The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Bleeding into structures of BRAIN STEM, including the MIDBRAIN; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA, as the result of CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations may include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (AUDITORY BRAIN STEM IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than to the inner ear as in COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.
Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/3138)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (2/3138)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of K+ channel subunit kv2.2 in brain stem and hypothalamic neurons. (3/3138)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful modulatory actions on cardiovascular function that are mediated by specific receptors located on neurons within the hypothalamus and brain stem. Incubation of neuronal cocultures of rat hypothalamus and brain stem with Ang II elicits an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor-mediated inhibition of total outward K+ current that contributes to an increase in neuronal firing rate. However, the exact K+ conductance(s) that is inhibited by Ang II are not established. Pharmacological manipulation of total neuronal outward K+ current revealed a component of K+ current sensitive to quinine, tetraethylammonium, and 4-aminopyridine, with IC50 values of 21.7 micromol/L, 1.49 mmol/L, and 890 micromol/L, respectively, and insensitive to alpha-dendrotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), charybdotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), and mast cell degranulating peptide (1 micromol/L). Collectively, these data suggest the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Biophysical examination of the quinine-sensitive neuronal K+ current demonstrated a macroscopic conductance with similar biophysical properties to those of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Ang II (100 nmol/L), in the presence of the AT2 receptor blocker PD123,319, elicited an inhibition of neuronal K+ current that was abolished by quinine (50 micromol/L). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b mRNA in these neurons. However, Western blot analyses demonstrated that only Kv2.2 protein was present. Coexpression of Kv2.2 and the AT1 receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated an Ang II-induced inhibition of Kv2.2 current. Therefore, these data suggest that inhibition of Kv2.2 contributes to the AT1 receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal K+ current and subsequently to the modulation of cardiovascular function.  (+info)

The superior olivary nucleus and its influence on nucleus laminaris: a source of inhibitory feedback for coincidence detection in the avian auditory brainstem. (4/3138)

Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for coincidence detection. In the present study, the chick SON was investigated. In vivo tracing studies show that the SON projects predominantly to the ipsilateral NM, NL, and NA. In vitro whole-cell recording reveals single-cell morphology, firing properties, and postsynaptic responses. SON neurons are morphologically and physiologically suited for temporal integration; their firing patterns do not reflect the temporal structure of their excitatory inputs. Of most interest, direct stimulation of the SON evokes long-lasting inhibition in NL neurons. The inhibition blocks both intrinsic spike generation and orthodromically evoked activity in NL neurons and can be eliminated by bicuculline methiodide, a potent antagonist for GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest that the SON provides GABAergic inhibitory feedback to laminaris neurons. We discuss a mechanism whereby SON-evoked GABAergic inhibition can influence the coding of interaural time differences for sound localization in the avian auditory brainstem.  (+info)

Concurrent inhibition and excitation of phrenic motoneurons during inspiration: phase-specific control of excitability. (5/3138)

The movements that define behavior are controlled by motoneuron output, which depends on the excitability of motoneurons and the synaptic inputs they receive. Modulation of motoneuron excitability takes place over many time scales. To determine whether motoneuron excitability is specifically modulated during the active versus the quiescent phase of rhythmic behavior, we compared the input-output properties of phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) during inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration. In neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations that generate rhythmic respiratory motor outflow, we blocked excitatory inspiratory synaptic drive to PMNs and then examined their phase-dependent responses to superthreshold current pulses. Pulses during inspiration elicited fewer action potentials compared with identical pulses during expiration. This reduced excitability arose from an inspiratory-phase inhibitory input that hyperpolarized PMNs in the absence of excitatory inspiratory inputs. Local application of bicuculline blocked this inhibition as well as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory firing. Correspondingly, bicuculline locally applied to the midcervical spinal cord enhanced fourth cervical nerve (C4) inspiratory burst amplitude. Strychnine had no effect on C4 output. Nicotinic receptor antagonists neither potentiated C4 output nor blocked its potentiation by bicuculline, further indicating that the inhibition is not from recurrent inhibitory pathways. We conclude that it is bulbospinal in origin. These data demonstrate that rapid changes in motoneuron excitability occur during behavior and suggest that integration of overlapping, opposing synaptic inputs to motoneurons is important in controlling motor outflow. Modulation of phasic inhibition may represent a means for regulating the transfer function of PMNs to suit behavioral demands.  (+info)

A clinical study of motor evoked potentials using a triple stimulation technique. (6/3138)

Amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are usually much smaller than those of motor responses to maximal peripheral nerve stimulation, and show marked variation between normal subjects and from one stimulus to another. Consequently, amplitude measurements have low sensitivity to detect central motor conduction failures due to the broad range of normal values. Since these characteristics are mostly due to varying desynchronization of the descending action potentials, causing different degrees of phase cancellation, we applied the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction to 489 abductor digiti minimi muscles of 271 unselected patients referred for possible corticospinal dysfunction. The TST allows resynchronization of the MEP, and thereby a quantification of the proportion of motor units activated by the transcranial stimulus. TST results were compared with those of conventional MEPs. In 212 of 489 sides, abnormal TST responses suggested conduction failure of various degrees. By contrast, conventional MEPs detected conduction failures in only 77 of 489 sides. The TST was therefore 2.75 times more sensitive than conventional MEPs in disclosing corticospinal conduction failures. When the results of the TST and conventional MEPs were combined, 225 sides were abnormal: 145 sides showed central conduction failure, 13 sides central conduction slowing and 67 sides both conduction failure and slowing. It is concluded that the TST is a valuable addition to the study of MEPs, since it improves detection and gives quantitative information on central conduction failure, an abnormality which appears to be much more frequent than conduction slowing. This new technique will be useful in following the natural course and the benefit of treatments in disorders affecting central motor conduction.  (+info)

Infratentorial atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging and disability in multiple sclerosis. (7/3138)

Loss of tissue volume in the central nervous system may provide an index of fixed neurological dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Recent magnetic resonance studies have shown a modest relationship between clinical disability rating scores and transverse sectional area of the cervical spinal cord. To explore further the relationship between atrophy and disability in multiple sclerosis, we estimated the volumes of infratentorial structures from MRIs in a cross-sectional study of 41 patients, 21 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. We used the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology with point counting to estimate the volume of brainstem, cerebellum and upper cervical spinal cord from three-dimensional MRIs acquired with an MPRAGE (Magnetization-prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo) sequence. The volume of the upper (C1-C3) cervical spinal cord was significantly correlated with a composite spinal cord score derived from the appropriate Functional Scale scores of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). The cerebellar (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) and brainstem (r = 0.34, P < 0.05) volumes correlated with the Scripp's Neurological Disability Rating Scale scores. The upper cervical cord volumes (r = -0.39, P < 0.01), but not the brainstem or cerebellar volumes, were significantly associated with disease duration. MRI-estimated structural volumes may provide a simple index of axonal and/or myelin loss, the presumed pathological substrates of irreversible impairment and disability in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Tissue-specific changes of type 1 angiotensin II receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA in angiotensinogen gene-knockout mice. (8/3138)

This study examined whether type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNAs are regulated during dietary salt loading in angiotensinogen gene-knockout (Atg-/-) mice which are genetically deficient in endogenous production of angiotensin II. Wild-type (Atg+/+) and Atg-/- mice were fed a normal-salt (0.3% NaCl) or a high-salt (4% NaCl) diet for 2 weeks. The mRNA levels were measured by Northern blot analysis. In Atg+/+ mice, concentrations of plasma angiotensin peptides were decreased by salt loading, whereas the treatment increased the brainstem, cardiac, pulmonary, renal cortex, gastric and intestinal AT1 mRNA levels. Salt loading also enhanced renal cortex ACE mRNA levels in Atg+/+ mice. Although plasma angiotensin peptides and urinary aldosterone excretion were not detected in Atg-/- mice, salt loading increased blood pressure in Atg-/- mice. In Atg-/- mice, pulmonary, renal cortex, gastric and intestinal AT1, and renal cortex and intestinal ACE mRNA levels were higher than those in Atg+/+ mice. However, salt loading upregulated AT1 mRNA expression only in the liver of Atg-/- mice, and the treatment did not affect ACE mRNA levels in Atg-/- mice. Furthermore, although the levels of ACE enzymatic activity showed the same trend with the ACE mRNA levels in the lung, renal cortex and intestine of both Atg-/- and Atg+/+ mice, the results of radioligand binding assay showed that cardiac expression of AT1 protein was regulated differently from AT1 mRNA expression both in Atg-/- and Atg+/+ mice. Thus, expression of AT1 and ACE is regulated by salt loading in a tissue-specific manner that appears to be mediated, at least partly, by a mechanism other than changes in the circulating or tissue levels of angiotensin peptides.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Human brainstem preganglionic parasympathetic neurons localized by markers for nitric oxide synthesis. AU - Gai, W. P.. AU - Blessing, W. W.. PY - 1996/8. Y1 - 1996/8. N2 - Identification of human parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in pontomedullary regions has been largely based on studies using cholinesterase histochemical procedures, and so far there is no adequate account of the location of these cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is present in brainstem parasympathetic preganglionic salivatory neurons in the rabbit. In the present study we have used histochemical and immunohistochemical staining for NOS to examine possible preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the human brainstem. We examined, in five human brains, the distribution, through the caudal pons and rostral medulla, of NOS-positive neurons in serial sections stained with NADPH diaphorase for histochemistry, and with antibodies against neuronal NOS peptide for immunohistochemistry. In scattered pontomedullary ...
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes retinal images by generating smooth eye movements that are equal in amplitude and opposite in direction to head turns. Whenever image motion occurs persistently during head turns, the VOR undergoes motor learning; as a result image stability is gradually restored. A group of brain stem neurons that are in the modified pathways has now been described. The neurons express changes in firing in association with motor learning in the VOR and receive monosynaptic inhibition from the flocculus of the cerebellum. The changes in firing have an appropriate magnitude and are expressed at the correct latency to account for the altered VOR. The response properties of the neurons point to their brain stem vestibular inputs for further investigation of the site of motor learning. ...
Brainstem regions support vital bodily functions, yet their genetic architectures and involvement in common brain disorders remain understudied. Here, using imaging-genetics data from a discovery sample of 27,034 individuals, we identify 45 brainstem-associated genetic loci, including the first linked to midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata volumes, and map them to 305 genes. In a replication sample of 7432 participants most of the loci show the same effect direction and are significant at a nominal threshold. We detect genetic overlap between brainstem volumes and eight psychiatric and neurological disorders. In additional clinical data from 5062 individuals with common brain disorders and 11,257 healthy controls, we observe differential volume alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Parkinsons disease, supporting the relevance of brainstem regions and their genetic architectures in common brain disorders ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fos expression in brain stem nuclei of pregnant rats after hydralazine- induced hypotension. AU - Curtis, Kathleen. AU - Cunningham, J. Thomas. AU - Heesch, Cheryl M.. PY - 1999/8/1. Y1 - 1999/8/1. N2 - Fos and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunoreactivity were evaluated in the brain stems of 21-day pregnant and virgin female rats injected with either hydralazine (HDZ; 10 mg/kg iv) or vehicle. HDZ produced significant hypotension in both groups, although baseline blood pressure was lower in pregnant rats (96 ± 2.5 mmHg) than in virgin female rats (121 ± 2.8 mmHg). There were no differences in Fos immunoreactivity in the brain stems of pregnant and virgin female rats after vehicle treatment. HDZ-induced hypotension significantly increased Fos expression in both groups; however, the magnitude of the increases differed in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL), the area postrema (AP), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL). Fos expression after HDZ in pregnant rats was augmented ...
Autor: Borst, J. Gerard G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999-11-15; Titel: Depletion of calcium in the synaptic cleft of a calyx-type synapse in the rat brainstem
List of causes of Bilateral brainstem dysfunction and Head symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Kiyama, H.; Shiosaka, S.; Kubota, Y.; Cho, H.J.; Takagi, H.; Tateishi, K.; Hashimura, E.; Hamaoka, T.; Tohyama, M., 1983: Ontogeny of cholecystokinin-8 containing neuron system of the rat: an immunohistochemical analysis--II. Lower brain stem
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem. AU - Kuo, Sidney P.. AU - Bradley, Laura A.. AU - Trussell, Laurence. PY - 2009/7/29. Y1 - 2009/7/29. N2 - Identification of shared features between avian and mammalian auditory brainstem circuits has provided much insight into the mechanisms underlying early auditory processing. However, previous studies have highlighted an apparent difference in inhibitory systems; synaptic inhibition is thought to be slow and GABAergic in birds but to have fast kinetics and be predominantly glycinergic in mammals. Using patch-clamp recordings in chick brainstem slices, we found that this distinction is not exclusively true. Consistent with previous work, IPSCs in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were slow and mediated by GABA A receptors. However, IPSCs in nucleus laminaris (NL) and a subset of neurons in nucleus angularis (NA) had rapid time courses twofold to threefold faster than those in NM. ...
Together with Istvan Törk, we have examined the morphology and distribution of noradrenergic (Baker et al., 1989) and serotonergic neurons in the human brain (Törk and Hornung, 1990; Baker et al,...
Subjects. Ten healthy, right-handed subjects (five female) participated in the study. The median age was 30 years of age (range, 21-33 years). None reported any abnormal gastrointestinal or somatic symptoms on a personal history and bowel symptom questionnaire (Talley et al., 1989). Clinical depression was excluded with the use of the Becks Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1961). None of the subjects took any medications likely to interfere with the blood oxygen level-dependent response. All subjects gave informed consent, and the Oxfordshire Clinical Research Ethics Committee approved the study.. Stimuli. Electrical stimuli were used to induce both somatic and visceral pain. Purpose-built electrical stimulating catheters were designed for safe use within the high field strength magnet (Standard Instruments, Karlsruhe, Germany). These contained no ferromagnetic material and had two bipolar ring electrodes 2 cm apart at the distal tip. The catheters were connected via a magnet-compatible ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Etienne Gaudrain.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Hearing Group Meetings series.. ...
Brainstem function. A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as breathing and instructing the heart to beat. Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. The brain stem also controls less essential abilities such as articulate speech.. ...
This paper presents the effects of spontaneous random activity on information transmission in an auditory brain stem neuron model. In computer simulations, the supra-threshold synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated by sinusoidal functions at a frequency of 220-3520 Hz with regard to the human speech spectrum. The stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons, so as to realize threshold fluctuations or a variation of spike firing times. The results show that the information rates estimated from the entropy of inter-spike intervals of spike trains tend toward a convex function of the spontaneous rates when the intensity of sinusoidal functions decreases. Furthermore, the results show that a convex function of the spontaneous rates tends to disappear as the frequency of the sinusoidal function
You may have heard of the brain stem, but do you know what its in charge of? What its basic function is? The purpose it serves for your body?. The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebellum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts.. The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive - your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure.. The brain stem also coordinates such things as eye movements, movement of the jaw, tongue and larynx, your facial expressions, and sensations and movements of your neck and head; the brain stem accomplishes that through the cranial nerves that pass through it. Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance!. Any type of injury to the ...
New research, published today in Nature, reveals how increasing brain stiffness as we age causes brain stem cell dysfunction, and demonstrates new ways to reverse older stem cells to a younger, healthier state. The results have far reaching implications for how we understand the ageing process, and how we might develop much-needed treatments for age-related brain diseases.. As our bodies age, muscles and joints can become stiff, making everyday movements more difficult. This study shows the same is true in our brains, and that age-related brain stiffening has a significant impact on the function of brain stem cells.. A multi-disciplinary research team, based at the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute (University of Cambridge), studied young and old rat brains to understand the impact of age-related brain stiffening on the function of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs).. These cells are a type of brain stem cell important for maintaining normal brain function, and for the regeneration ...
Read Primary Vagal Projection to the Contralateral Non-NTS Region in the Embryonic Chick Brainstem Revealed by Optical Recording, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In the large group of genetically undetermined infantile-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies, multiple defects of mitochondrial DNA-related respiratory-chain complexes constitute a frequent biochemical signature. In order to identify responsible genes, we used exome-next-generation sequencing in a selected cohort of patients with this biochemical signature. In an isolated patient, we found two mutant alleles for EARS2, the gene encoding mitochondrial glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. The brain magnetic resonance imaging of this patient was hallmarked by extensive symmetrical cerebral white matter abnormalities sparing the periventricular rim and symmetrical signal abnormalities of the thalami, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and cerebellar white matter. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed increased lactate. We matched this magnetic resonance imaging pattern with that of a cohort of 11 previously selected unrelated cases. We found mutations in the EARS2 gene in all. Subsequent detailed ...
Covid-19 pandemic has captivated scientists to investigate if this new disease can affect the central nervous system (CNS). The most challenging symptoms of Covid-19 are related to respiratory distress, and most patients admitted in intensive care units cannot breathe by their own. Therefore, a crucial question is if respiratory distress can be partially explained by the CNS affection. SARS-Cov-2 is a beta-coronavirus that shares high similarities with SARS-CoV. The infection of SARS‐CoV has been reported in the brains from both patients and experimental animals, where the brainstem was heavily infected. Those coronaviruses have been able to invade the brainstem via a synapse‐connected route to the medullary respiratory center, where the infected regions included the nucleus of the solitary tract and nucleus ambiguous. The vagal afferent nerves from receptors in the lung communicate with the medulla and pons respiratory control centers to coordinate inspiration and expiration. This suggests that
Transcription, translation, and turnover of transcripts and proteins are essential for cellular function. The contribution of those factors to protein levels is under debate, as transcript levels and cognate protein levels do not necessarily correlate due to regulation of translation and protein turnover. Here we propose neuronal polarity as a third factor that is particularly evident in the CNS, leading to considerable distances between somata and axon terminals. Consequently, transcript levels may negatively correlate with cognate protein levels in CNS regions, i.e., transcript and protein levels behave reciprocally. To test this hypothesis, we performed an integrative inter‐omics study and analyzed three interconnected rat auditory brainstem regions (cochlear nuclear complex, CN; superior olivary complex, SOC; inferior colliculus, IC) and the rest of the brain as a reference. We obtained transcript and protein sets in these regions of interest (ROIs) by DNA microarrays and label‐free mass
Model of Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body (MNTB) neurons described in Lu-Yang Wang, Li Gan, Ian D. Forsythe and Leonard K. Kaczmarek. Contribution of the Kv3.1 potassium channel to high-frequency firing in mouse auditory neurones. J. Physiol (1998) 509.1 183-194. Created by David Kornfeld, Byram Hills High School, Armonk NY. Please email [email protected] for questions about the model. See Readme.txt below for more info ...
Electrical stimulation of the lower brain stem (ESLB) at sites presumed to be parts of the ascending noradrenergic system was carried out in unanaesthetized young guinea pigs. At neutral ambient...
Affiliation (Current):基礎生物学研究所,神経行動学研究部門,助教|大学共同利用機関法人自然科学研究機構(新分野創成センター、アストロバイオロジーセンター、生命創成探究,生命創成探究センター,助教, Research Field:Neurophysiology / General neuroscience,Neuroscience in general,Biological Sciences,Basic Section 46010:Neuroscience-general-related,Neurophysiology and muscle physiology, Keywords:ゼブラフィッシュ,有毛細胞,聴覚,脳幹,前庭,内耳,耳石,マウスナー細胞,カリウムチャネル,網様体脊髄路ニューロン, # of Research Projects:8, # of Research Products:65, Ongoing Project:Research on brainstem circuits that integrate binaural vestibular inputs in larval zebrafish as a model system
The clinical and pathological spectrum of brain-stem vascular malformations. Long-term course simulates multiple sclerosis. Three cases of brain-stem vascular malformation with progressive and fluctuating clinical courses of longer than one year were studied. One patient with a rare brain-stem arteriovenous ...
ps: Includes bibliographical references and index Physical and electrical properties of cells in the nervous system Synapses and synaptic transmission Neuroplasticity Development of the nervous system Somatosensory system Somatosensation : clinical application Neuropathic pain, pain matrix dysfunction, and pain syndromes Autonomic nervous system The motor system : motor neurons Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and movement Peripheral nervous system Spinal region Cranial nerves Brainstem region Vestibular and visual systems Cerebrum Cerebrum : clinical applications Support systems : blood supply and cerebrospinal fluid system ...
Inner ear neurons develop from the otic placode and connect hair cells with central neurons in auditory brain stem nuclei. Otic neurogenesis is a developmental process which can be separated into different cellular states that are characterized by a distinct combination of molecular markers. Neurogenesis is highly regulated by a network of extrinsic and intrinsic factors, whose participation in auditory neurogenesis is discussed. Trophic factors include the fibroblast growth factor, neurotrophins and insulin-like peptide families. The expression domains of transcription factor families and their roles in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways associated with neurogenesis are also discussed. Understanding and defining the key factors and gene networks in the development and function of the inner ear represents an important step towards defeating deafness.
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In this doctoral thesis, several aspects of neuronal activity in the rat superior olivary complex (SOC), an auditory brainstem structure, were analyzed using optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD). The thesis is divided into 5 Chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, which gives an overview of the auditory brainstem and VSD imaging. In Chapter 2, an optical imaging method for the SOC was standardized, using the VSD RH795. To do so, the following factors were optimized: (1) An extracellular potassium concentration of 5 mM is necessary during the incubation and recording to observe synaptically evoked responses in the SOC. (2) Employing different power supplies reduced the noise. (3) Averaging of 10 subsequent trials yielded a better signal-to-noise ratio. (4) RH795 of 100 µM with 50 min prewash was optimal to image SOC slices for more than one hour. (5) Stimulus-evoked optical signals were TTX sensitive, revealing action potential-driven input. (6) Synaptically evoked optical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The 3-channel Lissajous trajectory of the auditory brain-stem response. V. Effects of stimulus intensity in the cat. AU - Martin, William H.. AU - Gardi, John N.. AU - Jewett, Don L.. PY - 1987/9. Y1 - 1987/9. N2 - Three-channel Lissajous trajectories (3-CLTs) of the cat auditory brain-stem response (ABR) were recorded using click stimuli ranging from 10 to 70 dB impulse SPL and were analyzed using planar analysis. The number of planar segments increased from typically 4 at 10 dB to 12 at 70 dB but certain shape features of the 3-CLT (apices) were preserved across stimulus levels. As stimulus level was raised, size of individual planar segments increased. There were progressive decreases in apex latency as stimulus level was increased. The combined durations of groups of high intensity planar segments were similar to those of their low intensity forms. Shape, size and orientation of planar segments tended to change more across stimulus intensities below 40 dB than above and ...
Adverse psychosocial exposures in early life, namely experiences such as child maltreatment, caregiver stress or depression, and domestic or community violence, have been associated in epidemiological studies with increased lifetime risk of adverse outcomes, including diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and psychiatric illnesses. Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes
11-20-2010, 10:50 PM Photo: the Labs first development image of a multi processor robotic brain stem made from Parallax components (the prototype is seen resting on the green cutting board). This is a hybrid brain stem processor programmed in two languages. The module is currently a hand held unit. When connected to the Giant Brain, it will pass motion mobility commands to the robot and ensure compatibility with additional components. ...
Therefore, this system has been used as a mouse model of Parkinsons disease and, interestingly, these animals show a significant decrease in the survival and proliferation of neuroblast in the SVZ [ 8687 ]. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. Shetty AK, Hattiangady B. The astrocytes are the primary precursors for rapid cell amplification. FGFresponsive Brain stem cells in adults progenitors reside in proliferative and quiescent regions of the adult rodent brain.. #Brain stem cells ...
This medical exhibit reveals cut-away comparative views of the brainstem and cerebellar region. The first detail identifies elements of normal anatomy, the second shows the appearance of an invasive tumor in the brainstem region invading the brainstem, pons and cerebellum.
The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. According to, the brain stem functions as an autopilot for the human body, as it regulates such...
Hes dead. He shot himself in the brain stem. Nothing can survive that. The human body can survive the loss of anything else but the brain stem. Hes dead. We brought him back in to be a dead body. And, in fact, it was cheaper to get Andrew Scott than a mannequin. But hes dead. - Steven Moffat. ...
Steenweg ME, Ghezzi D, Haack T, Abbink TEM, Martinelli D, van Berkel CGM, Bley A, Diogo L, Grillo E, Naudé JTe Water, Strom TM, Bertini E, Prokisch H, van der Knaap MS & Zeviani M (2012) Leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate LTBL caused by EARS2 mutations. Brain 135, 1387-94 ...
This 3D medical animation highlights brain in a semitransparent figure. The brain is the center of the nervous system. The brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord. Its neurological functions include those necessary for survival such as alertness, breathing, digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure regulation.
Vision training for sport is the application of specific exercises conducted over a period of time that leads to neural restructuring of cortex and brainstem pathways allowing a person to maximise efficiency while performing visual perceptual tasks which leads to enhanced visual motor performance
Our current work with SCA involves assessing the integrity of the cerebellar and brainstem pathways using non-invasive techniques from the pre-symptomatic stage and throughout disease progression. Our work intends to yield useful insights about disease pathogenesis, as well as provide critical assessments of CNS functional pathways that may serve as surrogate biomarkers of disease progression.. For more information about these studies, please feel free to contact us.. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biochai \ cDNA _ Human Fetal Normal Tissue Brain Brain Stem \ C1244075-10 for more molecular products just contact us
Natural cast, in SOMSO-Plast®. Brain Stem from the trans- parent brain model BS 25/T. Separates into 12 parts. The ventricular cavities of the brain is extremely well modelled. A perfect teaching aid for medical students. On a stand with green base. ...
My anatomical embroidery of the brain stem was stitched as a commission for a neuroscientist. It was a joy to stitch, not just because of the monocrhomatic nature of it but because the pops of colour were too gorgeous to resist.. Each anatomical embroidery I do is on an 8 or 9 inch embroidery hoop and each image is anatomically correct and done by hand as I work from a range of medical books and dissection manuals to get the details spot on. This means I can study the texture of the organs on which Im working to try to replicate them in the stitching. Each hoop is worked with a mix of satin stitches, couching and French knots on calico, depending on the organs I am interpreting, and the backs of the hoops are covered with a complimentary colour of felt. Each hoop takes up to three months to create and its a process that begins with basic colours upon which I build up the shading and other details.. I take commissions, of course, so am open and willing to all sorts of suggestions. So far my ...
For the first time scientists have shown that brain stem cells are immune privileged, which means that they are invisible to a transplant recipients
Hey friends, I just received this update below from my friends in Australia and told… Preston Million needs your support for Jennis Brain Stem Cancer Fund
Another day, another functional imaging modality of the brain. Developed by a team at Princeton, the new experimental technique tries to figure out the pro
If you read the Reflex Language or C++ API sections of the reference, you will quickly see that Entities form the backbone of communication with BrainStem modules. They are the basic control mechanism for interacting with the BrainStem and the hardware to which it is connected. he following subsections describe the core entities that are available on most BrainStem modules. Less common and application specific entities will be described in the modules datasheet.. Entities usually describe a class of interaction, and usually are formed by a group of individual instances. For example; the digital entity is made up of multiple digital I/Os, which can be manipulated individually. In general the following form applies to an Entity.. ...
Neuronal circuits in the brainstem control life-sustaining functions, in addition to driving and gating active sensation through taste, smell, and touch. We pro...
Scientists say they have developed a way to successfully transplant certain protective brain cells into mice - without the need for lifelong anti-rejection drugs.
We explain The Brainstem with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine the structure and function of the the brain stem.|/p|
Sselective blocking or passing sensory information to the cerebreal cortex, (e.g. the slight sound made bya sick child moving in bed may arouse his mother but the noise of regularly passing trains may be suppressed) ...
Educators and Students: freely download thousands of medical animations and illustrations when your school library subscribes to the SMART Imagebase.
Brain stem[edit]. Neural activity during REM sleep seems to originate in the brain stem, especially the pontine tegmentum and ... a b c d e f g h J. Alan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Scott, & Robert Stickgold (2000), "Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive ... Research in the 1990s using positron emission tomography (PET) confirmed the role of the brain stem and suggested that, within ... In REM sleep, however, the necessary synaptic downscaling in the brain stem is instead the result of random neuronal firing." ...
Less common: Increased intracranial pressure, giant cell arteritis, cavernous sinus mass (e.g. meningioma, Brain stem ... The classical brain stem syndromes. Springfield, Thomas, 1971. *^ "Halo Orthosis Immobilization - Spine - Orthobullets". www. ... it is more liable to the mechanical effects of backward brain stem displacement by intracranial space occupying lesions.[7] ... his view being that since the sixth nerve emerges straight forward from the brain stem, whereas other cranial nerves emerge ...
All in all 31 spinal nerves project from the brain stem,[8] some forming plexa as they branch out, such as the brachial plexa, ... Brain[edit]. Main article: Brain. Rostrally to the spinal cord lies the brain.[8] The brain makes up the largest portion of the ... Brainstem[edit]. Main article: Brainstem. The brainstem consists of the medulla, the pons and the midbrain. The medulla can be ... In vertebrates, the brain is protected by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae.[6] The brain and ...
... crossing over from the ipsilateral side in the spinal cord to the contralateral side in the brain stem; below this is the ... The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum. It is a cone ... The medulla oblongata connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord, and is responsible for several functions of ... Stained brain slice images which include the "medulla" at the BrainMaps project ...
"Brain-stem encephalitis; further observations on a grave syndrome with benign prognosis". British Medical Journal. 1 (5032): ... "Brain. 130 (Pt 9): 2245-57. doi:10.1093/brain/awm004. PMID 17337484. Archived from the original on 2014-10-29.. ... Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, for instance, is part of the group of conditions now regarded as forms of Miller Fisher ... MRI abnormalities in the brainstem have been reported in 11%.[10] Whether isolated acute sensory loss can be regarded as a form ...
"Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 15 (2): 201-209. doi:10.1007/s11940-013-0221-1 ... brainstem encephalitis, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and polymyositis. The following ... The purpose of this exploration was to shed light on immunotherapies and distinguishing between neurotoxicity and brain ...
The Lateral geniculate and pulvinar nuclei project to and terminate in V1, and carry motor information from the brain stem as ... Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. (Thalamocortical fibers labeled at center top.) ... Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. (Thalamocortical fibers labeled at upper left.) ... Van Essen D.C. (2005). "corticocortical and thalamocortical information flow in the primate visual system". Progress in brain ...
Scheme showing the connections of the several parts of the brain. (Inferior peduncle labeled at bottom right.) ... from the Purkinje cells to the vestibular nuclei in the dorsal brainstem located at the junction between the pons and medulla ...
From the lateral geniculate body, fibers of the optic radiation pass to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain. ... The fibers from the retina run along the optic nerve to nine primary visual nuclei in the brain, from which a major relay ... Stained brain slice images which include the "optic%20nerve" at the BrainMaps project ... is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. In humans, the optic nerve is derived from ...
... of death from an intraparenchymal bleed in traumatic brain injury is especially high when the injury occurs in the brain stem.[ ... Brain trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors[1]. Risk factors. High blood pressure, amyloidosis, ... Causes include brain trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and brain tumors.[1] The largest risk factors for ... "Brain Research. 1342 (1342): 111-1117. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.033. PMC 2885522. PMID 20420814.. ...
I61.3) Intracerebral haemorrhage in brain stem. *(I61.4) Intracerebral haemorrhage in cerebellum. *(I61.5) Intracerebral ...
List of regions in the human brain. Additional images[edit]. *. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... in some cases becoming the largest structure in the brain. (See the adjoining drawing of a codfish brain.) In amphibians, ... and connections with numerous other brain structures in the brainstem and diencephalon, also show a corresponding inhomogeneity ... Illing, R-B (1996). "The mosaic architecture of the superior colliculus". Prog Brain Res. 112: 17-34. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08 ...
Brain stem. *Brainstem stroke syndrome. *Medulla *Medial medullary syndrome. *Lateral medullary syndrome ... If the bleeds are large enough to put pressure on the brain, signs of increased intracranial pressure or brain damage will be ... which causes further ischemia by restricting blood flow to the brain.[10] When the brain is denied adequate blood flow, a ... Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology at eMedicine *^ "Acute Subdural Hematomas - UCLA ...
G46.3) Brain stem stroke syndrome *Benedikt syndrome. *Claude syndrome. *Foville syndrome. *Millard-Gubler syndrome ... G94) Other disorders of brain in diseases classified elsewhere. *(G95) Other diseases of spinal cord *(G95.0) Syringomyelia and ... G46) Vascular syndromes of brain in cerebrovascular diseases *(G46.0) Middle cerebral artery syndrome ...
Bickerstaff ER (June 1957). "Brain-stem encephalitis; further observations on a grave syndrome with benign prognosis". British ... Brain 1986; 109: 1115-1126". Brain. 139 (7): 2096-2100. doi:10.1093/brain/aww127. ISSN 0006-8950. Asbury AK, Cornblath DR (1990 ... Brain. 130 (Pt 9): 2245-57. doi:10.1093/brain/awm004. PMID 17337484. Archived from the original on 2014-10-29. Darweesh SK, ... Brain 1969; 92: 589-606; with An acute axonal form of Guillain-Barré polyneuropathy by T.E. Feasby, J.J. Gilbert, W.F. Brown, C ...
Bickerstaff, E.R. (15 June 1957). "Brain-stem encephalitis; further observations on a grave syndrome with benign prognosis". ...
Expression in the brain[edit]. MCPH1 is expressed in the fetal brain, in the developing forebrain, and on the walls of the ... neuronal stem cell population maintenance. • negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. ... Certain mutations in MCPH1, when homozygous, cause primary microcephaly-a severely diminished brain.[5][6][7] Hence, it has ... Brain man makes waves with claims of recent human evolution". Science. 314 (5807): 1871-3. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1871. ...
The PT in the brain stem is also an important component of the ARAS. Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes ... The other noradrenergic neurons in the brain occur in loose collections of cells in the brainstem, including the lateral ... throughout the brain.[22][23] A brief comparison of these systems follows:. Neurotransmitter systems in the brain. System. ... and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons originate from the raphe nuclei within the brainstem as well; the ...
Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. ... The fibers continue to course through the medulla oblongata of the brainstem, at which point they pass through the inferior ... ISBN 978-1-58890-572-7. Cooke, J. D. (October 1971). "Origin and termination of cuneocerebellar tract". Experimental Brain ... Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ...
Thalamus Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. ... Brainstem. Posterior view. at the Library of Congress Web Archives (archived 2001-11-27) at the ...
It sends fibers to deep cerebellar nuclei that, in turn, project to both the cerebral cortex and the brain stem, thus providing ... It is also commonly associated with dysplasias of brainstem nuclei. DWM has been reported to be in association with a wide ... Brainstem. Posterior view. Midsagittal view Schematic representation of the major anatomical subdivisions of the cerebellum. ... S.K. Clarren; J. Alvord; S.M. Sumi (1978). "Brain malformations related to prenatal exposure to ethanol". Journal of Pediatrics ...
Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. ... Brainstem. Posterior view. Auditory system List of regions in the human brain Shore, S. E.: Auditory/Somatosensory Interactions ... This indicates that the inferior colliculus is metabolically more active than many other parts of the brain. The hippocampus, ... The input connections to the inferior colliculus are composed of many brainstem nuclei. All nuclei except the contralateral ...
... suggesting that brain stem nuclei are critical platforms as well.[10] He regards feelings as the necessary foundation of ... Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain, Harcourt, 2003. *Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain ... doi:10.1093/brain/awg166. PMID 12805123.. *. Parvizi J, Damasio AR (2001). "Consciousness and the brainstem". Cognition. 79 (1- ... Habibi A.; Damasio A. (2014). "Music, feelings and the human brain". Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain. 24 (1): 92-102. ...
... suggesting that brain stem nuclei are critical platforms as well.[10] He regards feelings as the necessary foundation of ... Parvizi J, Damasio AR (2003). "Neuroanatomical correlates of brainstem coma". Brain. 126 (Pt 7): 1524-1536. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain, Harcourt, 2003. *Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain ... Habibi A.; Damasio A. (2014). "Music, feelings and the human brain". Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain. 24 (1): 92-102. ...
Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Dissection of brain- ... stem. Dorsal view. External capsule External capsule Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. These fibers run between the most lateral (toward ... Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia.Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection. Powell, Meshell (13 January 2014). " ...
Brain stem involvement is common. Depression, weakness, head tilt, and dysphagia also occur. S. fayeri may cause myositis in ... Garnham, P. C. C.; Duggan, A. J.; Sinden, R. E. (1979). "A new species of Sarcocystis in the brain of two exotic birds". ... This genus was distinguished from Sarcocystis on the basis of its tendency to encyst within the brain rather than within muscle ...
Scheme showing the connections of the several parts of the brain. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Hind- and ... Basal view of a human brain Dissection of human midbrain with middle cerebellar peduncle labeled. Cross section through lower ...
Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view ... Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... Coronal section through mid-brain. Transverse section of mid-brain at level of inferior colliculi. Scheme showing the course of ... The brainstem nuclei include: the superior olive the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL) the ventral nucleus ...
Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view. Figure showing the mode of ... A right-sided brain tumor can produce either a right-sided or a left-sided sixth nerve palsy as an initial sign. Thus a right- ... ISBN 978-0-8089-2371-8. Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain. ... The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem at the junction of the pons and the medulla, medial to the facial nerve. It runs ...
By so doing, participants increase cerebral blood flow to a specified region of the brain, consequently increasing brain ... Other disadvantages of HEG mirror current frustrations with fMRI and stem from the indirect nature of both techniques and ... Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6(9), 1-10. *^ Coben, R., Linden, M. & Myers, T.E. (2010). Neurofeedback for autism spectrum ... Toomim, Mize, Kwong et al. found that after only ten 30-minute sessions of HEG brain exercise training, participants with ...
Role of the brain[edit]. The brain stem can control food intake, because it contains neural circuits that detect hunger and ... The brain stem's involvement of food intake has been researched using rats. Rats that have had the motor neurons in the brain ... The brain checks for glucoprivation on its side of the blood-brain barrier (since glucose is its fuel), while the liver ... This research shows that the brain stem does in fact play a role in eating. ...
"Spatial and Functional Architecture of the Mammalian Brain Stem Respiratory Network: A Hierarchy of Three Oscillatory ... Progress in Brain Research. Progress in Brain Research. 165: 201-20. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)65013-9. ISBN 978-0-444-52823-0 ... Gargaglioni LH, Bícegoa KC, Branco LG (December 2008). "Brain monoaminergic neurons and ventilatory control in vertebrates". ... Progress in brain research. 188: 31-50. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53825-3.00008-5. PMID 21333801. Ramirez JM, Doi A, Garcia AJ, ...
"Antibody Transforms Stem Cells Directly Into Brain Cells". Science Daily. 22 April 2013. ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... allowing a new population of healthy B cells to develop from lymphoid stem cells. ... usually results in death or severe brain damage.[32] At least one patient with rheumatoid arthritis developed PML after ... "Popular Cancer Drug Linked to Often Fatal 'Brain Eating' Virus". Northwestern University News and Information. Archived from ...
Donkin JJ, Turner RJ, Hassan I, Vink R (2007). "Substance P in traumatic brain injury". Progress in Brain Research. 161: 97-109 ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ... Substance P and the NK1 receptor are widely distributed in the brain and are found in brain regions that are specific to ... Yip J, Chahl LA (Apr 2001). "Localization of NK1 and NK3 receptors in guinea-pig brain". Regulatory Peptides. 98 (1-2): 55-62. ...
Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ... Stem cell transplantation was pioneered using bone-marrow-derived stem cells by a team at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research ... See also: List of conditions treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Indications[edit]. Indications for stem cell ...
Early humans evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal,[21] with a brain mass approximately one ... In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and ... the human/brain epoch, (4) the technology epoch, (5) the artificial intelligence epoch, and (6) the universal colonization ...
Harvesting neural stem cells requires sacrificing the developing fetus, a process considered too costly to perform on many ... DeMarse TB, Wagenaar DA, Blau AW, Potter SM (2001). "The Neurally Controlled Animat: Biological Brains Acting with Simulated ... One study, however, did make use of human neural stem cells grown into a network to control a robotic actuator. These cells ... Foremost among these abnormalities is the fact that the neurons are usually harvested as neural stem cells from a fetus and are ...
The difference between soft and hard body parts stems mostly from the fact that carbon has a very low X-ray cross section ...
The two ends on the forked side are held one in each hand with the third (the stem of the Y) pointing straight ahead. Often the ... Tall Tales About the Mind & Brain: Separating Fact From Fiction. Oxford University Press. pp. 411-424 ...
Brain[edit]. Circulating levels of androgens can influence human behavior because some neurons are sensitive to steroid ... An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ... Numerous reports have shown androgens alone are capable of altering the structure of the brain,[11] but identification of which ... Evidence from neurogenesis (formation of new neurons) studies on male rats has shown that the hippocampus is a useful brain ...
Brain stem: Tumors on this can affect blood pressure, swallowing, and heartbeat.[citation needed] ... Secondary brain tumorsEdit. Secondary tumors of the brain are metastatic and have invaded the brain from cancers originating in ... A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.[2] There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous ... "Brain Stem Gliomas in Childhood". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 17 February ...
Face: Weaponized brain stem. Capable of emitting a highly destructive energy blast from face. Due to the nature of his mutation ...
Van Den Berghe, Pierre L (2010). "Human inbreeding avoidance: Culture in nature". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 6: 91-102. doi ... and the Hutterites stem from very small founder populations. The same is true for some Hasidic and Haredi Jewish groups. ...
These are the "mammal-like amniotes", or stem-mammals, that later gave rise to the true mammals.[48] Soon after, another group ... Reptiles are generally considered less intelligent than mammals and birds.[32] The size of their brain relative to their body ... This stem-based definition is equivalent to the more common definition of Sauropsida, which Modesto and Anderson synonymized ... The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are ...
Brain. 106 (3): 623-42. doi:10.1093/brain/106.3.623. PMID 6640273. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-26.. ... Stemming from Cartesian dualism, a formulation sometimes called interactionalist dualism suggests a two-way interaction, that ... It has become possible to study the living brain, and researchers can now watch the brain's decision-making process at work. A ... Brain research. Brain research reviews. 31 (2-3): 357-63. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(99)00052-1. PMID 10719163.. ...
Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011): as Sentinal Prime (stem). Verwysings[wysig , wysig bron]. *↑ Steve Chawkins. "Leonard ... The Brain Eaters (1958). *Harbor Command (Episode - Contraband Diamonds) (1958). *The Twilight Zone - A Quality of Mercy (1961) ...
A French team developed the French neurotropic vaccine (FNV), which was extracted from mouse brain tissue. Since this vaccine ... The attenuated live vaccine stem 17D was developed in 1937 by Max Theiler.[32] The WHO recommends routine vaccinations for ...
Further in the future, stem cell biotechnology may also make this possible, with no need for anti-rejection drugs. ... determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring) is discrepant with the surgical reassignment previously imposed.[6][7][8] Milton ...
The leaves or the soft part of the stem can be chewed with either chewing gum or fried peanuts to make it easier to chew. In ... in collaboration with the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and its local affiliates. ... The plants are watered heavily starting around a month before they are harvested to make the leaves and stems soft and moist. A ... Thus, harvesters transport khat by packaging the fresh leaves and stems in plastic bags or wrapping them in banana leaves to ...
After transection of the brain stem just above the pons, the threshold is lowered and less bladder filling is required to ... Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ... The state of the reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory fibers ... Paruresis, also known as shy bladder syndrome, is an example of a bladder interruption from the brain that often causes total ...
Stem groupEdit. Stem tetrapods are all animals more closely related to tetrapods than to lungfish, but excluding the tetrapod ... So it appears they could only hear high intensity, low frequency sounds-and the stapes more probably just supported the brain ... These extinction events led to the disappearance of stem-tetrapods with fish-like features.[55] When stem-tetrapods reappear in ... The Devonian stem-tetrapods went through two major bottlenecks during the Late Devonian extinctions, also known as the end- ...
"Widespread sites of brain stem ventilatory chemoreceptors". Journal of Applied Physiology (American Physiological Society) 75 ( ...
... indicate a jump from australopithecine brain size which generally ranged from 400-500 cc (24-31 cu in).[25] The brain anatomy ... Nonetheless, specific shapes were likely not thought of in advance, and probably stem from a lack of standardisation in ... and handedness is associated with major reorganisation of the brain and the lateralisation of brain function between the left ... Like contemporary Homo, H. habilis brain size generally varied from 500-900 cc (31-55 cu in). The body proportions of H. ...
Met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin are in the brain stem and spinal cord; they are the pain killers of the spinal cord.[3] Both ... "Brain Neuron Physiology". Retrieved 2007-10-07.. *↑ Dalayeun JF, Norès JM, Bergal S (1993). "Physiology of beta-endorphins. A ... All of the endorphins bind to the opioid receptors in the brain. Many of the analgesic (pain killer) drugs have a similar ... action in the brain. The main difference between the natural endorphins and the analgesic drugs is that natural endorphins are ...
For example, strychnine acts as an allosteric inhibitor of the glycine receptor in the mammalian spinal cord and brain stem. ... MPTP is able to cross the blood brain barrier and enter acidic lysosomes.[13] MPTP is biologically activated by MAO-B, an ...
"Researchers One Step Closer to Building Synthetic Brain". Daily Tech. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April ... The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking ...
Cortisol is a major stress hormone and has effects on many tissues in the body, including the brain. In the brain, cortisol ... associated with decreased glucocorticoid receptor gene methylation in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder stemming ... Anatomical connections between brain areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus facilitate ... The HPA Axis plays a clear role in the production of corticosteroids, which govern many facets of brain development and ...
Spinella M (2001). The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medications: Plant Drugs That Alter Mind, Brain, and Behavior. MIT Press. ... It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is ... Candied ginger or crystallized ginger, known in the U.K. as "stem ginger", is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a ... false stems made of the rolled bases of leaves) about one meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades. The inflorescences bear ...
Brain stem death is where a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for ... The brain stem. The brain stem is the lower part of the brain thats connected to the spinal cord (part of the central nervous ... Brain stem death is when a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for ... The brain stem also relays information to and from the brain to the rest of the body, so it plays an important role in the ...
STEM, Topics featuring robotics, audio, and circuit training from the mind of an IC Design Engineer. ...
Their work is a step forward in the controversial field of stem-cell research, which scientists say holds the promise of ... Stem cells are a kind of master cell that can develop into a variety of tissues. ... Two teams of researchers said Friday that they had found reliable ways to coax human embryonic stem cells into becoming brain ... Two teams of researchers said Friday that they had found reliable ways to coax human embryonic stem cells into becoming brain ...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
Brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral hemispheres and the cervical ... Alternative Title: brain stem. Brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral ... brain. Brain. , the mass of nerve tissue in the anterior end of an organism. The brain integrates sensory information and ... is the death of the brain stem. Finally, the article surveys notions about the meaning of human death that have prevailed ...
STEM, Topics featuring robotics, audio, and circuit training from the mind of an IC Design Engineer. ...
Video of The brainstem is a sort of automatic control centre for several important involuntary actions of the body, such as ... These vital mechanisms are controlled by one of the brains most durable parts--the brain stem. The brain stem is an automatic ... For example, if food goes down the wrong way, the brain stem will force us to cough. If the brain stem is damaged, the ... The brain stem helps serve this purpose. It regulates heartbeat and respiration. It helps to wake up the rest of the brain from ...
... brain stem diseases symptoms, free ebook download pdf in hindi, constant buzzing in ears and dizziness, ginkgo biloba makes ... Brain stem glioma (usually high grade): A brain stem glioma forms in the brain stem, which is the part of the brain connected ... The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue that runs from the brain stem down the center of the back. Brain and spinal cord ... An adult brain tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain.. A brain tumor that starts in ...
Among recommendations from Monsters report, Building and Securing an Organizational Brain Trust in an Age of Brain Drain: * ...
... the type of tumour the size and location of the tumour whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the brain the childs ... The treatment of brain stem gliomas depends on: ... Brain stem glioma. Brain stem gliomas are a type of glioma that ... Focal brain stem glioma occurs in one area or is contained within a small part of the brain stem. It is usually benign or low ... Treatment of focal brain stem gliomas. Some focal brain stem gliomas grow so slowly that treatment might not be needed unless ...
Brain stem stroke can also cause double vision, slurred speech and decreased level of consciousness. ... Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose.A person may have vertigo, dizziness and ... Brain Stem Stroke. Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose. A person may have ... Brain stem strokes can impair any or all of these functions. More severe brain stem strokes can cause locked-in syndrome, a ...
Cranial MRI showed multiple small contrast-enhanced lesions predominantly located in the cerebellum and brain stem (Figure),... ... Cite this as: Schaller MA, Foerch C, Wagner M: The peppered brain stem. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018; 115: 555. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl. ... The Peppered Brain Stem. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018; 115(33-34): 555; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2018.0555 ... Cranial MRI showed multiple small contrast-enhanced lesions predominantly located in the cerebellum and brain stem (Figure), ...
Neural stem cells modified to produce a cancer-killing chemical can track and terminate a particularly deadly form of brain ... Stem cells modified to produce a cancer-killing immune chemical can track and destroy difficult-to-treat brain tumours, US ... Previous work has shown that neural stem cells can actively track migrating glioma cells in the brain, though how they do this ... But tiny groups of glioma cells often spread deep into healthy brain tissue, so even if the main tumour is wiped out, the risk ...
Brain Stem: Pons. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 ... which we cant really see on the actual brainstem but I can point them out over here on the rubber brainstem. The fifth cranial ... Ill talk more about the details of these individual cranial nerves later in the series of lectures involving the brainstem and ...
... cells that give rise to all the cell types of the brain - from human brain tissue with unprecedented precision, an important ... Scientists have created a way to isolate neural stem cells - ... Moving Closer To Stem Cell Treatment Of Brain Diseases. ... They used the virus to deliver the synthetic DNA to neural stem cells in the brain tissue. The technique compelled neural stem ... "Moving Closer To Stem Cell Treatment Of Brain Diseases." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 9 Dec. 2010. Web.. 26 Apr. ...
... and future of stem cell therapy for replacing damaged brain cells in Parkinsons disease. ... Parkinsons: How stem cells can help repair the brain. Written by Ana Sandoiu on February 18, 2019 - Fact checked by. Jasmin ... Stem cells are basic cells that can become almost any type of cell in the body. Human stem cells can come from an embryo or an ... Stem cell therapy: Challenges and promises. In their review, Dr. Henchcliffe and Prof. Parmar examined the evolution of stem ...
... scientists hope to use stem cells in a new, highly controversial way - to reverse death. ... Stem cell injections to the brain or spinal cord have shown some positive results for children with brain injuries; trials ... If theres no functional brain stem, then it cant work. Pastor agreed - but he claimed the technique would work because there ... The technique, he said, relies on there being a functional brain stem - one of the structures that most motor neurons go ...
... had similar abnormal circuits in the brain stem.. That part of the brain controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and ... Study links SIDS to brain stem abnormalities. Underlying condition found in 71 infants who died unexpectedly, but experts urge ... brain stems.. In a study released Monday, the investigators found that infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly of SIDS, ... had distinct differences in brain stem chemistry, lead investigator and neuropathologist Dr. Hannah Kinney of Boston Childrens ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... X. Duan, E. Kang, C. Y. Liu, G. L. Ming, and H. Song, "Development of neural stem cell in the adult brain," Current Opinion in ... Neural Stem Cells in the Diabetic Brain. Tomás P. Bachor and Angela M. Suburo ...
Louis and the University of California San Diego School of Medicine shows that the virus kills brain cancer stem cells, the ... a deadly form of brain cancer. New research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. ... Zika Virus Kills Brain Cancer Stem Cells. Virus potentially could be used to treat deadly disease. ... Brain cancer stem cells (left) are killed by Zika virus infection (image at right shows cells after Zika treatment). A new ...
... Guri Fossdal, Einar O. Vik-Mo, Cecilie Sandberg, Mercy Varghese, Mari Kaarbø, Emily Telmo, ... Emily Palmero, Sheryl Palmero, and Wayne Murrell, "Brain tissue banking for stem cells for our future," Scientific Reports, vol ... "Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain," Plos One, vol. 8, no. 8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at ... Gabriella Schiera, Carlo Maria Di Liegro, and Italia Di Liegro, "Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Vehicles for Brain Cell-to- ...
... the portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts ... Origin of brainstem Expand. 1875-1880 First recorded in 1875-80; brain + stem1 ... The part of the vertebrate brain located at the base of the brain and made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. The ... Brain death implies the complete and permanent absence of neurological function in the cortex and the brainstem. ...
A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as ... Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. The brain stem also controls less essential ... A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as ... Brain stem stroke may also cause double ...
... 10.01.2007. Gliomas are a group of brain tumors where the most common type is also the most ... If stem cells are injected into a part of the brain in laboratory animals with a glioma in another part of their brain, the ... Neural stem cells have been shown to have the ability to recognize signals from tumor cells in the brain and migrate there. ... research at Lund University in Sweden provides hope that it may be possible in the future to develop stem cells from the brain ...
brain stem synonyms, brain stem pronunciation, brain stem translation, English dictionary definition of brain stem. or brain ... stem n. The portion of the brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons Varolii, and midbrain, that connects the spinal ... Related to brain stem: brain stem reflexes. brain·stem. or brain stem (brān′stĕm′). n.. The portion of the brain, consisting of ... Brain stem - definition of brain stem by The Free Dictionary ...
UCSF scientists have discovered a new stem cell in the developing human brain. The cell produces nerve cells that help form the ... Stem Cell Discovery Illuminates Brain Evolution, Points To Therapies. by Sam Savage ... The stem cell undergoes asymmetrical cell division, giving rise to two distinct daughter cells""one a copy of the original stem ... The stem cell closely resembles the radial glial cell in structure and behavior and, like the radial glia, has radial fibers ...
... that long-distance brain connections can target discrete pools of stem cells in their niche and stimulate them to divide and ... This allows the on-demand generation of particular types of neurons in the adult brain. ... Stem cells persist in the adult mammalian brain and generate new neurons throughout life. A research group at the Biozentrum of ... Stem cells make neurons important for olfaction. Stem cells reside in only a few areas of the brain. The largest reservoir is ...
Researchers can make brain cells from urine by reprogramming cells that are shed from human kidneys ... turned brain cells from cadavers into stem cells and converted human skin into brain cells. The hope was that these brain cells ... With these new genetic instructions, the cells transformed into brain stem cells, which can turn into different types of brain ... The transformation from kidney cell to brain stem cell took just 12 days, and within a month, the cells had morphed into full- ...
A perivascular niche for brain tumor stem cells.. Calabrese C1, Poppleton H, Kocak M, Hogg TL, Fuller C, Hamner B, Oh EY, Gaber ... Cancers are believed to arise from cancer stem cells (CSCs), but it is not known if these cells remain dependent upon the niche ... We propose that brain CSCs are maintained within vascular niches that are important targets for therapeutic approaches. ... endothelial cells interact closely with self-renewing brain tumor cells and secrete factors that maintain these cells in a stem ...
Scientists in Sweden have discovered neural stem cells in epileptic brain tissue outside of regions where they normally reside ... Neural stem cells found in epileptic brain tissue. Neural stem cells found in different areas of the brain in people with ... Researchers have discovered neural stem cells in epileptic brain tissue outside of the regions of the brain where they normally ... Neural stem cells with the ability to form new neurons in the brain are normally found in the hippocampus, the part of the ...
  • Both strains spread through the tumors, infecting and killing the cancer stem cells while largely avoiding other tumor cells. (
  • To find out whether the virus could help treat cancer in a living animal, the researchers injected either Zika virus or saltwater (a placebo) directly into the brain tumors of 18 and 15 mice, respectively. (
  • Gliomas are a group of brain tumors where the most common type is also the most aggressive one. (
  • Unlike other stem cell technologies, the pee-based brain cells didn't form tumors when implanted into rats. (
  • Increasing the number of endothelial cells or blood vessels in orthotopic brain tumor xenografts expanded the fraction of self-renewing cells and accelerated the initiation and growth of tumors. (
  • First discovered in leukemia, stem cells have been located in solid tumors found in pancreatic, prostate, colon, breast and brain cancers. (
  • Some patients' brain tumors respond to chemotherapy and some don't," says Dr. Boockvar. (
  • A small percentage of brain stem tumors are very localized, called focal tumors. (
  • Most brain stem tumors develop in the pons and grow in a part of the brain stem where it can be difficult to perform surgery, making brain stem glioma challenging to treat (see the Treatment Options section). (
  • Read more about brain tumors in adults . (
  • View short videos led by ASCO experts in childhood cancers and brain tumors that provide basic information and areas of research. (
  • However, several properties of brain tumors add complexity to this model. (
  • In addition, these tumors recruit normal CNS stem and progenitor cells to the tumor mass leading to the possibility of a heterogeneous and polyclonal cell population. (
  • It is likely that a complete description of the role of stem cells in brain tumors will be more complex than our current models. (
  • Brain stem gliomas are tumors found in the brain stem. (
  • The majority of the tumors are located in the middle of the brainstem and cannot be surgically removed. (
  • A minority of brainstem tumors are more favorably located and can be treated with surgery. (
  • Headaches related to brainstem tumors may be worse shortly after waking up in the morning. (
  • Primary brain tumors, including brain stem gliomas, are a diverse group of diseases that together constitute the most common solid tumor of childhood. (
  • Brain tumors are classified according to histology, but tumor location and extent of spread are important factors that affect treatment and prognosis. (
  • The PDQ childhood brain tumor treatment summaries are organized primarily according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of nervous system tumors. (
  • For a full description of the classification of nervous system tumors and a link to the corresponding treatment summary for each type of brain tumor, refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview. (
  • Approximately 300 to 400 pediatric brain stem tumors are diagnosed each year in the United States. (
  • DIPG accounts for approximately 75% to 80% of pediatric brain stem tumors. (
  • Within the umbrella of adult brainstem glioma, there is a subset of tumors that is similar in appearance and potentially similar in etiology to childhood DIPG, but with slightly older onset, generally affecting young adults. (
  • Brain stem glioma accounts for 6-9% of brain tumors in children. (
  • Brain tumors can be very difficult to treat, but at least we know what to do about them. (
  • For years, a mix of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy has been used to treat brain tumors like medulloblastoma. (
  • Techniques for operating on the brain have advanced considerably, as have the tools for probing tumors at the molecular level. (
  • We've historically treated and studied DIPG based on imaging results, clinical symptoms and what we know about adult or other pediatric brain tumors," Kieran explains. (
  • Reporting in the August 12 issue of Cancer Cell, the scientists say they have uncovered new origins for these tumors from early stem cells as well as more mature cells. (
  • Previously, scientists had assumed the tumors might only come from a single source: more mature cells which become neurons and do not have "stem" cell properties. (
  • We now have a better idea of where these brain tumors come from and their relationship to normal stem cells in the brain," said Keith Ligon, MD, PhD, co-senior author of the report and an investigator at the Center for Molecular Oncologic Pathology at Dana-Farber and the Brigham and Womens Hospital. (
  • Co-senior author, David Rowitch, MD, PhD, currently a professor of pediatrics and neurosurgery at UCSF and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, commented that mouse experiments shed light on how normal stem cells - cells with the power to create all types of cells in the brain - can be transformed into tumors. (
  • When turned on again by a mutation, the signals can trigger cell processes leading to tumors - not just in the brain, but in other organs as well. (
  • They make up about 30 percent of childhood brain tumors, and account for 250 to 300 new cases per year. (
  • Medulloblastoma was one of the first tumors that was believed to fit the hypothesis that tumors are caused by cancer stem cells that initiate malignancies and sustain them," said Ligon, who is also on faculty and an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School. (
  • A few years ago we recognized that stem cells could be used to continuously deliver these therapeutic toxins to tumors in the brain, but first we needed to genetically engineer stem cells that could resist being killed themselves by the toxins. (
  • We tested these stem cells in a clinically relevant mouse model of brain cancer, where you resect the tumors and then implant the stem cells encapsulated in a gel into the resection cavity," Shah said. (
  • After doing all of the molecular analysis and imaging to track the inhibition of protein synthesis within brain tumors, we do see the toxins kill the cancer cells and eventually prolonging the survival in animal models of resected brain tumors. (
  • One of the impediments to the treatment of brain tumors (e.g., gliomas) has been the degree to which they expand, infiltrate surrounding tissue, and migrate widely into normal brain, usually rendering them "elusive" to effective resection, irradiation, chemotherapy, or gene therapy. (
  • These data suggest the adjunctive use of inherently migratory NSCs as a delivery vehicle for targeting therapeutic genes and vectors to refractory, migratory, invasive brain tumors. (
  • Malignant brain tumors, e.g., glioblastoma multiforme, remain virtually untreatable and inevitably lethal despite extensive surgical excision and adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy ( 1 ). (
  • In an exemplary case of medical excellence in the treatment of brain tumors, doctors at Venkateshwar Hospital, New Delhi recently helped a 55-year-old woman combat a serious brain tumor, which was leading to progressively worsening neurological complications over a sustained period of time. (
  • The machine used for the treatment is known as Versa HD, a sophisticated beam-shaping linear accelerator that aids precision and speed in the treatment of brain tumors. (
  • From the medical perspective, classification and treatment of brain tumors is generally done depending on the size, type, and location of the tumors. (
  • Although rarely fatal, most brain tumors can cause serious physical and mental disabilities and or progressive weakness or paralysis over the long term. (
  • The global incidence rates of primary malignant brain and other types of CNS tumors was 3.4 per 100,000 in 2012, and brain cancer accounts for 1.8% of all cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer). (
  • The purpose of the Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy study for patients with glioblastoma and/or brainstem glioma is to determine whether in patients with malignant brain tumors, dendritic cells injected peripherally can reactivate the immune system against the brain tumor. (
  • Based on clinical data in subjects with brain tumors, the investigators believe that peripheral injection of dendritic cells will generate a more potent immune response for patients with brain stem gliomas and/or glioblastomas. (
  • They drilled holes into the participants' skulls and directly injected stem cells from adult donors into the grey matter. (
  • WASHINGTON -- Two teams of researchers said Friday that they had found reliable ways to coax human embryonic stem cells into becoming brain cells. (
  • Stem cells are a kind of master cell that can develop into a variety of tissues. (
  • Stem cells modified to produce a cancer-killing immune chemical can track and destroy difficult-to-treat brain tumours, US researchers have found. (
  • But tiny groups of glioma cells often spread deep into healthy brain tissue, so even if the main tumour is wiped out, the risk of recurrence of the cancer is high. (
  • A team led by John Yu at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles took neural stem cells from mice fetuses and genetically engineered them to produce interleukin 12. (
  • The team then injected the modified stem cells into implanted gliomas in the brains of mice. (
  • Previous work has shown that neural stem cells can actively track migrating glioma cells in the brain, though how they do this is unclear. (
  • When the cells were injected on the opposite side of the brain to the tumour, they migrated towards the cancerous mass. (
  • Most current experiments with neural stem cells involve using them to treat neurodegenerative disorders and stroke. (
  • Scientists have created a way to isolate neural stem cells - cells that give rise to all the cell types of the brain - from human brain tissue with unprecedented precision, an important step toward developing new treatments for conditions of the nervous system, like Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases and spinal cord injury. (
  • The latest paper marks a six-year effort by Goldman's team to develop a better way to isolate pure preparations of neural stem cells directly from the human brain. (
  • These stem cells can renew themselves and have the potential to become a number of brain cell types - for instance, oligodendrocytes that might help people with multiple sclerosis , or neurons to help people with Parkinson's disease . (
  • Yet those challenges must be met if stem cells are to live up to their promise as treatments for a host of human diseases of the nervous system. (
  • So far, most efforts aimed at isolating human fetal stem cells have entailed cultivating brain tissue in tissue culture in the laboratory for months, then separating out the stem cells for study. (
  • The difference is crucial for scientists who often prefer to capture only uncommitted neural stem cells, whether to treat brain diseases requiring the replacement of multiple cell types or to better understand their function. (
  • The Goldman lab's new technique snags only neural stem cells and does so directly from brain tissue. (
  • The technology saves months of time and labor in the laboratory and also gives scientists a clearer look than ever before at exactly how stem cells operate in the brain. (
  • As expected, certain classes of genes encoding for proteins active in mouse neural stem cells - such as members of the Notch and WNT families - were highly active. (
  • But when the scientists looked more closely, they found that the freshly isolated neural stem cells expressed some genes from these families that were previously virtually unknown in humans, and which had never before been implicated in human brain function. (
  • At the same time, some of the genes that are important and active in mouse neural stem cells proved not to be so in the human cells. (
  • The ability to gather human cells more efficiently should aid potential treatments built around transplanting stem cells. (
  • In the last few years a couple studies using human neural stem cells in the nervous system have begun in children with incurable brain diseases known as pediatric leukodystrophies. (
  • But the field is in its infancy, and Goldman believes that the cell types currently being used will soon be replaced by more effective types of transplantable stem and progenitor cells. (
  • The authors say that stem cells could "provide superior treatment, possibly using different types of cells to treat different symptoms" of Parkinson's. (
  • If successful, using stem cells as a source of transplantable dopamine-producing nerve cells could revolutionize care of the [Parkinson's] patient in the future," they say. (
  • More than 3 decades ago, pioneering studies that transplanted stem cells to treat Parkinson's used "fetal cells obtained from the midbrain of aborted embryos. (
  • Recent advances in stem cell technology mean that the materials from which stem cells are derived are different and varied. (
  • Cells can also be reprogrammed directly in the brain by injecting the conversion genes instead of the human skin cells. (
  • Researchers can also derive stem cells from the person's own blood. (
  • The first-generation cells are now being trialed and new advances in stem cell biology and genetic engineering promise even better cells and therapies in the future. (
  • Prof. Parmar goes on to point out that "[t]here is a long road ahead in demonstrating how well stem cell-based reparative therapies will work, and much to understand about what, where, and how to deliver the cells, and to whom. (
  • For any given medical problem, it seems, there's a research team trying to use stem cells to find a solution. (
  • But in one study expected to launch later this year, scientists hope to use stem cells in a new, highly controversial way - to reverse death. (
  • The idea of the trial, run by Philadelphia-based Bioquark, is to inject stem cells into the spinal cords of people who have been declared clinically brain-dead. (
  • First there's the injection of stem cells isolated from the individual's own fat or blood. (
  • One small, uncontrolled study of 21 stroke patients found that they recovered more mobility after they received an injection of donor stem cells into their brains. (
  • To receive news and publication updates for Stem Cells International, enter your email address in the box below. (
  • Here, we review our present knowledge about adult neural stem cells, the methods used for their study in diabetic models, and the effects of experimental diabetes. (
  • In all mammalian species, the DG and the SVZ share a lineage including neural stem cells (NSCs) (or primary stem cells), transit amplifying cells (TACs) (or secondary stem cells), and newborn cells of the three final phenotypes: neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial (Figure 1 ). (
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) divide, both symmetrically and asymmetrically for self-renewal and production of transit amplifying cells (TACs). (
  • Brain cancer stem cells (left) are killed by Zika virus infection (image at right shows cells after Zika treatment). (
  • A new study shows that the virus, known for killing cells in the brains of developing fetuses, could be redirected to destroy the kind of brain cancer cells that are most likely to be resistant to treatment. (
  • New research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the University of California San Diego School of Medicine shows that the virus kills brain cancer stem cells, the kind of cells most resistant to standard treatments. (
  • The findings suggest that the lethal power of the virus - known for infecting and killing cells in the brains of fetuses, causing babies to be born with tiny, misshapen heads - could be directed at malignant cells in the brain. (
  • A small population of cells, known as glioblastoma stem cells, often survives the onslaught and continues to divide, producing new tumor cells to replace the ones killed by the cancer drugs. (
  • In their neurological origins and near-limitless ability to create new cells, glioblastoma stem cells reminded postdoctoral researcher Zhe Zhu, PhD, of neuroprogenitor cells, which generate cells for the growing brain. (
  • In collaboration with co-senior authors Diamond and Milan G. Chheda, MD , of Washington University School of Medicine, and Jeremy N. Rich, MD, of UC San Diego, Zhu tested whether the virus could kill stem cells in glioblastomas removed from patients at diagnosis. (
  • The standard treatment kills the bulk of the tumor cells but often leaves the stem cells intact to regenerate the tumor. (
  • Zika virus attacks the stem cells but bypasses the greater part of the tumor. (
  • The idea of injecting a virus notorious for causing brain damage into people's brains seems alarming, but Zika may be safer for use in adults because its primary targets - neuroprogenitor cells - are rare in the adult brain. (
  • The fetal brain, on the other hand, is loaded with such cells, which is part of the reason why Zika infection before birth produces widespread and severe brain damage, while natural infection in adulthood causes mild symptoms. (
  • The researchers conducted additional studies of the virus using brain tissue from epilepsy patients and showed that the virus does not infect noncancerous brain cells. (
  • Brain stem cells against cancer? (
  • But research at Lund University in Sweden provides hope that it may be possible in the future to develop stem cells from the brain into a new way to treat gliomas. (
  • Neural stem cells have been shown to have the ability to recognize signals from tumor cells in the brain and migrate there. (
  • If stem cells are injected into a part of the brain in laboratory animals with a glioma in another part of their brain, the stem cells migrate over to the tumor area. (
  • This has spawned the idea of having stem cells transport drugs or immune stimulants to the tumor. (
  • But as it turned out, no extra assistance was needed: the stem cells themselves had the ability to combat the tumor. (
  • To be sure about the phenomenon, we ran several experiments with other stem cells, and it was confirmed that certain neural stem cells actually have an anti-tumor effect," says Karin Staflin. (
  • One plausible reason is that both normal neural stem cells and glioma cells are immature, not fully mature cells. (
  • They are therefore more like each other than any other types of cells in the brain, which may enable them to 'speak' to each other and influence each other. (
  • The research team at Lund has also shown that stem cells can cure colon cancer in lab animals. (
  • This may be what enables neural stem cells to affect intestinal cancer cells," says Karin Staflin. (
  • The dissertation is titled Neural progenitor cells in malignancy and injury of the brain: A Trojan horse for gliomas? (
  • Brain stem cells from middle-aged mice (9 months old) no longer divided as often as ones from 1. (
  • That program recently was extended to look at the ability of that same drug platform to stimulate the growth of healthy brain stem cells to create new nerve cells. (
  • Future studies of these cells are expected to shed light on developmental diseases such as autism and schizophrenia and malformations of brain development, including microcephaly, lissencephaly and neuronal migration disorders, they say, as well as age-related illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease. (
  • This information could then be used to prompt embryonic stem cells to differentiate in the culture dish into neurons for potential use in cell-replacement therapy. (
  • In rodents and humans, the developing cortex contains a layer of neural stem cells called radial glial cells that resides near the fluid-filled ventricles and produces cells that are precursors to neurons. (
  • About 20 years ago, scientists presumed that the OSVZ also contained stem cells, but until now they have lacked evidence. (
  • They characterized two kinds of cells within the region""both the novel neural stem cell and its daughter cell, known as the transit amplifying cell. (
  • The stem cell undergoes asymmetrical cell division, giving rise to two distinct daughter cells""one a copy of the original stem cell, the other a transit amplifying cell. (
  • More broadly, he says the team wants to understand how the new stem cells compare to radial glial cells and how the two sets of neurons they produce integrate in the neocortex. (
  • The massive number of cells within the OSVZ of humans "tells us we have to be careful when modeling human brain diseases in mice," says Kriegstein. (
  • Stem cells persist in the adult mammalian brain and generate new neurons throughout life. (
  • A research group at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel reports in the current issue of " Science " that long-distance brain connections can target discrete pools of stem cells in their niche and stimulate them to divide and produce specific subtypes of olfactory bulb neurons. (
  • A diversity of stimuli promotes stem cells in their niche to form neurons that migrate to their place of action. (
  • In an animal model Prof. Fiona Doetsch's team at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel has now been able to show that feeding-related neurons in the hypothalamus, a brain control center for many physiological functions, stimulate a distinct type of stem cell to proliferate and mature into specific nerve cells in response to feeding. (
  • Stem cells reside in only a few areas of the brain. (
  • The largest reservoir is the subventricular zone, where quiescent stem cells lie closely packed together. (
  • Signals from the environment can trigger stem cells to start dividing. (
  • The stem cells in the subventricular zone supply the olfactory bulb with neurons. (
  • While new neurons are continuously generated, whether niche signals act to control different pools of stem cells is unknown. (
  • We have uncovered a novel long-distance and regionalized connection in the brain between the hypothalamus and the subventricular zone, and show that physiological states such as hunger and satiety can regulate the recruitment of specific pools of stem cells and in turn the formation of certain neuron subtypes in the olfactory bulb," explains Doetsch. (
  • When the animals fasted, the activity of the nerve cells in the hypothalamus decreased and with it also the rate of proliferation in the targeted stem cell population. (
  • The division of stem cells can be controlled by changing the activity of feeding-related neurons. (
  • The researchers reported further that the targeted stem cell subpopulation gives rise to deep granule cells in the olfactory bulb, which may provide a substrate for adaptive responses to the environment. (
  • The results of the study raise the exciting possibility that neural circuits from diverse brain regions can regulate different pools of stem cells in response to various stimuli and states. (
  • Scientists have made brain cells from human pee. (
  • When a person urinates, skin shells are routinely shed from the lining in the kidney, and it's these cells that the researchers reprogrammed into stem cells, which can turn into any type of cell in the body. (
  • In this case, they transformed the cells into neurons, or brain cells. (
  • The new research, published Sunday (Dec. 9) in the journal Nature Methods, could one day provide a quicker way to make brain cells that are unique to an individual, Nature News reported. (
  • For years, scientists have been working on ways to turn ordinary cells into stem cells. (
  • Researchers have reprogrammed testicle stem cells to make insulin, turned brain cells from cadavers into stem cells and converted human skin into brain cells . (
  • The hope was that these brain cells could be used to treat diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. (
  • But many early methods used viruses to permanently incorporate new genes into the DNA of the cells, wrote Kristen Brennand, a stem cell researcher at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, who was not involved in the study, in an email. (
  • Next, the scientists injected new genetic instructions to reprogram cells to become brain cells. (
  • With these new genetic instructions, the cells transformed into brain stem cells, which can turn into different types of brain cells. (
  • The transformation from kidney cell to brain stem cell took just 12 days, and within a month, the cells had morphed into full-fledged brain cells. (
  • A perivascular niche for brain tumor stem cells. (
  • Cancers are believed to arise from cancer stem cells (CSCs), but it is not known if these cells remain dependent upon the niche microenvironments that regulate normal stem cells. (
  • We show that endothelial cells interact closely with self-renewing brain tumor cells and secrete factors that maintain these cells in a stem cell-like state. (
  • Neural stem cells found in different areas of the brain in people with epilepsy. (
  • Researchers have discovered neural stem cells in epileptic brain tissue outside of the regions of the brain where they normally reside. (
  • GOTHENBURG, Sweden, Dec. 15 (UPI) -- Scientists from the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden have found neural stem cells in epileptic brain tissue outside the areas where they normally reside. (
  • Neural stem cells with the ability to form new neurons in the brain are normally found in the hippocampus, the part of the brain connected to learning and memory, and in the subventricular zone of the brain. (
  • Among 14 patients who underwent surgery for epilepsy, eight had neural stem cells in brain tissue outside the hippocampus and subventricular zone. (
  • We have confirmed what earlier studies indicated, and gained new knowledge about molecular characteristics of these neural stem cells," Milos Pekny, professor at the Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, said in a press release. (
  • About 60 percent of the patients had epileptic tissue that contained neural stem cells that could be converted into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (the three types of brain cells that neural stem cells can differentiate into) when they were later grown in the laboratory," Pekny said. (
  • This detailed volume compiles the best methodologies and experimental techniques to profile and extract maximal data from brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), the experimental paradigm for brain cancer research that offers insights into cancer stem cell populations that may drive not only tumor initiation but tumor recurrence and patient relapse. (
  • The BTSC model recapitulates scientific observations made in brain cancer patients, and these chapters provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the skills and techniques that will unlock data from this most informative subset of cells. (
  • Authoritative and practical, Brain Tumor Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide for researchers seeking to better understand the complexities of brain cancer. (
  • Note that laquinimod had no effect, positive or negative, on the basic biology of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells derived from human stem cells. (
  • GOTHENBURG, Sweden -- The multiple sclerosis drug laquinimod, which crosses the blood-brain barrier, is safe for brain stem cells at concentrations relevant for treatment, according to a study presented here. (
  • Laquinimod had "no effect, positive or negative, on the basic biology of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells derived from human stem cells," according to lead author Eve Kelland, PhD, of the University of Southern California Los Angeles, who presented the work here at the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis meeting. (
  • That made it important to look at direct effects on the cells that the brain uses for repair," Kelland said. (
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) can divide to form either neurons or glia. (
  • Neural stem cells differentiate into neurons and play an important role in self-repair. (
  • T]he same research group found that rodent neural stem cells grew when they were bathed in a solution of aromatic-turmerone. (
  • The cells bathed in the turmeric compound also appeared to specialize into certain types of brain cells more rapidly. (
  • It is interesting that it might be possible to boost the effectiveness of the stem cells with aromatic-turmerone,' Maria Adele Rueger, a researcher on the team, told the BBC. (
  • Expert available for comment on "Cancer Stem Cells" symposium at American Society of Hemotology (ASH) meeting, led by Dr. Andrew Schafer, chairman of medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell, and president, ASH. (
  • Stem cells -- popularly known as a source of biological rejuvenation -- may play harmful roles in the body, specifically in the growth and spread of cancer. (
  • On Dec. 11, a symposium at the annual American Society of Hematology (ASH) meeting in Atlanta entitled "Cancer Stem Cells" addresses the topic. (
  • Neurosurgeon-researchers from NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center are conducting ongoing research examining ways to combat brain cancer stem cells. (
  • Dr. Boockvar believes that these patients' drug resistance might be due to a class of stem cells resistant to available treatments. (
  • We believe cancer stem cells may be the cause. (
  • that begins when healthy cells in the brain stem change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. (
  • Light has been shed on the role of stem cells in medulloblastomas, the most common type of children's brain tumor, in a new study. (
  • This study is a major advance for us because it shows for the first time that some of these tumours develop from endogenous stem cells. (
  • UCSF scientists have discovered that a tiny filament extending from cells, until recently regarded as a remnant of evolution, may play a role in the most common malignant brain tumor in children. (
  • Parkinson s disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss. (
  • The undifferentiated character of brain tumor cells and recent reports of cancer stem cells prompt questions regarding the involvement of normal stem/progenitor cells in brain tumor biology, their potential contribution to the tumor itself, and whether they are the cause or the consequence of tumor initiation and progression. (
  • The tumor cells differentiate unidirectionally from the cancer stem cell in a way parallel to normal development. (
  • Stanford researchers have found that injecting stem cells directly into the brains of recovering stroke sufferers is more than just safe - it actually reverses brain damage, something previously thought impossible by science. (
  • It was a small sample size of only 18 patients, and the objective was to test the safety of the procedure - which involves injecting stem cells directly under the uppermost layer of the brain. (
  • But what " stunned " Stanford researchers was that the stem cells also reversed the damage way past the six-month recovery period after a stroke, beyond which it is thought the remaining unhealed brain circuits are completely beyond recovery. (
  • What's more, the Stanford team once more debunked an old assumption about the way stem cells actually affect us. (
  • The researchers are still not entirely sure about the origins of this mysterious process, or whether it is the stem cells themselves triggering the recovery, or if the procedure is responsible for some sort of placebo effect that tricks the brain into action. (
  • The radiation that kills cancer cells also kills brain cells, destroying memories, impairing intelligence, and causing confusion. (
  • Charles Limoli hopes that neural stem cells, like the ones shown here, can help regenerate brain cells damaged or destroyed by cancer treatment. (
  • Charles Limoli and colleagues at the University of California, Irvine, have shown that stem cells could help reverse some of this damage. (
  • In a new paper in the journal Cancer Research , Limoli shows that it's possible to cause new brain cells to grow by injecting human neural stem cells into the brains of mice whose cognitive abilities had been damaged by radiation. (
  • Stem cells have long been used to repair the damage caused by cancer treatment. (
  • Bone-marrow transplants for leukemia rely on stem cells to replenish blood cells, for instance. (
  • But Limoli says his team is the only one using neural stem cells to treat symptoms in the brain. (
  • Several peers praised his work, calling it an important proof of the idea that human stem cells can repair neuronal damage. (
  • Limoli's team irradiated three groups of mice, later treating two of them with human neural stem cells. (
  • One month after the damage, 23 percent of implanted stem cells were active in the brains of the first group of mice. (
  • Protein activity in the treated mice suggests that the implanted stem cells are integrating into the brain, Limoli says, replacing cells that have been lost or damaged. (
  • Rob Coppes , a radiation and stem-cell biologist at the University Medical Center Groningen, in the Netherlands, says he would next like to see Limoli test how long the benefits of the stem cells last. (
  • He also hopes Limoli will repeat his experiments using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), adult stem cells that have been converted back to an embryonic-like state. (
  • It will be important to show that mice-and later, humans in a trial-don't reject these cells, and also that the stem cells don't trigger new cancers, says Coppes, who employs stem cells in his own work, which involves regenerating salivary glands. (
  • Limoli plans to carry out further work involving human neuronal stem cells and iPS cells. (
  • He also wants to figure out the optimal time to transplant these stem cells into the brain. (
  • Japanese researchers said Friday they have transplanted stem cells into the brain of a patient in the first stage of an innovative trial to cure Parkinson s disease. (
  • The research team at Kyoto University injected induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells which have the potential to develop into any cell in the body into the brain of a male patient in his fifties, the university said in a press release. (
  • The researchers injected 2.4 million iPS cells into the left side of the patient s brain, in an operation that took about three hours. (
  • The iPS cells from healthy donors have been developed into the precursors of dopamine-producing brain cells, which are no longer present in people with Parkinson s disease. (
  • The only problem would be if the stem cells over grow or mutate, which I guess could cause convulsions or the like, but if it can truly cure Parkinson's, it would be great. (
  • Whatever happened to embryonic stem cells? (
  • Maybe the reason the your original brain cells quit producing dopamine is because of you, not the cells. (
  • Dr Robert Iacono tried this, with fetal stem cells, back in 1989, and since he couldn't find a hospital in the US that would permit it, he dragged his patient, one Max Truex, to a clinic in Zhengzhou, China, where he had no problem in 'acquiring' fetal cells. (
  • In contrast, irradiated animals that did not receive neural stem cells performed significantly worse than either treated animals or the control group. (
  • These data show that human neural stem cells afford a promising strategy for functionally restoring cognition in irradiated animals. (
  • Although the mechanisms of the impairment are unclear, loss of neural stem cells in the hippocampus is one plausible explanation, the authors noted in their introduction. (
  • Neural stem cells that survive irradiation exhibit a stress response that leads to altered proliferation, metabolism, survival, and differentiation, as well as altered expression of certain genes, such as Arc. (
  • Our current studies have now clearly shown the benefits of engrafted stem cells for reversing cognitive impairment following cranial irradiation," the authors wrote. (
  • This research shows us that in mice, Brg-1 is a critical signal that prevents stem cells from turning into neurons at the wrong time. (
  • However, since we can manipulate Brg1 expression in stem cells in culture, we now have a powerful way to generate neurons that could be used to replace cells lost in a variety of diseases and conditions that affect the brain and spinal cord. (
  • By Oregon Health & Science University, Researchers at the Oregon National Primate Research Center at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) have discovered one key gene that appears to control how stem cells become various kinds of brain cells. (
  • The finding has significant implications for the study of Parkinson's disease, brain and spinal cord injury, and other conditions or diseases that might be combated by replacing lost or damaged brain cells. (
  • In the early stages of brain development prior to birth, brain stem cells, also known as neural stem cells, will differentiate into neurons," explained Larry Sherman, Ph.D., an associate scientist in the Division of Neuroscience at the Oregon National Primate Research Center and an adjunct associate professor of cell and developmental biology in the OHSU School of Medicine. (
  • In later stages, these same stem cells suddenly start becoming glial cells, which perform a number of functions that include supporting the neurons. (
  • When they isolated neural stem cells, placed them into cell culture and then removed Brg1, the cells in the culture turned into neurons but failed to differentiate into glia. (
  • For instance, Parkinson's disease is related to the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. (
  • Scientists hypothesize that it may be possible to correctly time the expression of brg-1 in neuronal stem cells either in a culture dish or in the brain to replace the lost dopamine-producing cells. (
  • Identifying a gene that controls how stem cells turn into different kinds of nerve cells has important implications for clinical application in spinal cord repair strategies. (
  • Programmed stem cells promise to tackle all kinds of illnesses , but there's one catch: making them. (
  • That's where researchers might come to the rescue: they've developed a method of growing neural stem cells in large volumes, but without chewing up too much valuable real estate. (
  • The gels help the stem cells remodel their environment and stay in contact with each other, which is key to preserving 'stemness' -- that is, the ready-to-program state -- in the third dimension. (
  • A doctor could cultivate large batches of stem cells without having to dedicate significant chunks of a room to the process. (
  • The challenge is injecting these stem cells directly into the body. (
  • In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), give rise to new olfactory bulb neurons and glia throughout life. (
  • Stem cells co-exist in quiescent and activated states and reside in regionally-distinct V-SVZ domains and produce different subtypes of olfactory bulb neurons and glia. (
  • We propose to investigate whether physiologically distinct states result in the recruitment of regionally distinct pools of adult V-SVZ neural stem cells. (
  • Together these experiments will provide a conceptual breakthrough into illuminating the logic of adult neural stem cell heterogeneity, and how regionally distinct adult neural stem cells integrate long-range signals from remote brain areas to respond to signals for on-demand neurogenesis or gliogenesis. (
  • It may be possible to achieve this improved repair, without the need for surgery, by targeting stem cells residing in the brain. (
  • These cells possess the unique ability to produce multiple differentiated cell types within the brain, but they are usually in an inactive or "sleep" state referred to as quiescence. (
  • Therefore, any regenerative brain therapy that could harness the potential of stem cells would first require them to be awoken from quiescence. (
  • This stem cell possesses higher regenerative potential than previously identified quiescent stem cells. (
  • Notably, awakened G2 quiescent stem cells generate key brain cells - neurons and glia - much more quickly than known quiescent stem cells, suggesting they may be desirable targets for drug design. (
  • The brain is not good at repairing itself, but these newly-discovered stem cells suggest there may be a way to improve its ability. (
  • These stem cells are in a dormant state, but once awake, they have the ability to generate key brain cells. (
  • In a study of the fruit fly or Drosophila, the researchers identified a gene referred to as "tribbles" that selectively regulates G2 quiescent stem cells. (
  • The researchers believe that drugs with the potential to target tribbles could be the answer to awakening G2 quiescent stem cells. (
  • We believe there may be similar quiescent stem cells in other organs, and this discovery could help improve or develop new regenerative medicines,' he adds. (
  • For the study, the researchers destroyed cells in the hippocampus, an area of the brain vital to memory formation and where neurons often die. (
  • Later, the scientists set out to learn whether neural stem cells from a mouse could improve memory in mice with brain injuries. (
  • For testing this, each mouse was injected with about 200,000 neural stem cells that were engineered to appear green under ultraviolet light. (
  • The colour allowed the scientists to track the stem cells inside the mouse brain after transplantation. (
  • Three months later, after implanting the stem cells the mice were tested on place recognition and the researchers found that mice with brain injuries that received stem cells remembered their surroundings about 70 percent of the time, which was the same level as the healthy mice. (
  • In contrast, control mice that didn't receive stem cells still had memory impairments. (
  • Subsequently, the scientists took a closer look at how the green-coloured stem cells behaved in the mouse brain and it was found that only about 4 percent of them turned into neurons, indicating the stem cells were not improving memory simply by replacing the dead brain cells. (
  • In the healthy mice, the stem cells migrated throughout the brain, but in the mice with neuronal loss, the cells congregated in the hippocampus, the area of the injury. (
  • We know that very few of the cells are becoming neurons, so we think that the stem cells are instead enhancing the local brain microenvironment. (
  • We have evidence suggesting that the stem cells provide support to vulnerable and injured neurons, keeping them alive and functional by making beneficial proteins called neurotrophins," Blurton-Jones said. (
  • The authors believe that the stem cells secreted proteins called neurotrophins that protected vulnerable cells from death and rescued memory. (
  • Our research provides clear evidence that stem cells can reverse memory loss. (
  • This gives us hope that stem cells someday could help restore brain function in humans suffering from a wide range of diseases and injuries that impair memory formation," LaFerla said. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether the plasticity of autologous intrathecal hematopoietic cells would improve the neurologic evolution of the pediatric patients with hypoxic /ischemic brain injury. (
  • There is accumulating evidence that shows that the placement of hematopoietic cells in the brain may increase growth-enhancing factors of axons and generate active neurons in the receptor. (
  • A inoculum of 5 to 10mL of stem cells will be infused intrathecally. (
  • Patients will be stimulated with Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) 5 times, harvest bone marrow and infused 8 to 10 mL of stem cells (CD34+) by intrathecal via. (
  • Recent studies have found that exogenous stem cells can migrate to damaged brain tissue, then participate in the repair of damaged brain tissue by further differentiation to replace damaged cells, while releasing anti-inflammatory factors and growth factors, thereby significantly improving neurological function. (
  • This article will mainly review the effects, deficiencies and related mechanisms of different types of stem cells in TBI. (
  • 2008). The pathological changes of brain injury are mainly the loss of normal tissue structure, destruction of neuronal cells and internal environment disturbance, among which neuronal cells injury is the key point. (
  • Lipton added that the study is the "first time that the virushas ever been shown to affect stem cells. (
  • Because stem cells have the potential to generate cells designed to replace or repair cells damaged by spinal cord injury, advocates of stem cell research and treatment believe that the benefits far outweigh the negative aspects. (
  • Opponents of this research and treatment, however, typically bring up the issue of embryonic stem cells, which are harvested from embryos and fetal tissue. (
  • Accordingly, they feel the use of these embryonic stem cells is not moral or ethical. (
  • Because stem cells are harvested from embryos and fetal tissue, they feel it is not moral or ethical. (
  • It is important to note that non-embryonic stem cells, called somatic or "adult" stem cells, have recently been identified in various body tissues including brain, bone marrow, blood vessels, and various organ tissues. (
  • Stem cell research came on the scene in 1998, when a group of scientists isolated pluripotent stem cells from human embryos and grew them in a culture. (
  • Since then, specialists have discovered that stem cells can become any of the 200 specialized cells in the body, giving them the ability to repair or replace damaged cells and tissues. (
  • While not yet known to have the diversification potential of embryonic stem cells, adult somatic cells act similarly and are generating excitement in the research and medical community. (
  • Because of all of the controversy, much of the evidence that shows stem cells can be turned into specific cells for transplantation involves only mice, whose cells are significantly different than human cells. (
  • At this point it's impossible to say for sure when-or even if-stem cells will be useful in the treatment of paralysis. (
  • In the lab, Brown will study tumor stem cells and brain development. (
  • Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells. (
  • It is the first involving implanting stem cells into the brain to cure Parkinson's. (
  • Transplants of neural stem cells might be used to treat brain injuries, but how to get them to the right location? (
  • UC Davis researcher Min Zhao and Junfeng Feng, a neurosurgeon at Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai, showed that they can steer transplanted stem cells (green, in inset on right) to one part of a rat's brain using electrical fields. (
  • Electric fields can be used to guide neural stem cells transplanted into the brain toward a specific location. (
  • The research, published July 11 in the journal Stem Cell Reports , opens possibilities for effectively guiding stem cells to repair brain damage. (
  • One unmet need in regenerative medicine is how to effectively and safely mobilize and guide stem cells to migrate to lesion sites for repair," Zhao said. (
  • Junfeng Feng, a neurosurgeon at Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Shanghai Institute of Head Trauma, visited Zhao's lab to study how electric fields might guide stem cells implanted in the brain. (
  • Natural neural stem cells - cells that can develop into other brain tissues - are found deep in the brain, in the subventricular zone and hippocampus. (
  • Transplanted stem cells might also have to migrate some way to find an area of damage. (
  • They placed human neural stem cells in the rostral migration stream - a pathway in the rat brain that carries cells toward the olfactory bulb, which governs the animal's sense of smell. (
  • By applying an electric field within the rat's brain, they found that they could get the transplanted stem cells to swim "upstream" against the fluid flow and natural cues and head for other locations within the brain. (
  • The transplanted stem cells were still in their new locations weeks or months after treatment. (
  • Electrical mobilization and guidance of stem cells in the brain therefore provides a potential approach to facilitate stem cell therapies for brain diseases, stroke and injuries," Zhao said. (
  • The diversity of embryonic and adult tissue sources provides researchers with the ability to harvest an ample supply of stem cells. (
  • Along this line of the need for optimization studies, we discuss studies that demonstrate effective dose, timing, and route of stem cells. (
  • This review will outline the current knowledge, including benefits and challenges, of the many current sources of stem cells for stroke therapy. (
  • I am not sure that stem cells can do anything for your condition. (
  • While stem cells can do much and are important for restoring function, they are not omnipotent. (
  • Avoid doctors making false and unsubstantiated claims that their stem cells can cure stroke. (
  • Cohen noted that these findings provide a critical link between studies in non-human animals that have looked directly at the activity of dopamine cells in the brainstem and studies in humans of behaviors thought to be related to dopamine. (
  • All other cells (e.g. brain cells, blood cells, skin cells) are formed by the differentiation and maturation of these cells. (
  • The stem cells divide, mature and take on different functions based on the need. (
  • How are these stem cells obtained? (
  • Currently, the stem cells may be excavated from dead embryos, which were created solely "for the purpose of reproduction. (
  • There are 14 sites around the world that are recognized by the National Institute of Health Research as authorized suppliers of stem cells for research purposes. (
  • Research is currently being carried on to study the applicability of the stem cells in plastic surgery, in Parkinson's disease and in spinal cord injury. (
  • With human trafficking rings and organ trade very much present globally, I cannot imagine that (illegal) mass production of embryos to harvest stem cells would be very far behind. (
  • Boston, MA - For the first time scientists have shown that brain stem cells are immune privileged, which means that they are invisible to a transplant recipient's immune system and do not trigger the immune system to reject them. (
  • These results, published in the July issue of Stem Cells, indicate that using central nervous system stem cells in transplants for diseases of the eye (which is part of the brain), brain, and spinal cord, may eliminate the need for tissue typing before, and immunosuppressive drugs after, transplantation. (
  • Though we suspected brain stem cells might be protected in this way, this is the first documented evidence. (
  • Young, who in previous research found that brain and retinal stem cells transplanted into the eyes of mice and rats seemed to survive longer and integrate more easily into damaged retinas than other cells, suspected that these "neural stem cells" might be immune privileged. (
  • The only way for him to learn the true nature of their immune properties was to transplant these neural stem cells to a part of the recipients body that, unlike the eye, was not immune privileged already. (
  • Young and his colleagues took brain stem cells from green mice (mice in which the gene for green protein found in jellyfish has been inserted) and placed them under the kidney capsule in other normal non-green mice. (
  • After 4 weeks, the team examined the mice and found that the stem cells had not been rejected in any of the mice, and, in fact, had grown into neural tissue. (
  • They concluded that these neural stems cells did not induce an immune response and must be invisible to the immune system, at least initially. (
  • To test this theory, the team took other brain cells (not stem cells) from the green mice and implanted them in the normal non-green mice. (
  • These cells were rejected, and when brain stem cells were then again implanted in the normal non-green mice, they, too were rejected. (
  • The team concluded, therefore, that the brain stem cells did possess antigens, but unless the recipient was primed or pre-immunized, the antigens were not visible to the immune system of the recipient and not rejected. (
  • Understanding the immune properties of these stem cells could have an enormous effect on how we perform brain or retinal transplantations in the future. (
  • Stem cells already have the advantage of being able to transform or differentiate into various types of cells and can be reproduced endlessly outside the body. (
  • Now we know that at least brain stem cells are immune privileged and can be used without the same worry about tissue matching or immunosuppression that is true for other types of tissue. (
  • Cochlear Nuclei All auditory nerve fibers terminate within the cochlear nuclei (CN), which comprise highly complex groupings of cells that together form a protuberance on the lateral surface of the brain stem at the medullopontine junction. (
  • Now, Dr. Dirks is set to take a big step in that direction with the announcement Thursday that he will lead a "dream team" of researchers in an $11.7-million effort to leverage the emerging science of cancer stem cells in the ongoing battle against brain tumours in children and adults. (
  • The mammalian brain contains a population of neural stem cells (NSC) that can both self-renew and generate progeny along the three lineage pathways of the central nervous system (CNS), but the in vivo identification and localization of NSC in the postnatal CNS has proved elusive. (
  • Recently, separate studies have implicated ciliated ependymal (CE) cells, and special subependymal zone (SEZ) astrocytes as candidates for NSC in the adult brain. (
  • Cells isolated from the postnatal and adult brain that can grow as multipotent proliferative clones-neurospheres ( 1 )-are capable of giving rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. (
  • Neurosphere-forming cells can be considered as neural stem cells (NSC) and can serve as a model of basic neurodevelopmental processes as well as a potential source of transplantable cells for the treatment of brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. (
  • An aggressive childhood brain tumor known as medulloblastoma originates in normal brain "stem" cells that turn malignant when acted on by a known mutant, cancer-causing oncogene, say researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). (
  • But the prevailing hypothesis - that medulloblastomas originate from non-stem cells - just did not make perfect sense with this. (
  • The initial goal was to determine whether activating the Sonic hedgehog cancer pathway in multiple types of brain cells, including neural stem cells, could help pinpoint which cells brain cancers might come from. (
  • Surprisingly, the scientists generated just one tumor type, medulloblastoma, regardless of whether they activated the pathway in stem cells for other cell types called neurons and glia. (
  • An intriguing question for the investigators is why these cells, known as granule neuron precursors, seem to be uniquely vulnerable to the tumor-triggering effects of the Sonic hedgehog pathway, while other brain stem and progenitor cells are not. (
  • This relationship between stem cells and oncogenes suggests a new point of potential therapeutic intervention. (
  • Adult stem cells in the brains of mice possess a broader differentiation potential than previously thought and may be capable of developing into other cell types including those involved in the formation of new blood vessels, according to a new study supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), a part of the National Institutes of Health. (
  • Adult stem cells in the brain were proposed to be restricted to the generation of neurons and cells, such as glial cells, that support neuron function. (
  • Experiments over the past several years have raised the possibility that stem cells from the brain may be able to give rise to additional cell types, a phenomenon known as plasticity. (
  • But recent findings have challenged this theory, suggesting that many of these stem cells merely merge or "fuse" with an existing cell within a tissue forming a hybrid that takes on the pre-existing cell's functions. (
  • Resolving this issue is important because fused cells may have a different therapeutic potential than stem cells that differentiate into new cells, says Bradley C. Wise, Ph.D., of the NIA's Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging Program. (
  • While this new finding doesn't fully answer this vital question, it keeps open the possibility that adult stem cells from different organs one day may be harnessed to help prevent and treat neurological disorders. (
  • In their experiments, Gage and his colleagues grew mouse brain stem cells, which form neurons and glial cells, in the same culture dishes with human endothelial cells, which form the lining of blood vessels. (
  • Over time, about 6 percent of the mouse neural stem cells began to show signs that they had developed into cells similar to endothelial cells. (
  • Similar results were seen when these same neural stem cells were transplanted into the brains of mice early in development. (
  • Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. (
  • There may soon be a new way to use stem cells in the fight against brain cancer. (
  • A team has created a way to genetically engineer stem cells so that they can produce and secrete tumor-killing toxins that eradicate cancer cells remaining in mouse brains after their main tumor has been removed. (
  • The stem cells are placed at the site encapsulated in a biodegradable gel. (
  • Encapsulated toxin-producing stem cells (in blue) help kill brain tumor cells in the tumor resection cavity (in green). (
  • Now, we have toxin-resistant stem cells that can make and release cancer-killing drugs. (
  • Shah's stem cells escape this fate because they are made with a mutation that doesn't allow the toxin to act inside the cell. (
  • The toxin-resistant stem cells also have an extra bit of genetic code that allows them to make and secrete the toxins. (
  • Shah and his team induced toxin resistance in human neural stem cells and subsequently engineered them to produce targeted toxins. (
  • Shah next plans to rationally combine the toxin-secreting stem cells with a number of different therapeutic stem cells developed by his team to further enhance their positive results in mouse models of glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor in human adults. (
  • Published in STEM CELLS . (
  • Can neural stem cells be used to track down and destroy migratory brain tumor cells while also providing a means of repairing tumor-associated damage? (
  • We demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs), when implanted into experimental intracranial gliomas in vivo in adult rodents, distribute themselves quickly and extensively throughout the tumor bed and migrate uniquely in juxtaposition to widely expanding and aggressively advancing tumor cells, while continuing to stably express a foreign gene. (
  • Intriguingly, one of the cardinal features of neural stem cells (NSCs) is their exceptional migratory ability ( 3 - 10 ). (
  • We hypothesized that pathology promotes NSC migration to an extent not assumed possible based on knowledge drawn from the normal adult brain and that, therefore, an approach for targeting gene therapy to the most migratory tumor cells in the adult central nervous system (CNS) might be the use of inherently migratory NSCs to deliver therapeutic genes and/or their products. (
  • In previous clinical trials, brain tumor cells called astrocytoma tumor cells and glioblastoma tumor cells were taken from the tumor that was removed during surgery. (
  • The brain tumor cells were then placed into a solution in the laboratory that made them grow. (
  • Certain parts of the brain tumor's proteins (peptides) were removed from the growing tumor cells and mixed together with the dendritic cells in the blood taken from a vein. (
  • This combination of dendritic cells and brain tumor peptides were injected into the patient's skin, like a vaccination. (
  • In this study, the proteins that are manufactured and known to be associated with brain cancers will be mixed with the dendritic cells obtained during leukopheresis (a procedure in which the dendritic cells are separated from the patients' blood). (
  • In addition, these cells were able to reach the brain and kill brain tumor cells. (
  • The regenerative medicine research sector is fueled by stem cells and today it is at a tipping point, with the potential to see breakthroughs in our generation. (
  • However, the disruptive power of stem cells makes it possible to turn the page in the decades to come. (
  • Funded trials will focus on a spectrum of health issues including treating fatal illnesses such as septic shock, evaluating a stem cell therapy for diabetes, and expanding stem cells from cord blood for efficacious and cost effective transplantation. (
  • The brainstem is divided into three sections in humans: the midbrain (mesencephalon), the pons (metencephalon), and the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). (
  • Most brain stem gliomas are pontine gliomas, which start in the part of the brain stem called the pons. (
  • The part of the vertebrate brain located at the base of the brain and made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. (
  • The portion of the brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons Varolii, and midbrain, that connects the spinal cord to the forebrain and cerebrum. (
  • says that the pons, the third and final portion of the brain stem, contains the respiratory center, which controls the body's breathing reflex. (
  • The pons also serves as another relay center, carrying impulses to and from the brain. (
  • The pons carries messages between the medulla oblongata and the advanced portions of the brain, called the higher cortical structures. (
  • In humans and other mammals, the brainstem is composed of the pons, medulla, and midbrain. (
  • Most sources consider the pons , medulla oblongata , and midbrain all to be part of the brainstem. (
  • The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are labelled on this section of the human brain. (
  • The term brain stem glioma is a generic description that refers to any tumor of glial origin arising in the brain stem, inclusive of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. (
  • In the human brain the brainstem is composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. (
  • The parts of the brainstem are the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata, and sometimes the diencephalon. (
  • The pons and medulla oblongata are parts of the hindbrain that form much of the brainstem. (
  • Cross-section of the middle pons (at the level of cranial nerve V) Cross-section of the inferior pons (at the level of the facial genu) The medulla oblongata, often just referred to as the medulla, is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. (
  • Pons, the middle part of Brain stem. (
  • Pons is a part, is the middle part of our brains stem. (
  • The problem has to do with where DIPGs are located: nestled among the nerves in a portion of the brain stem, the pons, that controls critical functions like our breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. (
  • The brain stem is located in the posterior cranial fossa and consists of medulla, pons, and midbrain. (
  • There are three major regions in the brain stem the medulla, pons, and midbrain, but there is no segmental organization. (
  • New research examines the potential of stem cell therapy in the replacement of damaged neurons in Parkinson's disease. (
  • These dopaminergic neurons are situated in the nigrostriatal pathway , which is a brain circuit that connects neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta with the dorsal striatum. (
  • In their review, Dr. Henchcliffe and Prof. Parmar examined the evolution of stem cell therapy and its uses for replacing damaged neurons in Parkinson's. (
  • The ultimate goal: to grow new neurons and spur them to connect to each other, and thereby bring the brain back to life. (
  • The stem cell closely resembles the radial glial cell in structure and behavior and, like the radial glia, has radial fibers which newborn neurons migrate along up to the neocortex. (
  • New neurons (white) enter the olfactory bulb, a part of the brain that processes odor signals. (
  • This allows the "on-demand" generation of particular types of neurons in the adult brain. (
  • Our brain generates new neurons throughout life. (
  • In rodents, almost 100,000 new neurons migrate from the stem cell niche to the olfactory bulb each day. (
  • Overexpression of PPAR[gamma] and amelioration of oxidative stress in the brainstem rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where sympathetic promotor neurons reside, underlies the cardiovascular protective action of RSG. (
  • There are motor neurons in the brainstem that allow movement in the face, including speech and swallowing. (
  • Another possibility would be the replacement of lost or damaged motor neurons in patients who have suffered brain or spinal cord damage. (
  • Your brainstem stroke probably damaged brainstem neurons that control muscle tone and body posture, mostly affecting your right arm and your leg to a lesser extent. (
  • The descending branches of those same nerve fibers make contact as pericellular nests of boutons terminaux or boutons en passage neurons of different classes within PVCN and DCN, and here the transformations are quite different from those in AVCN. (
  • In addition to auditory nerve input, there is a rich network of interneurons that forms circuits within and between CN subdivisions (Lorente de No, 1981) along with a substantial set of afferents derived from neurons in other regions of the auditory brain stem. (
  • Interactions between brainstem respiratory neurons. (
  • The brain stem is the lower part of the brain that's connected to the spinal cord (part of the central nervous system in the spinal column). (
  • Brainstem , area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral hemispheres and the cervical spinal cord . (
  • A stalklike part of the brain, between the cerebrum and spinal cord. (
  • Additionally, the brain stem, which is located at the junction of the spinal cord, serves as a conduit through which information and instructions pass. (
  • The brain stem is the lower part of the brain , adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord . (
  • The brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord. (
  • Researchers are already looking at other types of damage previously thought to be permanent and incredibly hard to operate on, including the spinal cord - all of which has its roots in the brain. (
  • It connects the other parts of the brain (the cerebrum and cerebellum ) to the spinal cord . (
  • Now that large neural stem cell quantities are viable, scientists are raising the possibility of repairing spinal cord injuries or curing brain diseases like Parkinson's . (
  • The brainstem is a very delicate location where many pathways from the brain to the spinal cord travel. (
  • A brain stem tumor is a tumor in the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord (the brain stem). (
  • Let's talk about how stem cell research could possibly impact spinal cord injury. (
  • When all is said and done, could stem cell treatment be the miracle cure for spinal cord injury and paralysis? (
  • Ultimately, no one yet knows the extent to which stem cell treatment could help spinal cord injury and paralysis. (
  • Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation puts most families in crushing debt. (
  • The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior stalk-like part of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. (
  • just going to talk about the rest part of the brain and the spinal cord. (
  • then it's the link between our central of our brain to the spinal cord. (
  • People with spinal cord injuries may currently undergo the procedure of stem cell implantation in China or Portugal. (
  • Hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) is a condition that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). (
  • In particular, the condition affects nerves in specific regions (called tracts) within the spinal cord and the brainstem, which is the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. (
  • The brain stem lies between the spinal cord and the diencephalon and the gray and white matters are intermixed. (
  • The new findings "extend the scope of neural stem cell therapy to include their use as vehicles for protein delivery to glioma," they say. (
  • Cognitive function improved significantly after human neural stem cell transplantation in a preclinical model of radiation-induced cognitive impairment, researchers reported. (
  • To determine the potential of neural stem cell transplantation to reverse radiation-induced cognitive impairment, the authors conducted a study involving three groups of laboratory rats. (
  • Two groups of animals underwent cranial irradiation, followed by human neural stem cell transplantation into the hippocampus or a sham transplant procedure. (
  • The body's visual and auditory reflex centers are situated in the part of the brain stem called the midbrain. (
  • The midbrain is continuous with the thalamus of the diencephalon through the tentorial notch, and sometimes the diencephalon is included in the brainstem. (
  • The inferior colliculus is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex. (
  • But after the first few months of human embryonic development, they become rare in the brain, and it's challenging for scientists to find, isolate and manipulate them. (
  • Sonic hedgehog plays an important role during the embryonic development of the brain, but normally shuts down when its no longer needed. (
  • A brain stem stroke can also cause double vision, slurred speech and decreased level of consciousness. (
  • If a stroke in the brain stem results from a clot, the faster blood flow can be restored, the better the chances for recovery. (
  • Whether a survivor has minor or severe deficits depends on the location of the stroke within the brain stem, the extent of injury and how quickly treatment is provided. (
  • Risk factors for brain stem stroke are the same as for strokes in other areas of the brain: high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, atrial fibrillation and smoking. (
  • Studies have evaluated the treatments singly for other conditions - stroke, coma - but brain death is a quite different proposition. (
  • Acute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation. (
  • Daneshmend T K , Hewer R L , Bradshaw J R . Acute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation. (
  • A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as breathing and instructing the heart to beat. (
  • Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. (
  • My husband had endured a massive brain stem stroke and every minute untreated meant another minute where his brain was starved of oxygen. (
  • In people with epilepsy, an area of the brain stops responding to control signals -- due to developmental abnormality, tumor or stroke -- resulting in recurrent seizures. (
  • The findings suggest aromatic-turmerone may help in the recovery of brain function in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and stroke-provided the effect also applies to humans. (
  • A stroke is, essentially, a blood clot in the brain. (
  • The brain is poor at repairing itself and a major focus in regenerative medicine is finding ways to repair the brain efficiently following injury caused by stroke, head trauma, Alzheimer's disease or aging, for example. (
  • Stem cell-based therapies for stroke have expanded substantially over the last decade. (
  • A person recently wrote to me saying that he had a brainstem stroke about a year and half ago. (
  • That is how I would try to get recovery from a brainstem stroke. (
  • My Dad suffered a cervicomedullary junction stroke (brainstem) nearly two years ago that left him quadriplegic and vent dependent (working on that with good results). (
  • In January of 2010 I had a brain stem stroke of the madulla. (
  • Dopamine agonists stimulate dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra, the part of the brain in which Parkinson's is thought to originate. (
  • Pallidotomy and thalamotomy are surgical procedures that destroy brain tissue in regions of the brain associated with Parkinson's symptoms, such as dyskinesia, rigidity, and tremor. (
  • So, it is crucial that scientists come up with more effective strategies for repairing the brain damage that Parkinson's disease causes. (
  • New research , which now appears in a special supplement to the Journal of Parkinson's Disease , evaluates the potential of stem cell therapy for treating this neurodegenerative condition. (
  • Ultimately these findings promise to improve the success of retinal transplantation to regenerate vision for millions with macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and diabetic retinopathy and brain transplants to restore functioning for patients with disorders such as Parkinson's disease. (
  • Their work is a step forward in the controversial field of stem-cell research, which scientists say holds the promise of treating a range of diseases. (
  • We are moving into a very exciting era for stem cell therapy," Prof. Parmar points out. (
  • DRESDEN, Germany, February 5, 2014 -- Scientists here recently discovered a new mechanism governing brain stem cell proliferation. (
  • UCSF scientists have discovered a new stem cell in the developing human brain. (
  • This discovery has the potential to transform our understanding of the development and evolution of the human neocortex, the most uniquely human part of the central nervous system," says the senior author of the study, neurologist Arnold Kriegstein, MD, PhD, director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. (
  • We suspect that faults in cell-cycle regulation account for a variety of developmental brain diseases. (
  • Each stem cell has its own identity, depending on its location in the subventricular zone. (
  • Hit 'em where they live: targeting the cancer stem cell niche. (
  • Other markers of stem cell function remain to be investigated, including ability to differentiate and migrate. (
  • To stave off cancer stem cell growth in the brain, Dr. John Boockvar is studying two drugs already available for cancer treatment. (
  • A glioma is a tumor that grows from a glial cell, which is a supportive cell in the brain. (
  • Principal investigator Silvia Marino, Professor of Neuropathology at Queen Mary, University of London, and her team showed that medulloblastomas can grow from a type of brain stem cell and that these cancers are a distinct form of the disease which may require a completely different approach to treatment. (
  • The cancer stem cell model proposes a clonally derived brain tumor arising from a cancer stem cell. (
  • This tumor cell-of-origin originates from a stem/progenitor or more differentiated cell via acquisition of oncogenic mutations that dysregulate or allow reacquisition of self-renewal mechanisms. (
  • That figure goes up to 15 million worldwide, with a large portion of them suffering irreversible damage - the type which the stem cell injections set out to cure. (
  • The mice regained lost skills after the stem-cell treatment. (
  • One month after stem-cell implantation, irradiated rats' performance on standardized tasks was similar to that of control animals not exposed to cranial irradiation. (
  • One and four months after transplantation, investigators assessed stem-cell survival and phenotypic fate, as well as the rats' cognitive function. (
  • The capability to minimize the adverse cognitive sequelae associated with cranial radiotherapy is encouraging and points to the promise of using stem-cell-based strategies or minimizing normal tissue damage," they added. (
  • Since the process only involves a single gene, it is highly amenable for the development of drugs targeted at promoting stem cell differentiation in the adult nervous system. (
  • This technique doesn't apply to other stem cell types, as their stemness is dictated by more by the stiffness of the gels. (
  • In Aim 1, we will map the domains of stem cell activation and cell types generated in different states in male and female mice. (
  • In Aim 2, we will perform large-scale single cell sequencing to decode stem cell heterogeneity and develop novel fate mapping strategies to selectively target different stem cell populations. (
  • In Aim 3, we will define how the choroid plexus and long- range innervation differentially affect V-SVZ stem cell recruitment in different states using approaches to manipulate neural circuit activity. (
  • The study, conducted by UCI scientists LaFerla, professor of neurobiology and behaviour, Mathew Blurton-Jones and Tritia Yamasaki, was performed using a new type of genetically engineered mouse that developed brain lesions in areas designated by the scientists and found that mice with brain injuries experienced enhanced memory up to three months after receiving a stem cell treatment. (
  • Most everyone has heard about the controversy surrounding stem cell research and treatment. (
  • It seems like just about every media outlet-magazines, newspapers, television-has played host to the debate regarding whether stem cell research and treatment are moral and/or ethical. (
  • Secondly, opponents are concerned about the health and safety of the participants in human stem cell research trials. (
  • Feng and Zhao developed a model of stem cell transplants in rats. (
  • However, the optimal conditions of stem cell use are still being determined. (
  • We recognize that stem cell derivations also provide uniquely individual difficulties and limitations in their therapeutic applications. (
  • He asked whether and what stem cell therapies may be beneficial for his condition. (
  • There is no credible data and no stem cell therapy has been shown to restore function yet in human. (
  • I would not trust any doctor who claims that he/she has a stem cell therapy that does so and charge you for the therapy. (
  • Of course we'd love the magic stem cell or other treatment if it even gave him a hint of some movement back but so be it. (
  • Dr. Spetzler at the Barrow Institute wanted to go in on the left lateral approach, but we could not get the insurance to approve it.I want to know if there are any stem cell trials available out there for the brain. (
  • President Bush stated that federal funds would be awarded for research in the filed of stem cell research in 2001. (
  • These questions range from the "What" to the "How" and most importantly to the "Why" of stem cell cultivation and development. (
  • It is probably just a matter of time before this happens to the topic of stem cell research. (
  • Rehabilitation hospitals and "recovery centers" are already encouraging positive blogs and upbeat subjective postings by patients who have undergone stem cell surgery. (
  • Stem Cell Information - The National Institutes of Health (NIH) resource for stem cell research. (
  • Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-responsive NSC isolated from adult rat brain may in fact be a glial precursor, possibly an "astrocyte-like" cell ( 9 ). (
  • OTTAWA , Nov. 24, 2016 /CNW/ - The Stem Cell Network (SCN) with the support of the Minister of Science, the Honourable Kirsty Duncan , is pleased to announce funding of $9 million for innovative stem cell and regenerative medicine research that will help translate discoveries into better health and economic growth for Canadians. (
  • This funding was made available thanks to a 2016 budget commitment of $12 million over two years by the Government of Canada to further the work of the Stem Cell Network. (
  • The funding announced today will support projects that encourage important partnerships between universities, hospitals and businesses so they may collaborate on bold new stem cell technologies and health innovations that will improve the lives of Canadians. (
  • A total of 38 investigators (6 Principal Investigators & 32 Co-Investigators) at 12 institutions and 50 trainees will be engaged in these trials, which will determine the safety and efficacy of new stem cell treatments in humans. (
  • Multidisciplinary teams supported through this program are focused on novel cellular or stem cell-related therapeutic approaches to treat disease. (
  • Supporting and building Canada's stem cell and regenerative medicine research sector has been the raison d'etre of the Stem Cell Network (SCN) since its inception in 2001. (
  • Researchers at a leading U.S. children's hospital have found new evidence linking sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) to underlying abnormalities in babies' brain stems. (
  • Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine have said that the master gene Math1 is involved in the genesis of the most common childhood brain tumor. (
  • The scanning technique allows researchers to watch the brain in action. (
  • The researchers were able to track changes in blood flow in areas of the brainstem associated with enhanced activity of the brain chemical dopamine - as the person experienced either pleasure or disappointment at receiving or not receiving the reward. (
  • Additionally, the medulla oblongata serves as a relay system, and it plays a large part in carrying nerve impulses to and from the brain. (
  • Cranial MRI showed multiple small contrast-enhanced lesions predominantly located in the cerebellum and brain stem (Figure) , reminiscent of a sprinkling of pepper. (
  • The changes selectively affect the white matter in the cerebellum and brain stem in contrast to minimal involvement of the occipital white matter. (
  • Norman RM, Urich H, Tingey, AH (1963) Leukodystrophy with predirection for cerebellum and brain stem. (
  • A recurrent brain stem glioma is a tumour that has come back after treatment. (
  • Some focal brain stem gliomas grow so slowly that treatment might not be needed unless the tumour causes problems. (
  • The speed of onset, site, and size of a brainstem lesion determine whether it results in coma, so brain stem infarction or haemorrhage often causes coma while other brain stem conditions such as multiple sclerosis or tumour rarely do so. (
  • She said: "This type of brain tumour can pose a great challenge to doctors. (
  • As a neurosurgeon at Toronto's Sick Kids hospital, Peter Dirks routinely confronts a devastating type of brain tumour that is the No. 1 cause of cancer-related death in children. (
  • Diseases of the brainstem can result to abnormalities in the function of cranial nerves which may lead to visual disturbances, pupil abnormalities, changes in sensation, muscle weakness, hearing problems, vertigo, swallowing and speech difficulty, voice change, and co-ordination problems. (
  • Hecox K, Cone B, Blaw M (1981) Brainstem auditory evoked response in the diagnosis of pediatric neurologic diseases. (
  • Brain death implies the complete and permanent absence of neurological function in the cortex and the brainstem . (
  • c diVuse or extensive processes aVecting the whole brain c supratentorial mass lesions causing tentorial herniation with brain stem compression (associated with other neurological signs such as third nerve palsy and crossed hemiparesis) c brain stem lesions-for example, compression from posterior fossa mass lesions such as cerebellar haemorrhage/infarction and disorders primarily aVecting the brain stem (for example, basilar artery thrombosis). (
  • Curcumin is also capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, which is one reason why it holds promise as a neuroprotective agent in a wide range of neurological disorders. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of human mortality and morbidity, which can induce serious neurological damage. (
  • At present, clinical treatments for neurological dysfunction after TBI include hyperbaric oxygen, brain stimulation and behavioral therapy, but the therapeutic effect is not satisfactory. (
  • Founded in 2005 by Dr. Shaheen Lakhan , Brain Blogger is an official undertaking of the Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation (GNIF) - an international charity for the advancement of neurological and mental health patient welfare, education, and research. (
  • Accordingto study author Stuart Lipton, the "breakthrough" in the research isthat scientists were able to determine that HIV prevents stem celldivision. (
  • Reporting in the Feb. 28 edition of Science , the scientists describe using functional magnetic resonance imaging to study brainstem activity in dehydrated humans. (
  • For a long time, scientists have tried looking at this area of the brain and have been unsuccessful - it's just too small,' said Kimberlee D'Ardenne, the lead author on the paper. (
  • Until now, scientists wanting to use brain scans to study brain chemicals like dopamine were relegated to watching its effects in other more accessible parts of the brain, like the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. (
  • Treatment of brain stem gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis may differ. (
  • To make an appointment or request a consultation, contact the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Brain Tumor Center at 410-955-7337 . (
  • Learn about the diagnosis, cellular classification, staging, treatment, and clinical trials for pediatric brain stem glioma in this expert-reviewed summary. (
  • Pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) - the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor of childhood - on the other hand, has been found to have substantially different biological underpinnings. (
  • Unfortunately, it is perhaps more apt to describe adult brainstem glioma as the valley shrouded in shadow between the two growing mountains of knowledge that represent adult glioma and pediatric DIPG, as few studies have investigated this particular diagnosis. (
  • In contrast to pediatric DIPG, which accounts for approximately 20% of pediatric primary brain neoplasms, adult brainstem glioma constitutes less than 2% of adult gliomas, with a slight male preponderance ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Fifty-one children were treated from January 2005 to December 2010 for brain stem glioma in the Pediatric Neurosurgery Department of Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France. (
  • Evaluation of 18F-FDG PET and MRI associations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium. (
  • Recurrent focal brain stem gliomas may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy or a combination of these treatments. (
  • Data from patients with brain stem lesion, who reported starting treatments within the last 5 years. (
  • To repair damage to the outer layers of the brain (the cortex), they have to migrate some distance, especially in the large human brain. (
  • Newswise - While Zika virus causes devastating damage to the brains of developing fetuses, it one day may be an effective treatment for glioblastoma, a deadly form of brain cancer. (
  • To investigate human migraine, we used positron emission tomography to examine the changes in regional cerebral blood flow as an index of neuronal activity in the human brain during spontaneous migraine attacks. (
  • Neuroscience is a wonderful branch of science on how our brain perceives the external world, how our brain thinks, how our brain responds to the outside of the world, and how during disease or aging the neuronal connections deteriorate. (
  • This approach "represents a promising new treatment for malignant brain tumours," the authors write in the journal Cancer Research . (
  • In deep brain stimulation (DBS), also called neurostimulation, an electric pulse generator controls symptoms. (
  • Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose. (
  • 2017). TBI is a disease which causes the destruction of normal brain function, and leads to serious physical, cognitive and emotional disorders. (
  • I had the same inoperable brain cancer when I was 3 back in 1991. (
  • A little boy in my community was diagnosed with a brain stem glioma - inoperable - just last week. (
  • Hello I am 33 years old and was diagnosed with inoperable brain stem glioma.I am on my 3rd week of radiation therapy and will be on chemo starting next week. (
  • Focal brain stem glioma occurs in one area or is contained within a small part of the brain stem. (
  • Brain stem glioma occurs most commonly in children between 5 and 10 years old. (
  • We propose that brain CSCs are maintained within vascular niches that are important targets for therapeutic approaches. (
  • For the study, surgeons, neurologists and neuroscientists worked together, following ethical approval and informed consent guidelines, to examine a small portion of brain tissue within minutes of its removal for a histopathological exam. (
  • The targeted therapy causes notably less collateral damage to healthy brain tissue," shared Dr Kuldeep Sharma. (
  • In addition, support will be provided to further ongoing research that is looking at existing drugs for the regeneration of neural tissue after a brain injury. (
  • The concentration of laquinimod achieved in the human brain during treatment is unknown, she said, and extrapolation from mice is problematic, because of large interspecies differences in the rate of metabolism of the drug. (
  • They then gave place and object recognition tests to healthy mice and mice with brain injuries to test memory. (
  • In the place test, healthy mice retained the information about their surroundings about 70 percent of the time, but mice with brain injuries remembered it just 40 percent of the time. (
  • Differentiation of the brain stem from the cerebrum is complex, with regard to both anatomy and taxonomy. (
  • these are found in the blood, in bone marrow, the brain, the liver and skin. (
  • Especially in the neocortex""the most highly developed part of the brain in primates and humans "" there are going to be important differences between rodents and humans. (
  • Laquinimod is a monoclonal antibody in phase III trials for treatment of MS. Unlike other disease-modifying MS therapies, a portion of the drug, about 10%, crosses into the brain. (
  • Patients with hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, with an between 1 month and 18 years, regardless the age at the time of injury, time post-injury, or previously received therapies, different from ours. (
  • A unilateral hemisphere lesion will not result in coma unless there is secondary brain stem compression, caused by herniation, compromising the ascending reticular activating system. (
  • Who has brain stem lesion on PatientsLikeMe? (
  • Since the brainstem contains a compact arrangement of diverse structures, what will normally happen with a single lesion? (
  • What 3 things can a unilateral lesion of the brain stem cause? (
  • Why can a unilateral lesion of the brain stem cause contralateral hemiplegia? (
  • All efferent and afferent pathways between the cerebrum and cerebellum course through the brainstem, and many of them decussate, or cross, within this structure. (
  • All information going between the body and the cerebellum and the cerebrum must go through the brainstem. (
  • The company has tested the same concoction, called BQ-A, in animal models of melanoma, traumatic brain injuries, and skin wrinkling. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common and frequently occurring disease. (
  • Experimental diabetes in rodents rapidly affects the neurogenic niches of the adult brain. (
  • It has been shown that the periventricular subependymal zone (SEZ) is a source of neurogenesis, and this region presumably contains the highest concentration of NSC in the postnatal and adult brain ( 2 ). (
  • More broadly, they suggest that NSC migration can be extensive, even in the adult brain and along nonstereotypical routes, if pathology (as modeled here by tumor) is present. (
  • Doing so potentially could improve people's chances against a brain cancer - glioblastoma - that is most often fatal within a year of diagnosis. (
  • Each year in the United States, about 12,000 people are diagnosed with glioblastoma, the most common form of brain cancer. (
  • This information may prove useful in the therapy of patients with glioblastoma and/or brainstem gliomas. (
  • Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) often spreads throughout the brain stem and to other parts of the brain. (
  • DIPG may also be called diffuse brain stem glioma. (
  • Radiation therapy is the most common treatment for diffuse brain stem gliomas because most of these tumours cannot be removed with surgery. (
  • There is no standard treatment for recurrent diffuse brain stem gliomas. (
  • Usually, by the time brain stem glioma is diagnosed, it is most often diffuse, which means it has spread freely through the brain stem. (
  • The pathophysiology of TBI mainly includes the break of the blood brain barrier (BBB), extensive neuroinflammation, diffuse axonal injury, and neurodegenerative lesions (Xiong et al. (
  • The purpose of this study was to assess (18)F-FDG uptake in children with a newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma (BSG) and to investigate associations with progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and MRI indices. (
  • The new research is notable because it found the SIDS babies - regardless of whether they were in positions or sleep environments that might have contributed to asphyxiation - had similar abnormal circuits in the brain stem. (
  • SCN is funding a total of 31 goal-directed projects from across Canada that are moving research from lab bench to bedside in areas such as brain injury, kidney disease and breast cancer. (
  • The long-term use of mobile phones can create up to 1,500 cases of brain tumours per year over the next twenty years, a new British study has said. (
  • The posterior fossa is the region below the tentorium, which separates the cortex from the cerebellum and essentially denotes the region containing the brain stem, cerebellum, and fourth ventricle. (