The leveraging of collective wisdom within an organization as a catalyst to increase responsiveness and innovation.
Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.
The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Disorders resulting from defects in migration of neuronal cells during neurogenesis. Developing nerve cells either fail to migrate or they migrate to incorrect positions resulting in formation of heterotopias, lissencephaly, or other malformations and dysfunctions of the nervous system.
A "smooth brain" malformation of the CEREBRAL CORTEX resulting from abnormal location of developing neurons during corticogenesis. It is characterized by an absence of normal convoluted indentations on the surface of the brain (agyria), or fewer and shallower indentations (pachygryia). There is a reduced number of cortical layers, typically 4 instead of 6, resulting in a thickened cortex, and reduced cerebral white matter that is a reversal of the normal ratio of cerebral white matter to cortex.
A congenital abnormality in which the CEREBRUM is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
Disorders comprising a spectrum of brain malformations representing the paradigm of a diffuse neuronal migration disorder. They result in cognitive impairment; SEIZURES; and HYPOTONIA or spasticity. Mutations of two genes, LIS1, the gene for the non-catalytic subunit of PLATELET-ACTIVATING FACTOR ACETYLHYDROLASE IB; and DCX or XLIS, the gene for doublecortin, have been identified as the most common causes of disorders in this spectrum. Additional variants of classical (Type I) lissencephaly have been linked to RELN, the gene for reelin, and ARX, the gene for aristaless related homeobox protein. (From Leventer, R.J., et al, Mol Med Today. 2000 Jul;6(7):277-84 and Barkovich, A.J., et al, Neurology. 2005 Dec 27;65(12):1873-87.)
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/3138)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (2/3138)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of K+ channel subunit kv2.2 in brain stem and hypothalamic neurons. (3/3138)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful modulatory actions on cardiovascular function that are mediated by specific receptors located on neurons within the hypothalamus and brain stem. Incubation of neuronal cocultures of rat hypothalamus and brain stem with Ang II elicits an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor-mediated inhibition of total outward K+ current that contributes to an increase in neuronal firing rate. However, the exact K+ conductance(s) that is inhibited by Ang II are not established. Pharmacological manipulation of total neuronal outward K+ current revealed a component of K+ current sensitive to quinine, tetraethylammonium, and 4-aminopyridine, with IC50 values of 21.7 micromol/L, 1.49 mmol/L, and 890 micromol/L, respectively, and insensitive to alpha-dendrotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), charybdotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), and mast cell degranulating peptide (1 micromol/L). Collectively, these data suggest the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Biophysical examination of the quinine-sensitive neuronal K+ current demonstrated a macroscopic conductance with similar biophysical properties to those of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Ang II (100 nmol/L), in the presence of the AT2 receptor blocker PD123,319, elicited an inhibition of neuronal K+ current that was abolished by quinine (50 micromol/L). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b mRNA in these neurons. However, Western blot analyses demonstrated that only Kv2.2 protein was present. Coexpression of Kv2.2 and the AT1 receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated an Ang II-induced inhibition of Kv2.2 current. Therefore, these data suggest that inhibition of Kv2.2 contributes to the AT1 receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal K+ current and subsequently to the modulation of cardiovascular function.  (+info)

The superior olivary nucleus and its influence on nucleus laminaris: a source of inhibitory feedback for coincidence detection in the avian auditory brainstem. (4/3138)

Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for coincidence detection. In the present study, the chick SON was investigated. In vivo tracing studies show that the SON projects predominantly to the ipsilateral NM, NL, and NA. In vitro whole-cell recording reveals single-cell morphology, firing properties, and postsynaptic responses. SON neurons are morphologically and physiologically suited for temporal integration; their firing patterns do not reflect the temporal structure of their excitatory inputs. Of most interest, direct stimulation of the SON evokes long-lasting inhibition in NL neurons. The inhibition blocks both intrinsic spike generation and orthodromically evoked activity in NL neurons and can be eliminated by bicuculline methiodide, a potent antagonist for GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest that the SON provides GABAergic inhibitory feedback to laminaris neurons. We discuss a mechanism whereby SON-evoked GABAergic inhibition can influence the coding of interaural time differences for sound localization in the avian auditory brainstem.  (+info)

Concurrent inhibition and excitation of phrenic motoneurons during inspiration: phase-specific control of excitability. (5/3138)

The movements that define behavior are controlled by motoneuron output, which depends on the excitability of motoneurons and the synaptic inputs they receive. Modulation of motoneuron excitability takes place over many time scales. To determine whether motoneuron excitability is specifically modulated during the active versus the quiescent phase of rhythmic behavior, we compared the input-output properties of phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) during inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration. In neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations that generate rhythmic respiratory motor outflow, we blocked excitatory inspiratory synaptic drive to PMNs and then examined their phase-dependent responses to superthreshold current pulses. Pulses during inspiration elicited fewer action potentials compared with identical pulses during expiration. This reduced excitability arose from an inspiratory-phase inhibitory input that hyperpolarized PMNs in the absence of excitatory inspiratory inputs. Local application of bicuculline blocked this inhibition as well as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory firing. Correspondingly, bicuculline locally applied to the midcervical spinal cord enhanced fourth cervical nerve (C4) inspiratory burst amplitude. Strychnine had no effect on C4 output. Nicotinic receptor antagonists neither potentiated C4 output nor blocked its potentiation by bicuculline, further indicating that the inhibition is not from recurrent inhibitory pathways. We conclude that it is bulbospinal in origin. These data demonstrate that rapid changes in motoneuron excitability occur during behavior and suggest that integration of overlapping, opposing synaptic inputs to motoneurons is important in controlling motor outflow. Modulation of phasic inhibition may represent a means for regulating the transfer function of PMNs to suit behavioral demands.  (+info)

A clinical study of motor evoked potentials using a triple stimulation technique. (6/3138)

Amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are usually much smaller than those of motor responses to maximal peripheral nerve stimulation, and show marked variation between normal subjects and from one stimulus to another. Consequently, amplitude measurements have low sensitivity to detect central motor conduction failures due to the broad range of normal values. Since these characteristics are mostly due to varying desynchronization of the descending action potentials, causing different degrees of phase cancellation, we applied the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction to 489 abductor digiti minimi muscles of 271 unselected patients referred for possible corticospinal dysfunction. The TST allows resynchronization of the MEP, and thereby a quantification of the proportion of motor units activated by the transcranial stimulus. TST results were compared with those of conventional MEPs. In 212 of 489 sides, abnormal TST responses suggested conduction failure of various degrees. By contrast, conventional MEPs detected conduction failures in only 77 of 489 sides. The TST was therefore 2.75 times more sensitive than conventional MEPs in disclosing corticospinal conduction failures. When the results of the TST and conventional MEPs were combined, 225 sides were abnormal: 145 sides showed central conduction failure, 13 sides central conduction slowing and 67 sides both conduction failure and slowing. It is concluded that the TST is a valuable addition to the study of MEPs, since it improves detection and gives quantitative information on central conduction failure, an abnormality which appears to be much more frequent than conduction slowing. This new technique will be useful in following the natural course and the benefit of treatments in disorders affecting central motor conduction.  (+info)

Infratentorial atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging and disability in multiple sclerosis. (7/3138)

Loss of tissue volume in the central nervous system may provide an index of fixed neurological dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Recent magnetic resonance studies have shown a modest relationship between clinical disability rating scores and transverse sectional area of the cervical spinal cord. To explore further the relationship between atrophy and disability in multiple sclerosis, we estimated the volumes of infratentorial structures from MRIs in a cross-sectional study of 41 patients, 21 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. We used the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology with point counting to estimate the volume of brainstem, cerebellum and upper cervical spinal cord from three-dimensional MRIs acquired with an MPRAGE (Magnetization-prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo) sequence. The volume of the upper (C1-C3) cervical spinal cord was significantly correlated with a composite spinal cord score derived from the appropriate Functional Scale scores of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). The cerebellar (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) and brainstem (r = 0.34, P < 0.05) volumes correlated with the Scripp's Neurological Disability Rating Scale scores. The upper cervical cord volumes (r = -0.39, P < 0.01), but not the brainstem or cerebellar volumes, were significantly associated with disease duration. MRI-estimated structural volumes may provide a simple index of axonal and/or myelin loss, the presumed pathological substrates of irreversible impairment and disability in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Tissue-specific changes of type 1 angiotensin II receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA in angiotensinogen gene-knockout mice. (8/3138)

This study examined whether type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNAs are regulated during dietary salt loading in angiotensinogen gene-knockout (Atg-/-) mice which are genetically deficient in endogenous production of angiotensin II. Wild-type (Atg+/+) and Atg-/- mice were fed a normal-salt (0.3% NaCl) or a high-salt (4% NaCl) diet for 2 weeks. The mRNA levels were measured by Northern blot analysis. In Atg+/+ mice, concentrations of plasma angiotensin peptides were decreased by salt loading, whereas the treatment increased the brainstem, cardiac, pulmonary, renal cortex, gastric and intestinal AT1 mRNA levels. Salt loading also enhanced renal cortex ACE mRNA levels in Atg+/+ mice. Although plasma angiotensin peptides and urinary aldosterone excretion were not detected in Atg-/- mice, salt loading increased blood pressure in Atg-/- mice. In Atg-/- mice, pulmonary, renal cortex, gastric and intestinal AT1, and renal cortex and intestinal ACE mRNA levels were higher than those in Atg+/+ mice. However, salt loading upregulated AT1 mRNA expression only in the liver of Atg-/- mice, and the treatment did not affect ACE mRNA levels in Atg-/- mice. Furthermore, although the levels of ACE enzymatic activity showed the same trend with the ACE mRNA levels in the lung, renal cortex and intestine of both Atg-/- and Atg+/+ mice, the results of radioligand binding assay showed that cardiac expression of AT1 protein was regulated differently from AT1 mRNA expression both in Atg-/- and Atg+/+ mice. Thus, expression of AT1 and ACE is regulated by salt loading in a tissue-specific manner that appears to be mediated, at least partly, by a mechanism other than changes in the circulating or tissue levels of angiotensin peptides.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Human brainstem preganglionic parasympathetic neurons localized by markers for nitric oxide synthesis. AU - Gai, W. P.. AU - Blessing, W. W.. PY - 1996/8. Y1 - 1996/8. N2 - Identification of human parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in pontomedullary regions has been largely based on studies using cholinesterase histochemical procedures, and so far there is no adequate account of the location of these cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is present in brainstem parasympathetic preganglionic salivatory neurons in the rabbit. In the present study we have used histochemical and immunohistochemical staining for NOS to examine possible preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the human brainstem. We examined, in five human brains, the distribution, through the caudal pons and rostral medulla, of NOS-positive neurons in serial sections stained with NADPH diaphorase for histochemistry, and with antibodies against neuronal NOS peptide for immunohistochemistry. In scattered pontomedullary ...
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes retinal images by generating smooth eye movements that are equal in amplitude and opposite in direction to head turns. Whenever image motion occurs persistently during head turns, the VOR undergoes motor learning; as a result image stability is gradually restored. A group of brain stem neurons that are in the modified pathways has now been described. The neurons express changes in firing in association with motor learning in the VOR and receive monosynaptic inhibition from the flocculus of the cerebellum. The changes in firing have an appropriate magnitude and are expressed at the correct latency to account for the altered VOR. The response properties of the neurons point to their brain stem vestibular inputs for further investigation of the site of motor learning. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fos expression in brain stem nuclei of pregnant rats after hydralazine- induced hypotension. AU - Curtis, Kathleen. AU - Cunningham, J. Thomas. AU - Heesch, Cheryl M.. PY - 1999/8/1. Y1 - 1999/8/1. N2 - Fos and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunoreactivity were evaluated in the brain stems of 21-day pregnant and virgin female rats injected with either hydralazine (HDZ; 10 mg/kg iv) or vehicle. HDZ produced significant hypotension in both groups, although baseline blood pressure was lower in pregnant rats (96 ± 2.5 mmHg) than in virgin female rats (121 ± 2.8 mmHg). There were no differences in Fos immunoreactivity in the brain stems of pregnant and virgin female rats after vehicle treatment. HDZ-induced hypotension significantly increased Fos expression in both groups; however, the magnitude of the increases differed in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL), the area postrema (AP), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL). Fos expression after HDZ in pregnant rats was augmented ...
Autor: Borst, J. Gerard G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999-11-15; Titel: Depletion of calcium in the synaptic cleft of a calyx-type synapse in the rat brainstem
List of causes of Bilateral brainstem dysfunction and Head symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Kiyama, H.; Shiosaka, S.; Kubota, Y.; Cho, H.J.; Takagi, H.; Tateishi, K.; Hashimura, E.; Hamaoka, T.; Tohyama, M., 1983: Ontogeny of cholecystokinin-8 containing neuron system of the rat: an immunohistochemical analysis--II. Lower brain stem
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem. AU - Kuo, Sidney P.. AU - Bradley, Laura A.. AU - Trussell, Laurence. PY - 2009/7/29. Y1 - 2009/7/29. N2 - Identification of shared features between avian and mammalian auditory brainstem circuits has provided much insight into the mechanisms underlying early auditory processing. However, previous studies have highlighted an apparent difference in inhibitory systems; synaptic inhibition is thought to be slow and GABAergic in birds but to have fast kinetics and be predominantly glycinergic in mammals. Using patch-clamp recordings in chick brainstem slices, we found that this distinction is not exclusively true. Consistent with previous work, IPSCs in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were slow and mediated by GABA A receptors. However, IPSCs in nucleus laminaris (NL) and a subset of neurons in nucleus angularis (NA) had rapid time courses twofold to threefold faster than those in NM. ...
Together with Istvan Törk, we have examined the morphology and distribution of noradrenergic (Baker et al., 1989) and serotonergic neurons in the human brain (Törk and Hornung, 1990; Baker et al,...
Subjects. Ten healthy, right-handed subjects (five female) participated in the study. The median age was 30 years of age (range, 21-33 years). None reported any abnormal gastrointestinal or somatic symptoms on a personal history and bowel symptom questionnaire (Talley et al., 1989). Clinical depression was excluded with the use of the Becks Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1961). None of the subjects took any medications likely to interfere with the blood oxygen level-dependent response. All subjects gave informed consent, and the Oxfordshire Clinical Research Ethics Committee approved the study.. Stimuli. Electrical stimuli were used to induce both somatic and visceral pain. Purpose-built electrical stimulating catheters were designed for safe use within the high field strength magnet (Standard Instruments, Karlsruhe, Germany). These contained no ferromagnetic material and had two bipolar ring electrodes 2 cm apart at the distal tip. The catheters were connected via a magnet-compatible ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Etienne Gaudrain.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Hearing Group Meetings series.. ...
Brainstem function. A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as breathing and instructing the heart to beat. Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. The brain stem also controls less essential abilities such as articulate speech.. ...
This paper presents the effects of spontaneous random activity on information transmission in an auditory brain stem neuron model. In computer simulations, the supra-threshold synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated by sinusoidal functions at a frequency of 220-3520 Hz with regard to the human speech spectrum. The stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons, so as to realize threshold fluctuations or a variation of spike firing times. The results show that the information rates estimated from the entropy of inter-spike intervals of spike trains tend toward a convex function of the spontaneous rates when the intensity of sinusoidal functions decreases. Furthermore, the results show that a convex function of the spontaneous rates tends to disappear as the frequency of the sinusoidal function
You may have heard of the brain stem, but do you know what its in charge of? What its basic function is? The purpose it serves for your body?. The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebellum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts.. The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive - your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure.. The brain stem also coordinates such things as eye movements, movement of the jaw, tongue and larynx, your facial expressions, and sensations and movements of your neck and head; the brain stem accomplishes that through the cranial nerves that pass through it. Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance!. Any type of injury to the ...
New research, published today in Nature, reveals how increasing brain stiffness as we age causes brain stem cell dysfunction, and demonstrates new ways to reverse older stem cells to a younger, healthier state. The results have far reaching implications for how we understand the ageing process, and how we might develop much-needed treatments for age-related brain diseases.. As our bodies age, muscles and joints can become stiff, making everyday movements more difficult. This study shows the same is true in our brains, and that age-related brain stiffening has a significant impact on the function of brain stem cells.. A multi-disciplinary research team, based at the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute (University of Cambridge), studied young and old rat brains to understand the impact of age-related brain stiffening on the function of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs).. These cells are a type of brain stem cell important for maintaining normal brain function, and for the regeneration ...
Read Primary Vagal Projection to the Contralateral Non-NTS Region in the Embryonic Chick Brainstem Revealed by Optical Recording, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In the large group of genetically undetermined infantile-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies, multiple defects of mitochondrial DNA-related respiratory-chain complexes constitute a frequent biochemical signature. In order to identify responsible genes, we used exome-next-generation sequencing in a selected cohort of patients with this biochemical signature. In an isolated patient, we found two mutant alleles for EARS2, the gene encoding mitochondrial glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. The brain magnetic resonance imaging of this patient was hallmarked by extensive symmetrical cerebral white matter abnormalities sparing the periventricular rim and symmetrical signal abnormalities of the thalami, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and cerebellar white matter. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed increased lactate. We matched this magnetic resonance imaging pattern with that of a cohort of 11 previously selected unrelated cases. We found mutations in the EARS2 gene in all. Subsequent detailed ...
Model of Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body (MNTB) neurons described in Lu-Yang Wang, Li Gan, Ian D. Forsythe and Leonard K. Kaczmarek. Contribution of the Kv3.1 potassium channel to high-frequency firing in mouse auditory neurones. J. Physiol (1998) 509.1 183-194. Created by David Kornfeld, Byram Hills High School, Armonk NY. Please email [email protected] for questions about the model. See Readme.txt below for more info ...
Electrical stimulation of the lower brain stem (ESLB) at sites presumed to be parts of the ascending noradrenergic system was carried out in unanaesthetized young guinea pigs. At neutral ambient...
The clinical and pathological spectrum of brain-stem vascular malformations. Long-term course simulates multiple sclerosis. Three cases of brain-stem vascular malformation with progressive and fluctuating clinical courses of longer than one year were studied. One patient with a rare brain-stem arteriovenous ...
ps: Includes bibliographical references and index Physical and electrical properties of cells in the nervous system Synapses and synaptic transmission Neuroplasticity Development of the nervous system Somatosensory system Somatosensation : clinical application Neuropathic pain, pain matrix dysfunction, and pain syndromes Autonomic nervous system The motor system : motor neurons Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and movement Peripheral nervous system Spinal region Cranial nerves Brainstem region Vestibular and visual systems Cerebrum Cerebrum : clinical applications Support systems : blood supply and cerebrospinal fluid system ...
Inner ear neurons develop from the otic placode and connect hair cells with central neurons in auditory brain stem nuclei. Otic neurogenesis is a developmental process which can be separated into different cellular states that are characterized by a distinct combination of molecular markers. Neurogenesis is highly regulated by a network of extrinsic and intrinsic factors, whose participation in auditory neurogenesis is discussed. Trophic factors include the fibroblast growth factor, neurotrophins and insulin-like peptide families. The expression domains of transcription factor families and their roles in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways associated with neurogenesis are also discussed. Understanding and defining the key factors and gene networks in the development and function of the inner ear represents an important step towards defeating deafness.
LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS AND CHEMICALS is manufacturer and supplier of HUMAN BRAIN STEM based in Delhi, India.Our Organization offered supreme quality range of HUMAN BRAIN STEM to their customers with good variety.
In this doctoral thesis, several aspects of neuronal activity in the rat superior olivary complex (SOC), an auditory brainstem structure, were analyzed using optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD). The thesis is divided into 5 Chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, which gives an overview of the auditory brainstem and VSD imaging. In Chapter 2, an optical imaging method for the SOC was standardized, using the VSD RH795. To do so, the following factors were optimized: (1) An extracellular potassium concentration of 5 mM is necessary during the incubation and recording to observe synaptically evoked responses in the SOC. (2) Employing different power supplies reduced the noise. (3) Averaging of 10 subsequent trials yielded a better signal-to-noise ratio. (4) RH795 of 100 µM with 50 min prewash was optimal to image SOC slices for more than one hour. (5) Stimulus-evoked optical signals were TTX sensitive, revealing action potential-driven input. (6) Synaptically evoked optical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The 3-channel Lissajous trajectory of the auditory brain-stem response. V. Effects of stimulus intensity in the cat. AU - Martin, William H.. AU - Gardi, John N.. AU - Jewett, Don L.. PY - 1987/9. Y1 - 1987/9. N2 - Three-channel Lissajous trajectories (3-CLTs) of the cat auditory brain-stem response (ABR) were recorded using click stimuli ranging from 10 to 70 dB impulse SPL and were analyzed using planar analysis. The number of planar segments increased from typically 4 at 10 dB to 12 at 70 dB but certain shape features of the 3-CLT (apices) were preserved across stimulus levels. As stimulus level was raised, size of individual planar segments increased. There were progressive decreases in apex latency as stimulus level was increased. The combined durations of groups of high intensity planar segments were similar to those of their low intensity forms. Shape, size and orientation of planar segments tended to change more across stimulus intensities below 40 dB than above and ...
Adverse psychosocial exposures in early life, namely experiences such as child maltreatment, caregiver stress or depression, and domestic or community violence, have been associated in epidemiological studies with increased lifetime risk of adverse outcomes, including diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and psychiatric illnesses. Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes
11-20-2010, 10:50 PM Photo: the Labs first development image of a multi processor robotic brain stem made from Parallax components (the prototype is seen resting on the green cutting board). This is a hybrid brain stem processor programmed in two languages. The module is currently a hand held unit. When connected to the Giant Brain, it will pass motion mobility commands to the robot and ensure compatibility with additional components. ...
Therefore, this system has been used as a mouse model of Parkinsons disease and, interestingly, these animals show a significant decrease in the survival and proliferation of neuroblast in the SVZ [ 8687 ]. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. Shetty AK, Hattiangady B. The astrocytes are the primary precursors for rapid cell amplification. FGFresponsive Brain stem cells in adults progenitors reside in proliferative and quiescent regions of the adult rodent brain.. #Brain stem cells ...
This medical exhibit reveals cut-away comparative views of the brainstem and cerebellar region. The first detail identifies elements of normal anatomy, the second shows the appearance of an invasive tumor in the brainstem region invading the brainstem, pons and cerebellum.
The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. According to, the brain stem functions as an autopilot for the human body, as it regulates such...
Hes dead. He shot himself in the brain stem. Nothing can survive that. The human body can survive the loss of anything else but the brain stem. Hes dead. We brought him back in to be a dead body. And, in fact, it was cheaper to get Andrew Scott than a mannequin. But hes dead. - Steven Moffat. ...
Steenweg ME, Ghezzi D, Haack T, Abbink TEM, Martinelli D, van Berkel CGM, Bley A, Diogo L, Grillo E, Naudé JTe Water, Strom TM, Bertini E, Prokisch H, van der Knaap MS & Zeviani M (2012) Leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate LTBL caused by EARS2 mutations. Brain 135, 1387-94 ...
This 3D medical animation highlights brain in a semitransparent figure. The brain is the center of the nervous system. The brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord. Its neurological functions include those necessary for survival such as alertness, breathing, digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure regulation.
Our current work with SCA involves assessing the integrity of the cerebellar and brainstem pathways using non-invasive techniques from the pre-symptomatic stage and throughout disease progression. Our work intends to yield useful insights about disease pathogenesis, as well as provide critical assessments of CNS functional pathways that may serve as surrogate biomarkers of disease progression.. For more information about these studies, please feel free to contact us.. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biochai \ cDNA _ Human Fetal Normal Tissue Brain Brain Stem \ C1244075-10 for more molecular products just contact us
Natural cast, in SOMSO-Plast®. Brain Stem from the trans- parent brain model BS 25/T. Separates into 12 parts. The ventricular cavities of the brain is extremely well modelled. A perfect teaching aid for medical students. On a stand with green base. ...
My anatomical embroidery of the brain stem was stitched as a commission for a neuroscientist. It was a joy to stitch, not just because of the monocrhomatic nature of it but because the pops of colour were too gorgeous to resist.. Each anatomical embroidery I do is on an 8 or 9 inch embroidery hoop and each image is anatomically correct and done by hand as I work from a range of medical books and dissection manuals to get the details spot on. This means I can study the texture of the organs on which Im working to try to replicate them in the stitching. Each hoop is worked with a mix of satin stitches, couching and French knots on calico, depending on the organs I am interpreting, and the backs of the hoops are covered with a complimentary colour of felt. Each hoop takes up to three months to create and its a process that begins with basic colours upon which I build up the shading and other details.. I take commissions, of course, so am open and willing to all sorts of suggestions. So far my ...
For the first time scientists have shown that brain stem cells are immune privileged, which means that they are invisible to a transplant recipients
Hey friends, I just received this update below from my friends in Australia and told… Preston Million needs your support for Jennis Brain Stem Cancer Fund
Another day, another functional imaging modality of the brain. Developed by a team at Princeton, the new experimental technique tries to figure out the pro
If you read the Reflex Language or C++ API sections of the reference, you will quickly see that Entities form the backbone of communication with BrainStem modules. They are the basic control mechanism for interacting with the BrainStem and the hardware to which it is connected. he following subsections describe the core entities that are available on most BrainStem modules. Less common and application specific entities will be described in the modules datasheet.. Entities usually describe a class of interaction, and usually are formed by a group of individual instances. For example; the digital entity is made up of multiple digital I/Os, which can be manipulated individually. In general the following form applies to an Entity.. ...
Neuronal circuits in the brainstem control life-sustaining functions, in addition to driving and gating active sensation through taste, smell, and touch. We pro...
Scientists say they have developed a way to successfully transplant certain protective brain cells into mice - without the need for lifelong anti-rejection drugs.
We explain The Brainstem with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine the structure and function of the the brain stem.|/p|
Sselective blocking or passing sensory information to the cerebreal cortex, (e.g. the slight sound made bya sick child moving in bed may arouse his mother but the noise of regularly passing trains may be suppressed) ...
Learn Brainstem & basics neuro facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brainstem in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you can modify and make your own.
Brain stem lesion: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on brain stem lesion at PatientsLikeMe. 75 patients with brain stem lesion experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen to treat their brain stem lesion and its symptoms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aminophylline on brain stem auditory evoked potentials in preterm infants. AU - Chen, Y. J.. AU - Liou, C. S.. AU - Tsai, C. H.. AU - Yeh, T. F.. PY - 1994/8/2. Y1 - 1994/8/2. N2 - To determine the neurophysiological effects of aminophylline on apnoea of prematurity, the brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) of 30 apnoeic infants and 34 age matched controls were evaluated and compared. After six days of treatment with aminophylline, the brain stem conduction time (interpeak latency of I-V) in apnoeic infants decreased compared with controls of a similar post-conceptional age. The mean latencies of the peaks and interpeaks of all waves except wave I were significantly lower in the apnoeic infants after than before receiving aminophylline. No significant differences were found in the latencies of BAEPs between the apnoeic infants who responded and those who did not respond to aminophylline treatment, however. These results suggest that aminophylline may enhance ...
[The role of brain stem lesions in cerebral circulatory disorders accompanying severe cranio-cerebral injuries].: Clinical and anatomical comparisons were under
The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebrum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts. The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure.. The brain stem also coordinates such things as eye movements, movement of the jaw, tongue and larynx, your facial expressions, and sensations and movements of your neck and head; the brain stem accomplishes that through the cranial nerves that pass through it. Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance!. Any type of injury to the brain stem could be devastating. More serious injuries can result in a prolonged coma or what is also known as a persistent vegetative state. You ...
BACKGROUND: The specificity of imaging alone in diagnosing posterior fossa lesions is insufficient, hence the importance of biopsy for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic purposes. Concerning the operative technique, many studies have demonstrated the superior safety of stereotactic biopsy over craniotomy and superior accuracy of frame-based systems over frameless ones as far as the posterior fossa is concerned; however versatile, frame-based instruments bear some intrinsic limitations in the positioning of frame in lower lesions mainly in short neck and kyphotic patients. For all these reasons, a more proficient technical bioptic approach to the posterior fossa and lower brainstem is sometimes required ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cellular mechanisms involved in CO2 and acid signaling in chemosensitive neurons. AU - Putnam, Robert W.. AU - Filosa, Jessica A.. AU - Ritucci, Nicola A.. PY - 2004/12. Y1 - 2004/12. N2 - An increase in CO2/H+ is a major stimulus for increased ventilation and is sensed by specialized brain stem neurons called central chemosensitive neurons. These neurons appear to be spread among numerous brain stem regions, and neurons from different regions have different levels of chemosensitivity. Early studies implicated changes of pH as playing a role in chemosensitive signaling, most likely by inhibiting a K+ channel, depolarizing chemosensitive neurons, and thereby increasing their firing rate. Considerable progress has been made over the past decade in understanding the cellular mechanisms of chemosensitive signaling using reduced preparations. Recent evidence has pointed to an important role of changes of intracellular pH in the response of central chemosensitive neurons to increased ...
Looking for online definition of brain stem in the Medical Dictionary? brain stem explanation free. What is brain stem? Meaning of brain stem medical term. What does brain stem mean?
Phase-coupling of the respiratory rhythm to locomotor activity has been reported in quadrupeds and humans [1]. Ventral respiratory group (VRG) neurons are involved in respiratory rhythm generation due, in part, to both intrinsic and synaptic interactions between pre-Botzinger and Botzinger complex neurons [2], as well as the influence of extrinsic synaptic drive to the VRG network. The aim of this study was to determine the role of neuro-genic input from somatosensory receptors on the bursting patterns of respiratory neurons in the VRG network. We hypothesized that neural input from contraction-sensitive somatosensory receptors entrained respiration by modulating the phasic activity of VRG neurons. Experiments were performed using the working heart-brainstem preparation [3]. Rats (70-100 g) were anesthetized, decerebrated pre-collicularly, paralyzed and perfused with a Ringers solution plus an oncotic agent. Somatosensory afferents were stimulated by intermittent contraction of the forelimb (3 ...
Human Brain Brain Lack Simple Diagram Brain Stem Classroom Ideas Wiring Diagram Online,human brain brain lack simple diagram brain stem classroom ideas wiring diagram basics, human brain brain lack simple diagram brain stem classroom ideas wiring diagram maker, create human brain brain lack simple diagram brain stem classroom ideas wiring diagram,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three cases of hereditary deafness possibly due to brainstem lesions. AU - Mus, N.. AU - Ozdamar, Ozcan. AU - Ildiz, PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - In this report, 3 cases of deafness resulting from possibly autosomal recessive disorders affecting the brainstem with no other pathologies or health problems are presented. The common characteristics of these patients are the presence of an unknown functional lesion in the brainstem as documented by the auditory brainstem response testing. Radiological, behavioral and physiological test results are presented for the first time to support a hereditary deafness symptom that might arise from interfamily marriages.. AB - In this report, 3 cases of deafness resulting from possibly autosomal recessive disorders affecting the brainstem with no other pathologies or health problems are presented. The common characteristics of these patients are the presence of an unknown functional lesion in the brainstem as documented by the auditory ...
Barnden, L. R., Crouch, B., Kwiatek, R., Burnet, R., Mernone, A., Chryssidis, S., Scroop, G. and Del Fante, P. (2011), A brain MRI study of chronic fatigue
Brain Stem Diagram Wiring Diagram Online,brain stem diagram wiring diagram basics, brain stem diagram wiring diagram maker, create brain stem diagram wiring diagram,
Brain death in the United States of America is defined as the irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brainstem … that are clinically ascertainable; in the United Kingdom the definition focuses on brainstem function. Half of those who fulfil the necessary clinical criteria will have a cardiac arrest despite intensive treatment within 24 h, and this happens to almost all within 72 h....
Pain is a highly complex and subjective experience that is not linearly related to the nociceptive input. What is clear from anecdotal reports over the centuries and more recently from animal and human experimentation is that nociceptive information processing and consequent pain perception is subject to significant pro- and anti-nociceptive modulations. These modulations can be initiated reflexively or by contextual manipulations of the pain experience including cognitive and emotional factors. This provides a necessary survival function since it allows the pain experience to be altered according to the situation rather than having pain always dominate. The so-called descending pain modulatory network involving predominantly medial and frontal cortical areas, in combination with specific subcortical and brain stem nuclei appears to be one key system for the endogenous modulation of pain. Furthermore, recent findings from functional and anatomical neuroimaging support the notion that an altered
Serotonin is known as one of the most important neurotransmitters. This amine structured neurotransmitter Ievel is influenced in migraine. Plasma serotonin Ievel is essentially decreased during migraine atacks. It is known that reserpine has an amine-releasing effect. In this study, migraine-Iike episodes were constituted in thirty-three guinea pigs by intraperitoneal reserpine administration. Then the auditory brainstem evoked potentials were recorded. All absolute and interpeak lalency values were initially increased at the second hour of reserpine administration and reached to the maximum values at third hour, and then gradually decreased up to twelfth hour. This result mainly reflects the brainstem involvement in migraine-Iike attack induced by reserpine administration. Subsequent Iatency parameters which are close to baseline values may be attributed to the fact that these changes are temporary and follow the variations in the serotonin Ievels. . ...
Poster: ECR 2019 / C-1999 / Role of Multiparametric MRI in Brainstem Lesions by: M. Harley, M. D. Patel, M. Bowen, W. Muhammad, S. Jacob, M. Douglas, I. Ughratdar, J. Herbert, V. Sawlani; Birmingham/UK
Sensory pathways of the brain generally develop from crudely wired networks to precisely organized systems. Several studies have implicated neural activity-dependent mechanisms, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, in this refinement process. We applied the gene targeting to the NMDAR1 g …
brain stem anatomy. this is a anterior view of the whole brain showing the relation of the different parts of the brain stem to the rest of the brain showing: 1. cerebrum 2. fornix 3. thalamus 4. globus pallidus 5. mammillary body 6. pons 7. medulla 8. cerebellum 9. hippocampus 10. a
Discover everything you need to know about your brain stem function and why is the brain stem considered to be the most important region of the human brain?
New research from BYUs autism experts is providing clues into the link between aggression and autism-clues the team hopes will eventually lead to more effective intervention. In the study, published in Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, researchers report an inverse correlation between aggression and brain stem volume in children with autism: the smaller the brain stem, the greater the likelihood of aggression.
Auditory brainstem neurons fire at very high rates with extraordinarily high temporal precision, allowing them to encode specific features of sound stimuli. Une...
Low-grade brain stem tumours may be partially or incompletely removed, despite being located in a vital area of the brain. This is because they are generally contained to one area of the brain stem. Additional treatment such as chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy following surgery is often not required. Chemotherapy may be necessary in children whose tumour progresses following surgery or whose tumours are not surgically accessible. High-grade brain stem tumours because of their location within the brain stem which is diffuse and infiltrating cannot be surgically resected. Surgery in this situation could lead to damage to the nerves within the brain stem that are vital for breathing, swallowing, consciousness, arm, leg and eye movement. A biopsy is rarely performed for similar reasons. Therefore diagnosis is often made on clinical presentation and an MRI. Radiation treatment to the area of the tumour is the current standard treatment for this tumour type. A large percentage of children will ...
X. The Sensory System A. Introduction 1. Receptors detect environmental changes and stimuli. 2. Different receptors are sensitive to and receive different sensory stimuli. a. Chemoreceptors - medulla in the lower brain stem, aortic and carotid bodies detect O2, CO2, and H+ levels in the blood. Receptors of the small intestine detect H+ levels in the lumen. b. Pain receptors - located in the skin and internal organs. c. Thermoreceptors - sense heat (temperature) in the skin and control body temperature in the hypothalmus of the brain. d. Mechanoreceptors - sense stretch and pressure within the skin, muscles, and joints. e. Photoreceptors - light sensitive neurons in the retina of the eye.
Read more about Brain tumor next to the brain stem treated with Radio Surgery on Business Standard. In an exemplary case of medical excellence in the treatment of brain tumors, doctors at Venkateshwar Hospital, New Delhi recently helped a 55-year-old woman combat a serious brain tumor, which was leading to progressively worsening neurological
by rss feed , Feb 21, 2021 , Blog, brain stem cells, COVID-19, heart and stem cells, heart stem cell, News Feeds, NSC, Stem cells for COVID-19. There are weeks when it seems like papers on stem cells keep popping up. It can be a challenge to keep up with reading all the papers you want to read. Other times it is cell biology news that keeps breaking. The big news of the past week or so was unfortunately the ...
Migraine is also thought to be an inherited disorder giving rise to a vulnerability to an abnormal discharge of neurons (different from that seen in epilepsy) that preferentially affects brainstem regions and is triggered by a chemical event. Still working as good as the day they were bought. Para eliminar las arruguitas finas , rocephin and xarelto lo ideal es exfoliar la piel. In addition, rocephin and decadron shot side effects the Act strengthens federal laws, provides new sources of funding to assist victims of sexual assault and stalking, and provides a means for communities to build an effective coordinated community response to these crimes! Fine structural localization of a blood-brain barrier to exogenous peroxidase! Because the medication is delivered directly to the spinal cord, rocephin injection price your symptoms can be controlled with a much smaller dose than is needed with oral medication. Always consult your doctor about your medical conditions or back problem! All possible ...
Hop on to get the meaning of H/BS acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Medical & Science Acronym / Slang H/BS means... AcronymsAndSlang. The H/BS acronym/abbreviation definition. The H/BS meaning is Hypothalamus and Brain Stem. The definition of H/BS by
ICD-9 code 851.71 for Cerebellar or brain stem laceration with open intracranial wound with no loss of consciousness is a medical classification as li
ICD-9 code 851.71 for Cerebellar or brain stem laceration with open intracranial wound with no loss of consciousness is a medical classification as li
851.46 ICD-9 Vol 1 Code descriptor Cerebellar or brain stem contusion without open intracranial wound with loss of consciousness of unspecified duration
Question - How are brain stem syrinx treated ?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Magnetic resonance imaging is advised, Ask a Neurologist
ICD-9 code 851.7 for Cerebellar or brain stem laceration with open intracranial wound is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - I
This series of videos will help you to understand the science beneath behaviors and emotions that are affected by adversities much like the pandemic we are all experiencing at this time! Our brains have an ancient system, the brain-stem that is the grand central station for all of the external and internal experiences we encounter! The brain stem doesnt tell time and it reacts as if the body feels threatened or unsafe or if an event feels unfamiliar! It immediately makes associations to past events or experiences that may be unconscious and we find ourselves … then feeling anxious, panicky, worried or shut down! These are normal responses and it is so healthy to be aware of them! If there is ongoing unpredictability, our stress response systems will change the regulation set points in lower brain regions!. ...
Brain death implies the permanent absence of cerebral and brainstem functions. criteria for dx clinically confirmatory dx decision
The ultimate guide to navigating and treating brainstem pathologies from master neurosurgeon Robert Spetzler The brainstem is one of the last bastions of surgical prohibition because of its densely packed ascending and descending tracts and nuclei carrying information to and from the brain. Although 10% of all pediatric tumors and 5% of all vascular anomalies occur in the brainstem, neurosurgeons have traditionally resisted dissecting lesions in this area. Recent advances in imaging, microscopy, anesthesia, and operative techniques have expanded the treatment paradigm for this most eloquent region of the brain. Surgery of the Brainstem, by internationally renowned neurosurgeons Robert F. Spetzler, M. Yashar S. Kalani, and Michael T. Lawton, along with an impressive cadre of global experts, is a comprehensive guide to managing disorders of the brainstem, thalamic region, and basal ganglia. Organized in seven sections with 33 chapters, the text opens with four sections covering a variety of ...
1. The respiratory rates in vitro of ten structures of the rabbit brain were measured in the presence of a normal (5mm) and an elevated (50mm) concentration of K+ ions. The results were expressed on a dry-weight basis and in terms of cell density. 2. On a dry-weight basis, with a normal concentration of K+, there was a steady decrease in respiratory rate on passing from the cerebral cortex through successively lower centres to the brain-stem, i.e. respiration was negatively correlated with phylogenetic age. 3. When the resting respiratory rates were expressed in terms of cell density there was no correlation with phylogenetic age. The neuron-containing structures of the cerebrum and brain-stem had identical respiratory rates with the exception of the cerebral cortex which had a higher rate. 4. The K+-stimulated respiratory rates/cell also showed a negative correlation with phylogenetic age; the higher centres responded with a greater percentage increase than the lower. 5. The results from the ...
What does Medical BAER stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of BAER. The Medical Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang BAER means Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response. by
Breathe. Read. Swallow. Laugh. Blink. Choose. No matter what you are doing today, your brain is in charge. Information continually travels back and forth between your brain and body parts. One ...
Scientists at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) of the University of Luxembourg have grafted neurons reprogrammed from skin cells into the brains of mice for the first time with long-term stability.
Sometimes, as one is falling asleep, there may be a massive, involuntary jerk-amyclonic jerk-of the body. Though such jerks are generated by primitive parts of the brain stem (they are, so to speak, brain-stem reflexes), and as such are without any intrinsic meaning or motive, they may be given meaning and context, turned into acts, by an instantly improvised dream. Thus the jerk may be associated with a dream of tripping, or stepping over a precipice, lunching forward to catch a ball, and so on. Such dreams may be extremely vivid, and have several scenes. Subjectively, they appear to start before the jerk, and yet presumably the entire dream mechanism is stimulated by the first, preconscious perception of the jerk. All of this elaborate restructuring of time occurs in a second or less ...
bestbooklibrary matches keywords, searched from 3rd-party sites, to affiliate-networks offering unlimited access to licensed entertainment content. bestbooklibrary allows visitors, otherwise looking for free-content to enjoy more for less. ...
Underlying condition found in 71 infants who died unexpectedly, but experts urge parents to follow safe sleep practices to cut risk
This mom awoke one morning feeling dizzy and nauseous, but thought nothing of it. Within hours, she was a stroke victim in the ICU fighting for
pons lesion - MedHelps pons lesion Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for pons lesion. Find pons lesion information, treatments for pons lesion and pons lesion symptoms.
Brain stem[edit]. Neural activity during REM sleep seems to originate in the brain stem, especially the pontine tegmentum and ... a b c d e f g h J. Alan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Scott, & Robert Stickgold (2000), "Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive ... Research in the 1990s using positron emission tomography (PET) confirmed the role of the brain stem and suggested that, within ... In REM sleep, however, the necessary synaptic downscaling in the brain stem is instead the result of random neuronal firing." ...
Less common: Increased intracranial pressure, giant cell arteritis, cavernous sinus mass (e.g. meningioma, Brain stem ... The classical brain stem syndromes. Springfield, Thomas, 1971. *^ "Halo Orthosis Immobilization - Spine - Orthobullets". www. ... it is more liable to the mechanical effects of backward brain stem displacement by intracranial space occupying lesions.[7] ... his view being that since the sixth nerve emerges straight forward from the brain stem, whereas other cranial nerves emerge ...
All in all 31 spinal nerves project from the brain stem,[8] some forming plexa as they branch out, such as the brachial plexa, ... Brain[edit]. Main article: Brain. Rostrally to the spinal cord lies the brain.[8] The brain makes up the largest portion of the ... Brainstem[edit]. Main article: Brainstem. The brainstem consists of the medulla, the pons and the midbrain. The medulla can be ... In vertebrates, the brain is protected by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae.[6] The brain and ...
... crossing over from the ipsilateral side in the spinal cord to the contralateral side in the brain stem; below this is the ... The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum. It is a cone ... The medulla oblongata connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord, and is responsible for several functions of ... Stained brain slice images which include the "medulla" at the BrainMaps project ...
"Brain-stem encephalitis; further observations on a grave syndrome with benign prognosis". British Medical Journal. 1 (5032): ... "Brain. 130 (Pt 9): 2245-57. doi:10.1093/brain/awm004. PMID 17337484. Archived from the original on 2014-10-29.. ... Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, for instance, is part of the group of conditions now regarded as forms of Miller Fisher ... MRI abnormalities in the brainstem have been reported in 11%.[10] Whether isolated acute sensory loss can be regarded as a form ...
"Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 15 (2): 201-209. doi:10.1007/s11940-013-0221-1 ... brainstem encephalitis, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and polymyositis. The following ... The purpose of this exploration was to shed light on immunotherapies and distinguishing between neurotoxicity and brain ...
The Lateral geniculate and pulvinar nuclei project to and terminate in V1, and carry motor information from the brain stem as ... Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. (Thalamocortical fibers labeled at center top.) ... Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. (Thalamocortical fibers labeled at upper left.) ... Van Essen D.C. (2005). "corticocortical and thalamocortical information flow in the primate visual system". Progress in brain ...
Scheme showing the connections of the several parts of the brain. (Inferior peduncle labeled at bottom right.) ... from the Purkinje cells to the vestibular nuclei in the dorsal brainstem located at the junction between the pons and medulla ...
From the lateral geniculate body, fibers of the optic radiation pass to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain. ... The fibers from the retina run along the optic nerve to nine primary visual nuclei in the brain, from which a major relay ... Stained brain slice images which include the "optic%20nerve" at the BrainMaps project ... is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. In humans, the optic nerve is derived from ...
... of death from an intraparenchymal bleed in traumatic brain injury is especially high when the injury occurs in the brain stem.[ ... Brain trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors[1]. Risk factors. High blood pressure, amyloidosis, ... Causes include brain trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and brain tumors.[1] The largest risk factors for ... "Brain Research. 1342 (1342): 111-1117. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.033. PMC 2885522. PMID 20420814.. ...
I61.3) Intracerebral haemorrhage in brain stem. *(I61.4) Intracerebral haemorrhage in cerebellum. *(I61.5) Intracerebral ...
List of regions in the human brain. Additional images[edit]. *. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... in some cases becoming the largest structure in the brain. (See the adjoining drawing of a codfish brain.) In amphibians, ... and connections with numerous other brain structures in the brainstem and diencephalon, also show a corresponding inhomogeneity ... Illing, R-B (1996). "The mosaic architecture of the superior colliculus". Prog Brain Res. 112: 17-34. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08 ...
G46.3) Brain stem stroke syndrome *Benedikt syndrome. *Claude syndrome. *Foville syndrome. *Millard-Gubler syndrome ... G94) Other disorders of brain in diseases classified elsewhere. *(G95) Other diseases of spinal cord *(G95.0) Syringomyelia and ... G46) Vascular syndromes of brain in cerebrovascular diseases *(G46.0) Middle cerebral artery syndrome ...
The PT in the brain stem is also an important component of the ARAS. Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes ... The other noradrenergic neurons in the brain occur in loose collections of cells in the brainstem, including the lateral ... throughout the brain.[22][23] A brief comparison of these systems follows:. Neurotransmitter systems in the brain. System. ... and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons originate from the raphe nuclei within the brainstem as well; the ...
... suggesting that brain stem nuclei are critical platforms as well.[10] He regards feelings as the necessary foundation of ... Parvizi J, Damasio AR (2003). "Neuroanatomical correlates of brainstem coma". Brain. 126 (Pt 7): 1524-1536. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain, Harcourt, 2003. *Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain ... Habibi A.; Damasio A. (2014). "Music, feelings and the human brain". Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain. 24 (1): 92-102. ...
"Auditory Brain Stem Response to Complex Sounds: A Tutorial". Ear and Hearing. 31 (3): 302-24. doi:10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181cdb272 ... Wing, A. M. (2002). "Voluntary timing and brain function: an information processing approach". Brain Cogn. 48: 7-30. doi: ... Brain structure within musicians and non-musicians is distinctly different. Gaser and Schlaug (2003) compared brain structures ... doi:10.1093/brain/123.9.1926. PMID 10960056.. *^ Peretz, Isabelle (2008). "Musical Disorders: From Behavior to Genes". Current ...
It involves polio-encephalomyelitis in the spine and brainstem. There is cerebellar and brainstem involvement. In some cases, ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with high intensity conditioning protocol has been performed in a few cases with ... Sphincter and brainstem issues often occur with stiff-limb syndrome.[16] Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity, another ... There is a limited but encouraging therapeutic experience of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for SPS. ...
... a migraine with neurological symptoms related to the brain stem or with neurological symptoms on both sides of the body,[37] ... 132 (Pt 1): 6-7. doi:10.1093/brain/awn321. PMID 19098031.. *^ Brennan, KC; Charles, A (June 2010). "An update on the blood ... Borsook, David (2012). The migraine brain : imaging, structure, and function. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 3-11. ISBN ... Goadsby, PJ (January 2009). "The vascular theory of migraine - a great story wrecked by the facts". Brain : A Journal of ...
Bickerstaff ER (June 1957). "Brain-stem encephalitis; further observations on a grave syndrome with benign prognosis". British ... Brain 1986; 109: 1115-1126". Brain. 139 (7): 2096-2100. doi:10.1093/brain/aww127. ISSN 0006-8950. Asbury AK, Cornblath DR (1990 ... Brain. 130 (Pt 9): 2245-57. doi:10.1093/brain/awm004. PMID 17337484. Archived from the original on 2014-10-29. Darweesh SK, ... Brain 1969; 92: 589-606; with An acute axonal form of Guillain-Barré polyneuropathy by T.E. Feasby, J.J. Gilbert, W.F. Brown, C ...
Bickerstaff, E.R. (15 June 1957). "Brain-stem encephalitis; further observations on a grave syndrome with benign prognosis". ...
Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. ... The fibers continue to course through the medulla oblongata of the brainstem, at which point they pass through the inferior ... ISBN 978-1-58890-572-7. Cooke, J. D. (October 1971). "Origin and termination of cuneocerebellar tract". Experimental Brain ... Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ...
Thalamus Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. ... Brainstem. Posterior view. at the Library of Congress Web Archives (archived 2001-11-27) at the ...
It sends fibers to deep cerebellar nuclei that, in turn, project to both the cerebral cortex and the brain stem, thus providing ... It is also commonly associated with dysplasias of brainstem nuclei. DWM has been reported to be in association with a wide ... Brainstem. Posterior view. Midsagittal view Schematic representation of the major anatomical subdivisions of the cerebellum. ... S.K. Clarren; J. Alvord; S.M. Sumi (1978). "Brain malformations related to prenatal exposure to ethanol". Journal of Pediatrics ...
Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. ... Brainstem. Posterior view. Auditory system List of regions in the human brain Shore, S. E.: Auditory/Somatosensory Interactions ... This indicates that the inferior colliculus is metabolically more active than many other parts of the brain. The hippocampus, ... The input connections to the inferior colliculus are composed of many brainstem nuclei. All nuclei except the contralateral ...
Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Dissection of brain- ... stem. Dorsal view. External capsule External capsule Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. These fibers run between the most lateral (toward ... Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia.Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection. Powell, Meshell (13 January 2014). " ...
Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Transverse section through mid-brain Section of brain showing upper surface ... Schematic representation of the chief ganglionic categories (I to V) Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... Deep dissection Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection Striatum This article ... section of brain immediately in front of pons Coronal section through anterior cornua of lateral ventricles Ventricles of brain ...
Brain stem involvement is common. Depression, weakness, head tilt, and dysphagia also occur. S. fayeri may cause myositis in ... Garnham, P. C. C.; Duggan, A. J.; Sinden, R. E. (1979). "A new species of Sarcocystis in the brain of two exotic birds". ... This genus was distinguished from Sarcocystis on the basis of its tendency to encyst within the brain rather than within muscle ...
Scheme showing the connections of the several parts of the brain. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Hind- and ... Basal view of a human brain Dissection of human midbrain with middle cerebellar peduncle labeled. Cross section through lower ...
Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view ... Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... Coronal section through mid-brain. Transverse section of mid-brain at level of inferior colliculi. Scheme showing the course of ... The brainstem nuclei include: the superior olive the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL) the ventral nucleus ...
By so doing, participants increase cerebral blood flow to a specified region of the brain, consequently increasing brain ... Other disadvantages of HEG mirror current frustrations with fMRI and stem from the indirect nature of both techniques and ... Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6(9), 1-10. *^ Coben, R., Linden, M. & Myers, T.E. (2010). Neurofeedback for autism spectrum ... Toomim, Mize, Kwong et al. found that after only ten 30-minute sessions of HEG brain exercise training, participants with ...
Role of the brain[edit]. The brain stem can control food intake, because it contains neural circuits that detect hunger and ... The brain stem's involvement of food intake has been researched using rats. Rats that have had the motor neurons in the brain ... The brain checks for glucoprivation on its side of the blood-brain barrier (since glucose is its fuel), while the liver ... This research shows that the brain stem does in fact play a role in eating. ...
"Spatial and Functional Architecture of the Mammalian Brain Stem Respiratory Network: A Hierarchy of Three Oscillatory ... Progress in Brain Research. Progress in Brain Research. 165: 201-20. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)65013-9. ISBN 978-0-444-52823-0 ... Gargaglioni LH, Bícegoa KC, Branco LG (December 2008). "Brain monoaminergic neurons and ventilatory control in vertebrates". ... Progress in brain research. 188: 31-50. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53825-3.00008-5. PMID 21333801. Ramirez JM, Doi A, Garcia AJ, ...
"Antibody Transforms Stem Cells Directly Into Brain Cells". Science Daily. 22 April 2013. ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... allowing a new population of healthy B cells to develop from lymphoid stem cells. ... usually results in death or severe brain damage.[32] At least one patient with rheumatoid arthritis developed PML after ... "Popular Cancer Drug Linked to Often Fatal 'Brain Eating' Virus". Northwestern University News and Information. Archived from ...
Donkin JJ, Turner RJ, Hassan I, Vink R (2007). "Substance P in traumatic brain injury". Progress in Brain Research. 161: 97-109 ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ... Substance P and the NK1 receptor are widely distributed in the brain and are found in brain regions that are specific to ... Yip J, Chahl LA (Apr 2001). "Localization of NK1 and NK3 receptors in guinea-pig brain". Regulatory Peptides. 98 (1-2): 55-62. ...
Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ... Stem cell transplantation was pioneered using bone-marrow-derived stem cells by a team at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research ... See also: List of conditions treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Indications[edit]. Indications for stem cell ...
Early humans evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal,[21] with a brain mass approximately one ... In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and ... the human/brain epoch, (4) the technology epoch, (5) the artificial intelligence epoch, and (6) the universal colonization ...
Harvesting neural stem cells requires sacrificing the developing fetus, a process considered too costly to perform on many ... DeMarse TB, Wagenaar DA, Blau AW, Potter SM (2001). "The Neurally Controlled Animat: Biological Brains Acting with Simulated ... One study, however, did make use of human neural stem cells grown into a network to control a robotic actuator. These cells ... Foremost among these abnormalities is the fact that the neurons are usually harvested as neural stem cells from a fetus and are ...
The difference between soft and hard body parts stems mostly from the fact that carbon has a very low X-ray cross section ...
The two ends on the forked side are held one in each hand with the third (the stem of the Y) pointing straight ahead. Often the ... Tall Tales About the Mind & Brain: Separating Fact From Fiction. Oxford University Press. pp. 411-424 ...
Brain[edit]. Circulating levels of androgens can influence human behavior because some neurons are sensitive to steroid ... An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ... Numerous reports have shown androgens alone are capable of altering the structure of the brain,[11] but identification of which ... Evidence from neurogenesis (formation of new neurons) studies on male rats has shown that the hippocampus is a useful brain ...
Brain stem: Tumors on this can affect blood pressure, swallowing, and heartbeat.[citation needed] ... Secondary brain tumorsEdit. Secondary tumors of the brain are metastatic and have invaded the brain from cancers originating in ... A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.[2] There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous ... "Brain Stem Gliomas in Childhood". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 17 February ...
Face: Weaponized brain stem. Capable of emitting a highly destructive energy blast from face. Due to the nature of his mutation ...
Van Den Berghe, Pierre L (2010). "Human inbreeding avoidance: Culture in nature". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 6: 91-102. doi ... and the Hutterites stem from very small founder populations. The same is true for some Hasidic and Haredi Jewish groups. ...
These are the "mammal-like amniotes", or stem-mammals, that later gave rise to the true mammals.[48] Soon after, another group ... Reptiles are generally considered less intelligent than mammals and birds.[32] The size of their brain relative to their body ... This stem-based definition is equivalent to the more common definition of Sauropsida, which Modesto and Anderson synonymized ... The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are ...
Brain. 106 (3): 623-42. doi:10.1093/brain/106.3.623. PMID 6640273. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-26.. ... Stemming from Cartesian dualism, a formulation sometimes called interactionalist dualism suggests a two-way interaction, that ... It has become possible to study the living brain, and researchers can now watch the brain's decision-making process at work. A ... Brain research. Brain research reviews. 31 (2-3): 357-63. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(99)00052-1. PMID 10719163.. ...
Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011): as Sentinal Prime (stem). Verwysings[wysig , wysig bron]. *↑ Steve Chawkins. "Leonard ... The Brain Eaters (1958). *Harbor Command (Episode - Contraband Diamonds) (1958). *The Twilight Zone - A Quality of Mercy (1961) ...
A French team developed the French neurotropic vaccine (FNV), which was extracted from mouse brain tissue. Since this vaccine ... The attenuated live vaccine stem 17D was developed in 1937 by Max Theiler.[32] The WHO recommends routine vaccinations for ...
Further in the future, stem cell biotechnology may also make this possible, with no need for anti-rejection drugs. ... determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring) is discrepant with the surgical reassignment previously imposed.[6][7][8] Milton ...
The leaves or the soft part of the stem can be chewed with either chewing gum or fried peanuts to make it easier to chew. In ... in collaboration with the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and its local affiliates. ... The plants are watered heavily starting around a month before they are harvested to make the leaves and stems soft and moist. A ... Thus, harvesters transport khat by packaging the fresh leaves and stems in plastic bags or wrapping them in banana leaves to ...
After transection of the brain stem just above the pons, the threshold is lowered and less bladder filling is required to ... Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ... The state of the reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory fibers ... Paruresis, also known as shy bladder syndrome, is an example of a bladder interruption from the brain that often causes total ...
"Widespread sites of brain stem ventilatory chemoreceptors". Journal of Applied Physiology (American Physiological Society) 75 ( ...
... indicate a jump from australopithecine brain size which generally ranged from 400-500 cc (24-31 cu in).[25] The brain anatomy ... Nonetheless, specific shapes were likely not thought of in advance, and probably stem from a lack of standardisation in ... and handedness is associated with major reorganisation of the brain and the lateralisation of brain function between the left ... Like contemporary Homo, H. habilis brain size generally varied from 500-900 cc (31-55 cu in). The body proportions of H. ...
Met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin are in the brain stem and spinal cord; they are the pain killers of the spinal cord.[3] Both ... "Brain Neuron Physiology". Retrieved 2007-10-07.. *↑ Dalayeun JF, Norès JM, Bergal S (1993). "Physiology of beta-endorphins. A ... All of the endorphins bind to the opioid receptors in the brain. Many of the analgesic (pain killer) drugs have a similar ... action in the brain. The main difference between the natural endorphins and the analgesic drugs is that natural endorphins are ...
For example, strychnine acts as an allosteric inhibitor of the glycine receptor in the mammalian spinal cord and brain stem. ... MPTP is able to cross the blood brain barrier and enter acidic lysosomes.[13] MPTP is biologically activated by MAO-B, an ...
"Researchers One Step Closer to Building Synthetic Brain". Daily Tech. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April ... The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking ...
Cortisol is a major stress hormone and has effects on many tissues in the body, including the brain. In the brain, cortisol ... associated with decreased glucocorticoid receptor gene methylation in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder stemming ... Anatomical connections between brain areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus facilitate ... The HPA Axis plays a clear role in the production of corticosteroids, which govern many facets of brain development and ...
Spinella M (2001). The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medications: Plant Drugs That Alter Mind, Brain, and Behavior. MIT Press. ... It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is ... Candied ginger or crystallized ginger, known in the U.K. as "stem ginger", is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a ... false stems made of the rolled bases of leaves) about one meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades. The inflorescences bear ...
"And if Marine Le Pen was the real brain of the FN?". Le Vrai Débat (in French). 1 November 2010. Archived from the original on ... He makes mistakes, but who doesn't? The situation in Russia is complicated, and one cannot expect all the problems stemming ...
A brain stem tumor is a tumor in the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord (the brain stem). The symptoms of brain ... An MRI is better than a CT scan when a brainstem tumor is in the differential diagnosis. The most common form of brainstem ...[full citation needed] Brainstem Gliomas~treatment at eMedicine Brain stem ... Headaches related to brainstem tumors may be worse shortly after waking up in the morning. ...
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior stalk-like part of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. In ... 3D visualization of the brainstem in an average human brain Triune brain - reptilian brain Singh, Vishram (2014). Textbook of ... The brainstem is very small, making up around only 2.6 percent of the brains total weight. It has the critical roles of ... The human brainstem emerges from two of the three primary brain vesicles formed of the neural tube. The mesencephalon is the ...
Brain stem death is where a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for ... The brain stem. The brain stem is the lower part of the brain thats connected to the spinal cord (part of the central nervous ... Brain stem death is when a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for ... The brain stem also relays information to and from the brain to the rest of the body, so it plays an important role in the ...
STEM, Topics featuring robotics, audio, and circuit training from the mind of an IC Design Engineer. ...
Their work is a step forward in the controversial field of stem-cell research, which scientists say holds the promise of ... Stem cells are a kind of master cell that can develop into a variety of tissues. ... Two teams of researchers said Friday that they had found reliable ways to coax human embryonic stem cells into becoming brain ... Two teams of researchers said Friday that they had found reliable ways to coax human embryonic stem cells into becoming brain ...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
Brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral hemispheres and the cervical ... Alternative Title: brain stem. Brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral ... brain. Brain. , the mass of nerve tissue in the anterior end of an organism. The brain integrates sensory information and ... is the death of the brain stem. Finally, the article surveys notions about the meaning of human death that have prevailed ...
STEM, Topics featuring robotics, audio, and circuit training from the mind of an IC Design Engineer. ...
Video of The brainstem is a sort of automatic control centre for several important involuntary actions of the body, such as ... These vital mechanisms are controlled by one of the brains most durable parts--the brain stem. The brain stem is an automatic ... For example, if food goes down the wrong way, the brain stem will force us to cough. If the brain stem is damaged, the ... The brain stem helps serve this purpose. It regulates heartbeat and respiration. It helps to wake up the rest of the brain from ...
Among recommendations from Monsters report, Building and Securing an Organizational Brain Trust in an Age of Brain Drain: * ...
... the type of tumour the size and location of the tumour whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the brain the childs ... The treatment of brain stem gliomas depends on: ... Brain stem glioma. Brain stem gliomas are a type of glioma that ... Focal brain stem glioma occurs in one area or is contained within a small part of the brain stem. It is usually benign or low ... Treatment of focal brain stem gliomas. Some focal brain stem gliomas grow so slowly that treatment might not be needed unless ...
Brain stem stroke can also cause double vision, slurred speech and decreased level of consciousness. ... Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose.A person may have vertigo, dizziness and ... Brain Stem Stroke. Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose. A person may have ... Brain stem strokes can impair any or all of these functions. More severe brain stem strokes can cause locked-in syndrome, a ...
Cranial MRI showed multiple small contrast-enhanced lesions predominantly located in the cerebellum and brain stem (Figure),... ... Cite this as: Schaller MA, Foerch C, Wagner M: The peppered brain stem. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018; 115: 555. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl. ... The Peppered Brain Stem. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018; 115(33-34): 555; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2018.0555 ... Cranial MRI showed multiple small contrast-enhanced lesions predominantly located in the cerebellum and brain stem (Figure), ...
Neural stem cells modified to produce a cancer-killing chemical can track and terminate a particularly deadly form of brain ... Stem cells modified to produce a cancer-killing immune chemical can track and destroy difficult-to-treat brain tumours, US ... Previous work has shown that neural stem cells can actively track migrating glioma cells in the brain, though how they do this ... But tiny groups of glioma cells often spread deep into healthy brain tissue, so even if the main tumour is wiped out, the risk ...
Brain Stem: Pons. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 ... which we cant really see on the actual brainstem but I can point them out over here on the rubber brainstem. The fifth cranial ... Ill talk more about the details of these individual cranial nerves later in the series of lectures involving the brainstem and ...
... cells that give rise to all the cell types of the brain - from human brain tissue with unprecedented precision, an important ... Scientists have created a way to isolate neural stem cells - ... Moving Closer To Stem Cell Treatment Of Brain Diseases. ... They used the virus to deliver the synthetic DNA to neural stem cells in the brain tissue. The technique compelled neural stem ... "Moving Closer To Stem Cell Treatment Of Brain Diseases." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 9 Dec. 2010. Web.. 26 Apr. ...
... and future of stem cell therapy for replacing damaged brain cells in Parkinsons disease. ... Parkinsons: How stem cells can help repair the brain. Written by Ana Sandoiu on February 18, 2019 - Fact checked by. Jasmin ... Stem cells are basic cells that can become almost any type of cell in the body. Human stem cells can come from an embryo or an ... Stem cell therapy: Challenges and promises. In their review, Dr. Henchcliffe and Prof. Parmar examined the evolution of stem ...
... scientists hope to use stem cells in a new, highly controversial way - to reverse death. ... Stem cell injections to the brain or spinal cord have shown some positive results for children with brain injuries; trials ... If theres no functional brain stem, then it cant work. Pastor agreed - but he claimed the technique would work because there ... The technique, he said, relies on there being a functional brain stem - one of the structures that most motor neurons go ...
... had similar abnormal circuits in the brain stem.. That part of the brain controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and ... Study links SIDS to brain stem abnormalities. Underlying condition found in 71 infants who died unexpectedly, but experts urge ... brain stems.. In a study released Monday, the investigators found that infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly of SIDS, ... had distinct differences in brain stem chemistry, lead investigator and neuropathologist Dr. Hannah Kinney of Boston Childrens ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... X. Duan, E. Kang, C. Y. Liu, G. L. Ming, and H. Song, "Development of neural stem cell in the adult brain," Current Opinion in ... Neural Stem Cells in the Diabetic Brain. Tomás P. Bachor and Angela M. Suburo ...
Louis and the University of California San Diego School of Medicine shows that the virus kills brain cancer stem cells, the ... a deadly form of brain cancer. New research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. ... Zika Virus Kills Brain Cancer Stem Cells. Virus potentially could be used to treat deadly disease. ... Brain cancer stem cells (left) are killed by Zika virus infection (image at right shows cells after Zika treatment). A new ...
... Guri Fossdal, Einar O. Vik-Mo, Cecilie Sandberg, Mercy Varghese, Mari Kaarbø, Emily Telmo, ... Emily Palmero, Sheryl Palmero, and Wayne Murrell, "Brain tissue banking for stem cells for our future," Scientific Reports, vol ... "Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain," Plos One, vol. 8, no. 8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at ... Gabriella Schiera, Carlo Maria Di Liegro, and Italia Di Liegro, "Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Vehicles for Brain Cell-to- ...
... the portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts ... Origin of brainstem Expand. 1875-1880 First recorded in 1875-80; brain + stem1 ... The part of the vertebrate brain located at the base of the brain and made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. The ... Brain death implies the complete and permanent absence of neurological function in the cortex and the brainstem. ...
... 10.01.2007. Gliomas are a group of brain tumors where the most common type is also the most ... If stem cells are injected into a part of the brain in laboratory animals with a glioma in another part of their brain, the ... Neural stem cells have been shown to have the ability to recognize signals from tumor cells in the brain and migrate there. ... research at Lund University in Sweden provides hope that it may be possible in the future to develop stem cells from the brain ...
brain stem synonyms, brain stem pronunciation, brain stem translation, English dictionary definition of brain stem. or brain ... stem n. The portion of the brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons Varolii, and midbrain, that connects the spinal ... Related to brain stem: brain stem reflexes. brain·stem. or brain stem (brān′stĕm′). n.. The portion of the brain, consisting of ... Brain stem - definition of brain stem by The Free Dictionary ...
UCSF scientists have discovered a new stem cell in the developing human brain. The cell produces nerve cells that help form the ... Stem Cell Discovery Illuminates Brain Evolution, Points To Therapies. by Sam Savage ... The stem cell undergoes asymmetrical cell division, giving rise to two distinct daughter cells""one a copy of the original stem ... The stem cell closely resembles the radial glial cell in structure and behavior and, like the radial glia, has radial fibers ...
... that long-distance brain connections can target discrete pools of stem cells in their niche and stimulate them to divide and ... This allows the on-demand generation of particular types of neurons in the adult brain. ... Stem cells persist in the adult mammalian brain and generate new neurons throughout life. A research group at the Biozentrum of ... Stem cells make neurons important for olfaction. Stem cells reside in only a few areas of the brain. The largest reservoir is ...
Researchers can make brain cells from urine by reprogramming cells that are shed from human kidneys ... turned brain cells from cadavers into stem cells and converted human skin into brain cells. The hope was that these brain cells ... With these new genetic instructions, the cells transformed into brain stem cells, which can turn into different types of brain ... The transformation from kidney cell to brain stem cell took just 12 days, and within a month, the cells had morphed into full- ...
A perivascular niche for brain tumor stem cells.. Calabrese C1, Poppleton H, Kocak M, Hogg TL, Fuller C, Hamner B, Oh EY, Gaber ... Cancers are believed to arise from cancer stem cells (CSCs), but it is not known if these cells remain dependent upon the niche ... We propose that brain CSCs are maintained within vascular niches that are important targets for therapeutic approaches. ... endothelial cells interact closely with self-renewing brain tumor cells and secrete factors that maintain these cells in a stem ...
According to, the brain stem functions as an autopilot for the human body, as it regulates such... ... The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. ... The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. According to, the brain ... says that the pons, the third and final portion of the brain stem, contains the respiratory center, which ...
  • Both strains spread through the tumors, infecting and killing the cancer stem cells while largely avoiding other tumor cells. (
  • To find out whether the virus could help treat cancer in a living animal, the researchers injected either Zika virus or saltwater (a placebo) directly into the brain tumors of 18 and 15 mice, respectively. (
  • Gliomas are a group of brain tumors where the most common type is also the most aggressive one. (
  • Unlike other stem cell technologies, the pee-based brain cells didn't form tumors when implanted into rats. (
  • Increasing the number of endothelial cells or blood vessels in orthotopic brain tumor xenografts expanded the fraction of self-renewing cells and accelerated the initiation and growth of tumors. (
  • First discovered in leukemia, stem cells have been located in solid tumors found in pancreatic, prostate, colon, breast and brain cancers. (
  • Some patients' brain tumors respond to chemotherapy and some don't," says Dr. Boockvar. (
  • A small percentage of brain stem tumors are very localized, called focal tumors. (
  • Most brain stem tumors develop in the pons and grow in a part of the brain stem where it can be difficult to perform surgery, making brain stem glioma challenging to treat (see the Treatment Options section). (
  • Read more about brain tumors in adults . (
  • View short videos led by ASCO experts in childhood cancers and brain tumors that provide basic information and areas of research. (
  • However, several properties of brain tumors add complexity to this model. (
  • In addition, these tumors recruit normal CNS stem and progenitor cells to the tumor mass leading to the possibility of a heterogeneous and polyclonal cell population. (
  • It is likely that a complete description of the role of stem cells in brain tumors will be more complex than our current models. (
  • Brain stem gliomas are tumors found in the brain stem. (
  • The majority of the tumors are located in the middle of the brainstem and cannot be surgically removed. (
  • A minority of brainstem tumors are more favorably located and can be treated with surgery. (
  • Headaches related to brainstem tumors may be worse shortly after waking up in the morning. (
  • Brain tumors are among the most aggressive and intractable types of cancer. (
  • In light of these similarities, it has been suggested that brain tumors arise from stem cells, that they co-opt stem cell strategies for self-renewal, and even that they contain "cancer stem cells" that are critical for tumor maintenance. (
  • We will examine these possibilities and discuss their implications for the understanding and treatment of brain tumors. (
  • Within the umbrella of adult brainstem glioma, there is a subset of tumors that is similar in appearance and potentially similar in etiology to childhood DIPG, but with slightly older onset, generally affecting young adults. (
  • Brain stem glioma accounts for 6-9% of brain tumors in children. (
  • Brain tumors can be very difficult to treat, but at least we know what to do about them. (
  • For years, a mix of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy has been used to treat brain tumors like medulloblastoma. (
  • Techniques for operating on the brain have advanced considerably, as have the tools for probing tumors at the molecular level. (
  • We've historically treated and studied DIPG based on imaging results, clinical symptoms and what we know about adult or other pediatric brain tumors," Kieran explains. (
  • Reporting in the August 12 issue of Cancer Cell, the scientists say they have uncovered new origins for these tumors from early stem cells as well as more mature cells. (
  • Previously, scientists had assumed the tumors might only come from a single source: more mature cells which become neurons and do not have "stem" cell properties. (
  • We now have a better idea of where these brain tumors come from and their relationship to normal stem cells in the brain," said Keith Ligon, MD, PhD, co-senior author of the report and an investigator at the Center for Molecular Oncologic Pathology at Dana-Farber and the Brigham and Womens Hospital. (
  • Co-senior author, David Rowitch, MD, PhD, currently a professor of pediatrics and neurosurgery at UCSF and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, commented that mouse experiments shed light on how normal stem cells - cells with the power to create all types of cells in the brain - can be transformed into tumors. (
  • When turned on again by a mutation, the signals can trigger cell processes leading to tumors - not just in the brain, but in other organs as well. (
  • They make up about 30 percent of childhood brain tumors, and account for 250 to 300 new cases per year. (
  • Medulloblastoma was one of the first tumors that was believed to fit the hypothesis that tumors are caused by cancer stem cells that initiate malignancies and sustain them," said Ligon, who is also on faculty and an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School. (
  • A few years ago we recognized that stem cells could be used to continuously deliver these therapeutic toxins to tumors in the brain, but first we needed to genetically engineer stem cells that could resist being killed themselves by the toxins. (
  • We tested these stem cells in a clinically relevant mouse model of brain cancer, where you resect the tumors and then implant the stem cells encapsulated in a gel into the resection cavity," Shah said. (
  • After doing all of the molecular analysis and imaging to track the inhibition of protein synthesis within brain tumors, we do see the toxins kill the cancer cells and eventually prolonging the survival in animal models of resected brain tumors. (
  • One of the impediments to the treatment of brain tumors (e.g., gliomas) has been the degree to which they expand, infiltrate surrounding tissue, and migrate widely into normal brain, usually rendering them "elusive" to effective resection, irradiation, chemotherapy, or gene therapy. (
  • These data suggest the adjunctive use of inherently migratory NSCs as a delivery vehicle for targeting therapeutic genes and vectors to refractory, migratory, invasive brain tumors. (
  • Malignant brain tumors, e.g., glioblastoma multiforme, remain virtually untreatable and inevitably lethal despite extensive surgical excision and adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy ( 1 ). (
  • In an exemplary case of medical excellence in the treatment of brain tumors, doctors at Venkateshwar Hospital, New Delhi recently helped a 55-year-old woman combat a serious brain tumor, which was leading to progressively worsening neurological complications over a sustained period of time. (
  • The machine used for the treatment is known as Versa HD, a sophisticated beam-shaping linear accelerator that aids precision and speed in the treatment of brain tumors. (
  • From the medical perspective, classification and treatment of brain tumors is generally done depending on the size, type, and location of the tumors. (
  • Although rarely fatal, most brain tumors can cause serious physical and mental disabilities and or progressive weakness or paralysis over the long term. (
  • The global incidence rates of primary malignant brain and other types of CNS tumors was 3.4 per 100,000 in 2012, and brain cancer accounts for 1.8% of all cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer). (
  • The purpose of the Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy study for patients with glioblastoma and/or brainstem glioma is to determine whether in patients with malignant brain tumors, dendritic cells injected peripherally can reactivate the immune system against the brain tumor. (
  • Based on clinical data in subjects with brain tumors, the investigators believe that peripheral injection of dendritic cells will generate a more potent immune response for patients with brain stem gliomas and/or glioblastomas. (
  • Brainstem tumors. (
  • They drilled holes into the participants' skulls and directly injected stem cells from adult donors into the grey matter. (
  • WASHINGTON -- Two teams of researchers said Friday that they had found reliable ways to coax human embryonic stem cells into becoming brain cells. (
  • Stem cells are a kind of master cell that can develop into a variety of tissues. (
  • Stem cells modified to produce a cancer-killing immune chemical can track and destroy difficult-to-treat brain tumours, US researchers have found. (
  • But tiny groups of glioma cells often spread deep into healthy brain tissue, so even if the main tumour is wiped out, the risk of recurrence of the cancer is high. (
  • A team led by John Yu at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles took neural stem cells from mice fetuses and genetically engineered them to produce interleukin 12. (
  • The team then injected the modified stem cells into implanted gliomas in the brains of mice. (
  • Previous work has shown that neural stem cells can actively track migrating glioma cells in the brain, though how they do this is unclear. (
  • When the cells were injected on the opposite side of the brain to the tumour, they migrated towards the cancerous mass. (
  • Most current experiments with neural stem cells involve using them to treat neurodegenerative disorders and stroke. (
  • Scientists have created a way to isolate neural stem cells - cells that give rise to all the cell types of the brain - from human brain tissue with unprecedented precision, an important step toward developing new treatments for conditions of the nervous system, like Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases and spinal cord injury. (
  • The latest paper marks a six-year effort by Goldman's team to develop a better way to isolate pure preparations of neural stem cells directly from the human brain. (
  • These stem cells can renew themselves and have the potential to become a number of brain cell types - for instance, oligodendrocytes that might help people with multiple sclerosis , or neurons to help people with Parkinson's disease . (
  • Yet those challenges must be met if stem cells are to live up to their promise as treatments for a host of human diseases of the nervous system. (
  • So far, most efforts aimed at isolating human fetal stem cells have entailed cultivating brain tissue in tissue culture in the laboratory for months, then separating out the stem cells for study. (
  • The difference is crucial for scientists who often prefer to capture only uncommitted neural stem cells, whether to treat brain diseases requiring the replacement of multiple cell types or to better understand their function. (
  • The Goldman lab's new technique snags only neural stem cells and does so directly from brain tissue. (
  • The technology saves months of time and labor in the laboratory and also gives scientists a clearer look than ever before at exactly how stem cells operate in the brain. (
  • As expected, certain classes of genes encoding for proteins active in mouse neural stem cells - such as members of the Notch and WNT families - were highly active. (
  • But when the scientists looked more closely, they found that the freshly isolated neural stem cells expressed some genes from these families that were previously virtually unknown in humans, and which had never before been implicated in human brain function. (
  • At the same time, some of the genes that are important and active in mouse neural stem cells proved not to be so in the human cells. (
  • The ability to gather human cells more efficiently should aid potential treatments built around transplanting stem cells. (
  • In the last few years a couple studies using human neural stem cells in the nervous system have begun in children with incurable brain diseases known as pediatric leukodystrophies. (
  • But the field is in its infancy, and Goldman believes that the cell types currently being used will soon be replaced by more effective types of transplantable stem and progenitor cells. (
  • The authors say that stem cells could "provide superior treatment, possibly using different types of cells to treat different symptoms" of Parkinson's. (
  • If successful, using stem cells as a source of transplantable dopamine-producing nerve cells could revolutionize care of the [Parkinson's] patient in the future," they say. (
  • More than 3 decades ago, pioneering studies that transplanted stem cells to treat Parkinson's used "fetal cells obtained from the midbrain of aborted embryos. (
  • Recent advances in stem cell technology mean that the materials from which stem cells are derived are different and varied. (
  • Cells can also be reprogrammed directly in the brain by injecting the conversion genes instead of the human skin cells. (
  • Researchers can also derive stem cells from the person's own blood. (
  • The first-generation cells are now being trialed and new advances in stem cell biology and genetic engineering promise even better cells and therapies in the future. (
  • Prof. Parmar goes on to point out that "[t]here is a long road ahead in demonstrating how well stem cell-based reparative therapies will work, and much to understand about what, where, and how to deliver the cells, and to whom. (
  • For any given medical problem, it seems, there's a research team trying to use stem cells to find a solution. (
  • But in one study expected to launch later this year, scientists hope to use stem cells in a new, highly controversial way - to reverse death. (
  • The idea of the trial, run by Philadelphia-based Bioquark, is to inject stem cells into the spinal cords of people who have been declared clinically brain-dead. (
  • First there's the injection of stem cells isolated from the individual's own fat or blood. (
  • One small, uncontrolled study of 21 stroke patients found that they recovered more mobility after they received an injection of donor stem cells into their brains. (
  • To receive news and publication updates for Stem Cells International, enter your email address in the box below. (
  • Here, we review our present knowledge about adult neural stem cells, the methods used for their study in diabetic models, and the effects of experimental diabetes. (
  • In all mammalian species, the DG and the SVZ share a lineage including neural stem cells (NSCs) (or primary stem cells), transit amplifying cells (TACs) (or secondary stem cells), and newborn cells of the three final phenotypes: neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial (Figure 1 ). (
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) divide, both symmetrically and asymmetrically for self-renewal and production of transit amplifying cells (TACs). (
  • Brain cancer stem cells (left) are killed by Zika virus infection (image at right shows cells after Zika treatment). (
  • A new study shows that the virus, known for killing cells in the brains of developing fetuses, could be redirected to destroy the kind of brain cancer cells that are most likely to be resistant to treatment. (
  • New research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the University of California San Diego School of Medicine shows that the virus kills brain cancer stem cells, the kind of cells most resistant to standard treatments. (
  • The findings suggest that the lethal power of the virus - known for infecting and killing cells in the brains of fetuses, causing babies to be born with tiny, misshapen heads - could be directed at malignant cells in the brain. (
  • A small population of cells, known as glioblastoma stem cells, often survives the onslaught and continues to divide, producing new tumor cells to replace the ones killed by the cancer drugs. (
  • In their neurological origins and near-limitless ability to create new cells, glioblastoma stem cells reminded postdoctoral researcher Zhe Zhu, PhD, of neuroprogenitor cells, which generate cells for the growing brain. (
  • In collaboration with co-senior authors Diamond and Milan G. Chheda, MD , of Washington University School of Medicine, and Jeremy N. Rich, MD, of UC San Diego, Zhu tested whether the virus could kill stem cells in glioblastomas removed from patients at diagnosis. (
  • The standard treatment kills the bulk of the tumor cells but often leaves the stem cells intact to regenerate the tumor. (
  • Zika virus attacks the stem cells but bypasses the greater part of the tumor. (
  • The idea of injecting a virus notorious for causing brain damage into people's brains seems alarming, but Zika may be safer for use in adults because its primary targets - neuroprogenitor cells - are rare in the adult brain. (
  • The fetal brain, on the other hand, is loaded with such cells, which is part of the reason why Zika infection before birth produces widespread and severe brain damage, while natural infection in adulthood causes mild symptoms. (
  • The researchers conducted additional studies of the virus using brain tissue from epilepsy patients and showed that the virus does not infect noncancerous brain cells. (
  • Brain stem cells against cancer? (
  • But research at Lund University in Sweden provides hope that it may be possible in the future to develop stem cells from the brain into a new way to treat gliomas. (
  • Neural stem cells have been shown to have the ability to recognize signals from tumor cells in the brain and migrate there. (
  • If stem cells are injected into a part of the brain in laboratory animals with a glioma in another part of their brain, the stem cells migrate over to the tumor area. (
  • This has spawned the idea of having stem cells transport drugs or immune stimulants to the tumor. (
  • But as it turned out, no extra assistance was needed: the stem cells themselves had the ability to combat the tumor. (
  • To be sure about the phenomenon, we ran several experiments with other stem cells, and it was confirmed that certain neural stem cells actually have an anti-tumor effect," says Karin Staflin. (
  • One plausible reason is that both normal neural stem cells and glioma cells are immature, not fully mature cells. (
  • They are therefore more like each other than any other types of cells in the brain, which may enable them to 'speak' to each other and influence each other. (
  • The research team at Lund has also shown that stem cells can cure colon cancer in lab animals. (
  • This may be what enables neural stem cells to affect intestinal cancer cells," says Karin Staflin. (
  • The dissertation is titled Neural progenitor cells in malignancy and injury of the brain: A Trojan horse for gliomas? (
  • Brain stem cells from middle-aged mice (9 months old) no longer divided as often as ones from 1. (
  • That program recently was extended to look at the ability of that same drug platform to stimulate the growth of healthy brain stem cells to create new nerve cells. (
  • Future studies of these cells are expected to shed light on developmental diseases such as autism and schizophrenia and malformations of brain development, including microcephaly, lissencephaly and neuronal migration disorders, they say, as well as age-related illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease. (
  • This information could then be used to prompt embryonic stem cells to differentiate in the culture dish into neurons for potential use in cell-replacement therapy. (
  • In rodents and humans, the developing cortex contains a layer of neural stem cells called radial glial cells that resides near the fluid-filled ventricles and produces cells that are precursors to neurons. (
  • About 20 years ago, scientists presumed that the OSVZ also contained stem cells, but until now they have lacked evidence. (
  • They characterized two kinds of cells within the region""both the novel neural stem cell and its daughter cell, known as the transit amplifying cell. (
  • The stem cell undergoes asymmetrical cell division, giving rise to two distinct daughter cells""one a copy of the original stem cell, the other a transit amplifying cell. (
  • More broadly, he says the team wants to understand how the new stem cells compare to radial glial cells and how the two sets of neurons they produce integrate in the neocortex. (
  • The massive number of cells within the OSVZ of humans "tells us we have to be careful when modeling human brain diseases in mice," says Kriegstein. (
  • Stem cells persist in the adult mammalian brain and generate new neurons throughout life. (
  • A research group at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel reports in the current issue of " Science " that long-distance brain connections can target discrete pools of stem cells in their niche and stimulate them to divide and produce specific subtypes of olfactory bulb neurons. (
  • A diversity of stimuli promotes stem cells in their niche to form neurons that migrate to their place of action. (
  • In an animal model Prof. Fiona Doetsch's team at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel has now been able to show that feeding-related neurons in the hypothalamus, a brain control center for many physiological functions, stimulate a distinct type of stem cell to proliferate and mature into specific nerve cells in response to feeding. (
  • Stem cells reside in only a few areas of the brain. (
  • The largest reservoir is the subventricular zone, where quiescent stem cells lie closely packed together. (
  • Signals from the environment can trigger stem cells to start dividing. (
  • The stem cells in the subventricular zone supply the olfactory bulb with neurons. (
  • While new neurons are continuously generated, whether niche signals act to control different pools of stem cells is unknown. (
  • We have uncovered a novel long-distance and regionalized connection in the brain between the hypothalamus and the subventricular zone, and show that physiological states such as hunger and satiety can regulate the recruitment of specific pools of stem cells and in turn the formation of certain neuron subtypes in the olfactory bulb," explains Doetsch. (
  • When the animals fasted, the activity of the nerve cells in the hypothalamus decreased and with it also the rate of proliferation in the targeted stem cell population. (
  • The division of stem cells can be controlled by changing the activity of feeding-related neurons. (
  • The researchers reported further that the targeted stem cell subpopulation gives rise to deep granule cells in the olfactory bulb, which may provide a substrate for adaptive responses to the environment. (
  • The results of the study raise the exciting possibility that neural circuits from diverse brain regions can regulate different pools of stem cells in response to various stimuli and states. (
  • Scientists have made brain cells from human pee. (
  • When a person urinates, skin shells are routinely shed from the lining in the kidney, and it's these cells that the researchers reprogrammed into stem cells, which can turn into any type of cell in the body. (
  • In this case, they transformed the cells into neurons, or brain cells. (
  • The new research, published Sunday (Dec. 9) in the journal Nature Methods, could one day provide a quicker way to make brain cells that are unique to an individual, Nature News reported. (
  • For years, scientists have been working on ways to turn ordinary cells into stem cells. (
  • Researchers have reprogrammed testicle stem cells to make insulin, turned brain cells from cadavers into stem cells and converted human skin into brain cells . (
  • The hope was that these brain cells could be used to treat diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. (
  • But many early methods used viruses to permanently incorporate new genes into the DNA of the cells, wrote Kristen Brennand, a stem cell researcher at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, who was not involved in the study, in an email. (
  • Next, the scientists injected new genetic instructions to reprogram cells to become brain cells. (
  • With these new genetic instructions, the cells transformed into brain stem cells, which can turn into different types of brain cells. (
  • The transformation from kidney cell to brain stem cell took just 12 days, and within a month, the cells had morphed into full-fledged brain cells. (
  • A perivascular niche for brain tumor stem cells. (
  • Cancers are believed to arise from cancer stem cells (CSCs), but it is not known if these cells remain dependent upon the niche microenvironments that regulate normal stem cells. (
  • We show that endothelial cells interact closely with self-renewing brain tumor cells and secrete factors that maintain these cells in a stem cell-like state. (
  • This detailed volume compiles the best methodologies and experimental techniques to profile and extract maximal data from brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), the experimental paradigm for brain cancer research that offers insights into cancer stem cell populations that may drive not only tumor initiation but tumor recurrence and patient relapse. (
  • The BTSC model recapitulates scientific observations made in brain cancer patients, and these chapters provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the skills and techniques that will unlock data from this most informative subset of cells. (
  • Authoritative and practical, Brain Tumor Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide for researchers seeking to better understand the complexities of brain cancer. (
  • Note that laquinimod had no effect, positive or negative, on the basic biology of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells derived from human stem cells. (
  • GOTHENBURG, Sweden -- The multiple sclerosis drug laquinimod, which crosses the blood-brain barrier, is safe for brain stem cells at concentrations relevant for treatment, according to a study presented here. (
  • Laquinimod had "no effect, positive or negative, on the basic biology of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells derived from human stem cells," according to lead author Eve Kelland, PhD, of the University of Southern California Los Angeles, who presented the work here at the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis meeting. (
  • That made it important to look at direct effects on the cells that the brain uses for repair," Kelland said. (
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) can divide to form either neurons or glia. (
  • Neural stem cells differentiate into neurons and play an important role in self-repair. (
  • T]he same research group found that rodent neural stem cells grew when they were bathed in a solution of aromatic-turmerone. (
  • The cells bathed in the turmeric compound also appeared to specialize into certain types of brain cells more rapidly. (
  • It is interesting that it might be possible to boost the effectiveness of the stem cells with aromatic-turmerone,' Maria Adele Rueger, a researcher on the team, told the BBC. (
  • Expert available for comment on "Cancer Stem Cells" symposium at American Society of Hemotology (ASH) meeting, led by Dr. Andrew Schafer, chairman of medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell, and president, ASH. (
  • Stem cells -- popularly known as a source of biological rejuvenation -- may play harmful roles in the body, specifically in the growth and spread of cancer. (
  • On Dec. 11, a symposium at the annual American Society of Hematology (ASH) meeting in Atlanta entitled "Cancer Stem Cells" addresses the topic. (
  • Neurosurgeon-researchers from NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center are conducting ongoing research examining ways to combat brain cancer stem cells. (
  • Dr. Boockvar believes that these patients' drug resistance might be due to a class of stem cells resistant to available treatments. (
  • We believe cancer stem cells may be the cause. (
  • that begins when healthy cells in the brain stem change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. (
  • Light has been shed on the role of stem cells in medulloblastomas, the most common type of children's brain tumor, in a new study. (
  • This study is a major advance for us because it shows for the first time that some of these tumours develop from endogenous stem cells. (
  • UCSF scientists have discovered that a tiny filament extending from cells, until recently regarded as a remnant of evolution, may play a role in the most common malignant brain tumor in children. (
  • Parkinson s disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss. (
  • The undifferentiated character of brain tumor cells and recent reports of cancer stem cells prompt questions regarding the involvement of normal stem/progenitor cells in brain tumor biology, their potential contribution to the tumor itself, and whether they are the cause or the consequence of tumor initiation and progression. (
  • The tumor cells differentiate unidirectionally from the cancer stem cell in a way parallel to normal development. (
  • Stanford researchers have found that injecting stem cells directly into the brains of recovering stroke sufferers is more than just safe - it actually reverses brain damage, something previously thought impossible by science. (
  • It was a small sample size of only 18 patients, and the objective was to test the safety of the procedure - which involves injecting stem cells directly under the uppermost layer of the brain. (
  • But what " stunned " Stanford researchers was that the stem cells also reversed the damage way past the six-month recovery period after a stroke, beyond which it is thought the remaining unhealed brain circuits are completely beyond recovery. (
  • What's more, the Stanford team once more debunked an old assumption about the way stem cells actually affect us. (
  • The researchers are still not entirely sure about the origins of this mysterious process, or whether it is the stem cells themselves triggering the recovery, or if the procedure is responsible for some sort of placebo effect that tricks the brain into action. (
  • The radiation that kills cancer cells also kills brain cells, destroying memories, impairing intelligence, and causing confusion. (
  • Charles Limoli hopes that neural stem cells, like the ones shown here, can help regenerate brain cells damaged or destroyed by cancer treatment. (
  • Charles Limoli and colleagues at the University of California, Irvine, have shown that stem cells could help reverse some of this damage. (
  • In a new paper in the journal Cancer Research , Limoli shows that it's possible to cause new brain cells to grow by injecting human neural stem cells into the brains of mice whose cognitive abilities had been damaged by radiation. (
  • Stem cells have long been used to repair the damage caused by cancer treatment. (
  • Bone-marrow transplants for leukemia rely on stem cells to replenish blood cells, for instance. (
  • But Limoli says his team is the only one using neural stem cells to treat symptoms in the brain. (
  • Several peers praised his work, calling it an important proof of the idea that human stem cells can repair neuronal damage. (
  • Limoli's team irradiated three groups of mice, later treating two of them with human neural stem cells. (
  • One month after the damage, 23 percent of implanted stem cells were active in the brains of the first group of mice. (
  • Protein activity in the treated mice suggests that the implanted stem cells are integrating into the brain, Limoli says, replacing cells that have been lost or damaged. (
  • Rob Coppes , a radiation and stem-cell biologist at the University Medical Center Groningen, in the Netherlands, says he would next like to see Limoli test how long the benefits of the stem cells last. (
  • He also hopes Limoli will repeat his experiments using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), adult stem cells that have been converted back to an embryonic-like state. (
  • It will be important to show that mice-and later, humans in a trial-don't reject these cells, and also that the stem cells don't trigger new cancers, says Coppes, who employs stem cells in his own work, which involves regenerating salivary glands. (
  • Limoli plans to carry out further work involving human neuronal stem cells and iPS cells. (
  • He also wants to figure out the optimal time to transplant these stem cells into the brain. (
  • Japanese researchers said Friday they have transplanted stem cells into the brain of a patient in the first stage of an innovative trial to cure Parkinson s disease. (
  • The research team at Kyoto University injected induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells which have the potential to develop into any cell in the body into the brain of a male patient in his fifties, the university said in a press release. (
  • The researchers injected 2.4 million iPS cells into the left side of the patient s brain, in an operation that took about three hours. (
  • The iPS cells from healthy donors have been developed into the precursors of dopamine-producing brain cells, which are no longer present in people with Parkinson s disease. (
  • The only problem would be if the stem cells over grow or mutate, which I guess could cause convulsions or the like, but if it can truly cure Parkinson's, it would be great. (
  • Whatever happened to embryonic stem cells? (
  • Maybe the reason the your original brain cells quit producing dopamine is because of you, not the cells. (
  • Dr Robert Iacono tried this, with fetal stem cells, back in 1989, and since he couldn't find a hospital in the US that would permit it, he dragged his patient, one Max Truex, to a clinic in Zhengzhou, China, where he had no problem in 'acquiring' fetal cells. (
  • In contrast, irradiated animals that did not receive neural stem cells performed significantly worse than either treated animals or the control group. (
  • These data show that human neural stem cells afford a promising strategy for functionally restoring cognition in irradiated animals. (
  • Although the mechanisms of the impairment are unclear, loss of neural stem cells in the hippocampus is one plausible explanation, the authors noted in their introduction. (
  • Neural stem cells that survive irradiation exhibit a stress response that leads to altered proliferation, metabolism, survival, and differentiation, as well as altered expression of certain genes, such as Arc. (
  • Our current studies have now clearly shown the benefits of engrafted stem cells for reversing cognitive impairment following cranial irradiation," the authors wrote. (
  • This research shows us that in mice, Brg-1 is a critical signal that prevents stem cells from turning into neurons at the wrong time. (
  • However, since we can manipulate Brg1 expression in stem cells in culture, we now have a powerful way to generate neurons that could be used to replace cells lost in a variety of diseases and conditions that affect the brain and spinal cord. (
  • By Oregon Health & Science University, Researchers at the Oregon National Primate Research Center at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) have discovered one key gene that appears to control how stem cells become various kinds of brain cells. (
  • The finding has significant implications for the study of Parkinson's disease, brain and spinal cord injury, and other conditions or diseases that might be combated by replacing lost or damaged brain cells. (
  • In the early stages of brain development prior to birth, brain stem cells, also known as neural stem cells, will differentiate into neurons," explained Larry Sherman, Ph.D., an associate scientist in the Division of Neuroscience at the Oregon National Primate Research Center and an adjunct associate professor of cell and developmental biology in the OHSU School of Medicine. (
  • In later stages, these same stem cells suddenly start becoming glial cells, which perform a number of functions that include supporting the neurons. (
  • When they isolated neural stem cells, placed them into cell culture and then removed Brg1, the cells in the culture turned into neurons but failed to differentiate into glia. (
  • For instance, Parkinson's disease is related to the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. (
  • Scientists hypothesize that it may be possible to correctly time the expression of brg-1 in neuronal stem cells either in a culture dish or in the brain to replace the lost dopamine-producing cells. (
  • Identifying a gene that controls how stem cells turn into different kinds of nerve cells has important implications for clinical application in spinal cord repair strategies. (
  • Programmed stem cells promise to tackle all kinds of illnesses , but there's one catch: making them. (
  • That's where researchers might come to the rescue: they've developed a method of growing neural stem cells in large volumes, but without chewing up too much valuable real estate. (
  • The gels help the stem cells remodel their environment and stay in contact with each other, which is key to preserving 'stemness' -- that is, the ready-to-program state -- in the third dimension. (
  • A doctor could cultivate large batches of stem cells without having to dedicate significant chunks of a room to the process. (
  • The challenge is injecting these stem cells directly into the body. (
  • In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), give rise to new olfactory bulb neurons and glia throughout life. (
  • Stem cells co-exist in quiescent and activated states and reside in regionally-distinct V-SVZ domains and produce different subtypes of olfactory bulb neurons and glia. (
  • We propose to investigate whether physiologically distinct states result in the recruitment of regionally distinct pools of adult V-SVZ neural stem cells. (
  • Together these experiments will provide a conceptual breakthrough into illuminating the logic of adult neural stem cell heterogeneity, and how regionally distinct adult neural stem cells integrate long-range signals from remote brain areas to respond to signals for on-demand neurogenesis or gliogenesis. (
  • It may be possible to achieve this improved repair, without the need for surgery, by targeting stem cells residing in the brain. (
  • These cells possess the unique ability to produce multiple differentiated cell types within the brain, but they are usually in an inactive or "sleep" state referred to as quiescence. (
  • Therefore, any regenerative brain therapy that could harness the potential of stem cells would first require them to be awoken from quiescence. (
  • This stem cell possesses higher regenerative potential than previously identified quiescent stem cells. (
  • Notably, awakened G2 quiescent stem cells generate key brain cells - neurons and glia - much more quickly than known quiescent stem cells, suggesting they may be desirable targets for drug design. (
  • The brain is not good at repairing itself, but these newly-discovered stem cells suggest there may be a way to improve its ability. (
  • These stem cells are in a dormant state, but once awake, they have the ability to generate key brain cells. (
  • In a study of the fruit fly or Drosophila, the researchers identified a gene referred to as "tribbles" that selectively regulates G2 quiescent stem cells. (
  • The researchers believe that drugs with the potential to target tribbles could be the answer to awakening G2 quiescent stem cells. (
  • We believe there may be similar quiescent stem cells in other organs, and this discovery could help improve or develop new regenerative medicines,' he adds. (
  • For the study, the researchers destroyed cells in the hippocampus, an area of the brain vital to memory formation and where neurons often die. (
  • Later, the scientists set out to learn whether neural stem cells from a mouse could improve memory in mice with brain injuries. (
  • For testing this, each mouse was injected with about 200,000 neural stem cells that were engineered to appear green under ultraviolet light. (
  • The colour allowed the scientists to track the stem cells inside the mouse brain after transplantation. (
  • Three months later, after implanting the stem cells the mice were tested on place recognition and the researchers found that mice with brain injuries that received stem cells remembered their surroundings about 70 percent of the time, which was the same level as the healthy mice. (
  • In contrast, control mice that didn't receive stem cells still had memory impairments. (
  • Subsequently, the scientists took a closer look at how the green-coloured stem cells behaved in the mouse brain and it was found that only about 4 percent of them turned into neurons, indicating the stem cells were not improving memory simply by replacing the dead brain cells. (
  • In the healthy mice, the stem cells migrated throughout the brain, but in the mice with neuronal loss, the cells congregated in the hippocampus, the area of the injury. (
  • We know that very few of the cells are becoming neurons, so we think that the stem cells are instead enhancing the local brain microenvironment. (
  • We have evidence suggesting that the stem cells provide support to vulnerable and injured neurons, keeping them alive and functional by making beneficial proteins called neurotrophins," Blurton-Jones said. (
  • The authors believe that the stem cells secreted proteins called neurotrophins that protected vulnerable cells from death and rescued memory. (
  • Our research provides clear evidence that stem cells can reverse memory loss. (
  • This gives us hope that stem cells someday could help restore brain function in humans suffering from a wide range of diseases and injuries that impair memory formation," LaFerla said. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether the plasticity of autologous intrathecal hematopoietic cells would improve the neurologic evolution of the pediatric patients with hypoxic /ischemic brain injury. (
  • There is accumulating evidence that shows that the placement of hematopoietic cells in the brain may increase growth-enhancing factors of axons and generate active neurons in the receptor. (
  • A inoculum of 5 to 10mL of stem cells will be infused intrathecally. (
  • Patients will be stimulated with Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) 5 times, harvest bone marrow and infused 8 to 10 mL of stem cells (CD34+) by intrathecal via. (
  • Recent studies indicate that brain tumor cells resemble neural stem cells in terms of phenotype, signaling, and behavior in vitro. (
  • Lipton added that the study is the "first time that the virushas ever been shown to affect stem cells. (
  • Because stem cells have the potential to generate cells designed to replace or repair cells damaged by spinal cord injury, advocates of stem cell research and treatment believe that the benefits far outweigh the negative aspects. (
  • Opponents of this research and treatment, however, typically bring up the issue of embryonic stem cells, which are harvested from embryos and fetal tissue. (
  • Accordingly, they feel the use of these embryonic stem cells is not moral or ethical. (
  • Because stem cells are harvested from embryos and fetal tissue, they feel it is not moral or ethical. (
  • It is important to note that non-embryonic stem cells, called somatic or "adult" stem cells, have recently been identified in various body tissues including brain, bone marrow, blood vessels, and various organ tissues. (
  • Stem cell research came on the scene in 1998, when a group of scientists isolated pluripotent stem cells from human embryos and grew them in a culture. (
  • Since then, specialists have discovered that stem cells can become any of the 200 specialized cells in the body, giving them the ability to repair or replace damaged cells and tissues. (
  • While not yet known to have the diversification potential of embryonic stem cells, adult somatic cells act similarly and are generating excitement in the research and medical community. (
  • Because of all of the controversy, much of the evidence that shows stem cells can be turned into specific cells for transplantation involves only mice, whose cells are significantly different than human cells. (
  • At this point it's impossible to say for sure when-or even if-stem cells will be useful in the treatment of paralysis. (
  • In the lab, Brown will study tumor stem cells and brain development. (
  • Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells. (
  • It is the first involving implanting stem cells into the brain to cure Parkinson's. (
  • The diversity of embryonic and adult tissue sources provides researchers with the ability to harvest an ample supply of stem cells. (
  • Along this line of the need for optimization studies, we discuss studies that demonstrate effective dose, timing, and route of stem cells. (
  • This review will outline the current knowledge, including benefits and challenges, of the many current sources of stem cells for stroke therapy. (
  • I am not sure that stem cells can do anything for your condition. (
  • While stem cells can do much and are important for restoring function, they are not omnipotent. (
  • Avoid doctors making false and unsubstantiated claims that their stem cells can cure stroke. (
  • Cohen noted that these findings provide a critical link between studies in non-human animals that have looked directly at the activity of dopamine cells in the brainstem and studies in humans of behaviors thought to be related to dopamine. (
  • Boston, MA - For the first time scientists have shown that brain stem cells are immune privileged, which means that they are invisible to a transplant recipient's immune system and do not trigger the immune system to reject them. (
  • These results, published in the July issue of Stem Cells, indicate that using central nervous system stem cells in transplants for diseases of the eye (which is part of the brain), brain, and spinal cord, may eliminate the need for tissue typing before, and immunosuppressive drugs after, transplantation. (
  • Though we suspected brain stem cells might be protected in this way, this is the first documented evidence. (
  • Young, who in previous research found that brain and retinal stem cells transplanted into the eyes of mice and rats seemed to survive longer and integrate more easily into damaged retinas than other cells, suspected that these "neural stem cells" might be immune privileged. (
  • The only way for him to learn the true nature of their immune properties was to transplant these neural stem cells to a part of the recipients body that, unlike the eye, was not immune privileged already. (
  • Young and his colleagues took brain stem cells from green mice (mice in which the gene for green protein found in jellyfish has been inserted) and placed them under the kidney capsule in other normal non-green mice. (
  • After 4 weeks, the team examined the mice and found that the stem cells had not been rejected in any of the mice, and, in fact, had grown into neural tissue. (
  • They concluded that these neural stems cells did not induce an immune response and must be invisible to the immune system, at least initially. (
  • To test this theory, the team took other brain cells (not stem cells) from the green mice and implanted them in the normal non-green mice. (
  • These cells were rejected, and when brain stem cells were then again implanted in the normal non-green mice, they, too were rejected. (
  • The team concluded, therefore, that the brain stem cells did possess antigens, but unless the recipient was primed or pre-immunized, the antigens were not visible to the immune system of the recipient and not rejected. (
  • Understanding the immune properties of these stem cells could have an enormous effect on how we perform brain or retinal transplantations in the future. (
  • Stem cells already have the advantage of being able to transform or differentiate into various types of cells and can be reproduced endlessly outside the body. (
  • Now we know that at least brain stem cells are immune privileged and can be used without the same worry about tissue matching or immunosuppression that is true for other types of tissue. (
  • Cochlear Nuclei All auditory nerve fibers terminate within the cochlear nuclei (CN), which comprise highly complex groupings of cells that together form a protuberance on the lateral surface of the brain stem at the medullopontine junction. (
  • Now, Dr. Dirks is set to take a big step in that direction with the announcement Thursday that he will lead a "dream team" of researchers in an $11.7-million effort to leverage the emerging science of cancer stem cells in the ongoing battle against brain tumours in children and adults. (
  • The mammalian brain contains a population of neural stem cells (NSC) that can both self-renew and generate progeny along the three lineage pathways of the central nervous system (CNS), but the in vivo identification and localization of NSC in the postnatal CNS has proved elusive. (
  • Recently, separate studies have implicated ciliated ependymal (CE) cells, and special subependymal zone (SEZ) astrocytes as candidates for NSC in the adult brain. (
  • Cells isolated from the postnatal and adult brain that can grow as multipotent proliferative clones-neurospheres ( 1 )-are capable of giving rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. (
  • Neurosphere-forming cells can be considered as neural stem cells (NSC) and can serve as a model of basic neurodevelopmental processes as well as a potential source of transplantable cells for the treatment of brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. (
  • An aggressive childhood brain tumor known as medulloblastoma originates in normal brain "stem" cells that turn malignant when acted on by a known mutant, cancer-causing oncogene, say researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). (
  • But the prevailing hypothesis - that medulloblastomas originate from non-stem cells - just did not make perfect sense with this. (
  • The initial goal was to determine whether activating the Sonic hedgehog cancer pathway in multiple types of brain cells, including neural stem cells, could help pinpoint which cells brain cancers might come from. (
  • Surprisingly, the scientists generated just one tumor type, medulloblastoma, regardless of whether they activated the pathway in stem cells for other cell types called neurons and glia. (
  • An intriguing question for the investigators is why these cells, known as granule neuron precursors, seem to be uniquely vulnerable to the tumor-triggering effects of the Sonic hedgehog pathway, while other brain stem and progenitor cells are not. (
  • This relationship between stem cells and oncogenes suggests a new point of potential therapeutic intervention. (
  • Adult stem cells in the brains of mice possess a broader differentiation potential than previously thought and may be capable of developing into other cell types including those involved in the formation of new blood vessels, according to a new study supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), a part of the National Institutes of Health. (
  • Adult stem cells in the brain were proposed to be restricted to the generation of neurons and cells, such as glial cells, that support neuron function. (
  • Experiments over the past several years have raised the possibility that stem cells from the brain may be able to give rise to additional cell types, a phenomenon known as plasticity. (
  • But recent findings have challenged this theory, suggesting that many of these stem cells merely merge or "fuse" with an existing cell within a tissue forming a hybrid that takes on the pre-existing cell's functions. (
  • Resolving this issue is important because fused cells may have a different therapeutic potential than stem cells that differentiate into new cells, says Bradley C. Wise, Ph.D., of the NIA's Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging Program. (
  • While this new finding doesn't fully answer this vital question, it keeps open the possibility that adult stem cells from different organs one day may be harnessed to help prevent and treat neurological disorders. (
  • In their experiments, Gage and his colleagues grew mouse brain stem cells, which form neurons and glial cells, in the same culture dishes with human endothelial cells, which form the lining of blood vessels. (
  • Over time, about 6 percent of the mouse neural stem cells began to show signs that they had developed into cells similar to endothelial cells. (
  • Similar results were seen when these same neural stem cells were transplanted into the brains of mice early in development. (
  • Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. (
  • There may soon be a new way to use stem cells in the fight against brain cancer. (
  • A team has created a way to genetically engineer stem cells so that they can produce and secrete tumor-killing toxins that eradicate cancer cells remaining in mouse brains after their main tumor has been removed. (
  • The stem cells are placed at the site encapsulated in a biodegradable gel. (
  • Encapsulated toxin-producing stem cells (in blue) help kill brain tumor cells in the tumor resection cavity (in green). (
  • Now, we have toxin-resistant stem cells that can make and release cancer-killing drugs. (
  • Shah's stem cells escape this fate because they are made with a mutation that doesn't allow the toxin to act inside the cell. (
  • The toxin-resistant stem cells also have an extra bit of genetic code that allows them to make and secrete the toxins. (
  • Shah and his team induced toxin resistance in human neural stem cells and subsequently engineered them to produce targeted toxins. (
  • Shah next plans to rationally combine the toxin-secreting stem cells with a number of different therapeutic stem cells developed by his team to further enhance their positive results in mouse models of glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor in human adults. (
  • Published in STEM CELLS . (
  • Can neural stem cells be used to track down and destroy migratory brain tumor cells while also providing a means of repairing tumor-associated damage? (
  • We demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs), when implanted into experimental intracranial gliomas in vivo in adult rodents, distribute themselves quickly and extensively throughout the tumor bed and migrate uniquely in juxtaposition to widely expanding and aggressively advancing tumor cells, while continuing to stably express a foreign gene. (
  • Intriguingly, one of the cardinal features of neural stem cells (NSCs) is their exceptional migratory ability ( 3 - 10 ). (
  • We hypothesized that pathology promotes NSC migration to an extent not assumed possible based on knowledge drawn from the normal adult brain and that, therefore, an approach for targeting gene therapy to the most migratory tumor cells in the adult central nervous system (CNS) might be the use of inherently migratory NSCs to deliver therapeutic genes and/or their products. (
  • In previous clinical trials, brain tumor cells called astrocytoma tumor cells and glioblastoma tumor cells were taken from the tumor that was removed during surgery. (
  • The brain tumor cells were then placed into a solution in the laboratory that made them grow. (
  • Certain parts of the brain tumor's proteins (peptides) were removed from the growing tumor cells and mixed together with the dendritic cells in the blood taken from a vein. (
  • This combination of dendritic cells and brain tumor peptides were injected into the patient's skin, like a vaccination. (
  • In this study, the proteins that are manufactured and known to be associated with brain cancers will be mixed with the dendritic cells obtained during leukopheresis (a procedure in which the dendritic cells are separated from the patients' blood). (
  • In addition, these cells were able to reach the brain and kill brain tumor cells. (
  • The regenerative medicine research sector is fueled by stem cells and today it is at a tipping point, with the potential to see breakthroughs in our generation. (
  • However, the disruptive power of stem cells makes it possible to turn the page in the decades to come. (
  • Funded trials will focus on a spectrum of health issues including treating fatal illnesses such as septic shock, evaluating a stem cell therapy for diabetes, and expanding stem cells from cord blood for efficacious and cost effective transplantation. (
  • BioTime, Inc. (NYSE MKT: BTX), a biotechnology company that develops and markets products in the field of regenerative medicine reported today the publication of a peer-reviewed scientific paper on the successful generation of human cells with markers of particular cell types in the human brain, potentially useful in the treatment of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The paper published online (ahead of print) in the journal Regenerative Medicine , characterizes the cells generated from human embryonic stem cells using BioTime's proprietary PureStem ™ technology. (
  • The study reports that the new cell lines show the potential to become cartilage and bone as well as brain-associated cells such as membranes surrounding the brain called meninges and choroid plexus (the structure in the brain that creates cerebrospinal fluid). (
  • In the study titled "Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest cells capable of expressing markers of osteochondral or meningeal-choroid plexus differentiation," BioTime scientists published for the first time the unique properties of two cell lines designated E69 and T42 made using the company's PureStem ™ technology. (
  • PureStem ™ allows the scalable expansion of large numbers of desired cell types starting with human embryonic stem cells. (
  • BioTime scientists demonstrated in the publication that the cells could be induced to become diverse brain-associated cells by altering the exposure of the cells to specific growth factors. (
  • 200 cell types we have isolated from pluripotent stem cells. (
  • BioTime's focus is on pluripotent stem cell technology based on human embryonic stem ("hES") cells and induced pluripotent stem ("iPS") cells. (
  • Using stem cells created from human skin cells, researchers at the University of Rochester and its affiliated Rochester Medical Center , located in Rochester, New York, were able to successfully cure leukodystrophy in lab mice. (
  • So-called 'human induced pluripotent stem cells' (hiPSCs) are a hot field of medical research as their origin from the patient's tissue reduces the risk of rejection and other complications. (
  • Even when the process was complete, it took six months to grow a single batch of the special brain cells. (
  • Once injected into the brain, the hiPSC-derived OPCs quickly spread throughout the suffering rodent's brain and quickly began to morph into helper cells capable of producing myelin. (
  • Organ-sourced stem cells proved less effective than the skin-derived OPCs. (
  • Dr. Goldman, a key member of the group, says that while the initial study will focus on organ-derived stem cells, he expects hiPSCs to also be added to the mix, given the success. (
  • This clinical trial is the first U.S. study involving the use of the patient's own stem cells, infused into the brain as a regenerative therapy, two weeks after a stroke. (
  • It will be the first U.S. clinical trial in stroke patients to study the use of autologous stem cells that are infused into the brain as a regenerative therapy given two weeks after the stroke. (
  • Aldagen's product candidates consist of a specific population of a patient's own stem cells, which are isolated using our proprietary technology and which has the potential to promote the regeneration of multiple types of cells and tissues, including the growth of new blood vessels. (
  • Epileptic seizures could be halted by injecting stem cells into the brain, scientists claim. (
  • Researchers have developed a new treatment, which involves converting skin cells into stem cells - which can turn into any type. (
  • The converted stem cells, designed to dampen down the effects of seizures, are then implanted back into the brain. (
  • Electrical activity is happening in the brain all the time, as networks of tiny brain cells communicate in a normal pattern. (
  • Dr Dinesh Upadhya and colleagues then implanted inhibitory brain cells, called stem cell-derived GABA-ergic progenitor cells, into half of the rats and watched what happened. (
  • They feature separate populations of thalamic projecting cells and a rich network of intersubnuclear connections, so that what is conveyed to the cortex by each of the ascending pathways of vibrissal information depends on local transactions that occur in the brainstem. (
  • These results raise the possibility that, by controlling the activity of intersubnuclear projecting cells, brain regions that project to the spinal trigeminal nuclei may take an active part in selecting the type of vibrissal information that is conveyed through the lemniscal pathway. (
  • The researchers have developed a screening system for predicting developmental neurotoxicity-damage caused to nervous tissue by toxic substances-using stem cells to model features of the developing human brain. (
  • To begin, the team produced model human neural tissue by culturing stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, vascular cells, and microglia on engineered hydrogels. (
  • These precursor cells self-assembled into three-dimensional neural tissue constructs with features that resemble the developing human brain. (
  • The neural tissue constructs developed in this project are the first to incorporate vascular and microglial components into a 3D model of brain development derived from human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • In this image, stem cells in the Drosophila brain have been labelled as they are awakened from quiescence. (
  • Blue: quiescent stem cells. (
  • Green/Red/Yellow: stem cells that have been awakened and are generating new neurons. (
  • however, it may become possible to improve repair without surgery by targeting stem cells residing in patients' brains. (
  • Stem cells have the unique capacity to produce all of the cells in the brain but are normally kept inactive in a form of cellular 'sleep' known as quiescence. (
  • Thus, any regenerative therapy targeting stem cells must first awaken them from quiescence. (
  • In a study published today in the journal Science , PhD student Leo Otsuki and his supervisor Professor Andrea Brand report the discovery in the brain of a new type of quiescent stem cell (known as 'G2 quiescent stem cell') with higher regenerative potential than quiescent stem cells identified previously. (
  • Importantly, G2 quiescent stem cells awaken to make the key types of cell in the brain - neurons and glia - much faster than known quiescent stem cells, making them attractive targets for therapeutic design. (
  • Stem cells are labelled in red, nuclear membranes in green and DNA in blue. (
  • By studying the fruit fly (Drosophila), the authors identified a gene known as tribbles that selectively regulates G2 quiescent stem cells. (
  • The tribbles gene has counterparts in the mammalian genome that are expressed in stem cells in the brain. (
  • The researchers believe that drugs that target tribbles might be one route to awakening G2 quiescent stem cells. (
  • The next step is to identify potential drug-like molecules that block this gene and awaken a person's stem cells. (
  • the scientific debate persists as to whether adult stem cells are multipotent , or if they even need to be in order to be therapeutically relevant. (
  • Wagers contends that even if bone marrow cells do in fact contribute to brain, the contribution is too low to be therapeutically beneficial. (
  • Writing online today (Aug. 16) in Development , scientists from UF's McKnight Brain Institute describe how they used mature human brain cells taken from epilepsy patients to generate new brain tissue in mice. (
  • Furthermore, they can coax these pedestrian human cells to produce large amounts of new brain cells in culture, with one cell theoretically able to begin a cycle of cell division that does not stop until the cells number about 10 to the 16th power. (
  • We can theoretically take a single brain cell out of a human being and - with just this one cell - generate enough brain cells to replace every cell of the donor's brain and conceivably those of 50 million other people," said Dennis Steindler, executive director of UF's McKnight Brain Institute. (
  • This is a completely new source of human brain cells that can potentially be used to fight Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke and a host of other brain disorders. (
  • The findings document for the first time the ability of common human brain cells to morph into different cell types, a previously unknown characteristic , and are the result of the research team's long-term investigations of adult human stem cells and rodent embryonic stem cells. (
  • The brainstem is divided into three sections in humans: the midbrain (mesencephalon), the pons (metencephalon), and the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). (
  • Most brain stem gliomas are pontine gliomas, which start in the part of the brain stem called the pons. (
  • The part of the vertebrate brain located at the base of the brain and made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. (
  • The portion of the brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons Varolii, and midbrain, that connects the spinal cord to the forebrain and cerebrum. (
  • says that the pons, the third and final portion of the brain stem, contains the respiratory center, which controls the body's breathing reflex. (
  • The pons also serves as another relay center, carrying impulses to and from the brain. (
  • The pons carries messages between the medulla oblongata and the advanced portions of the brain, called the higher cortical structures. (
  • In humans and other mammals, the brainstem is composed of the pons, medulla, and midbrain. (
  • Most sources consider the pons , medulla oblongata , and midbrain all to be part of the brainstem. (
  • The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are labelled on this section of the human brain. (
  • In the human brain the brainstem is composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. (
  • The parts of the brainstem are the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata, and sometimes the diencephalon. (
  • The pons and medulla oblongata are parts of the hindbrain that form much of the brainstem. (
  • Cross-section of the middle pons (at the level of cranial nerve V) Cross-section of the inferior pons (at the level of the facial genu) The medulla oblongata, often just referred to as the medulla, is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. (
  • Pons, the middle part of Brain stem. (
  • Pons is a part, is the middle part of our brains stem. (
  • The problem has to do with where DIPGs are located: nestled among the nerves in a portion of the brain stem, the pons, that controls critical functions like our breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. (
  • The brain stem is located in the posterior cranial fossa and consists of medulla, pons, and midbrain. (
  • There are three major regions in the brain stem the medulla, pons, and midbrain, but there is no segmental organization. (
  • The new findings "extend the scope of neural stem cell therapy to include their use as vehicles for protein delivery to glioma," they say. (
  • Cognitive function improved significantly after human neural stem cell transplantation in a preclinical model of radiation-induced cognitive impairment, researchers reported. (
  • To determine the potential of neural stem cell transplantation to reverse radiation-induced cognitive impairment, the authors conducted a study involving three groups of laboratory rats. (
  • Two groups of animals underwent cranial irradiation, followed by human neural stem cell transplantation into the hippocampus or a sham transplant procedure. (
  • Now that large neural stem cell quantities are viable, scientists are raising the possibility of repairing spinal cord injuries or curing brain diseases like Parkinson's . (
  • Cell cycle heterogeneity directs the timing of neural stem cell activation from quiescence" Science (2018). (
  • The brain stem is the lower part of the brain that's connected to the spinal cord (part of the central nervous system in the spinal column). (
  • Brainstem , area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral hemispheres and the cervical spinal cord . (
  • A stalklike part of the brain, between the cerebrum and spinal cord. (
  • Additionally, the brain stem, which is located at the junction of the spinal cord, serves as a conduit through which information and instructions pass. (
  • The brain stem is the lower part of the brain , adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord . (
  • The brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord. (
  • Researchers are already looking at other types of damage previously thought to be permanent and incredibly hard to operate on, including the spinal cord - all of which has its roots in the brain. (
  • It connects the other parts of the brain (the cerebrum and cerebellum ) to the spinal cord . (
  • Another possibility would be the replacement of lost or damaged motor neurons in patients who have suffered brain or spinal cord damage. (
  • The brainstem is a very delicate location where many pathways from the brain to the spinal cord travel. (
  • A brain stem tumor is a tumor in the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord (the brain stem). (
  • Let's talk about how stem cell research could possibly impact spinal cord injury. (
  • When all is said and done, could stem cell treatment be the miracle cure for spinal cord injury and paralysis? (
  • Ultimately, no one yet knows the extent to which stem cell treatment could help spinal cord injury and paralysis. (
  • Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation puts most families in crushing debt. (
  • The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior stalk-like part of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. (
  • just going to talk about the rest part of the brain and the spinal cord. (
  • then it's the link between our central of our brain to the spinal cord. (
  • Hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) is a condition that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). (
  • In particular, the condition affects nerves in specific regions (called tracts) within the spinal cord and the brainstem, which is the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. (
  • Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (commonly referred to as LBSL) is a progressive disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord. (
  • These characteristic abnormalities typically involve particular parts of the white matter of the brain and specific regions (called tracts) within the brainstem and spinal cord, especially the pyramidal tract and the dorsal column. (
  • Researchers do not understand why reduced activity of mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase specifically affects certain parts of the brain and spinal cord. (
  • The brain stem lies between the spinal cord and the diencephalon and the gray and white matters are intermixed. (
  • But after the first few months of human embryonic development, they become rare in the brain, and it's challenging for scientists to find, isolate and manipulate them. (
  • Sonic hedgehog plays an important role during the embryonic development of the brain, but normally shuts down when its no longer needed. (
  • The body's visual and auditory reflex centers are situated in the part of the brain stem called the midbrain. (
  • The midbrain is continuous with the thalamus of the diencephalon through the tentorial notch, and sometimes the diencephalon is included in the brainstem. (
  • The inferior colliculus is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex. (
  • Researchers at a leading U.S. children's hospital have found new evidence linking sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) to underlying abnormalities in babies' brain stems. (
  • Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine have said that the master gene Math1 is involved in the genesis of the most common childhood brain tumor. (
  • The scanning technique allows researchers to watch the brain in action. (
  • The researchers were able to track changes in blood flow in areas of the brainstem associated with enhanced activity of the brain chemical dopamine - as the person experienced either pleasure or disappointment at receiving or not receiving the reward. (
  • New York State Stem Cell Science (NYSTEM) has agreed to a proposal by the Upstate MS Consortium -- a group of Rochester, Syracuse, and Buffalo researchers and clinicians -- to fund human clinical trials of stem cell derived OPCs on human multiple sclerosis patients. (
  • Thanks to the sacrifice of his memory and his willingness to participate in ongoing studies, researchers were able to greatly expand their understanding of memory, the brain, and brain disease. (
  • These datasets provide valuable information about changes in gene expression that researchers can mine to better understand mechanisms that might be disrupted during human brain development," he says. (
  • Newswise - While Zika virus causes devastating damage to the brains of developing fetuses, it one day may be an effective treatment for glioblastoma, a deadly form of brain cancer. (
  • Brains and Stems in White Sauce: and disgustingly so on. (
  • Their work is a step forward in the controversial field of stem-cell research, which scientists say holds the promise of treating a range of diseases. (
  • So, it is crucial that scientists come up with more effective strategies for repairing the brain damage that Parkinson's disease causes. (
  • DRESDEN, Germany, February 5, 2014 -- Scientists here recently discovered a new mechanism governing brain stem cell proliferation. (
  • UCSF scientists have discovered a new stem cell in the developing human brain. (
  • The study, conducted by UCI scientists LaFerla, professor of neurobiology and behaviour, Mathew Blurton-Jones and Tritia Yamasaki, was performed using a new type of genetically engineered mouse that developed brain lesions in areas designated by the scientists and found that mice with brain injuries experienced enhanced memory up to three months after receiving a stem cell treatment. (
  • Accordingto study author Stuart Lipton, the "breakthrough" in the research isthat scientists were able to determine that HIV prevents stem celldivision. (
  • Reporting in the Feb. 28 edition of Science , the scientists describe using functional magnetic resonance imaging to study brainstem activity in dehydrated humans. (
  • For a long time, scientists have tried looking at this area of the brain and have been unsuccessful - it's just too small,' said Kimberlee D'Ardenne, the lead author on the paper. (
  • Until now, scientists wanting to use brain scans to study brain chemicals like dopamine were relegated to watching its effects in other more accessible parts of the brain, like the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. (
  • Scientists are using stem cell-derived tissue models to reduce the number of drug failures in clinical trials. (
  • Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. (
  • A brain stem stroke can also cause double vision, slurred speech and decreased level of consciousness. (
  • If a stroke in the brain stem results from a clot, the faster blood flow can be restored, the better the chances for recovery. (
  • Whether a survivor has minor or severe deficits depends on the location of the stroke within the brain stem, the extent of injury and how quickly treatment is provided. (
  • Risk factors for brain stem stroke are the same as for strokes in other areas of the brain: high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, atrial fibrillation and smoking. (
  • Studies have evaluated the treatments singly for other conditions - stroke, coma - but brain death is a quite different proposition. (
  • Acute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation. (
  • Daneshmend T K , Hewer R L , Bradshaw J R . Acute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation. (
  • My husband had endured a massive brain stem stroke and every minute untreated meant another minute where his brain was starved of oxygen. (
  • The findings suggest aromatic-turmerone may help in the recovery of brain function in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and stroke-provided the effect also applies to humans. (
  • A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as breathing and instructing the heart to beat. (
  • Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. (
  • A stroke is, essentially, a blood clot in the brain. (
  • The brain is poor at repairing itself and a major focus in regenerative medicine is finding ways to repair the brain efficiently following injury caused by stroke, head trauma, Alzheimer's disease or aging, for example. (
  • Stem cell-based therapies for stroke have expanded substantially over the last decade. (
  • A person recently wrote to me saying that he had a brainstem stroke about a year and half ago. (
  • Your brainstem stroke probably damaged brainstem neurons that control muscle tone and body posture, mostly affecting your right arm and your leg to a lesser extent. (
  • That is how I would try to get recovery from a brainstem stroke. (
  • My Dad suffered a cervicomedullary junction stroke (brainstem) nearly two years ago that left him quadriplegic and vent dependent (working on that with good results). (
  • In January of 2010 I had a brain stem stroke of the madulla. (
  • The Los Angeles Brain and Spine Institute, directed by George Rappard, is the first to study brain stem cell infusion as a stroke treatment. (
  • The trial size will be approximately 100 patients, with roughly 60% receiving an injection of ALD-401 into the carotid artery, the artery supplying the majority of the brain on the side of the stroke. (
  • A major goal of regenerative research is to repair the brain efficiently following injury, for example due to stroke, Alzheimer's disease or head trauma, disease or ageing. (
  • New research examines the potential of stem cell therapy in the replacement of damaged neurons in Parkinson's disease. (
  • New research , which now appears in a special supplement to the Journal of Parkinson's Disease , evaluates the potential of stem cell therapy for treating this neurodegenerative condition. (
  • In their review, Dr. Henchcliffe and Prof. Parmar examined the evolution of stem cell therapy and its uses for replacing damaged neurons in Parkinson's. (
  • Ultimately these findings promise to improve the success of retinal transplantation to regenerate vision for millions with macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and diabetic retinopathy and brain transplants to restore functioning for patients with disorders such as Parkinson's disease. (
  • Additionally, the medulla oblongata serves as a relay system, and it plays a large part in carrying nerve impulses to and from the brain. (
  • Cranial MRI showed multiple small contrast-enhanced lesions predominantly located in the cerebellum and brain stem (Figure) , reminiscent of a sprinkling of pepper. (
  • The changes selectively affect the white matter in the cerebellum and brain stem in contrast to minimal involvement of the occipital white matter. (
  • Norman RM, Urich H, Tingey, AH (1963) Leukodystrophy with predirection for cerebellum and brain stem. (
  • A recurrent brain stem glioma is a tumour that has come back after treatment. (
  • Some focal brain stem gliomas grow so slowly that treatment might not be needed unless the tumour causes problems. (
  • The speed of onset, site, and size of a brainstem lesion determine whether it results in coma, so brain stem infarction or haemorrhage often causes coma while other brain stem conditions such as multiple sclerosis or tumour rarely do so. (
  • She said: "This type of brain tumour can pose a great challenge to doctors. (
  • As a neurosurgeon at Toronto's Sick Kids hospital, Peter Dirks routinely confronts a devastating type of brain tumour that is the No. 1 cause of cancer-related death in children. (
  • Brain death implies the complete and permanent absence of neurological function in the cortex and the brainstem . (
  • c diVuse or extensive processes aVecting the whole brain c supratentorial mass lesions causing tentorial herniation with brain stem compression (associated with other neurological signs such as third nerve palsy and crossed hemiparesis) c brain stem lesions-for example, compression from posterior fossa mass lesions such as cerebellar haemorrhage/infarction and disorders primarily aVecting the brain stem (for example, basilar artery thrombosis). (
  • Curcumin is also capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, which is one reason why it holds promise as a neuroprotective agent in a wide range of neurological disorders. (
  • The entire spectrum of clinical findings in brainstem disorders is then described, and topodiagnostic aspects of the neurological findings are explained in detail. (
  • Treatment of brain stem gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis may differ. (
  • Especially in the neocortex""the most highly developed part of the brain in primates and humans "" there are going to be important differences between rodents and humans. (
  • A total of 38 investigators (6 Principal Investigators & 32 Co-Investigators) at 12 institutions and 50 trainees will be engaged in these trials, which will determine the safety and efficacy of new stem cell treatments in humans. (
  • Humans have known about the hippocampus for more than four centuries, making it one of the most studied parts of the brain. (
  • The concentration of laquinimod achieved in the human brain during treatment is unknown, she said, and extrapolation from mice is problematic, because of large interspecies differences in the rate of metabolism of the drug. (
  • The mice regained lost skills after the stem-cell treatment. (
  • In Aim 1, we will map the domains of stem cell activation and cell types generated in different states in male and female mice. (
  • They then gave place and object recognition tests to healthy mice and mice with brain injuries to test memory. (
  • In the place test, healthy mice retained the information about their surroundings about 70 percent of the time, but mice with brain injuries remembered it just 40 percent of the time. (
  • We propose that brain CSCs are maintained within vascular niches that are important targets for therapeutic approaches. (
  • We recognize that stem cell derivations also provide uniquely individual difficulties and limitations in their therapeutic applications. (
  • Multidisciplinary teams supported through this program are focused on novel cellular or stem cell-related therapeutic approaches to treat disease. (
  • OTTAWA , Nov. 24, 2016 /CNW/ - The Stem Cell Network (SCN) with the support of the Minister of Science, the Honourable Kirsty Duncan , is pleased to announce funding of $9 million for innovative stem cell and regenerative medicine research that will help translate discoveries into better health and economic growth for Canadians. (
  • Supporting and building Canada's stem cell and regenerative medicine research sector has been the raison d'etre of the Stem Cell Network (SCN) since its inception in 2001. (
  • Regenerative medicine refers to therapies based on stem cell technology that are designed to rebuild cell and tissue function lost due to degenerative disease or injury. (
  • Recurrent focal brain stem gliomas may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy or a combination of these treatments. (
  • Data from patients with brain stem lesion, who reported starting treatments within the last 5 years. (
  • This is Cancer.Net's Guide to Brain Stem Glioma - Childhood. (
  • Principal investigator Silvia Marino, Professor of Neuropathology at Queen Mary, University of London, and her team showed that medulloblastomas can grow from a type of brain stem cell and that these cancers are a distinct form of the disease which may require a completely different approach to treatment. (
  • This approach "represents a promising new treatment for malignant brain tumours," the authors write in the journal Cancer Research . (
  • In contrast to pediatric DIPG, which accounts for approximately 20% of pediatric primary brain neoplasms, adult brainstem glioma constitutes less than 2% of adult gliomas, with a slight male preponderance ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) - the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor of childhood - on the other hand, has been found to have substantially different biological underpinnings. (
  • I had the same inoperable brain cancer when I was 3 back in 1991. (
  • A little boy in my community was diagnosed with a brain stem glioma - inoperable - just last week. (
  • Hello I am 33 years old and was diagnosed with inoperable brain stem glioma.I am on my 3rd week of radiation therapy and will be on chemo starting next week. (
  • Laquinimod is a monoclonal antibody in phase III trials for treatment of MS. Unlike other disease-modifying MS therapies, a portion of the drug, about 10%, crosses into the brain. (
  • Patients with hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, with an between 1 month and 18 years, regardless the age at the time of injury, time post-injury, or previously received therapies, different from ours. (
  • He asked whether and what stem cell therapies may be beneficial for his condition. (
  • The Los Angeles Brain and Spine Institute provides state of the art comprehensive and minimally invasive brain and spine therapies, including supportive care and research. (
  • Focal brain stem glioma occurs in one area or is contained within a small part of the brain stem. (
  • Brain stem glioma occurs most commonly in children between 5 and 10 years old. (
  • One and four months after transplantation, investigators assessed stem-cell survival and phenotypic fate, as well as the rats' cognitive function. (
  • The capability to minimize the adverse cognitive sequelae associated with cranial radiotherapy is encouraging and points to the promise of using stem-cell-based strategies or minimizing normal tissue damage," they added. (
  • The targeted therapy causes notably less collateral damage to healthy brain tissue," shared Dr Kuldeep Sharma. (
  • In addition, support will be provided to further ongoing research that is looking at existing drugs for the regeneration of neural tissue after a brain injury. (
  • Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose. (
  • In addition to primary brainstem lesions, such as vascular brainstem syndromes, other disorders are considered that do not exclusively show brainstem symptoms or signs, e.g., multiple sclerosis. (
  • We suspect that faults in cell-cycle regulation account for a variety of developmental brain diseases. (
  • Diseases of the brainstem can result to abnormalities in the function of cranial nerves which may lead to visual disturbances, pupil abnormalities, changes in sensation, muscle weakness, hearing problems, vertigo, swallowing and speech difficulty, voice change, and co-ordination problems. (
  • Hecox K, Cone B, Blaw M (1981) Brainstem auditory evoked response in the diagnosis of pediatric neurologic diseases. (
  • Rare Findings/Symptomes.Part IV: Diseases: Vascular brainstem diseases. (
  • Brainstem involvement in demyelinating diseases. (
  • All efferent and afferent pathways between the cerebrum and cerebellum course through the brainstem, and many of them decussate, or cross, within this structure. (
  • Differentiation of the brain stem from the cerebrum is complex, with regard to both anatomy and taxonomy. (
  • All information going between the body and the cerebellum and the cerebrum must go through the brainstem. (
  • Experimental diabetes in rodents rapidly affects the neurogenic niches of the adult brain. (
  • This allows the "on-demand" generation of particular types of neurons in the adult brain. (
  • It has been shown that the periventricular subependymal zone (SEZ) is a source of neurogenesis, and this region presumably contains the highest concentration of NSC in the postnatal and adult brain ( 2 ). (
  • More broadly, they suggest that NSC migration can be extensive, even in the adult brain and along nonstereotypical routes, if pathology (as modeled here by tumor) is present. (
  • Doing so potentially could improve people's chances against a brain cancer - glioblastoma - that is most often fatal within a year of diagnosis. (
  • Each year in the United States, about 12,000 people are diagnosed with glioblastoma, the most common form of brain cancer. (
  • This information may prove useful in the therapy of patients with glioblastoma and/or brainstem gliomas. (
  • Since the process only involves a single gene, it is highly amenable for the development of drugs targeted at promoting stem cell differentiation in the adult nervous system. (
  • Neuroscience is a wonderful branch of science on how our brain perceives the external world, how our brain thinks, how our brain responds to the outside of the world, and how during disease or aging the neuronal connections deteriorate. (
  • The new research is notable because it found the SIDS babies - regardless of whether they were in positions or sleep environments that might have contributed to asphyxiation - had similar abnormal circuits in the brain stem. (
  • This discovery has the potential to transform our understanding of the development and evolution of the human neocortex, the most uniquely human part of the central nervous system," says the senior author of the study, neurologist Arnold Kriegstein, MD, PhD, director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. (
  • Most everyone has heard about the controversy surrounding stem cell research and treatment. (
  • It seems like just about every media outlet-magazines, newspapers, television-has played host to the debate regarding whether stem cell research and treatment are moral and/or ethical. (
  • Secondly, opponents are concerned about the health and safety of the participants in human stem cell research trials. (
  • SCN is funding a total of 31 goal-directed projects from across Canada that are moving research from lab bench to bedside in areas such as brain injury, kidney disease and breast cancer. (
  • The research was published in the peer-reviewed journal Cell Stem Cell . (
  • To make an appointment or request a consultation, contact the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Brain Tumor Center at 410-955-7337 . (
  • Unfortunately, it is perhaps more apt to describe adult brainstem glioma as the valley shrouded in shadow between the two growing mountains of knowledge that represent adult glioma and pediatric DIPG, as few studies have investigated this particular diagnosis. (
  • Fifty-one children were treated from January 2005 to December 2010 for brain stem glioma in the Pediatric Neurosurgery Department of Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France. (
  • Evaluation of 18F-FDG PET and MRI associations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium. (
  • The trial will be conducted using using Aldagen Inc's ALD-401, a unique stem cell population derived from patient's own bone marrow. (
  • Radiation therapy is the most common treatment for diffuse brain stem gliomas because most of these tumours cannot be removed with surgery. (
  • The long-term use of mobile phones can create up to 1,500 cases of brain tumours per year over the next twenty years, a new British study has said. (
  • Type 1 precursors express the glial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and brain lipid binding protein (BLBP), together with Sox2 and Nestin but do not display the calcium-binding protein S-100 β . (
  • The stem cell closely resembles the radial glial cell in structure and behavior and, like the radial glia, has radial fibers which newborn neurons migrate along up to the neocortex. (
  • A glioma is a tumor that grows from a glial cell, which is a supportive cell in the brain. (
  • Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-responsive NSC isolated from adult rat brain may in fact be a glial precursor, possibly an "astrocyte-like" cell ( 9 ). (
  • In Aim 2, we will perform large-scale single cell sequencing to decode stem cell heterogeneity and develop novel fate mapping strategies to selectively target different stem cell populations. (