Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.
Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.

Diffusion-weighted imaging identifies a subset of lacunar infarction associated with embolic source. (1/65)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small infarcts in the territory of penetrator arteries were described as causing a number of distinct clinical syndromes. The vascular pathophysiology underlying such infarcts is difficult to ascertain without careful pathological study. However, the occurrence of multiple, small infarcts, linked closely in time but dispersed widely in the brain, raises the possibility of an embolic mechanism. The current study determines the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients with well-defined lacunar syndromes and the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) evidence of multiple acute lesions. METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients who presented to the emergency room with a clinically well-defined lacunar syndrome were studied by DWI within the first 3 days of admission. RESULTS: DWI showed multiple regions of increased signal intensity in 10 patients (16%). A hemispheric or brain stem lesion in a penetrator territory that accounted for the clinical syndrome ("index lesion") was found in all. DWI-hyperintense lesions other than the index lesion ("subsidiary infarctions") were punctate and lay within leptomeningeal artery territories in the majority. As opposed to patients with a single lacunar infarction, patients with a subsidiary infarction more frequently (P<0.05) harbored an identifiable cause of stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 1 of every 6 patients presenting with a classic lacunar syndrome has multiple infarctions demonstrated on DWI. This DWI finding usually indicates an identifiable cause of stroke and therefore may influence clinical decisions regarding the extent of etiologic investigations and treatment for secondary prevention.  (+info)

Sensory sequelae of medullary infarction: differences between lateral and medial medullary syndrome. (2/65)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A comparison between long-term sensory sequelae of lateral medullary infarction (LMI) and medial medullary infarction (MMI) has never been made. METHODS: We studied 55 patients with medullary infarction (41 with LMI and 14 with MMI) who were followed up for >6 months. We examined and interviewed the patients with the use of a structured format regarding the most important complaints, functional disabilities, and the presence of sensory symptoms. The nature and the intensity of sensory symptoms were assessed with the modified McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire and the visual analog scale, respectively. RESULTS: There were 43 men and 12 women, with an average age of 59 years. Mean follow-up period was 21 months. The sensory symptoms were the most important residual sequelae in LMI patients and the second most important in MMI patients. In LMI patients, the severity of residual sensory symptoms was significantly related to the initial severity of objective sensory deficits (P<0.05). Sensory symptoms were most often described by LMI patients as numbness (39%), burning (35%), and cold (22%) in the face, and cold (38%), numbness (29%), and burning (27%) in the body/limbs, whereas they were described as numbness (60%), squeezing (30%) and cold (10%), but never as burning, in their body/limbs by MMI patients. LMI patients significantly (P<0.05) more often cited a cold environment as an aggravating factor for the sensory symptoms than did the MMI patients without spinothalamic sensory impairment. The subjective sensory symptoms were frequently of a delayed onset (up to 6 months) in LMI patients, whereas they usually started immediately after the onset in MMI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that sensory symptoms are major sequelae in both LMI and MMI patients. However, the nature, the mode of onset, and aggravating factors are different between the 2 groups, which probably is related to a selective involvement of the spinothalamic tract by the former and the medial lemniscus by the latter. We suggest that the mechanisms for the central poststroke pain or paresthesia may differ according to the site of damages on the sensory tracts (spinothalamic tract versus medial lemniscal tract).  (+info)

Xenon contrast-enhanced CT imaging of supratentorial hypoperfusion in patients with brain stem infarction. (3/65)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The characteristics of hypoperfusion in the supratentorial region of patients with brain stem infarction are unclear. We investigated the relationships between the presence of hypoperfusion and the location, number, and size of the infarcts with xenon contrast-enhanced CT. METHODS: One hundred five patients with brain stem infarction detected by MR imaging underwent xenon contrast-enhanced CT to measure the regional CBF (rCBF) in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions and in the putamen and thalamus. A decrease of more than 10% from the mean rCBF value for normal individuals was considered to indicate hypoperfusion. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients had supratentorial hypoperfusion. The mean rCBF values (measured in mL/100 g/minute) were as follows: frontal region, 36.2 +/- 5.1 (-14.8%, n = 28); parietal region, 42.3 +/- 4.7 (-19.1%, n = 29); temporal region, 41.5 +/- 2.8 (-12.6%, n = 12); and thalamus, 50.1 +/- 3.2 (-19.6%, n = 7). Supratentorial hypoperfusion was associated with pontine infarction in 33 patients (upper pons in 15, middle pons in 18, and lower pons in seven), midbrain infarction in two, and medulla infarction in one. Twenty-three patients had infarcts that were larger than 5 mm, and 11 had infarcts that were 2 to 5 mm. Only two had infarcts that were smaller than 2 mm. Seven patients each had one infarct, 13 each had two, and 16 each had three. CONCLUSION: Supratentorial hypoperfusion was associated with larger infarcts, with more infarcts, and with pontine infarction.  (+info)

Course and distribution of facial corticobulbar tract fibres in the lower brain stem. (4/65)

The course and distribution of the facial corticobulbar tract (CBT) was examined by correlating MRI of brain stem lesions with neurological symptoms and signs including central (C-FP) or peripheral facial paresis (P-FP) in 70 patients with localised infarction of the lower brain stem. C-FP occurred more often in patients with lesions of the lower pons or upper medulla of the ventromedial brain stem. Some patients with dorsolateral infarcts of the upper medulla to the lower pons showed C-FP, mostly on the lesion side. P-FP on the side of the lesion was also seen in patients with dorsolateral involvement of the lower pons. Patients with ventromedial infarction of the brain stem showed paresis of extremities contralateral to the lesion. Specific neurological symptoms and signs such as dysphagia, vertigo, nystagmus, Horner's syndrome, ipsilateral cerebellar ataxia, and contralateral superficial sensory impairment were seen in patients with dorsolateral infarcts of the brain stem. It is hypothesised that the facial CBT descends at the ventromedial lower pons, near the corticospinal tract, mainly to the level of the upper medulla, where the fibres then decussate and ascend in the dorsolateral medulla to synapse in the contralateral facial nucleus.  (+info)

Neuroimaging in deteriorating patients with cerebellar infarcts and mass effect. (5/65)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The decision to proceed with surgery in cerebellar infarct with mass effect (CIMASS) in deteriorating patients is based on clinical features. The potential role of neuroimaging in predicting deterioration has not been systematically studied. In this study we determine the role of neuroimaging in predicting deterioration in CIMASS. METHODS: -We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and neuroimaging features in 90 patients with cerebellar infarcts. We selected for detailed analysis CIMASS in 35 patients. RESULTS: Eighteen patients remained stable and 17 deteriorated. Of these 17 patients, 8 were treated conservatively and 9 had surgery. Radiological features indicative of progression were more common in deteriorating patients compared with stable patients: fourth ventricular shift (82.3% versus 50%, P:=0.075, OR=4. 67), hydrocephalus (76.5% versus 11.1%, P:=0.0001, OR=26), brain stem deformity (47% versus 5.6%, P:=0.0065, OR=15.1), and basal cistern compression (35.3% versus 0%, P:=0.0076, OR=20.91). Differences in upward displacement of the aqueduct and pontomesencephalic junction from Twining's line, tonsillar descent on sagittal MRI, and infarct volumes between stable and deteriorating patients were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocephalus, brain stem deformity, and basal cistern compression may herald deterioration in CIMASS. Admission to a neurological-neurosurgical intensive care unit and consideration of preemptive surgery are warranted in these patients. Vertical displacement of tonsils or aqueduct, demonstrated by MR imaging, did not predict deterioration.  (+info)

Dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery causing subarachnoid hemorrhage after non-hemorrhagic infarction--case report. (6/65)

A 45-year-old male presented with lateral medullary infarction. Cerebral angiography showed dissecting aneurysm as pearl and string sign in the right vertebral artery (VA). Conservative treatment was administered with antiplatelet agent. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred 2 days after admission, inducing coma. Intraaneurysmal embolization and proximal occlusion of the right VA by intravascular surgery resulted in only mild neurological deficits. Conservative treatment including strict control of blood pressure is the first choice of treatment. Antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulant therapy should not be administered. Patients must be followed up by serial angiography and surgery considered if signs of aneurysmal progression are seen.  (+info)

Neurological complications of cervical spine manipulation. (7/65)

To obtain preliminary data on neurological complications of spinal manipulation in the UK all members of the Association of British Neurologists were asked to report cases referred to them of neurological complications occurring within 24 hours of cervical spine manipulation over a 12-month period. The response rate was 74%. 24 respondents reported at least one case each, contributing to a total of about 35 cases. These included 7 cases of stroke in brainstem territory (4 with confirmation of vertebral artery dissection), 2 cases of stroke in carotid territory and 1 case of acute subdural haematoma. There were 3 cases of myelopathy and 3 of cervical radiculopathy. Concern about neurological complications following cervical spine manipulation appears to be justified. A large long-term prospective study is required to determine the scale of the hazard.  (+info)

Massive pontine hemorrhagic infarction associated with embolic basilar artery occlusion. (8/65)

We report here an autopsy case of massive pontine hemorrhagic infarction secondary to embolic basilar artery occlusion. A large embolus appeared to have traversed the vertebral artery into the basilar artery as a result of basilarization of the vertebral artery due to severe stenosis of the contralateral vertebral artery. Extensive ischemia due to embolic occlusion of the entire length of the basilar artery, and migration of the embolus are assumed to have resulted in a massive pontine hemorrhagic infarction.  (+info)

The term "infarction" is derived from the Latin words "in" meaning "into" and "farcire" meaning "to stuff", which refers to the idea that the tissue becomes "stuffed" with blood, leading to cell death and necrosis.

Infarction can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the blood vessels), embolism (a blood clot or other foreign material that blocks the flow of blood), and vasospasm (constriction of the blood vessels).

The symptoms of infarction vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage, but can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, numbness or weakness in the affected limbs, and confusion or difficulty speaking or understanding speech.

Diagnosis of infarction typically involves imaging tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, or computerized tomography (CT) scans to confirm the presence of a blockage and assess the extent of the damage. Treatment options for infarction include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to restore blood flow, and other interventions to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and obesity, as well as maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine. Early detection and treatment of blockages can help reduce the risk of infarction and minimize the damage to affected tissues.

Signs and Symptoms:

The signs and symptoms of BSI vary depending on the severity and location of the infarction. Common symptoms include sudden onset of headache, confusion, dizziness, slurred speech, weakness or paralysis of the face or limbs, double vision, and difficulty with swallowing. Patients may also experience vomiting, seizures, and loss of consciousness.


BSI is diagnosed using a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. A complete neurological examination is crucial to identify any deficits in vision, hearing, balance, and sensation. Imaging studies are used to confirm the presence of an infarction and to identify the location and extent of the damage. Laboratory tests such as blood chemistry and coagulation studies may be performed to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms.


The treatment of BSI depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the infarction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve the blockage or to repair any blood vessel damage. Medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and blood pressure-lowering drugs may also be used to manage the condition. Rehabilitation therapy is often necessary to help patients regain lost function and improve their quality of life.


The prognosis for BSI varies depending on the severity and location of the infarction, as well as the underlying cause. In general, patients with a small infarct in a critical area of the brainstem have a poorer prognosis than those with larger infarctions in less critical areas. However, early recognition and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as seizures, hydrocephalus, and respiratory failure.


BSI can be associated with a number of complications, including:

1. Seizures: BSI can cause seizures, which can be challenging to treat and may require medication or surgical intervention.
2. Hydrocephalus: Fluid buildup in the brain can occur as a result of BSI, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
3. Respiratory failure: Damage to the brainstem can lead to respiratory failure, which may require mechanical ventilation.
4. Cardiac arrhythmias: BSI can cause cardiac arrhythmias, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
5. Cerebral edema: Swelling in the brain can occur as a result of BSI, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
6. Pneumonia: BSI can increase the risk of developing pneumonia, particularly in individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
7. Meningitis: BSI can increase the risk of developing meningitis, particularly in individuals with pre-existing immune compromise.
8. Stroke: BSI can cause stroke, which may be related to the infarction itself or to the underlying condition that caused the infarction.
9. Cognitive and behavioral changes: BSI can result in cognitive and behavioral changes, including difficulty with concentration, memory loss, and personality changes.
10. Long-term sequelae: BSI can have long-term consequences, including chronic cognitive impairment, seizures, and changes in behavior and mood.

Treatment and management:

The treatment and management of BSI depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the infarction. Some common approaches include:

1. Antibiotics: If the infarction is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection and prevent further spread of the infection.
2. Supportive care: Patients with BSI may require supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, or cardiac support, depending on the severity of the infarction.
3. Surgical intervention: In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to relieve pressure or remove infected tissue.
4. Rehabilitation: Patients who survive BSI may require rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.
5. Close monitoring: Patients with BSI should be closely monitored for signs of complications, such as seizures, confusion, or changes in vital signs.


Preventing BSI is critical to reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes. Some strategies for preventing BSI include:

1. Immunization: Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b can help prevent BSI caused by these organisms.
2. Proper hygiene: Proper hand washing and hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of transmission of BSI-causing pathogens.
3. Use of contact precautions: Use of contact precautions, such as wearing gloves and gowns, can help prevent the spread of BSI-causing pathogens.
4. Proper use of invasive devices: Proper use of invasive devices, such as central lines and urinary catheters, can help reduce the risk of BSI.
5. Antibiotic stewardship: Proper use of antibiotics can help reduce the risk of BSI caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
6. Early detection and treatment: Early detection and treatment of underlying infections can help prevent the progression to BSI.
7. Avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures: Avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures, such as central lines or urinary catheters, can reduce the risk of BSI.
8. Use of antimicrobial-impregnated devices: Use of antimicrobial-impregnated devices, such as central lines and urinary catheters, can help reduce the risk of BSI.
9. Proper hand hygiene: Proper hand hygiene practices, including hand washing and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, can help reduce the transmission of BSI-causing pathogens.
10. Environmental cleaning and disinfection: Regular environmental cleaning and disinfection can help reduce the presence of BSI-causing pathogens in the hospital environment.

It is important to note that these strategies should be tailored to the specific needs of each patient and healthcare facility, and may need to be adjusted based on the local prevalence of BSI-causing pathogens and the patient's medical condition.

There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:

1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.

Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.

Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.

Cerebral infarction can result in a range of symptoms, including sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, sudden vision loss, dizziness, and confusion. Depending on the location and severity of the infarction, it can lead to long-term disability or even death.

There are several types of cerebral infarction, including:

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of cerebral infarction, accounting for around 87% of all cases. It occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, leading to bleeding and cell death.
3. Lacunar infarction: This type of cerebral infarction affects the deep structures of the brain, particularly the basal ganglia, and is often caused by small blockages or stenosis (narrowing) in the blood vessels.
4. Territorial infarction: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when there is a complete blockage of a blood vessel that supplies a specific area of the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage in that area.

Diagnosis of cerebral infarction typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and location of the infarction, but may include medication to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove blockages, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

There are several different types of brain injuries that can occur, including:

1. Concussions: A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken, often due to a blow to the head.
2. Contusions: A contusion is a bruise on the brain that can occur when the brain is struck by an object, such as during a car accident.
3. Coup-contrecoup injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is injured as a result of the force of the body striking another object, such as during a fall.
4. Penetrating injuries: A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the brain, such as during a gunshot wound or stab injury.
5. Blast injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is exposed to a sudden and explosive force, such as during a bombing.

The symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage in the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Headaches
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Slurred speech or difficulty with communication
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Personality changes
* Difficulty with coordination and balance

In some cases, brain injuries can be treated with medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. However, in more severe cases, the damage may be permanent and long-lasting. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.

There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:

1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.

These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

Causes and risk factors:

The exact cause of brain stem neoplasms is not fully understood, but they can occur due to genetic mutations or exposure to certain environmental factors. Some risk factors that have been linked to brain stem neoplasms include:

* Family history of cancer
* Exposure to radiation therapy in childhood
* Previous head trauma
* Certain genetic conditions, such as turcot syndrome


The symptoms of brain stem neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and severity. Some common symptoms include:

* Headaches
* Vision problems
* Weakness or numbness in the limbs
* Slurred speech
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Seizures
* Hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain)


To diagnose a brain stem neoplasm, a doctor will typically perform a physical exam and ask questions about the patient's medical history. They may also order several tests, such as:

* CT or MRI scans to visualize the tumor
* Electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure electrical activity in the brain
* Blood tests to check for certain substances that are produced by the tumor

Treatment options:

The treatment of brain stem neoplasms depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the type of tumor. Some possible treatment options include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Observation and monitoring for small, slow-growing tumors that do not cause significant symptoms


The prognosis for brain stem neoplasms varies depending on the type of tumor and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is poor for patients with brain stem tumors, as they can be difficult to treat and may recur. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients may experience a good outcome.

Lifestyle changes:

There are no specific lifestyle changes that can cure a brain stem neoplasm, but some changes may help improve the patient's quality of life. These may include:

* Avoiding activities that exacerbate symptoms, such as heavy lifting or bending
* Taking regular breaks to rest and relax
* Eating a healthy diet and getting plenty of sleep
* Reducing stress through techniques such as meditation or deep breathing exercises.

It's important for patients with brain stem neoplasms to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their symptoms and monitor their condition. With prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients may experience a good outcome.

The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.

There are different types of brain ischemia, including:

1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.

The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
6. Seizures
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.

It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.

The word "edema" comes from the Greek word "oidema", meaning swelling.

Symptoms of splenic infarction may include sudden severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and tenderness in the abdomen. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT scans or ultrasound. Treatment may involve surgical removal of the affected tissue or clot, antibiotics for any associated infections, and supportive care to manage pain and other symptoms.

Example sentences:

1. The patient was diagnosed with an anterior wall myocardial infarction after experiencing chest pain and shortness of breath.
2. The anterior wall myocardial infarction was caused by a blockage in the left anterior descending coronary artery, which supplies blood to the front wall of the heart.
3. The patient underwent urgent angioplasty to open up the blocked artery and restore blood flow to the affected area, reducing the risk of further damage to the heart muscle.

During ventricular remodeling, the heart muscle becomes thicker and less flexible, leading to a decrease in the heart's ability to fill with blood and pump it out to the body. This can lead to shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.

Ventricular remodeling is a natural response to injury, but it can also be exacerbated by factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. Treatment for ventricular remodeling typically involves medications and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.

The process of ventricular remodeling is complex and involves multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is thought to be driven by a variety of factors, including changes in gene expression, inflammation, and the activity of various signaling pathways.

Overall, ventricular remodeling is an important condition that can have significant consequences for patients with heart disease. Understanding its causes and mechanisms is crucial for developing effective treatments and improving outcomes for those affected by this condition.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Similar syndromes may develop following a brainstem infarction. The cause of alternating hemiplegia of childhood is the ... Alternating hemiplegia of childhood Weber's syndrome Medial medullary syndrome Familial hemiplegic migraine Brain stem stroke ... With a lesion in the brainstem, this affects the majority of limb and trunk muscles on the contralateral side due to the upper ... This type of syndrome can result from a unilateral lesion in the brainstem affecting both upper motor neurons and lower motor ...
The cause of death was listed as brain stem infarction. Many of the MotoGP riders wore black armbands or placed small #74's on ...
Duvernoy, Henri M. (2013). Human Brain Stem Vessels: Including the Pineal Gland and Information on Brain Stem Infarction. ... "Arterial territories of human brain Brainstem and cerebellum". Neurology. 47 (5): 1125-1135. doi:10.1212/WNL.47.5.1125. ISSN ...
He died of a brain stem infarction after spending two weeks in a coma. Dome Karasu driver Tojiro Ukiya died in a test run on ...
Any further elevations will lead to brain infarction and brain death.[citation needed] In infants and small children, the ... Hyperventilation can occur when the brain stem or tegmentum is damaged. As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain ... shift brain structures, contribute to hydrocephalus, cause brain herniation, and restrict blood supply to the brain. It is a ... This results in widespread reduction in cerebral flow and perfusion, eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. ...
Scheme showing the connections of the several parts of the brain. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Hind- and ... Infarction of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) can damage the middle cerebellar peduncle. Diffuse intrinsic ... The middle cerebellar peduncle (brachium pontis) is a paired structure of the brain. It connects the pons to the cerebellum, ... Basal view of a human brain Dissection of human midbrain with middle cerebellar peduncle labeled. Cross section through lower ...
Mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to treat brain strokes as well. They can secrete factors that stimulate the function ... April 2006). "Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction" (PDF). Nature Medicine ... October 2010). "Evaluation of bone marrow- and brain-derived neural stem cells in therapy of central nervous system ... In mesenchymal stem cell therapy, most of the cells are extracted from the adult patient's bone marrow Mesenchymal stem cells ...
He died in Lusaka, Zambia on 16 January 2012 from complications arising from a brain stem infarction he suffered 10 days ...
Axial brain stem distortion could be the pathogenesis of Cushing reflex. The nature of receptors mediating the Cushing response ... If the increase in blood pressure is not sufficient to compensate for the compression on the artery, infarction occurs. Raised ... arterioles located in the brain's cerebrum become compressed. Compression then results in diminished blood supply to the brain ... As a result, the Cushing reflex is a last-ditch effort by the body to maintain homeostasis in the brain. It is widely accepted ...
"Scripps Research Institute Scientists Find Antibody that Transforms Bone Marrow Stem Cells Directly into Brain Cells". The ... To treat infarction, it is important to prevent the formation of fibrotic scar tissue. This can be achieved in vivo by ... Scientists develop 'game changing' stem cell repair system. Stem Cells Portal Could this new stem cell become the game changer ... May 2014). "Human finger-prick induced pluripotent stem cells facilitate the development of stem cell banking". Stem Cells ...
Support against this theory stems from the ability to replicate these lesions by using nitrogen-induced hypoxia and hypotension ... The hyperbaric oxygen treatment eliminates carbon dioxide from the brain, while the standard oxygen treatment normalizes ... myocardial infarction, or other global cerebral hypoxic events. This diagnosis can then be supported by neuroimaging ... a condition where the brain does not receive enough oxygen to satisfy its needs. This results in lesions to a great deal of ...
Although very rare, if compression of the brain stem is also involved in an individual presentation of TOS, transient blindness ... December 2000). "Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome with embolic cerebral infarction. Report of a case". Panminerva Medica. 42 ( ... and embolic cerebral infarction. TOS can also lead to eye problems and vision loss as a circumstance of vertebral artery ... TOS can lead to neurological deficits as a result of the hypoperfusion and hypometabolism of certain areas of the brain and ...
... infarction MeSH C14.907.553.355.249 - brain infarction MeSH C14.907.553.355.249.100 - brain stem infarctions MeSH C14.907. ... brain infarction MeSH C14.907.253.480.200.100 - brain stem infarctions MeSH C14.907.253.480.200.100.500 - lateral medullary ... brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C14.907.253.573.400.150.200 - brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C14.907.253.573.400.150. ... brain MeSH C14.907.253.545.200 - brain ischemia MeSH C14.907.253.545.200.400 - ischemic attack, transient MeSH C14.907.253.545. ...
The outlook for someone with lateral medullary syndrome depends upon the size and location of the area of the brain stem ... This variation in outcome may be due to but not limited to the size of the infarction, the location of the infarction, and how ... A blood thinner may be prescribed to a patient in order to break up the infarction and reestablish blood flow and to try to ... MRI of Lateral Medullary Infarction (Wallenberg) MedPix Images (Articles with short description, Short description is different ...
... brain stem infarction (blood vessel of the brain stem blocked), cerebral infarction (ischemic stroke resulting from a ... The patients who had a compression in the facial nerve at the end of the brain stem as the primary hemifacial spasm and ... subdural haematoma and intracerebral infarction (blockage of blood flow to the brain). Death or permanent disability (hearing ... the most frequent cause is a blood vessel pressing on the facial nerve at the spot where it leaves the patient's brain stem, ...
... which are upper motor neuron pathways that course from the cerebral cortex to nuclei of cranial nerves in the brain stem. Signs ... Rissardo JP, Caprara AF (March 2021). "Isolated acute pseudobulbar palsy with infarction of artery of percheron: case report ... proposing that a reciprocal pathway exists between the cerebellum and the brain stem that adjusts laughter and crying responses ... especially those involving demyelination Multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory disorders High brain stem tumors Metabolic ...
The original brain-stem syndromes of Millard-Gubler, Foville, Weber, and Raymond-Cestan". Archives of Neurology. 52 (6): 635-8 ... "Syndromes of pontine base infarction. A clinical-radiological correlation study". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 26 ... the description was instrumental in establishing important principles in brain-stem localization. Ipsilateral ataxia and coarse ...
... and traumatic brain injury repair Learning disability due to congenital disorder Spinal cord injury repair Heart infarction ... Cell bank Human genome Meristem Mesenchymal stem cell Ovarian stem cell Partial cloning Plant stem cell Stem cell controversy ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.). Muse cells (multi- ... Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is a form of stem ...
... brain infarction MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.100 - brain stem infarctions MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.100.500 - lateral ... brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10. - brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10. - ... brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300.535.450.200.500 - brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300. ... brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.900.300.087.187.200 - brain stem hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.900.300.087.187.300 - ...
published "Far field potentials from the brain stem after transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation" and in 2007 Kraus et al. did ... A novel noninvasive treatment for myocardial infarction". Int J Cardiol. 190: 9-10. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.087. PMID ... "Far field potentials from the brain stem after transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation". Childs Nerv Syst. 110 (12): 1437-43. ... Kraus T, Hösl K, Kiess O, Schanze A, Kornhuber J, Forster C (2007). "BOLD fMRI deactivation of limbic and temporal brain ...
Aguilar revealed that Paul's father Pedro had had a major stroke and had severe damage to a large portion of his brain stem, ... In 1959, Bach-y-Rita's father, Pedro, had a cerebral infarction (stroke) which caused paralysis to one side of his body and ... Bach-y-Rita suggested this was an example of neuroplasticity, as he believed the signals sent to the brain from the skin via ... The fact that he had made such a significant recovery suggested that his brain had reorganized itself, providing evidence for ...
Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view. Figure showing the mode of ... Other processes that can damage the sixth nerve include strokes (infarctions), demyelination, infections (e.g. meningitis), ... before exiting the brainstem at the pontomedullary junction.[citation needed] The abducens nerve emerges from the brainstem at ... A right-sided brain tumor can produce either a right-sided or a left-sided sixth nerve palsy as an initial sign. Thus a right- ...
... for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone-marrow stem cells, but other ... Brain. 141 (10): e77. doi:10.1093/brain/awy221. ISSN 0006-8950. PMID 30202947. Ian Murnaghan for Explore Stem Cells. Updated: ... Fetal tissue implant Induced pluripotent stem cell Induced stem cells Stem cell chip Stem cell therapy for macular degeneration ... Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone ...
Hypoxia/hypoglycemia Epilepsy Anxiety Dysfunctional brain stem (basivertebral TIA) Cardiac causes are HEART: Heart attack ... Myocardial infarction A = Aortic dissection C = Cardiac tamponade Under 8, intubate. 4 C's: Comatose Convulsing Corrosive ... brain injury, subdural hematoma CNS - post-ictal, stroke, tumour, brain mets Hypoxia - CHF, anemia Deficiencies - thiamine, ... BLAB: Bone Liver Adrenals Brain ABCDEF: Achalasia Barret's esophagus Corrosive esophagitis Diverticuliis Esophageal web ...
... brain ischemia/reperfusion exploring, leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), neural stem cell and stroke, neuroprotective treatment for ... The clinical therapy test with urokinase and defibrase for cerebral infarction in China is effective and relatively safe, yet ... Chinese researchers have followed closely the international level of stroke treatment with a forward position in neural stem ... with an incidence more than fivefold that of myocardial infarction. Intracerebral hemorrhage causes about one third of all ...
Retrieved July 2011 "Brain Stem & Posterior Fossa". Archived from the original on 2000-03-01. Lewis RB (2010). "Pancreatic ... Infarction and calcification of papillae tips. Calcification of intralymphatic tumor thrombi. Psammoma bodies are commonly seen ...
The occlusion of the artery of Percheron can lead to a bilateral thalamus infarction. Alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome stems from ... Human brain dissection, showing the thalamus. Human thalamus along with other subcortical structures, in glass brain. Lateral ... Stained brain slice images which include the "thalamus" at the BrainMaps project (Wikipedia articles needing page number ... 5-HT7 receptor Krista and Tatiana Hogan - conjoined twins with joined thalami List of regions in the human brain Nonmotor ...
Also, any kind of traumatic lesion imposed on the brain can be a risk factor for Musical Hallucinations. Epileptic brain ... O'C, reported being in an "ocean of sound" despite being in a quiet room due to a small thrombosis or infarction in her right ... Investigators found that the patient's depression symptoms were inversely related to her hallucinations and primarily stemmed ... Brain: A Journal of Neurology. 138 (Pt 12): 3793-3802. doi:10.1093/brain/awv286. ISSN 1460-2156. PMID 26446167. Evers, S; ...
... in Stroke at eMedicine Hendry, Robert; Crippen, David (2007). "Brain failure and brain death". In Fink, ... Zhao, Jing-Jie; Liu, Jun-Li; Liu, Ling; Jia, Hong-Ying (January 2014). "Protection of mesenchymal stem cells on acute kidney ... Crush syndrome Ischemic stroke Myocardial infarction - Reperfusion Therapeutic hypothermia Hypothermia therapy for neonatal ... For example brain ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated via complex I redox-dependent inactivation. It was found that lack of ...
Aurora, Arin B.; Olson, Eric N. (3 July 2014). "Immune modulation of stem cells and regeneration". Cell Stem Cell. 15: 14-25. ... For example, zebrafish regeneration of the nerve tissue is followed by brain injury and inflammation that activate microglia ... M are considered as a mediator of cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation and morphogenesis factor during myocardial infarction and ... Aurora, Arin B.; Olson, Eric N. (3 July 2014). "Immune modulation of stem cells and regeneration". Cell Stem Cell. 15: 14-25. ...
"Spinal Cord-Development and Stem Cells". Stem Cell Development Compendium. Retrieved 2 Dec 2015. Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Bally- ... The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). In humans, the spinal cord begins at the occipital ... can result in spinal cord infarction and paraplegia. In the dorsal column-medial lemniscus tract, a primary neuron's axon ... The spinal cord is supplied with blood by three arteries that run along its length starting in the brain, and many arteries ...
... overdose has also been described to cause spinal cord infarction in high doses and ischemic damage to the brain, due ... Much of the legislative activity has stemmed from Purdue Pharma's decision in 2011 to begin a modification of Oxycontin's ... and brain. At equilibrium the unbound concentration in the brain is threefold higher than the unbound concentration in blood ... Boström E, Simonsson US, Hammarlund-Udenaes M (September 2006). "In vivo blood-brain barrier transport of oxycodone in the rat ...
Brain and development. 2002 Jul;34(4): 348-52 Lahat E, et al. Alice in Wonderland syndrome and infectious mononucleosis in ... Stemming from this symptom, someone with macropsia may feel undersized in relation to his or her surrounding environment. ... This lesion can be due to an ischemic cell death after an acute posterior cerebral infarction. The most prevalent research on ... Park, M. G., Joo, H., Park, K. P., & Kim, D. S. (2005). Macropsia caused by acute posterior cerebral artery infarction. J ...
... which is responsible for the ultimate fusion and formation of the brain stem and central nervous system. Furthermore, this ... cerebral infarction, and hemorrhage. Technologies such as CT scans, MRIs, and angiography are used to map the shared vascular ... In this case, brain images revealed that there was an attenuated line stretching between the two brains and forming a "thalamic ... their brains are usually separate, but they may share some brain tissue. Conjoined twins are genetically identical and always ...
Andersen was the accounting firm most identified with the scandals, having been indicted on criminal charges stemming from its ... Medicine: Jean-Pierre Royet, David Meunier, Nicolas Torquet, Anne-Marie Mouly and Tao Jiang, for using advanced brain-scanning ... "An International Randomized Trial Comparing Four Thrombolytic Strategies for Acute Myocardial Infarction". New England Journal ... Neuroscience: Craig Bennett, Abigail Baird, Michael Miller, and George Wolford, for demonstrating that brain researchers, by ...
Types of cells being researched for use in SCI include embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, ... The OECs were taken from the patient's olfactory bulbs in his brain and then grown in the lab, these cells were then injected ... is usually seen in cases of chronic myelopathy but can also occur with infarction of the posterior spinal artery. This rare ... olfactory ensheathing cells, Schwann cells, activated macrophages, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Hundreds of stem cell ...
... or confusion Brain stem - Tetraparesis, facial weakness, decreased level of consciousness, gaze paresis, ocular bobbing, miosis ... Other causes of intraparenchymal hemorrhage include hemorrhagic transformation of infarction which is usually in a classic ... A CT scan is the best test to look for bleeding in or around your brain. In some hospitals, a perfusion CT scan may be done to ... In some hospitals, a perfusion MRI scan may be done to see where the blood is flowing and not flowing in your brain. Angiogram ...
Thus, the information of the time of the day as relayed by the eyes travels to the clock in the brain, and, through that, ... and regulation of the stem cell environment." In a study of young men, it was found that the heart rate reaches its lowest ... or reducing adverse light at night in hospitals may improve patient outcomes post-myocardial infarction (heart attack). 2) " ... Progress in Brain Research. Vol. 185. pp. 155-166. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53702-7.00009-9. ISBN 978-0-444-53702-7. PMID ...
Some of the paleospinothalamic fibers peel off in the brain stem, connecting with the reticular formation or midbrain ... For example, chest pain described as extreme heaviness may indicate myocardial infarction, while chest pain described as ... Phantom pain is pain felt in a part of the body that has been amputated, or from which the brain no longer receives signals. It ... Before reaching the brain, the spinothalamic tract splits into the lateral, neospinothalamic tract and the medial, ...
Human brain List of regions in the human brain Lobes of the brain Brain Basal ganglia Brain stem including Medulla oblongata, ... See also Cerebral infarction and Stroke recovery Disease theory of alcoholism - problem drinking is sometimes caused by a ... Organization for Human Brain Mapping Common misconceptions about the brain Brain Mapping Foundation Brain injuries and ... see: Acquired brain injury, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Stroke, Brain damage, Frontal lobe injury and also the Federal ...
The spinal cord and the brain work together, making them the key components of the central nervous system. Damage to this ... "Stem Cell Basics". National Institutes of Health. (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All ... Possible causes of myelomalacia include cervical myelopathy, hemorrhagic infarction, or acute injury, such as that caused by ... Research is underway to consider the potential of stem cells for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. There are, however, ...
... brachium of the inferior colliculus brachium of the superior colliculus brachium pontis brachium restiformis brain brain stem ... immune system impar ligament incisive canal incisive fossa incisor incisura incus index finger indusium griseum infarction ... bifurcation bilateral symmetry bile duct biology bipolar cells of the retina bitemporal heminopia blastomere blood blood brain ...
In breast cancer, syndecan-1 is up regulated and contributes to the cancer stem cell phenotype, which is linked to increased ... myocardial infarction, inflammatory bowel disease and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis In experimental colitis-induced ... negatively regulates initial leukocyte recruitment to the brain across the choroid plexus in murine experimental autoimmune ... "Syndecan-1 is a novel molecular marker for triple negative inflammatory breast cancer and modulates the cancer stem cell ...
The inhaled substances trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings in the brain due to being similar to naturally occurring ... Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P; Jensen; Appleyard; Schnohr (1989). "Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in ... Before modern times these substances have been consumed through pipes, with stems of various lengths or chillums. ... in the brain, and it is doubtless that people who smoke form relationships with fellow smokers, in a way that only proliferates ...
... traveling to the brain resulting in small ischemic strokes without symptoms, altered blood flow to the brain, inflammation, ... Unlike humans, dogs rarely develop the complications that stem from blood clots breaking off from inside the heart and ... such as acute myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, pericarditis, myocarditis, hyperthyroidism, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia ... Emboli in the brain may result in an ischemic stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). More than 90% of cases of thrombi ...
As a stem cell matures it undergoes changes in gene expression that limit the cell types that it can become and moves it closer ... now called Brain Structure and Function). 206(3), 193-197. DOI: 10.1007/s00429-002-0285-2 Old JM, Selwood L, Deane EM (2003). A ... "E-Selectin Inhibition Mitigates Splenic HSC Activation and Myelopoiesis in Hypercholesterolemic Mice With Myocardial Infarction ... For the stem cells and other undifferentiated blood cells in the bone marrow, the determination is generally explained by the ...
Another study identified neuroinflammation and an activation of adaptive and innate immune cells in the brain stem of COVID-19 ... Neuropathological studies of COVID-19 victims show microthrombi and cerebral infarctions. The most common observations are ... November 2021). "The SARS-CoV-2 main protease Mpro causes microvascular brain pathology by cleaving NEMO in brain endothelial ... Zhang R, Sun C, Chen X, Han Y, Zang W, Jiang C, Wang J, Wang J (April 2022). "COVID-19-Related Brain Injury: The Potential Role ...
... was eventually discovered to be caused by a tumor on his brain stem pushing on nerves causing him to hiccup every two seconds, ... In rare cases, hiccups can be the sole symptom of myocardial infarction. Kidney failure Stroke Multiple sclerosis Meningitis ... "It sends rhythmic bursts of electricity to the brain by way of the vagus nerve, which passes through the neck. The Food and ... BBC News: Why we hiccup WIRED: The Best Cure for Hiccups: Remind Your Brain You're Not a Fish Cymet TC (June 2002). " ...
Brain. 125 (Pt 2): 264-75. doi:10.1093/brain/awf027. PMID 11844727. Vardhanabhuti V, Venkatanarasimha N, Bhatnagar G, Maviki M ... A small (20-40%) increased risk of acute myocardial infarction has also been described. Pulmonary arterial hypertension occurs ... Investigational treatments include specific antibiotic combinations and mesenchymal stem cells. If drug intervention is ... Less commonly affected are the eyes, liver, heart, and brain. Any organ, however, can be affected. The signs and symptoms ...
Whether or not a given individual's brain can deal effectively with stress, and thus their susceptibility to depression, ... These findings suggest that beta-catenin can promote the regeneration and healing process following myocardial infarction. In a ... Sokol SY (October 2011). "Maintaining embryonic stem cell pluripotency with Wnt signaling". Development. 138 (20): 4341-4350. ... Besco JA, Hooft van Huijsduijnen R, Frostholm A, Rotter A (October 2006). "Intracellular substrates of brain-enriched receptor ...
The jury also voted to convict on a possession charge involving a psilocybin mushroom stem and a few peyote buttons (a felony) ... This type of tumor is particularly apt to grow into the spinal cord, brain and organs. She also describes her husband's ... Kubby's symptoms could evolve further to the point where a myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cerebral vascular accident ( ... in minute quantities could kill him instantly by causing sudden cardiac death due to arrhythmia or acute myocardial infarction ...
Bostjancic E, Zidar N, Glavac D (2009). "MicroRNA microarray expression profiling in human myocardial infarction". Disease ... Brain Pathology. 22 (2): 230-9. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3639.2011.00523.x. PMC 8029025. PMID 21793975. S2CID 45910136. Goeppert B, ... "Comparative expression profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs among human mesenchymal stem cells derived from breast, face, and ... "Identification of microRNAs expressed highly in pancreatic islet-like cell clusters differentiated from human embryonic stem ...
Joni Mitchell had a brain aneurysm in 2015, but survived. Grant Imahara died from a brain aneurysm in July 2020. Dr. Dre had a ... The differences in the mechanical properties of the aneurysmal blood vessels and the healthy blood vessels stem from the ... as well as ventricular aneurysms that follow transmural myocardial infarctions (aneurysms that involve all layers of the ... "Brain Aneurysm Basics , The Brain Aneurysm Foundation". Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 30 ...
... s have been suggested to play a role in the treatment of cytotoxic edema and brain infarctions. It was found ... More specifically, they are involved in several cellular functions, including proliferation and migration of neural stem cells ... P1 and P2Y receptors are known to be widely distributed in the brain, heart, kidneys, and adipose tissue. Xanthines (e.g. ... By enhancing the source of ATP provided by mitochondria, there could be a similar 'protective' effect for brain injuries in ...
ISBN 978-3-540-23735-8. The raphe nuclei group of neurons are located along the brain stem from the labels 'Mid Brain' to ' ... can they prevent acute myocardial infarction?". American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other ... Brain organization in most vertebrates includes 5-HT cells in the hindbrain. In addition to this, 5-HT is often found in other ... Serotonin in the brain is not usually degraded after use, but is collected by serotonergic neurons by serotonin transporters on ...
Categories: Brain Stem Infarctions Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
8. [A case of brain stem infarction with bilateral hearing loss].. Yaguchi H; Yaguchi M; Nishiwaki C; Takahashi Y. No To ... A case of the brainstem tactile hallucinosis due to pontine hemorrhage].. Hashimoto Y; Kimura K; Yonehara T; Uchino M; Ando M. ... Persistent lateral gaze palsy and abducens nerve palsy due to pontine infarction].. Hamasaki S; Motomura M; Koga H; Nakamura T ... 4. [A case of pontine infarction presenting with conjugate deviation and unilateral conjugate gaze palsy].. Uemura J; Shibazaki ...
Brain Stem Infarct Brainstem Infarctions Brainstem Stroke Claude Syndrome Foville Syndrome Infarctions, Brain Stem Infarctions ... Brain Ischemia [C14.907.253.092] * Brain Infarction [C14.907.253.092.477] * Brain Stem Infarctions [C14.907.253.092.477.100] * ... Infarction [C23.550.513.355] * Brain Infarction [C23.550.513.355.250] * Brain Stem Infarctions [C23.550.513.355.250.100] * ... Infarction [C23.550.717.489] * Brain Infarction [C23.550.717.489.250] * Brain Stem Infarctions [C23.550.717.489.250.100] * ...
Brain injury. End-stage renal disease. Myocardial infarction. Thrombocytopenia. Brain stem herniation. Epidural hematoma. ... Acute myocardial infarction. Cirrhosis. Hyperglycemia. Pulmonary embolism. Altered mental status. Coagulopathy. Hyperkalemia. ... If the behavior of the neoplasm is unknown, use a statement such as "tumor of the brain, unknown behavior." We do not assume a ... "tumor of the brain, unknown behavior."  We do not assume a neoplasm was malignant just because it was fatal; benign tumors ...
Brain Stem Infarctions 31% * Brain-Computer Interfaces 28% * Self-Help Devices 27% ... Brain and Language. 180-182, p. 42-49 8 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology. Liu Y, Deng W. Liu Y, et al. Brain ... Induced pluripotent stem cells for post-myocardial infarction repair: remarkable opportunities and challenges. Lalit PA, Hei DJ ... Keywords: blood supply; diabetic retinopathy; embryonic stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells; reperfusion injury; stem ... Stem cells and diabetic retinopathy: From models to treatment. Saha B, Roy A, Beltramo E, Sahoo OS. Saha B, et al. Mol Biol Rep ...
Brain Stem Infarction, Brainstem Infarctions, Brain Stem Infarctions, Brainstem Infarcts, Brain Stem Stem Infarct, Brain Stem ... Brain Stem Infarctions Entry term(s). Brain Stem Infarct Brain Stem Infarction Brain Stem Infarcts Brainstem Infarction ... Brain Stem. Infarction, Brain Stem. Infarction, Brainstem. Infarctions, Brain Stem. Infarctions, Brainstem. Infarcts, Brain ... Brain Stem Infarct. Brain Stem Infarction. Brain Stem Infarcts. Brainstem Infarction. Brainstem Infarctions. Brainstem Stroke. ...
Brain Stem Infarct Brainstem Infarctions Brainstem Stroke Claude Syndrome Foville Syndrome Infarctions, Brain Stem Infarctions ... Brain Ischemia [C14.907.253.092] * Brain Infarction [C14.907.253.092.477] * Brain Stem Infarctions [C14.907.253.092.477.100] * ... Infarction [C23.550.513.355] * Brain Infarction [C23.550.513.355.250] * Brain Stem Infarctions [C23.550.513.355.250.100] * ... Infarction [C23.550.717.489] * Brain Infarction [C23.550.717.489.250] * Brain Stem Infarctions [C23.550.717.489.250.100] * ...
... in the brain. The neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) regulates Aβ catabolism by enhancing neprilysin (NEP)-catalyzed proteolytic ... resulting in the Aβ levels altered in the brain. Pharmacological intervention targeting the particular KATP channel attenuated ... Negative feedback on the effects of stem cell factor on hematopoiesis is partly mediated through neutral endopeptidase activity ... Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res. 1998;40:557- ...
Brain Stem Infarction, Brainstem Infarctions, Brain Stem Infarctions, Brainstem Infarcts, Brain Stem Stem Infarct, Brain Stem ... Brain Stem Infarctions Entry term(s). Brain Stem Infarct Brain Stem Infarction Brain Stem Infarcts Brainstem Infarction ... Brain Stem. Infarction, Brain Stem. Infarction, Brainstem. Infarctions, Brain Stem. Infarctions, Brainstem. Infarcts, Brain ... Brain Stem Infarct. Brain Stem Infarction. Brain Stem Infarcts. Brainstem Infarction. Brainstem Infarctions. Brainstem Stroke. ...
Brain Stem Infarctions 32. Ligeiras considerações sobre o destino dos cadaveres perante a hygiene e a medicina legal: these ...
A positive head-thrust test can occur with brain-stem infarction involving the entry zone of the root of the 8th nerve, but ... there will be other associated signs of the lateral brain stem (e.g., Horners syndrome, facial numbness and weakness, ... Prog Brain Res 1988;76:395-401. [ISI][Medline]. *Herdman SJ, Clendaniel RA, Mattox DE, Holliday MJ, Niparko JK. Vestibular ... Brain 1996;119:755-763. [Abstract]. *Schuknecht HF. Positional vertigo: clinical and experimental observations. Trans Am Acad ...
Brainstem infarctions. • Systemic small-vessel vasculitis. • Brainstem gliomas in adults. • Causes of diplopia. • Causes of ... Prototypic stem cells first enter the cortex, the most active site of T-cell differentiation, and begin maturation, later ... Brain 2003;126(Pt 10):2304-11. PMID 12821509 35 Fakiri MO, Tavy DL, Hama-Amin AD, Wirtz PW. Accuracy of the ice test in the ... Brain 1978;101(2):345-68. PMID 667602 59 Jacob S, Viegas S, Leite MI, et al. Presence and pathogenic relevance of antibodies to ...
Infarction QZ 170 See also Brain Infarction See also Brain Stem Infarctions ...
Brain Stem Infarctions 24% * Honey 21% * Barium 18% * Deglutition Disorders 16% 5 Scopus citations ...
Brain Stem Infarctions C10.228.140.300.301.200.100 C10.228.140.300.150.477.100. C14.907.253.480.200.100 C10.228.140.300.775.200 ... Brain Infarction C10.228.140.300.301.200 C10.228.140.300.150.477. C14.907.253.480.200 C10.228.140.300.775.200. C14.907.553.355. ... Fornix (Brain) A8.186.211.577.265 A8.186.211.464.265. (Replaced for 2008 by Fornix, Brain). Foster Home Care I1.880.787.416. ... Tumor Stem Cells A11.872.910 A11.872.650. (Replaced for 2008 by Neoplastic Stem Cells). Umbilical Arteries A16.254.789.641 ...
Malformation Chiari Malformation A rare genetic brain malformation characterized by displacement of the brain stem and ... C3671 Traumatic Injury C99147 Neonatal Research Network Terminology C99063 Spinal Cord Infarction Infarction of Spinal Cord ... It is the result of brain developmental delay. C96412 Brain Development Abnormality C99147 Neonatal Research Network ... involuntary skeletal muscular contractions of cerebral or brain stem origin. C87124 Central Nervous System Signs and Symptoms ...
Brain stem infarction (stroke of the brain stem). Radiation-induced adverse effects (due to radiation therapy for tumors). Two ... Neonatal cerebral hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen to the brain at birth). Parkinsons disease. Ischemia/reperfusion of spinal ... Mental Advantage delivers nutrients that support healthy brain activity for accuracy and recall, mental energy and stamina, and ... Bioactive B vitamins deliver optimum benefits for cognitive support, brain and nerve function, and daily energy.* ...
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce brain amyloid-beta deposition and accelerate the activation of microglia in ... cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to reduce infarct size and to restore cardiac function after myocardial infarction ... Wang Y, Fu W, Zhang S, He X, Liu Z, Gao D, Xu T. Wang Y, et al. Brain Res. 2014 Aug 5;1575:78-86. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres. ... Nasiri E, Alizadeh A, Roushandeh AM, Gazor R, Hashemi-Firouzi N, Golipoor Z. Nasiri E, et al. Metab Brain Dis. 2019 Aug;34(4): ...
Participants with an ischemic stroke in cerebellum and/or brain stem as the main infarction site - Diagnosis of a current ... example, history of acute myocardial infarction, current acute myocardial infarction, uncontrollable heart failure, infective ...
Stem Cells Restore Lost Function in Traumatic Brain Injury Related Conditions & Procedures ... Spinal Cord Infarction * Clinical Applications of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials * Urologic Management in Neurologic Disease ...
... from the current study indicate that an H2-enriched intravenous solution is safe for patients with acute cerebral infarction, ... Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and ... Edaravone Acute Infarction Study Group: Effect of a novel free radical scavenger, edaravone (MCI-186), on acute brain ... recently reported that administration of intravenous H2-enriched saline to 8 patients with acute brainstem infarction caused no ...
C14.907.553.120 Brain Stem Infarctions C10.228.140.300.301.200.100 C10.228.140.300.150.477.100 C14.907.253.480.200.100 C10.228. ... C14.907.617.249 Brain Infarction C10.228.140.300.301.200 C10.228.140.300.150.477 C14.907.253.480.200 C10.228.140.300.775.200 ... Brain) A8.186.211.577.265 A8.186.211.464.265 (Replaced for 2008 by Fornix, Brain) Foster Home Care I1.880.787.416 Frameshift ... Brain C10.228.140.300.451.400 C10.228.140.624 C14.907.253.545.400 Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain C10.228.140.300.451 C10.228.140.300. ...
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to any of the projections of brain stem dopaminergic nuclear groups could result in ... Pacritinib FLT3 vasconstrictive ischemic infarctions), some arise as concurrent, consequences of biomechanical craniocerebral ... Postmortem studies in human brain from smokers and nonsmokers rev. Posted on July 22, 2016. by admin ... In addition, we do not have a definitive taxonomy of higher brain functions. In this thoroughly article, we have proposed two ...
Injection of self-assembling peptides into the brain, which serve as a cellular guide pathway, induces migration of neurons to ... which is expected to be used to treat brain injury and cerebral infarction using endogenous stem cells. However, how to use ... Neural stem cells are abundant in the subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the brain and actively produce neurons. It is thought that ... Treating Brain Injury with Endogenous Neurogenic Cells. Injection of self-assembling peptides into the brain, which serve as a ...
  • Data from the current study indicate that an H 2 -enriched intravenous solution is safe for patients with acute cerebral infarction, including patients treated with t-PA. (
  • They reported that H 2 was more effective than edaravone, which was approved in Japan as an ROS scavenger for the treatment of cerebral infarction. (
  • With particular emphasis on its immunomodulatory potential this review discusses the roles of GDF-15 in pregnancy and in pathological conditions including myocardial infarction, autoimmune disease, and specifically cancer. (
  • We implanted a subdural, high-density, multielectrode array over the area of the sensorimotor cortex that controls speech in a person with anarthria (the loss of the ability to articulate speech) and spastic quadriparesis caused by a brain-stem stroke. (
  • Brain infarction, or stroke, is caused by a blood clot blocking a blood vessel in the brain, which leads to interruption of blood flow and shortage of oxygen. (
  • Now a research group at Lund University, Sweden, has taken an important step towards a treatment for stroke using stem cells. (
  • The group shows in a new study, published in the scientific journal Brain, that so-called induced pluripotent stem cells have developed to mature nerve cells at two months after transplantation into the stroke-injured cerebral cortex of rats. (
  • The results are promising and represent a very early but important step towards a stem cell-based treatment for stroke in patients. (
  • Following a stroke, nerve cells in the brain die and if these cells could be replaced by new healthy cells, this approach might be developed into a treatment. (
  • At Lund Stem Cell Center , Zaal Kokaia's and Olle Lindvall's research group is working with the aim to develop a stem cell-based method to treat patients with stroke. (
  • Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons integrate in stroke-injured cortex and improve functional recovery. (
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in brain injury after ischemic stroke [ 1 ]. (
  • The first task of the examining physician is to determine whether the vertigo is of central or peripheral origin, since some central causes of acute vertigo, such as cerebellar hemorrhage or infarction, can be life-threatening and may require immediate intervention. (
  • CTP offers an improved diagnostic benefit over NCCT and CTA for the diagnosis of lacunar infarction. (
  • current infarction and cardiovascular death. (
  • These nerve cells have established contact with other important structures in the brain. (
  • The research group has first reprogrammed skin cells from an adult human to induced pluripotent stem cells and then induced these cells to become mature nerve cells characteristic for the cerebral cortex. (
  • By using the method of induced pluripotent stem cells we have been able to generate cells which express those markers which are typical for nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and we have also shown that the new nerve cells are functional», says Zaal Kokaia, Professor of Experimental Medical Research. (
  • We must also determine which effects the transplanted nerve cells have on other brain functions. (
  • Bioactive B vitamins deliver optimum benefits for cognitive support, brain and nerve function, and daily energy. (
  • We also discovered the specific K ATP channel subtype that modulates NEP activity, resulting in the Aβ levels altered in the brain. (
  • Mental Advantage delivers nutrients that support healthy brain activity for accuracy and recall, mental energy and stamina, and healthy memory. (
  • A blockage or rupture in one of these blood vessels may occur in any area of the brain. (
  • one of the main risk factors for CHD (nonfatal and fa- tal myocardial infarctions [MIs] and sudden death), The excess risk of CHD caused by smoking is but was a causal factor supported by evidence consid- reduced by about half after 1 year of smoking ered to be proved beyond a "reasonable doubt" abstinence and then declines gradually. (
  • It is a sudden interruption of continuous blood flow to the brain and a medical emergency. (
  • Other brain cells die because they are damaged by sudden bleeding in or around the brain. (
  • By engineering human stem cells to carry specific mutations, and by differentiating these engineered stem cells into physiologically relevant human metabolic cell types, we will make it possible to study the impact of large numbers of gene variants on human cell biology and function. (
  • The proposed research will pursue improving cell and animal models for human brain disorders, as well as develop novel cell therapy strategies for brain diseases. (
  • Some brain cells die because they stop getting the oxygen and nutrients needed to function. (
  • Some brain cells die quickly but many linger in a compromised or weakened state for several hours. (
  • Such cell reprogramming approaches may allow for the facile generation of replacement cells for some brain disorders. (
  • The brain is nourished by one of the body's richest networks of blood vessels. (
  • P., QUIRION, R. (*HjMethyl-carbachol, a new radioligand specific for nicotinic cholinergic receptors in brain. (
  • CLARKE, P.B.S. Recent progress in identifying nicotinic cholinoceptors in mamma- han brain. (

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