Brain Stem Infarctions
Brain Stem Neoplasms
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Stem Cell Transplantation
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction
Disease Models, Animal
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Diffusion-weighted imaging identifies a subset of lacunar infarction associated with embolic source. (1/65)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small infarcts in the territory of penetrator arteries were described as causing a number of distinct clinical syndromes. The vascular pathophysiology underlying such infarcts is difficult to ascertain without careful pathological study. However, the occurrence of multiple, small infarcts, linked closely in time but dispersed widely in the brain, raises the possibility of an embolic mechanism. The current study determines the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients with well-defined lacunar syndromes and the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) evidence of multiple acute lesions. METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients who presented to the emergency room with a clinically well-defined lacunar syndrome were studied by DWI within the first 3 days of admission. RESULTS: DWI showed multiple regions of increased signal intensity in 10 patients (16%). A hemispheric or brain stem lesion in a penetrator territory that accounted for the clinical syndrome ("index lesion") was found in all. DWI-hyperintense lesions other than the index lesion ("subsidiary infarctions") were punctate and lay within leptomeningeal artery territories in the majority. As opposed to patients with a single lacunar infarction, patients with a subsidiary infarction more frequently (P<0.05) harbored an identifiable cause of stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 1 of every 6 patients presenting with a classic lacunar syndrome has multiple infarctions demonstrated on DWI. This DWI finding usually indicates an identifiable cause of stroke and therefore may influence clinical decisions regarding the extent of etiologic investigations and treatment for secondary prevention. (+info)
Sensory sequelae of medullary infarction: differences between lateral and medial medullary syndrome. (2/65)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A comparison between long-term sensory sequelae of lateral medullary infarction (LMI) and medial medullary infarction (MMI) has never been made. METHODS: We studied 55 patients with medullary infarction (41 with LMI and 14 with MMI) who were followed up for >6 months. We examined and interviewed the patients with the use of a structured format regarding the most important complaints, functional disabilities, and the presence of sensory symptoms. The nature and the intensity of sensory symptoms were assessed with the modified McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire and the visual analog scale, respectively. RESULTS: There were 43 men and 12 women, with an average age of 59 years. Mean follow-up period was 21 months. The sensory symptoms were the most important residual sequelae in LMI patients and the second most important in MMI patients. In LMI patients, the severity of residual sensory symptoms was significantly related to the initial severity of objective sensory deficits (P<0.05). Sensory symptoms were most often described by LMI patients as numbness (39%), burning (35%), and cold (22%) in the face, and cold (38%), numbness (29%), and burning (27%) in the body/limbs, whereas they were described as numbness (60%), squeezing (30%) and cold (10%), but never as burning, in their body/limbs by MMI patients. LMI patients significantly (P<0.05) more often cited a cold environment as an aggravating factor for the sensory symptoms than did the MMI patients without spinothalamic sensory impairment. The subjective sensory symptoms were frequently of a delayed onset (up to 6 months) in LMI patients, whereas they usually started immediately after the onset in MMI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that sensory symptoms are major sequelae in both LMI and MMI patients. However, the nature, the mode of onset, and aggravating factors are different between the 2 groups, which probably is related to a selective involvement of the spinothalamic tract by the former and the medial lemniscus by the latter. We suggest that the mechanisms for the central poststroke pain or paresthesia may differ according to the site of damages on the sensory tracts (spinothalamic tract versus medial lemniscal tract). (+info)
Xenon contrast-enhanced CT imaging of supratentorial hypoperfusion in patients with brain stem infarction. (3/65)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The characteristics of hypoperfusion in the supratentorial region of patients with brain stem infarction are unclear. We investigated the relationships between the presence of hypoperfusion and the location, number, and size of the infarcts with xenon contrast-enhanced CT. METHODS: One hundred five patients with brain stem infarction detected by MR imaging underwent xenon contrast-enhanced CT to measure the regional CBF (rCBF) in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions and in the putamen and thalamus. A decrease of more than 10% from the mean rCBF value for normal individuals was considered to indicate hypoperfusion. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients had supratentorial hypoperfusion. The mean rCBF values (measured in mL/100 g/minute) were as follows: frontal region, 36.2 +/- 5.1 (-14.8%, n = 28); parietal region, 42.3 +/- 4.7 (-19.1%, n = 29); temporal region, 41.5 +/- 2.8 (-12.6%, n = 12); and thalamus, 50.1 +/- 3.2 (-19.6%, n = 7). Supratentorial hypoperfusion was associated with pontine infarction in 33 patients (upper pons in 15, middle pons in 18, and lower pons in seven), midbrain infarction in two, and medulla infarction in one. Twenty-three patients had infarcts that were larger than 5 mm, and 11 had infarcts that were 2 to 5 mm. Only two had infarcts that were smaller than 2 mm. Seven patients each had one infarct, 13 each had two, and 16 each had three. CONCLUSION: Supratentorial hypoperfusion was associated with larger infarcts, with more infarcts, and with pontine infarction. (+info)
Course and distribution of facial corticobulbar tract fibres in the lower brain stem. (4/65)The course and distribution of the facial corticobulbar tract (CBT) was examined by correlating MRI of brain stem lesions with neurological symptoms and signs including central (C-FP) or peripheral facial paresis (P-FP) in 70 patients with localised infarction of the lower brain stem. C-FP occurred more often in patients with lesions of the lower pons or upper medulla of the ventromedial brain stem. Some patients with dorsolateral infarcts of the upper medulla to the lower pons showed C-FP, mostly on the lesion side. P-FP on the side of the lesion was also seen in patients with dorsolateral involvement of the lower pons. Patients with ventromedial infarction of the brain stem showed paresis of extremities contralateral to the lesion. Specific neurological symptoms and signs such as dysphagia, vertigo, nystagmus, Horner's syndrome, ipsilateral cerebellar ataxia, and contralateral superficial sensory impairment were seen in patients with dorsolateral infarcts of the brain stem. It is hypothesised that the facial CBT descends at the ventromedial lower pons, near the corticospinal tract, mainly to the level of the upper medulla, where the fibres then decussate and ascend in the dorsolateral medulla to synapse in the contralateral facial nucleus. (+info)
Neuroimaging in deteriorating patients with cerebellar infarcts and mass effect. (5/65)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The decision to proceed with surgery in cerebellar infarct with mass effect (CIMASS) in deteriorating patients is based on clinical features. The potential role of neuroimaging in predicting deterioration has not been systematically studied. In this study we determine the role of neuroimaging in predicting deterioration in CIMASS. METHODS: -We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and neuroimaging features in 90 patients with cerebellar infarcts. We selected for detailed analysis CIMASS in 35 patients. RESULTS: Eighteen patients remained stable and 17 deteriorated. Of these 17 patients, 8 were treated conservatively and 9 had surgery. Radiological features indicative of progression were more common in deteriorating patients compared with stable patients: fourth ventricular shift (82.3% versus 50%, P:=0.075, OR=4. 67), hydrocephalus (76.5% versus 11.1%, P:=0.0001, OR=26), brain stem deformity (47% versus 5.6%, P:=0.0065, OR=15.1), and basal cistern compression (35.3% versus 0%, P:=0.0076, OR=20.91). Differences in upward displacement of the aqueduct and pontomesencephalic junction from Twining's line, tonsillar descent on sagittal MRI, and infarct volumes between stable and deteriorating patients were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocephalus, brain stem deformity, and basal cistern compression may herald deterioration in CIMASS. Admission to a neurological-neurosurgical intensive care unit and consideration of preemptive surgery are warranted in these patients. Vertical displacement of tonsils or aqueduct, demonstrated by MR imaging, did not predict deterioration. (+info)
Dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery causing subarachnoid hemorrhage after non-hemorrhagic infarction--case report. (6/65)A 45-year-old male presented with lateral medullary infarction. Cerebral angiography showed dissecting aneurysm as pearl and string sign in the right vertebral artery (VA). Conservative treatment was administered with antiplatelet agent. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred 2 days after admission, inducing coma. Intraaneurysmal embolization and proximal occlusion of the right VA by intravascular surgery resulted in only mild neurological deficits. Conservative treatment including strict control of blood pressure is the first choice of treatment. Antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulant therapy should not be administered. Patients must be followed up by serial angiography and surgery considered if signs of aneurysmal progression are seen. (+info)
Neurological complications of cervical spine manipulation. (7/65)To obtain preliminary data on neurological complications of spinal manipulation in the UK all members of the Association of British Neurologists were asked to report cases referred to them of neurological complications occurring within 24 hours of cervical spine manipulation over a 12-month period. The response rate was 74%. 24 respondents reported at least one case each, contributing to a total of about 35 cases. These included 7 cases of stroke in brainstem territory (4 with confirmation of vertebral artery dissection), 2 cases of stroke in carotid territory and 1 case of acute subdural haematoma. There were 3 cases of myelopathy and 3 of cervical radiculopathy. Concern about neurological complications following cervical spine manipulation appears to be justified. A large long-term prospective study is required to determine the scale of the hazard. (+info)
Massive pontine hemorrhagic infarction associated with embolic basilar artery occlusion. (8/65)We report here an autopsy case of massive pontine hemorrhagic infarction secondary to embolic basilar artery occlusion. A large embolus appeared to have traversed the vertebral artery into the basilar artery as a result of basilarization of the vertebral artery due to severe stenosis of the contralateral vertebral artery. Extensive ischemia due to embolic occlusion of the entire length of the basilar artery, and migration of the embolus are assumed to have resulted in a massive pontine hemorrhagic infarction. (+info)
The term "infarction" is derived from the Latin words "in" meaning "into" and "farcire" meaning "to stuff", which refers to the idea that the tissue becomes "stuffed" with blood, leading to cell death and necrosis.
Infarction can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the blood vessels), embolism (a blood clot or other foreign material that blocks the flow of blood), and vasospasm (constriction of the blood vessels).
The symptoms of infarction vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage, but can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, numbness or weakness in the affected limbs, and confusion or difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
Diagnosis of infarction typically involves imaging tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, or computerized tomography (CT) scans to confirm the presence of a blockage and assess the extent of the damage. Treatment options for infarction include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to restore blood flow, and other interventions to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Prevention of infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and obesity, as well as maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine. Early detection and treatment of blockages can help reduce the risk of infarction and minimize the damage to affected tissues.
Signs and Symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of BSI vary depending on the severity and location of the infarction. Common symptoms include sudden onset of headache, confusion, dizziness, slurred speech, weakness or paralysis of the face or limbs, double vision, and difficulty with swallowing. Patients may also experience vomiting, seizures, and loss of consciousness.
BSI is diagnosed using a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. A complete neurological examination is crucial to identify any deficits in vision, hearing, balance, and sensation. Imaging studies are used to confirm the presence of an infarction and to identify the location and extent of the damage. Laboratory tests such as blood chemistry and coagulation studies may be performed to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms.
The treatment of BSI depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the infarction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve the blockage or to repair any blood vessel damage. Medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and blood pressure-lowering drugs may also be used to manage the condition. Rehabilitation therapy is often necessary to help patients regain lost function and improve their quality of life.
The prognosis for BSI varies depending on the severity and location of the infarction, as well as the underlying cause. In general, patients with a small infarct in a critical area of the brainstem have a poorer prognosis than those with larger infarctions in less critical areas. However, early recognition and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as seizures, hydrocephalus, and respiratory failure.
BSI can be associated with a number of complications, including:
1. Seizures: BSI can cause seizures, which can be challenging to treat and may require medication or surgical intervention.
2. Hydrocephalus: Fluid buildup in the brain can occur as a result of BSI, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
3. Respiratory failure: Damage to the brainstem can lead to respiratory failure, which may require mechanical ventilation.
4. Cardiac arrhythmias: BSI can cause cardiac arrhythmias, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
5. Cerebral edema: Swelling in the brain can occur as a result of BSI, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
6. Pneumonia: BSI can increase the risk of developing pneumonia, particularly in individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
7. Meningitis: BSI can increase the risk of developing meningitis, particularly in individuals with pre-existing immune compromise.
8. Stroke: BSI can cause stroke, which may be related to the infarction itself or to the underlying condition that caused the infarction.
9. Cognitive and behavioral changes: BSI can result in cognitive and behavioral changes, including difficulty with concentration, memory loss, and personality changes.
10. Long-term sequelae: BSI can have long-term consequences, including chronic cognitive impairment, seizures, and changes in behavior and mood.
Treatment and management:
The treatment and management of BSI depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the infarction. Some common approaches include:
1. Antibiotics: If the infarction is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection and prevent further spread of the infection.
2. Supportive care: Patients with BSI may require supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, or cardiac support, depending on the severity of the infarction.
3. Surgical intervention: In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to relieve pressure or remove infected tissue.
4. Rehabilitation: Patients who survive BSI may require rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.
5. Close monitoring: Patients with BSI should be closely monitored for signs of complications, such as seizures, confusion, or changes in vital signs.
Preventing BSI is critical to reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes. Some strategies for preventing BSI include:
1. Immunization: Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b can help prevent BSI caused by these organisms.
2. Proper hygiene: Proper hand washing and hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of transmission of BSI-causing pathogens.
3. Use of contact precautions: Use of contact precautions, such as wearing gloves and gowns, can help prevent the spread of BSI-causing pathogens.
4. Proper use of invasive devices: Proper use of invasive devices, such as central lines and urinary catheters, can help reduce the risk of BSI.
5. Antibiotic stewardship: Proper use of antibiotics can help reduce the risk of BSI caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
6. Early detection and treatment: Early detection and treatment of underlying infections can help prevent the progression to BSI.
7. Avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures: Avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures, such as central lines or urinary catheters, can reduce the risk of BSI.
8. Use of antimicrobial-impregnated devices: Use of antimicrobial-impregnated devices, such as central lines and urinary catheters, can help reduce the risk of BSI.
9. Proper hand hygiene: Proper hand hygiene practices, including hand washing and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, can help reduce the transmission of BSI-causing pathogens.
10. Environmental cleaning and disinfection: Regular environmental cleaning and disinfection can help reduce the presence of BSI-causing pathogens in the hospital environment.
It is important to note that these strategies should be tailored to the specific needs of each patient and healthcare facility, and may need to be adjusted based on the local prevalence of BSI-causing pathogens and the patient's medical condition.
There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:
1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.
Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.
Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.
Cerebral infarction can result in a range of symptoms, including sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, sudden vision loss, dizziness, and confusion. Depending on the location and severity of the infarction, it can lead to long-term disability or even death.
There are several types of cerebral infarction, including:
1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of cerebral infarction, accounting for around 87% of all cases. It occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, leading to bleeding and cell death.
3. Lacunar infarction: This type of cerebral infarction affects the deep structures of the brain, particularly the basal ganglia, and is often caused by small blockages or stenosis (narrowing) in the blood vessels.
4. Territorial infarction: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when there is a complete blockage of a blood vessel that supplies a specific area of the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage in that area.
Diagnosis of cerebral infarction typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and location of the infarction, but may include medication to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove blockages, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
There are several different types of brain injuries that can occur, including:
1. Concussions: A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken, often due to a blow to the head.
2. Contusions: A contusion is a bruise on the brain that can occur when the brain is struck by an object, such as during a car accident.
3. Coup-contrecoup injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is injured as a result of the force of the body striking another object, such as during a fall.
4. Penetrating injuries: A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the brain, such as during a gunshot wound or stab injury.
5. Blast injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is exposed to a sudden and explosive force, such as during a bombing.
The symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage in the brain. Some common symptoms include:
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Slurred speech or difficulty with communication
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Personality changes
* Difficulty with coordination and balance
In some cases, brain injuries can be treated with medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. However, in more severe cases, the damage may be permanent and long-lasting. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.
There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:
1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.
These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.
Causes and risk factors:
The exact cause of brain stem neoplasms is not fully understood, but they can occur due to genetic mutations or exposure to certain environmental factors. Some risk factors that have been linked to brain stem neoplasms include:
* Family history of cancer
* Exposure to radiation therapy in childhood
* Previous head trauma
* Certain genetic conditions, such as turcot syndrome
The symptoms of brain stem neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and severity. Some common symptoms include:
* Vision problems
* Weakness or numbness in the limbs
* Slurred speech
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain)
To diagnose a brain stem neoplasm, a doctor will typically perform a physical exam and ask questions about the patient's medical history. They may also order several tests, such as:
* CT or MRI scans to visualize the tumor
* Electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure electrical activity in the brain
* Blood tests to check for certain substances that are produced by the tumor
The treatment of brain stem neoplasms depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the type of tumor. Some possible treatment options include:
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Observation and monitoring for small, slow-growing tumors that do not cause significant symptoms
The prognosis for brain stem neoplasms varies depending on the type of tumor and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is poor for patients with brain stem tumors, as they can be difficult to treat and may recur. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients may experience a good outcome.
There are no specific lifestyle changes that can cure a brain stem neoplasm, but some changes may help improve the patient's quality of life. These may include:
* Avoiding activities that exacerbate symptoms, such as heavy lifting or bending
* Taking regular breaks to rest and relax
* Eating a healthy diet and getting plenty of sleep
* Reducing stress through techniques such as meditation or deep breathing exercises.
It's important for patients with brain stem neoplasms to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their symptoms and monitor their condition. With prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients may experience a good outcome.
The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.
There are different types of brain ischemia, including:
1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.
The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.
The word "edema" comes from the Greek word "oidema", meaning swelling.
Symptoms of splenic infarction may include sudden severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and tenderness in the abdomen. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT scans or ultrasound. Treatment may involve surgical removal of the affected tissue or clot, antibiotics for any associated infections, and supportive care to manage pain and other symptoms.
1. The patient was diagnosed with an anterior wall myocardial infarction after experiencing chest pain and shortness of breath.
2. The anterior wall myocardial infarction was caused by a blockage in the left anterior descending coronary artery, which supplies blood to the front wall of the heart.
3. The patient underwent urgent angioplasty to open up the blocked artery and restore blood flow to the affected area, reducing the risk of further damage to the heart muscle.
During ventricular remodeling, the heart muscle becomes thicker and less flexible, leading to a decrease in the heart's ability to fill with blood and pump it out to the body. This can lead to shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.
Ventricular remodeling is a natural response to injury, but it can also be exacerbated by factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. Treatment for ventricular remodeling typically involves medications and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.
The process of ventricular remodeling is complex and involves multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is thought to be driven by a variety of factors, including changes in gene expression, inflammation, and the activity of various signaling pathways.
Overall, ventricular remodeling is an important condition that can have significant consequences for patients with heart disease. Understanding its causes and mechanisms is crucial for developing effective treatments and improving outcomes for those affected by this condition.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
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- Data from the current study indicate that an H 2 -enriched intravenous solution is safe for patients with acute cerebral infarction, including patients treated with t-PA. (biomedcentral.com)
- They reported that H 2 was more effective than edaravone, which was approved in Japan as an ROS scavenger for the treatment of cerebral infarction. (biomedcentral.com)
- With particular emphasis on its immunomodulatory potential this review discusses the roles of GDF-15 in pregnancy and in pathological conditions including myocardial infarction, autoimmune disease, and specifically cancer. (frontiersin.org)
- We implanted a subdural, high-density, multielectrode array over the area of the sensorimotor cortex that controls speech in a person with anarthria (the loss of the ability to articulate speech) and spastic quadriparesis caused by a brain-stem stroke. (nih.gov)
- Brain infarction, or stroke, is caused by a blood clot blocking a blood vessel in the brain, which leads to interruption of blood flow and shortage of oxygen. (oneofus.eu)
- Now a research group at Lund University, Sweden, has taken an important step towards a treatment for stroke using stem cells. (oneofus.eu)
- The group shows in a new study, published in the scientific journal Brain, that so-called induced pluripotent stem cells have developed to mature nerve cells at two months after transplantation into the stroke-injured cerebral cortex of rats. (oneofus.eu)
- The results are promising and represent a very early but important step towards a stem cell-based treatment for stroke in patients. (oneofus.eu)
- Following a stroke, nerve cells in the brain die and if these cells could be replaced by new healthy cells, this approach might be developed into a treatment. (oneofus.eu)
- At Lund Stem Cell Center , Zaal Kokaia's and Olle Lindvall's research group is working with the aim to develop a stem cell-based method to treat patients with stroke. (oneofus.eu)
- Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons integrate in stroke-injured cortex and improve functional recovery. (oneofus.eu)
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in brain injury after ischemic stroke [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The first task of the examining physician is to determine whether the vertigo is of central or peripheral origin, since some central causes of acute vertigo, such as cerebellar hemorrhage or infarction, can be life-threatening and may require immediate intervention. (medical-journals.com)
- CTP offers an improved diagnostic benefit over NCCT and CTA for the diagnosis of lacunar infarction. (ajnr.org)
- current infarction and cardiovascular death. (cdc.gov)
- These nerve cells have established contact with other important structures in the brain. (oneofus.eu)
- The research group has first reprogrammed skin cells from an adult human to induced pluripotent stem cells and then induced these cells to become mature nerve cells characteristic for the cerebral cortex. (oneofus.eu)
- By using the method of induced pluripotent stem cells we have been able to generate cells which express those markers which are typical for nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and we have also shown that the new nerve cells are functional», says Zaal Kokaia, Professor of Experimental Medical Research. (oneofus.eu)
- We must also determine which effects the transplanted nerve cells have on other brain functions. (oneofus.eu)
- Bioactive B vitamins deliver optimum benefits for cognitive support, brain and nerve function, and daily energy. (mariettahealthfood.com)
- We also discovered the specific K ATP channel subtype that modulates NEP activity, resulting in the Aβ levels altered in the brain. (nature.com)
- Mental Advantage delivers nutrients that support healthy brain activity for accuracy and recall, mental energy and stamina, and healthy memory. (mariettahealthfood.com)
- A blockage or rupture in one of these blood vessels may occur in any area of the brain. (nih.gov)
- one of the main risk factors for CHD (nonfatal and fa- tal myocardial infarctions [MIs] and sudden death), The excess risk of CHD caused by smoking is but was a causal factor supported by evidence consid- reduced by about half after 1 year of smoking ered to be proved beyond a "reasonable doubt" abstinence and then declines gradually. (cdc.gov)
- It is a sudden interruption of continuous blood flow to the brain and a medical emergency. (nih.gov)
- Other brain cells die because they are damaged by sudden bleeding in or around the brain. (nih.gov)
- By engineering human stem cells to carry specific mutations, and by differentiating these engineered stem cells into physiologically relevant human metabolic cell types, we will make it possible to study the impact of large numbers of gene variants on human cell biology and function. (nih.gov)
- The proposed research will pursue improving cell and animal models for human brain disorders, as well as develop novel cell therapy strategies for brain diseases. (nih.gov)
- Some brain cells die because they stop getting the oxygen and nutrients needed to function. (nih.gov)
- Some brain cells die quickly but many linger in a compromised or weakened state for several hours. (nih.gov)
- Such cell reprogramming approaches may allow for the facile generation of replacement cells for some brain disorders. (nih.gov)
- The brain is nourished by one of the body's richest networks of blood vessels. (nih.gov)
- P., QUIRION, R. (*HjMethyl-carbachol, a new radioligand specific for nicotinic cholinergic receptors in brain. (nih.gov)
- CLARKE, P.B.S. Recent progress in identifying nicotinic cholinoceptors in mamma- han brain. (nih.gov)