of antibiotics can help reduce the risk of BSI caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
6. Early detection and treatment: Early detection and treatment of underlying infections can help prevent the progression to BSI.
7. Avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures: Avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures, such as central lines or urinary catheters, can reduce the risk of BSI.
8. Use of antimicrobial-impregnated devices: Use of antimicrobial-impregnated devices, such as central lines and urinary catheters, can help reduce the risk of BSI.
9. Proper hand hygiene: Proper hand hygiene practices, including hand washing and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, can help reduce the transmission of BSI-causing pathogens.
10. Environmental cleaning and disinfection: Regular environmental cleaning and disinfection can help reduce the presence of BSI-causing pathogens in the hospital environment.

It is important to note that these strategies should be tailored to the specific needs of each patient and healthcare facility, and may need to be adjusted based on the local prevalence of BSI-causing pathogens and the patient's medical condition.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.

Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.

The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

... syndrome Braddock-Jones-Superneau syndrome Bradykinesia Brain cavernous angioma Brain neoplasms Brain stem neoplasms Branchial ... Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome Bixler-Christian-Gorlin syndrome Björnstad syndrome BK virus nephritis Black piedra Bladder neoplasm ... craniosynostosis proptosis hydrocephalus Bone marrow failure neurologic abnormalities Bone marrow failure Bone neoplasms Bone ...
Myxopapillary ependymoma Primitive neuroectodermal tumor Aneurysmal bone cyst Ewing's sarcoma Metastases from brain stem tumors ... Neoplasm stubs). ...
4. Brain Stem Gliomas Brain stem glioma is a distinct category of central nervous system tumor because of its unique location ... Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life ... and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and ... The histology of brain stem gliomas spans the spectrum of gliomas located elsewhere in the central nervous system. The cause of ...
It is caused by lesions of the upper brain stem and is named for Henri Parinaud (1844-1905), considered to be the father of ... trauma and brainstem toxoplasmosis infection. Neoplasms and giant aneurysms of the posterior fossa have also been associated ... Classically, it has been associated with three major groups: Young patients with brain tumors in the pineal gland or midbrain: ... Women in their 20s-30s with multiple sclerosis Older patients following stroke of the upper brainstem However, any other ...
... or confusion Brain stem - Tetraparesis, facial weakness, decreased level of consciousness, gaze paresis, ocular bobbing, miosis ... Hemorrhagic neoplasms are more complex, heterogeneous bleeds often with associated edema. These hemorrhages are related to ... A CT scan is the best test to look for bleeding in or around your brain. In some hospitals, a perfusion CT scan may be done to ... In some hospitals, a perfusion MRI scan may be done to see where the blood is flowing and not flowing in your brain. Angiogram ...
... brain stem neoplasms MeSH C10. - cerebellar neoplasms MeSH C10. - neurocytoma MeSH C10.228. ... brain stem neoplasms MeSH C10.551.240.250.400.300 - cerebellar neoplasms MeSH C10.551.240.250.550 - neurocytoma MeSH C10.551. ... brain neoplasms MeSH C10. - cerebral ventricle neoplasms MeSH C10. - choroid plexus neoplasms ... brain neoplasms MeSH C10.551.240.250.200 - cerebral ventricle neoplasms MeSH C10.551. - choroid plexus neoplasms ...
"Stem cell marker expression in the Bergmann glia population of the adult mouse brain". Brain Research. 1099 (1): 8-17. doi: ... Misago N, Narisawa Y (September 2006). "Cytokeratin 15 expression in neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation". Journal of ... Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. Stem cells can ... 2005). "Somatic stem cell marker prominin-1/CD133 is expressed in embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors". Stem Cells. 23 (6 ...
Neoplasm Neuroepithelial cell Astrocytes Glial cells Brain cancer Unal, Ekrem, and Yavuz Koksal. "Astroblastoma in a Child." ... This specific genetic makeup lends to self-renewal, differentiation, and propagation of neural stem cells in the brain. However ... and brain stem. The most defining physical symptom of astroblastoma, regardless of location, is elevated intracranial pressure ... often mistaking astroblastoma with glial neoplasms, high-grade astrocytes, and embryonal neoplasms. However, the "bubbly" ...
... (Nnat) is a protein coding gene involved in mammalian brain development. It is located on Chromosome 20 in humans ... Neuronatin begins the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into cells with a neural fate by increasing their calcium ... The loss of methylation within these areas triggers an irregular cell growth, resulting in embryonic neoplasms. Numata, Shusuke ... It is also expressed in several tissues outside of the brain. For example, expression in skin cells controls the ...
... Nervous system neoplasm List of brain tumor cases "Adult Brain Tumors Treatment". NCI. 28 February 2014. Archived ... Brain stem: Tumors on the brainstem can cause seizures, endocrine problems, respiratory changes, visual changes, headaches and ... Most brain tumors have higher ADC than normal brain tissues and doctors can match the observed ADC of the patient's brain tumor ... White British brain tumour patients 'more likely to die in a year' The Guardian "Quick Brain Tumor Facts". National Brain Tumor ...
Primary familial brain calcification (see Fahr's syndrome) is a rare disease involving bilateral calcifications in the brain, ... This continuous signaling, it is presumed, leads to the development of myeloid and/or lymphoid neoplasms that commonly include ... Heldin CH, Lennartsson J (August 2013). "Structural and functional properties of platelet-derived growth factor and stem cell ... It is proposed that signal transduction through PDGFRB maintains blood-brain barrier integrity and that loss of the PDGFRB ...
... until a stem cell arose that generated either small polyps (which may be benign neoplasms) or else a malignant neoplasm (cancer ... In gliomas, a form of brain cancer, radiation therapy appears to select for stem cells, though it is unclear if the tumor ... Cancer stem cell arises by clonal evolution as a result of selection for the cell with the highest fitness in the neoplasm. ... The first malignant cell, that gives rise to the tumor, is often labeled a cancer stem cell. The cancer stem-cell hypothesis ...
... such as brain herniation. Mass lesions in the brain stem normally cause coma due to their effects on the reticular formation. ... Neoplasms within the intracranial cavity can also affect consciousness, as can epilepsy and post-seizure states. A decreased ... Normally, stupor and coma are produced by interference with the brain stem, such as can be caused by a lesion or indirect ... A lowered level of consciousness indicate a deficit in brain function. Level of consciousness can be lowered when the brain ...
Cheng JX, Liu BL, Zhang X (August 2009). "How powerful is CD133 as a cancer stem cell marker in brain tumors?". Cancer ... "CD133 expression pattern distinguishes intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms from ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas" ( ... CD133 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, glioblastoma, neuronal and glial stem cells, ... "Cancerous stem cells can arise from pediatric brain tumors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
Uncommon neurological symptoms like migraines, seizures, or coma can occur as a result of brain stem pressure. All symptoms ... These disorders may evolve into chronic eosinophilic leukemia or may be associated with various forms of myeloid neoplasms, ... The stem cells that cause different types of leukemia are also being researched. Leukemia is rarely associated with pregnancy, ... These can potentially show leukemia's effects on such body parts as bones (X-ray), the brain (MRI), or the kidneys, spleen, and ...
... brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C21.866.915.300.200.175.200 - brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C21.866.915.300.200.175. ... neoplasms, radiation-induced MeSH C21.866.733.579 - osteoradionecrosis MeSH C21.866.733.720 - radiation injuries, experimental ... brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C21.866.915.300.490.150.200 - brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C21.866.915.300.490.150. ... brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C21.866. - brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C21.866. - ...
The brain has a limited capacity to repair itself. Many drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier to act on the tumor. ... CD44 can also be used as a cancer stem cell marker in a subset of glioblastoma tumour cells. Glioblastoma cancer stem cells ... "A systematic review of inhaled intranasal therapy for central nervous system neoplasms: an emerging therapeutic option". ... It is the most common cancer that begins within the brain and the second-most common brain tumor, after meningioma. About 3 in ...
Pluripotent stem cells including human induced pluripotent stem cells have a unique property of being able to generate ... Saito K, Katsumata Y, Hirabuki T, Kato K, Yamanaka M (2007). "Fetus-in-fetu: parasite or neoplasm? A study of two cases". Fetal ... Teratomas derived from embryonic cells usually occur on the subject's midline: in the brain, elsewhere in the skull, in the ... September 2010). "Human induced pluripotent stem cells develop teratoma more efficiently and faster than human embryonic stem ...
The proximity of chordomas to vital neurological structures such as the brain stem and nerves limits the dose of radiation that ... Chordoma is a rare slow-growing neoplasm thought to arise from cellular remnants of the notochord. The evidence for this is the ...
Hence, a neural stem cell can give rise to another neural stem cell, or to any of the differentiated cell types found in the ... To localize mRNA in brain tissue, one can use a fragment of DNA or RNA as a neuronal lineage marker, a hybridization probe that ... In pathological conditions was also reported that glial neoplasms and reactive glial cells expressed this marker. Calretinin is ... Neural stem cells are an example of somatic stem cell found in various tissues, both during development and in the adult. They ...
Cell Stem Cell. 20 (4): 518-532.e9. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.11.005. PMC 5384872. PMID 28017796. Scholia has a topic profile for ... Hamasaki H, Aoyagi M, Kasama T, Handa S, Hirakawa K, Taki T (January 1999). "GT1b in human metastatic brain tumors: GT1b as a ... Its expression is also increased in a wide range of other malignant neoplasms. Factor X (F10) is frequently expressed in normal ... "Differential expression profiles of glycosphingolipids in human breast cancer stem cells vs. cancer non-stem cells". ...
These difficulties may be related to brain injury stemming from the cancer itself, such as a brain tumor or central nervous ... cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models". Environmental Health Perspectives. 108 ( ... Studies have shown that chemo and radiation therapies may damage brain white matter and disrupt brain activity. This cognitive ... Patients with brain tumors can have cognitive impairments before treatment and radiation therapy is associated with increased ...
Hyperventilation can occur when the brain stem or tegmentum is damaged. As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain ... In cases of confirmed brain neoplasm, dexamethasone is given to decrease ICP. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, current ... shift brain structures, contribute to hydrocephalus, cause brain herniation, and restrict blood supply to the brain. It is a ... This type of drain is known as an external ventricular drain (EVD). This is rarely required outside brain injury and brain ...
Stem cell transplantation from a donor, called allogenic stem cell transplantation, is usually pursued if the prognosis is not ... Occasionally, spread may occur to the brain, skin, or gums. As an acute leukemia, AML progresses rapidly, and is typically ... Page 99 in: Sun T (2009). Atlas of hematologic neoplasms. Dordrecht New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-89848-3. OCLC 432709321 ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is usually considered if induction chemotherapy fails or after a person relapses, ...
Wang CC, Liu A, Zhang JT, Sun B, Zhao YL (June 2003). "Surgical management of brain-stem cavernous malformations: report of 137 ... This neoplasm is usually located within the muscle cone, which is lateral to the optic nerve. It is not usually treated unless ... Dangerous seizures due to compression of the brain, bleeding inside the brain tissue, vision problems, difficulty with speaking ... Two studies show that each year 0.5% of people who have never had bleeding from their brain cavernoma, but had symptoms of ...
... brain stem neoplasms MeSH C04.588.614.250.195.411.211 - cerebellar neoplasms MeSH C04.588.614.250.195.648 - neurocytoma MeSH ... central nervous system neoplasms MeSH C04.588.614.250.195 - brain neoplasms MeSH C04.588.614.250.195.205 - cerebral ventricle ... skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.828 - spinal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.180.260 - breast neoplasms, male MeSH C04.588.180.390 ... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588. - common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.120.401 - gallbladder neoplasms ...
In contrast, SKIDA1 expression in the fetal brain is higher than in the adult brain. SKIDA1 in the African clawed frog is ... US 9994911, Ahlquist DA, Kisiel JB, Taylor WR, Yab TC, Mahoney DW, Lidgard GP, Allawi HT, "Detecting Neoplasm", issued 12 June ... Transcriptome analysis of induced pluripotent stem cells from monozygotic twins discordant for trisomy 21". Genomics Data. 2: ... SKIDA1 is expressed at high levels in the brain, thyroid, and testes. It's expressed at medium to low levels in adipose tissue ...
Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers leave the brain stem from inferior salivatory nucleus in the glossopharyngeal nerve and ... Pleomorphic adenoma is seen to be a common benign neoplasm of the salivary gland and has an overall incidence of 54-68%. The ... "Salivary Gland Neoplasms". Medscape.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Updated: Jan 13, 2021 - Image ... Pain is more common in patients with parotid cancer (10-29% feel pain) than those with benign neoplasms (only 2.5-4%), but pain ...
HIV protein gp120 inhibits the stem cells in the brain from producing new nerve cells. In the neuronal cells, the HIV gp120 ... No evidence of another, pre-existing cause that could explain the dementia (e.g. another CNS infection, CNS neoplasm, ... HIV enters the brain early on in the infection. It is thought that HIV uses a "Trojan horse" mechanism to enter the brain. ... Cell Stem Cell. 1 (2): 230-6. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.07.010. PMID 18371353. Thomas S, Mayer L, Sperber K (2009). "Mitochondria ...
Stem cell transplants can use the cells from one's self, called an autologous stem cell transplant or they can use cells from ... Cerebral spinal fluid is fluid that bathes the child's brain and spinal cord. A small amount of cerebral spinal fluid is sent ... It is sometimes considered a myeloproliferative neoplasm. It is rare and most commonly occurs in children under the age of four ... A stem-cell transplant can help the human body produce more healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. It also ...
Comparison of Neoplasms in Six Sources of Rats Diamond JM (January 2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. ... Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such ... which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. Many investigators ... The Lewis rat suffers from several spontaneous pathologies: first, they can suffer from high incidences of neoplasms, with the ...
doi:10.1016/j.stem.2012.03.009. PMC 3348510. PMID 22560078. Maitland NJ, Collins AT (June 2008). "Prostate cancer stem cells: a ... "Male Genitals - Prostate Neoplasms". Pathology study images. University of Virginia School of Medicine. Archived from the ... PC-3 and DU-145 cells were established from human prostatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to bone and to brain, respectively. LNCaP ... But even these combination will not affect stem-like cells that do not exhibit androgen signaling. For patients with metastatic ...
It is most highly expressed in the brain and eyes, and has a supposed role in endoplasmic reticular stress of the eye. miR-708 ... "A set of miRNAs that involve in the pathways of drug resistance and leukemic stem-cell differentiation is associated with the ... "miR-28 is a thrombopoietin receptor targeting microRNA detected in a fraction of myeloproliferative neoplasm patient platelets ...
They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often ... Cancer stem cells often use oxidative phosphorylation or glutamine as a primary energy source. Several studies have indicated ... Similarly, physical trauma is not accepted as a cause for cervical cancer, breast cancer or brain cancer. One accepted source ... Yadav UP, Singh T, Kumar P, Mehta K (2020). "Metabolic Adaptations in Cancer Stem Cells". Frontiers in Oncology. 10: 1010. doi: ...
"Alzheimer's brains found to have lower levels of key protein". ScienceDaily (Press release). September 1, 2011. Heaton SM, Borg ... Kales SC, Ryan PE, Nau MM, Lipkowitz S (June 2010). "Cbl and human myeloid neoplasms: the Cbl oncogene comes of age". Cancer ... Bax, M (June 2019). "The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Is a Key Regulator of Pluripotent Stem Cell Survival and Motor Neuron ... Higher levels of ubiquilin in the brain have been shown to decrease malformation of amyloid precursor protein (APP), which ...
Autologous stem cell transplantation, using the recipient's own cells, is not curative.: 1458 Younger individuals, if at high ... Hairy cell leukemia is also a neoplasm of B lymphocytes, but the neoplastic cells have a distinct morphology under the ... brain cancer, melanoma of the eye or skin, salivary gland tumors, and Kaposi's sarcomas. While some of these conversions have ... ISBN 978-0-7817-5007-3. Frequency of lymphoid neoplasms. (Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and ...
Also, diploid mesenchymal stem cells express high levels of H19 compared to polyploid mesenchymal stem cells. Knock-down of H19 ... In contrast to most other cancers, adrenocortical neoplasms appear to have decreased expression of H19. To determine a possible ... brain) caused its lethal effects In the early placentae (6-8 weeks gestation), both parental H19 alleles (maternal and paternal ... growth Tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells express high levels of H19 compared with non-tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells. ...
Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar neoplasms, extrasellar brain tumours, head ... Cancer cells are generally less differentiated and more stem cell-like; they reproduce more than most healthy differentiated ... This is a concern during treatment of brain tumors and brain metastases, especially where there is pre-existing raised ... From 2005 to 2010, a hospital in Missouri overexposed 76 patients (most with brain cancer) during a five-year period because ...
Treatment can also include radiation therapy if spread to the brain has occurred. Stem cell transplantation may be used if the ... May 2016). "The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia". Blood. ... A lumbar puncture (also known as a spinal tap) can determine whether the spinal column and brain have been invaded. Brain and ... As a result, the use of whole-brain radiation has been more limited. Most specialists in adult leukemia have abandoned the use ...
Mutations in this gene were first identified in myeloid neoplasms with deletion or uniparental disomy at 4q24. TET2 may also be ... October 2011). "Deletion of Tet2 in mice leads to dysregulated hematopoietic stem cells and subsequent development of myeloid ... "The nuclear DNA base 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is present in Purkinje neurons and the brain". Science. 324 (5929): 929-30. ... July 2009). "Detection of mutant TET2 in myeloid malignancies other than myeloproliferative neoplasms: CMML, MDS, MDS/MPN and ...
... traumatic brain injury of an expanding neoplasm in this same region can cause all or elements (acalculia is one of four ... Secondary acalculia is a loss of calculation abilities that stems from other cognitive difficulties, such as memory. It has ... Brain and Language 2003; 87: 165-166. Fasotti L, Bremer JJCB, Eling PATM. Influence of improved test encoding on arithmetical ... From his research, he was also able to propose that certain areas of the brain played particular roles involved in the ...
In breast cancer, syndecan-1 is up regulated and contributes to the cancer stem cell phenotype, which is linked to increased ... negatively regulates initial leukocyte recruitment to the brain across the choroid plexus in murine experimental autoimmune ... a plasma cell marker immunohistochemical profile in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic neoplasms". American Journal of Clinical ... "Syndecan-1 is a novel molecular marker for triple negative inflammatory breast cancer and modulates the cancer stem cell ...
Therefore, cancer stem cells are thought to play key roles in the progression and relapse of cancer. Cyclin D1 is a protein ... The disease has a tendency to develop local recurrences and metastasis thereafter to regional lymph nodes, lung, bone, brain, ... a distinctive aggressive neoplasm showing rhabdoid features. Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study ... Cancer stem cells (or cancer-initiating cells) are thought to be a small population of cells within the tumor that are directly ...
... and SOX2 genes can also act to maintain cells in an undifferentiated stem cell-like state similar to the cells in the neoplasms ... brain lateral ventricle sarcoma with the CIC-NUTM1 fusion gene; brain parietal cortex sarcoma with a BRD4-NUTM1 fusion gene; ... of the neoplasms associated with the BRD4-NUTM1 fusion gene. These questions also apply to a wide range of neoplasms that have ... Other sites: One case each of: stomach sarcoma with a MXD1-NUTM1 fusion gene; brain parietal cortex sarcoma with a BRD4-NUTM1 ...
The main use of cyclophosphamide is with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lymphomas, some forms of brain cancer, ... Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major barrier for allogeneic stem cell transplant because of the immune reactions of ... Myeloproliferative neoplasms, including acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma, occurred in 5 of 119 ... The use of a high dose cyclophosphamide post-transplant in a half matched or haploidentical donor hematopoietic stem cell ...
Brain Pathology. 20 (3): 539-50. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3639.2009.00328.x. PMC 8094849. PMID 19775293. Kuhn AR, Schlauch K, Lao R, ... 25 regulates adult neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation". Aging. 3 (2): 108-24. doi:10.18632/ ... MicroRNA expression pattern in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm]". The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology = Taehan ... "Survey of MicroRNA expression in pediatric brain tumors". Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 56 (2): 211-6. doi:10.1002/pbc.22723. PMID ...
The blood-brain barrier poses an obstacle to delivery of chemotherapy to the brain. This is because the brain has an extensive ... Survivors of childhood cancer are more than 13 times as likely to get a secondary neoplasm during the 30 years after treatment ... Léger, Chantal S.; Nevill, Thomas J. (11 May 2004). "Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a primer for the primary care ... Drug transporters can pump out drugs from the brain and brain's blood vessel cells into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood ...
April 2002). "Risk of renal and colonic neoplasms and spontaneous pneumothorax in the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome". Cancer ... Another study investigating genes required for mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) progression from pluripotency to cell lineage ... to promote translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface for activation by the small GTPase Ras-homolog enriched in brain ( ... cosegregation of kidney neoplasms with BHD cutaneous lesions was observed in 3 families with a family history of kidney tumors ...
μ Heavy chain disease presents with a picture of a lymphoid neoplasm resembling either chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small ... in a subset of patients diagnosed after 2001 and therefore treated with more effective therapy that included autologous stem- ... and cranial nerve palsies occurring in extramedullary plasmacytomas of sellar and parasellar compartments of the brain. Its ... or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that has developed, often in a stepwise manner, from their MGUS precursors. The clinical ...
The diminished likelihood of neurological manifestations is due to the habituation of the brain to mild hypoglycemia. Given the ... Adenomas, composed of heterogeneous neoplasms, may occur individually or in multiples. Estimates on the rate of conversion of a ... Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 9 (1): 119. doi:10.1186/s13287-018-0877-2. ISSN 1757-6512. PMC 5930863. PMID 29720275. "Glycogen ... molecules can be transported out of the liver cells into the blood to maintain an adequate supply of glucose to the brain and ...
When present in anoxic-ischemic brains, gemistocytes are regularly encountered in glial neoplasms, also known as glioma, which ... Gene expression patterns are very likely to overlap for stem and progenitor cells and the tumors that are derived from them, ... They are usually present in anoxic-ischemic brains, which occurs when there is a complete lack of blood flow to the brain. The ... Tumor and brain tissue can be examined using autoradiographs, showing if the gemistocytic astrocytes could be labeled by the ...
Brain Stem Neoplasms. Brain Stem -- physiopathology 2. A case of tumor of the mid-brain and left optic thalamus ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Brain Stem Neoplasms ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Brain Stem Neoplasms ... A case of tumor of the mid-brain and left optic thalamus1 ... Brain Stem Neoplasms✖[remove]2. *Brain Stem -- physiopathology1 ...
Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Brain Stem Neoplasms. Infratentorial Neoplasms. Brain ... Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Nervous System Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases ... Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Glioma Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma ...
Brain Stem Neoplasms;. Pontine Neoplasms;. Neoplasms, Pontine;. Pontine Tumors Investigational Drug(s) ... A spinal MRI, brain MRI, and/or brain MRI with diffusion, every few courses. ... Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are brain tumors. They mostly affect children. They are serious and difficult to ...
Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Surgical treatment of brainstem cavernous malformations. Garrett M, Spetzler RF. Garrett M, et al. Surg Neurol. 2009 Dec;72 ... Recurrent brainstem cavernous malformations following primary resection: blind spots, fine lines, and the right-angle method. ... Brainstem cavernous malformations: anatomical, clinical, and surgical considerations. Giliberto G, Lanzino DJ, Diehn FE, Factor ...
Brain Stem Neoplasms / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... MicroRNA 3 ends shorten during adolescent brain maturation. Thomas KT, Vermare A, Egleston SO, Wang YD, Mishra A, Lin T, Peng ... C,D) developmental mRNA profiles of the brain-specific neurologic terms that significantly avoid miRNA suppression. * Synaptic ... Shared non-coherent ontological gene sets between brain development and tumors (A) average miRNA profiles in developing ...
BRAIN STEM NEOPL. Entry Term(s). Brain Stem Neoplasms, Primary Brain Stem Tumors Brainstem Neoplasms Brainstem Neoplasms, ... Mesencephalic Neoplasms Midbrain Neoplasms Midbrain Tumors Neoplasms, Brain Stem Neoplasms, Brainstem Neoplasms, Brainstem, ... Neoplasms, Mesencephalic Neoplasms, Midbrain Neoplasms, Pontine Pontine Neoplasms Pontine Tumors Primary Brain Stem Neoplasms ... Brain Stem Neoplasms, Primary Narrower Concept UI. M0334271. Terms. Brain Stem Neoplasms, Primary Preferred Term Term UI ...
Brain Stem 1 * Breast Neoplasms 1 * Exercise 1 * Sexually Transmitted Diseases 1 ... Medical Oncology, Breast Neoplasms, Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy, Sarcoma, Head and Neck Neoplasms, Lung Neoplasms ... Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, Stomach Neoplasms, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Imunoterapia, Oncologia Gastrointestinal I Simpósio ... Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Brain Stem, Spinal Cord, Respiratory Insufficiency, Paralysis ...
... of all diagnoses of pediatric supratentorial brain tumors. These neoplasms are highly proliferative and mitotically active and ... "neural stem cells") or via molecular manipulation and recruitment of new neurons from endogenous precursors in situ. A major ... Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Rural-Urban Disparities and Considerations. Brain sciences Yue, J. K., ... "brain/head trauma" OR "brain/head injury") AND "rural/underserved" AND "pediatric/child"). All qualifying articles focusing on ...
A flat, pedunculated mass, 2.5 X 3.0 X 1 cm, covered the brain stem between the pituitary gland and pons. Its 1.2 cm diameter ... 1. Lüginbuhl H, Fankhauser R, McGrath J. Spontaneous neoplasms of the nervous system in animals In: Krayenbuhl H, Maspes P and ... Brain Tumors. Overview. Primary tumors of the nervous system in dogs and cats occur more often in the brain than in the spinal ... Brain Tumors. Overview. Hematogenous Metastatic Brain Tumors. Meningiomas. Meningeal Sarcomatosis. Malignant Histiocytosis. ...
BRAIN NEOPLASMS; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS. (From Brain, 1996 April;119(pt2):393-407; Epilepsia 1993;34;Suppl 1:S29-S36; ... The repetitive movements may originate from the CEREBRAL CORTEX or from subcortical structures (e.g., BRAIN STEM; BASAL GANGLIA ... BRAIN NEOPLASMS; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS. (From Brain, 1996 April;119(pt2):393-407; Epilepsia 1993;34;Suppl 1:S29-S36; ... The repetitive movements may originate from the CEREBRAL CORTEX or from subcortical structures (e.g., BRAIN STEM; BASAL GANGLIA ...
BRAIN STEM NEOPL. Entry Term(s). Brain Stem Neoplasms, Primary Brain Stem Tumors Brainstem Neoplasms Brainstem Neoplasms, ... Mesencephalic Neoplasms Midbrain Neoplasms Midbrain Tumors Neoplasms, Brain Stem Neoplasms, Brainstem Neoplasms, Brainstem, ... Neoplasms, Mesencephalic Neoplasms, Midbrain Neoplasms, Pontine Pontine Neoplasms Pontine Tumors Primary Brain Stem Neoplasms ... Brain Stem Neoplasms, Primary Narrower Concept UI. M0334271. Terms. Brain Stem Neoplasms, Primary Preferred Term Term UI ...
Clinical symptoms include neuro-ophthalmologic dysfunction, changes in mental status, dysfunction of the brain stem, and ... C3414 Thyroid Gland Neoplasm Thyroid Tumor A benign or malignant neoplasm affecting the thyroid gland. A neoplasm of the ... C3328 Pineal Region Neoplasm Pinealoma Pineal Region Tumor Neoplasms that are located in the pineal gland. These neoplasms ... C120385 Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Deficiency Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor Deficiency Presumed deficiency of brain- ...
Dive into the research topics of Therapeutic strategies targeting brain tumor stem cells. Together they form a unique ... Neoplastic Stem Cells 100% * Brain Neoplasms 87% * Brain Stem 59% * Therapeutics 15% ...
Malignant neoplasm of brain. 191. Malignant neoplasm of brain stem. 1917. Malignant neoplasm of brain unspecified. 1919. ... Malignant neoplasm of other major salivary glands. 1428. Malignant neoplasm of other parts of brain. 1918. Malignant neoplasm ... Malignant neoplasm of choroid. 1906. Malignant neoplasm of clitoris. 1843. Malignant neoplasm of colon. 153. Malignant neoplasm ... Malignant neoplasm of cardia of stomach. 1510. Malignant neoplasm of carotid body. 1945. Malignant neoplasm of cecum. 1534. ...
Brain Stem 50% * Neoplasms 32% * Radiotherapy 23% * Multicenter Studies 19% * Salvage Therapy 13% ...
The taxonomy of brain cancer stem cells: Whats in a name?. Gutmann, D. H., 2014, In: Oncoscience. 1, 3, p. 241-247 7 p.. ... Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: The NIH MRI study of normal brain ... Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development. for the Brain Development ... Akula, S. K., McCullough, K. B., Weichselbaum, C., Dougherty, J. D. & Maloney, S. E., Jun 1 2020, In: Brain and Behavior. 10, 6 ...
Brain stem compression Cortical cataract Cranial nerve paralysis Diplopia Dysarthria Dysphagia Ependymoma Epiretinal membrane ... Neoplasm of the skin Polyneuropathy Postural instability Retinal hamartoma Seizure Sensory neuropathy Somatic sensory ... Brain Stem Compression. Cortical Cataract. Cranial Nerve Paralysis. Synonym: Cranial Nerve Palsies ... Other tumors of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), skin and eye are also common. The signs and symptoms ...
Brain Stem Neoplasms. Hypertrophy. Pathways for Histone H3.3A. View related products by pathway and learn more about each of ... Neoplasms. Glioblastoma. Glioma. Brain Neoplasms. Neurodegenerative Disorders. Kidney Neoplasm. Growth Acceleration. Malignant ... Neoplasms. Nervousness. Colorectal Cancer. Glioblastoma Multiforme. Oligodendroglioma. Brain Tumor, Primary. Adult Glioblastoma ...
Brain Stem Neoplasms. *Prebiotics. _. Top Journals Top journals in which articles about this concept have been published. ...
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor among adults. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to drive treatment ... bioinformatics; brain neoplasms; data collection; databases; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3; gene expression; genes; ... carcinogenesis; databases; fluorescent antibody technique; genome; immunohistochemistry; lung neoplasms; metastasis; neoplasm ... neoplasm cells; neoplasm progression; phosphorylation; precipitin tests; prognosis; pseudopodia; serine; threonine. Abstract:. ...
  • Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are brain tumors. (
  • High grade diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) accounts for approximately 80% of pediatric brainstem tumors and 10% of pediatric brain tumors, and is the most lethal form of brainstem gliomas in children. (
  • Intracranial injection of purified CD133+, not CD133- GBM daughter cells, can lead to the development of YKL-40+ infiltrating tumors that display hypervascularity and pseudopalisading necrosis-like features in mouse brain. (
  • Dr. Cage has comprehensive neurosurgical training in treating traumatic brain injury, traumatic spine injury, degenerative and oncologic spine disorders, as well as extra-axial and intra-axial brain tumors. (
  • Primary nervous system tumors originate from neuroectodermal, ectodermal, and/or mesodermal cells normally present in, or associated with brain, spinal cord or peripheral nerves. (
  • The osseous tentorium may be used as a reference point for localizing different areas of the brain within the cranial vault: tumors occurring in the brainstem and cerebellum may be called "infratentorial" or "posterior fossa" tumors, whereas those occurring in the cerebral hemispheres are often referred to as "supratentorial" or "anterior fossa" tumors. (
  • Other tumors of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), skin and eye are also common. (
  • These versatile properties prompted us to explore their possible relationship to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to search for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in phyllodes tumors. (
  • SAN FRANCISCO - A team of neurosurgeons and scientists from Italy is looking into whether stem cells derived from a brain tumor patient's own skin can be used to fight the tumors. (
  • The researchers successfully grew stem cells from skin samples of adult patients with brain tumors. (
  • Researchers found that mice with brain tumors that were treated with stem cells showed both increased blood supply and decreased tumor growth into the surrounding brain. (
  • These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. (
  • Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. (
  • To illuminate mechanisms governing these hallmark features, we developed a de novo glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) model derived from immortalized human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSCs) to enable precise system-level comparisons of pre-malignant and oncogene-induced malignant states of NSCs. (
  • Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are implicated in tumor neovascularization, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. (
  • Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. (
  • Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. (
  • The purpose of this study is to prospectively collect specimens from pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma or brainstem glioma, either during therapy or at autopsy, in order to characterize the molecular abnormalities of this tumor. (
  • The aim of this trial is to collect specimens from pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma including serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, brain tumor and other constitutional tissue, during therapy and/or at autopsy. (
  • Thus, the PAX6/DLX5-WNT5A axis governs the diffuse spread of glioma cells throughout the brain parenchyma, contributing to the lethality of GBM. (
  • Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a primary cause of pediatric morbidity. (
  • A spinal MRI, brain MRI, and/or brain MRI with diffusion, every few courses. (
  • She also has completed a Neurotrauma fellowship at UCSF and San Francisco General Hospital with Geoff Manley, MD, PhD where she received specialized training in caring for patients after traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. (
  • Tumor emboli can lodge and grow anywhere in the brain, meninges, choroid plexus, or spinal cord. (
  • The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord , including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves . (
  • Here, we discuss how the finite ESC components mediate the intriguing task of brain development and exhibit biomedical potentials to cure diverse neurological disorders. (
  • The versatile property of PTs to convert into various sarcoma types is reminiscent of the features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (
  • Improved cardiac function in infarcted mice after treatment with pluripotent embryonic stem cells. (
  • It is hoped that these cells can then be used as a new brain tumor therapy, which has been attempted successfully in mice. (
  • Clinical potentials of human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are endowed with the ability to generate multiple cell lineages and carry great therapeutic potentials in regenerative medicine. (
  • The sensory nerve fibers conveyed by the cranial laryngeal nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve terminate in the solitary tract and nucleus (NTS) in the brainstem. (
  • The major afferents for swallowing, the SLN fibers running within the solitary tract, are not connected directly to the cranial motor nuclei involved in swallowing--V, VII, IX, X, and XII--in the brainstem. (
  • The motor neurons of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X, and XII are located bilaterally in the brainstem. (
  • The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. (
  • Her research has been recognized with the Lucien J. Rubenstein Memorial Award from the American Brain Tumor Association, the Young Investigator Award from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation, and the Best Basic Science Research Paper Award from UCSF Neurological Surgery residency program. (
  • Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Rural-Urban Disparities and Considerations. (
  • The taxonomy of brain cancer stem cells: What's in a name? (
  • Emerging concepts in neural stem cell research: autologous repair and cell-based disease modelling. (
  • They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. (
  • The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei ( COCHLEAR NUCLEUS ) of the BRAIN STEM. (
  • Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. (
  • Most series report that about 80% of parotid neoplasms are benign, with the relative proportion of malignancy increasing in the smaller glands. (
  • Medulloblastoma is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "an embryonal neuroepithelial tumor arising in the cerebellum or dorsal brainstem, presenting mainly in childhood and consisting of densely packed small round undifferentiated cells with mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism and high mitotic count. (
  • C3268 Nervous System Neoplasm C132009 C9381 Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Maturation Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Maturation An acute myeloid leukemia with maturation occurring in children. (
  • C5132 Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm C7928 Childhood Germ Cell Tumor C132009 C5969 Childhood Brain Stem Neoplasm Childhood Brain Stem Tumor Childhood Brain Stem Neoplasm A neoplasm that affects the brain stem and occurs during childhood. (
  • A neoplasm that affects the brain stem and occurs during childhood. (
  • C35876 Childhood Intracranial Neoplasm C132009 C9158 Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia without Maturation Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia without Maturation An acute myeloid leukemia without maturation occurring in children. (
  • Salivary gland neoplasms occurred with slightly greater frequency in girls (57.4% of patients) than in boys. (
  • Salivary gland neoplasms are rare in children. (
  • Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. (
  • Salivary gland neoplasms most commonly appear in the sixth decade of life. (
  • During a 4-day visit, she underwent 2 lumbar punctures for intrathecal injection of donor umbilical cord stem cells programmed to treat MS. She pursued treatment at this clinic after reviewing its associated website as part of her research on stem cell treatments for MS. (
  • A retrospective analysis of 139 patients with brain stem cavernous malformations is presented. (
  • We report M. abscessus meningitis in a patient who traveled from Colorado, USA, to Mexico to receive intrathecal stem cell injections as treatment for multiple sclerosis. (
  • Some common salivary gland neoplasms are listed in the table below. (
  • Common salivary gland neoplasms. (
  • The most common tumor of the parotid gland is the pleomorphic adenoma , which represents about 60% of all parotid neoplasms, as seen in the table below. (
  • Common parotid neoplasms. (
  • Common submandibular neoplasms. (