Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTrigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Tegmentum Mesencephali: Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Brain Stem Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into structures of BRAIN STEM, including the MIDBRAIN; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA, as the result of CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations may include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Auditory Brain Stem Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (AUDITORY BRAIN STEM IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than to the inner ear as in COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Cell SeparationGlutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)RhodanineReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Leukoencephalopathies: Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/3138)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (2/3138)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated inhibition of K+ channel subunit kv2.2 in brain stem and hypothalamic neurons. (3/3138)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful modulatory actions on cardiovascular function that are mediated by specific receptors located on neurons within the hypothalamus and brain stem. Incubation of neuronal cocultures of rat hypothalamus and brain stem with Ang II elicits an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor-mediated inhibition of total outward K+ current that contributes to an increase in neuronal firing rate. However, the exact K+ conductance(s) that is inhibited by Ang II are not established. Pharmacological manipulation of total neuronal outward K+ current revealed a component of K+ current sensitive to quinine, tetraethylammonium, and 4-aminopyridine, with IC50 values of 21.7 micromol/L, 1.49 mmol/L, and 890 micromol/L, respectively, and insensitive to alpha-dendrotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), charybdotoxin (100 to 500 nmol/L), and mast cell degranulating peptide (1 micromol/L). Collectively, these data suggest the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Biophysical examination of the quinine-sensitive neuronal K+ current demonstrated a macroscopic conductance with similar biophysical properties to those of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b. Ang II (100 nmol/L), in the presence of the AT2 receptor blocker PD123,319, elicited an inhibition of neuronal K+ current that was abolished by quinine (50 micromol/L). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of Kv2.2 and Kv3.1b mRNA in these neurons. However, Western blot analyses demonstrated that only Kv2.2 protein was present. Coexpression of Kv2.2 and the AT1 receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated an Ang II-induced inhibition of Kv2.2 current. Therefore, these data suggest that inhibition of Kv2.2 contributes to the AT1 receptor-mediated reduction of neuronal K+ current and subsequently to the modulation of cardiovascular function.  (+info)

The superior olivary nucleus and its influence on nucleus laminaris: a source of inhibitory feedback for coincidence detection in the avian auditory brainstem. (4/3138)

Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for coincidence detection. In the present study, the chick SON was investigated. In vivo tracing studies show that the SON projects predominantly to the ipsilateral NM, NL, and NA. In vitro whole-cell recording reveals single-cell morphology, firing properties, and postsynaptic responses. SON neurons are morphologically and physiologically suited for temporal integration; their firing patterns do not reflect the temporal structure of their excitatory inputs. Of most interest, direct stimulation of the SON evokes long-lasting inhibition in NL neurons. The inhibition blocks both intrinsic spike generation and orthodromically evoked activity in NL neurons and can be eliminated by bicuculline methiodide, a potent antagonist for GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest that the SON provides GABAergic inhibitory feedback to laminaris neurons. We discuss a mechanism whereby SON-evoked GABAergic inhibition can influence the coding of interaural time differences for sound localization in the avian auditory brainstem.  (+info)

Concurrent inhibition and excitation of phrenic motoneurons during inspiration: phase-specific control of excitability. (5/3138)

The movements that define behavior are controlled by motoneuron output, which depends on the excitability of motoneurons and the synaptic inputs they receive. Modulation of motoneuron excitability takes place over many time scales. To determine whether motoneuron excitability is specifically modulated during the active versus the quiescent phase of rhythmic behavior, we compared the input-output properties of phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) during inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration. In neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations that generate rhythmic respiratory motor outflow, we blocked excitatory inspiratory synaptic drive to PMNs and then examined their phase-dependent responses to superthreshold current pulses. Pulses during inspiration elicited fewer action potentials compared with identical pulses during expiration. This reduced excitability arose from an inspiratory-phase inhibitory input that hyperpolarized PMNs in the absence of excitatory inspiratory inputs. Local application of bicuculline blocked this inhibition as well as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory firing. Correspondingly, bicuculline locally applied to the midcervical spinal cord enhanced fourth cervical nerve (C4) inspiratory burst amplitude. Strychnine had no effect on C4 output. Nicotinic receptor antagonists neither potentiated C4 output nor blocked its potentiation by bicuculline, further indicating that the inhibition is not from recurrent inhibitory pathways. We conclude that it is bulbospinal in origin. These data demonstrate that rapid changes in motoneuron excitability occur during behavior and suggest that integration of overlapping, opposing synaptic inputs to motoneurons is important in controlling motor outflow. Modulation of phasic inhibition may represent a means for regulating the transfer function of PMNs to suit behavioral demands.  (+info)

A clinical study of motor evoked potentials using a triple stimulation technique. (6/3138)

Amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are usually much smaller than those of motor responses to maximal peripheral nerve stimulation, and show marked variation between normal subjects and from one stimulus to another. Consequently, amplitude measurements have low sensitivity to detect central motor conduction failures due to the broad range of normal values. Since these characteristics are mostly due to varying desynchronization of the descending action potentials, causing different degrees of phase cancellation, we applied the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction to 489 abductor digiti minimi muscles of 271 unselected patients referred for possible corticospinal dysfunction. The TST allows resynchronization of the MEP, and thereby a quantification of the proportion of motor units activated by the transcranial stimulus. TST results were compared with those of conventional MEPs. In 212 of 489 sides, abnormal TST responses suggested conduction failure of various degrees. By contrast, conventional MEPs detected conduction failures in only 77 of 489 sides. The TST was therefore 2.75 times more sensitive than conventional MEPs in disclosing corticospinal conduction failures. When the results of the TST and conventional MEPs were combined, 225 sides were abnormal: 145 sides showed central conduction failure, 13 sides central conduction slowing and 67 sides both conduction failure and slowing. It is concluded that the TST is a valuable addition to the study of MEPs, since it improves detection and gives quantitative information on central conduction failure, an abnormality which appears to be much more frequent than conduction slowing. This new technique will be useful in following the natural course and the benefit of treatments in disorders affecting central motor conduction.  (+info)

Infratentorial atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging and disability in multiple sclerosis. (7/3138)

Loss of tissue volume in the central nervous system may provide an index of fixed neurological dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Recent magnetic resonance studies have shown a modest relationship between clinical disability rating scores and transverse sectional area of the cervical spinal cord. To explore further the relationship between atrophy and disability in multiple sclerosis, we estimated the volumes of infratentorial structures from MRIs in a cross-sectional study of 41 patients, 21 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. We used the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology with point counting to estimate the volume of brainstem, cerebellum and upper cervical spinal cord from three-dimensional MRIs acquired with an MPRAGE (Magnetization-prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo) sequence. The volume of the upper (C1-C3) cervical spinal cord was significantly correlated with a composite spinal cord score derived from the appropriate Functional Scale scores of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). The cerebellar (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) and brainstem (r = 0.34, P < 0.05) volumes correlated with the Scripp's Neurological Disability Rating Scale scores. The upper cervical cord volumes (r = -0.39, P < 0.01), but not the brainstem or cerebellar volumes, were significantly associated with disease duration. MRI-estimated structural volumes may provide a simple index of axonal and/or myelin loss, the presumed pathological substrates of irreversible impairment and disability in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Tissue-specific changes of type 1 angiotensin II receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA in angiotensinogen gene-knockout mice. (8/3138)

This study examined whether type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNAs are regulated during dietary salt loading in angiotensinogen gene-knockout (Atg-/-) mice which are genetically deficient in endogenous production of angiotensin II. Wild-type (Atg+/+) and Atg-/- mice were fed a normal-salt (0.3% NaCl) or a high-salt (4% NaCl) diet for 2 weeks. The mRNA levels were measured by Northern blot analysis. In Atg+/+ mice, concentrations of plasma angiotensin peptides were decreased by salt loading, whereas the treatment increased the brainstem, cardiac, pulmonary, renal cortex, gastric and intestinal AT1 mRNA levels. Salt loading also enhanced renal cortex ACE mRNA levels in Atg+/+ mice. Although plasma angiotensin peptides and urinary aldosterone excretion were not detected in Atg-/- mice, salt loading increased blood pressure in Atg-/- mice. In Atg-/- mice, pulmonary, renal cortex, gastric and intestinal AT1, and renal cortex and intestinal ACE mRNA levels were higher than those in Atg+/+ mice. However, salt loading upregulated AT1 mRNA expression only in the liver of Atg-/- mice, and the treatment did not affect ACE mRNA levels in Atg-/- mice. Furthermore, although the levels of ACE enzymatic activity showed the same trend with the ACE mRNA levels in the lung, renal cortex and intestine of both Atg-/- and Atg+/+ mice, the results of radioligand binding assay showed that cardiac expression of AT1 protein was regulated differently from AT1 mRNA expression both in Atg-/- and Atg+/+ mice. Thus, expression of AT1 and ACE is regulated by salt loading in a tissue-specific manner that appears to be mediated, at least partly, by a mechanism other than changes in the circulating or tissue levels of angiotensin peptides.  (+info)

*Brain stem tumor

... the brain stem). The most common form of brainstem tumor is the brainstem glioma. The symptoms of brain stem tumors vary ... A brain stem tumor is a tumor in the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord ( ... http://neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu/abta/primer.htm[full citation needed] Brainstem Gliomas~treatment at eMedicine Brain stem ... Headaches related to brainstem tumors may be worse shortly after waking up in the morning. An MRI is better than a CT scan when ...

*Brainstem

Neuroscience portal The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous ... Brainstem. Anterior face.Deep dissection Brainstem. Posterior face.Deep dissection Sagittal section of brainstem marking nuclei ... In the human brain the brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. Sometimes the diencephalon, the ... Thus, brainstem damage is a very serious and often life-threatening problem. Diseases of the brainstem can result in ...

*Brainstem glioma

The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation. 23 Oct. 2008. "Brain Stem Gliomas." Brain Tumor Society. 25 Oct. 2008. "Brain Stem Glioma ... "Brain Stem Gliomas in Childhood." Brain Tumor Types and Imaging. ... "Immunotherapy for Patients With Brain Stem Glioma and ... is the main diagnostic tool for brain stem gliomas. In very rare cases, surgery and biopsy are performed. Unlike most brain ... A brainstem glioma is a cancerous glioma tumor in the brainstem. Around 75% are diagnosed in children and young adults under ...

*Brainstem death

Are 'brain dead' (or 'brain stem dead') patients neurologically recoverable? In Finis Vitae-'brain death' is not true death. ... Brain death. Lancet 1980;2:1022 Evans DW. The demise of 'brain death' in Britain. In Beyond brain death-the case against brain ... Pallis, C. From Brain Death to Brain Stem Death, BMJ, 285, November 1982 Coimbra CG. Implications of ischemic penumbra for the ... ABC of brain stem death. BMJ Publishing Group, 1996, p.30 Shewmon DA. 'Brain body' disconnection : implications for the ...

*Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis

Bickerstaff ER (1957). "Brain-stem encephalitis: further observations on a grave syndrome with benign prognosis". Br Med J. 1 ( ... Brain. OUP. 126 (10): 2279-90. doi:10.1093/brain/awg233. PMID 12847079. The Encephalitis Society - A Global resource on ... Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, first described by Edwin ... In only 30% of cases is a MRI brain scan abnormal. Nerve conduction studies may show an axonal polyneuropathy.[citation needed ...

*Auditory brainstem response

Moore, Ernest J (1983). Bases of auditory brain stem evoked responses. New York: Grune & Stratton. ISBN 0-8089-1465-0. OCLC ... The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an auditory evoked potential extracted from ongoing electrical activity in the brain ... Brain Research . Don M, Kwong B, Tanaka C (2012). "Interaural stacked auditory brainstem response measures for detecting small ... "Successful detection of small acoustic tumors using the stacked derived-band auditory brain stem response amplitude". Am J Otol ...

*Auditory brainstem implant

1997). "Initial results from the clinical trial of the nucleus 21-channel auditory brain stem implant". Am J Otol. 18 (6 Suppl ... House WF, Hitselberger WE (Feb 2001). "Twenty-year report of the first auditory brain stem nucleus implant". Ann Otol Rhinol ... Brain implant "FDA Approves Clinical Trial of Auditory Brainstem Implant Procedure for Children in U.S". ScienceDaily. January ... "Progress in restoration of hearing with the auditory brainstem implant". Prog Brain Res. 175: 333-45. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(09 ...

*Brainstem auditory evoked potential

Long, KJ; Allen, N (October 1984). "Abnormal brain-stem auditory evoked potentials following Ondine's curse". Archives of ... In human neuroanatomy, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), also called brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs), ... These investigators hypothesized that their patient's brainstem was poisoned, but not destroyed, by her chronic alcoholism. ... and inferior colliculus of the brainstem. They typically have a response latency of no more than six milliseconds with an ...

*Bone conduction auditory brainstem response

Yang et al (1987). A developmental study of bone-conduction auditory brain stem response in infants. Ear & Hearing; 8, 4. ... Mauldin, L. & Jerger, J. (1979). Auditory brain stem evoked responses to bone-conducted signals. Archives of Otolaryngology; ... Bone-conduction auditory brainstem response (BCABR) are similar to air conduction auditory brainstem responses, with the main ... Bone-conduction auditory brainstem response or BCABR is a type of auditory evoked response that records neural response from ...

*PP v. HSE

"Brain Stem Death". Gender Justice Uncovered Awards. Women's Link Worldwide. Retrieved 13 June 2017. Judgments: P.P -v- Health ... The cause was a large cerebellar cystic lesion causing acute hydrocephalus and compression of brain stem. She was placed on ... McDonald, Henry (26 December 2014). "Brain-dead pregnant woman's life support can be switched off, Irish court rules". The ... Carolan, Mary (11 April 2016). "Judgment on brain-dead pregnant woman wins award". The Irish Times. Retrieved 13 June 2017. " ...

*Edwin Bickerstaff

Bickerstaff, E.R. (15 June 1957). "Brain-stem encephalitis; further observations on a grave syndrome with benign prognosis". ...

*Lentiform nucleus

Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Transverse section through mid- ... brain. Section of brain showing upper surface of temporal lobe. Coronal section of brain immediately in front of pons. Coronal ... Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia ...

*Paraneoplastic syndrome

"Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 15 (2): 201-209. doi:10.1007/s11940-013-0221-1 ... brainstem encephalitis, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and polymyositis. The following ... The purpose of this exploration was to shed light on immunotherapies and distinguishing between neurotoxicity and brain ...

*Gracile nucleus

Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Superior terminations of the posterior ... Deep dissection of cortex and brain-stem. The sensory tract. Fourth ventricle. Posterioe view.Deep dissection. Stained brain ...

*Lateral lemniscus

Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view ... Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... Coronal section through mid-brain. Transverse section of mid-brain at level of inferior colliculi. Scheme showing the course of ... The brainstem nuclei include: the superior olive the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL) the ventral nucleus ...

*Juxtarestiform body

Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. ... Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ...

*Inferior cerebellar peduncle

Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. ... Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... Purkinje cells to the vestibular nuclei in the dorsal brainstem ...

*Optic nerve

... is yellow) Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Scheme ... The fibres from the retina run along the optic nerve to nine primary visual nuclei in the brain, from which a major relay ... The optic nerve on MRI Stained brain slice images which include the "optic%20nerve" at the BrainMaps project IFOND online case ... Optic nerve Optic nerve Human brain dura mater (reflections) Optic nerve Optic nerve Optic nerve Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep ...

*Anti-Hu associated encephalitis

Blaes F (2013). "Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis". Curr Treat Options Neurol. 15 (2): 201-9. doi:10.1007/s11940-013-0221 ... In some cases, the antibodies created by this illness attack another structure of the brain called the brainstem. The brainstem ... Its symptoms depend on which areas of the brain the disease affects, because specific parts of the brain have particular ... Respectively these brain regions regulate anger, fear, memory formation, and motor and sensory signaling. Affected persons may ...

*Medial geniculate nucleus

Thalamus Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. ... Brainstem. Posterior view. Buffalo.edu Brainconnection.com. ...

*Posterior external arcuate fibers

Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. ... ISBN 1-58890-572-1. Cooke, J. D. (October 1971). "Origin and termination of cuneocerebellar tract". Experimental Brain Research ...

*Cerebellar vermis

It sends fibers to deep cerebellar nuclei that, in turn, project to both the cerebral cortex and the brain stem, thus providing ... Human brain midsagittal view Cerebellum. Superior surface. Cerebellum. Superior surface. Brainstem. Posterior view. Coffman, K ... It is also commonly associated with dysplasias of brainstem nuclei. DWM has been reported to be in association with a wide ... S.K. Clarren; J. Alvord; S.M. Sumi (1978). "Brain malformations related to prenatal exposure to ethanol". Journal of Pediatrics ...

*Inferior colliculus

Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. ... Brainstem. Posterior view. Stained brain slice images which include the "inferior colliculus" at the BrainMaps project NIF ... This indicates that the inferior colliculus is metabolically more active than many other parts of the brain. The hippocampus, ... The input connections to the inferior colliculus are composed of many brainstem nuclei. All nuclei except the contralateral ...

*External capsule

Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. Dissection of brain- ... stem. Dorsal view. External capsule External capsule Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia.Superior view. Horizontal section. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. These fibers run between the most lateral (toward ... Deep dissection Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia.Superior view. Horizontal section.Deep dissection Powell, Meshell (13 ...

*Sarcocystis

Brain-stem involvement is common. Depression, weakness, head tilt and dysphagia also occur. S. fayeri may cause myositis in ... This genus was distinguished from Sarcocystis on the basis of its tendency to encyst within the brain rather than within muscle ... "A new species of Sarcocystis in the brain of two exotic birds". Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée. 54 (4): 393-400. ...

*Cranial nerve nucleus

Brain stem sagittal section Atlas image: n2a6p2 at the University of Michigan Health System Slides at Colorado College. ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial ... This list documents nuclei by the part of the brain they are found in: Nuclei present in the Midbrain Mesencephalic trigeminal ... The Human Brain, ISBN 0-387-94227-0 Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Primary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fos expression in brain stem nuclei of pregnant rats after hydralazine- induced hypotension. AU - Curtis, Kathleen. AU - Cunningham, J. Thomas. AU - Heesch, Cheryl M.. PY - 1999/8/1. Y1 - 1999/8/1. N2 - Fos and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunoreactivity were evaluated in the brain stems of 21-day pregnant and virgin female rats injected with either hydralazine (HDZ; 10 mg/kg iv) or vehicle. HDZ produced significant hypotension in both groups, although baseline blood pressure was lower in pregnant rats (96 ± 2.5 mmHg) than in virgin female rats (121 ± 2.8 mmHg). There were no differences in Fos immunoreactivity in the brain stems of pregnant and virgin female rats after vehicle treatment. HDZ-induced hypotension significantly increased Fos expression in both groups; however, the magnitude of the increases differed in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL), the area postrema (AP), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL). Fos expression after HDZ in pregnant rats was augmented ...
Autor: Borst, J. Gerard G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999-11-15; Titel: Depletion of calcium in the synaptic cleft of a calyx-type synapse in the rat brainstem
List of causes of Bilateral brainstem dysfunction and Head symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Kiyama, H.; Shiosaka, S.; Kubota, Y.; Cho, H.J.; Takagi, H.; Tateishi, K.; Hashimura, E.; Hamaoka, T.; Tohyama, M., 1983: Ontogeny of cholecystokinin-8 containing neuron system of the rat: an immunohistochemical analysis--II. Lower brain stem
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem. AU - Kuo, Sidney P.. AU - Bradley, Laura A.. AU - Trussell, Laurence. PY - 2009/7/29. Y1 - 2009/7/29. N2 - Identification of shared features between avian and mammalian auditory brainstem circuits has provided much insight into the mechanisms underlying early auditory processing. However, previous studies have highlighted an apparent difference in inhibitory systems; synaptic inhibition is thought to be slow and GABAergic in birds but to have fast kinetics and be predominantly glycinergic in mammals. Using patch-clamp recordings in chick brainstem slices, we found that this distinction is not exclusively true. Consistent with previous work, IPSCs in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were slow and mediated by GABA A receptors. However, IPSCs in nucleus laminaris (NL) and a subset of neurons in nucleus angularis (NA) had rapid time courses twofold to threefold faster than those in NM. ...
Together with Istvan Törk, we have examined the morphology and distribution of noradrenergic (Baker et al., 1989) and serotonergic neurons in the human brain (Törk and Hornung, 1990; Baker et al,...
Subjects. Ten healthy, right-handed subjects (five female) participated in the study. The median age was 30 years of age (range, 21-33 years). None reported any abnormal gastrointestinal or somatic symptoms on a personal history and bowel symptom questionnaire (Talley et al., 1989). Clinical depression was excluded with the use of the Becks Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1961). None of the subjects took any medications likely to interfere with the blood oxygen level-dependent response. All subjects gave informed consent, and the Oxfordshire Clinical Research Ethics Committee approved the study.. Stimuli. Electrical stimuli were used to induce both somatic and visceral pain. Purpose-built electrical stimulating catheters were designed for safe use within the high field strength magnet (Standard Instruments, Karlsruhe, Germany). These contained no ferromagnetic material and had two bipolar ring electrodes 2 cm apart at the distal tip. The catheters were connected via a magnet-compatible ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Etienne Gaudrain.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Hearing Group Meetings series.. ...
... A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as breathing and instructing the heart to beat. Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. The brain stem also controls less essential abilities such as articulate speech.. ...
This paper presents the effects of spontaneous random activity on information transmission in an auditory brain stem neuron model. In computer simulations, the supra-threshold synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated by sinusoidal functions at a frequency of 220-3520 Hz with regard to the human speech spectrum. The stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons, so as to realize threshold fluctuations or a variation of spike firing times. The results show that the information rates estimated from the entropy of inter-spike intervals of spike trains tend toward a convex function of the spontaneous rates when the intensity of sinusoidal functions decreases. Furthermore, the results show that a convex function of the spontaneous rates tends to disappear as the frequency of the sinusoidal function
You may have heard of the brain stem, but do you know what its in charge of? What its basic function is? The purpose it serves for your body?. The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebellum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts.. The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive - your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure.. The brain stem also coordinates such things as eye movements, movement of the jaw, tongue and larynx, your facial expressions, and sensations and movements of your neck and head; the brain stem accomplishes that through the cranial nerves that pass through it. Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance!. Any type of injury to the ...
New research, published today in Nature, reveals how increasing brain stiffness as we age causes brain stem cell dysfunction, and demonstrates new ways to reverse older stem cells to a younger, healthier state. The results have far reaching implications for how we understand the ageing process, and how we might develop much-needed treatments for age-related brain diseases.. As our bodies age, muscles and joints can become stiff, making everyday movements more difficult. This study shows the same is true in our brains, and that age-related brain stiffening has a significant impact on the function of brain stem cells.. A multi-disciplinary research team, based at the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute (University of Cambridge), studied young and old rat brains to understand the impact of age-related brain stiffening on the function of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs).. These cells are a type of brain stem cell important for maintaining normal brain function, and for the regeneration ...
Read "Primary Vagal Projection to the Contralateral Non-NTS Region in the Embryonic Chick Brainstem Revealed by Optical Recording, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In the large group of genetically undetermined infantile-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies, multiple defects of mitochondrial DNA-related respiratory-chain complexes constitute a frequent biochemical signature. In order to identify responsible genes, we used exome-next-generation sequencing in a selected cohort of patients with this biochemical signature. In an isolated patient, we found two mutant alleles for EARS2, the gene encoding mitochondrial glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. The brain magnetic resonance imaging of this patient was hallmarked by extensive symmetrical cerebral white matter abnormalities sparing the periventricular rim and symmetrical signal abnormalities of the thalami, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and cerebellar white matter. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed increased lactate. We matched this magnetic resonance imaging pattern with that of a cohort of 11 previously selected unrelated cases. We found mutations in the EARS2 gene in all. Subsequent detailed ...
Electrical stimulation of the lower brain stem (ESLB) at sites presumed to be parts of the ascending noradrenergic system was carried out in unanaesthetized young guinea pigs. At neutral ambient...
The clinical and pathological spectrum of brain-stem vascular malformations. Long-term course simulates multiple sclerosis. Three cases of brain-stem vascular malformation with progressive and fluctuating clinical courses of longer than one year were studied. One patient with a rare brain-stem arteriovenous ...
Inner ear neurons develop from the otic placode and connect hair cells with central neurons in auditory brain stem nuclei. Otic neurogenesis is a developmental process which can be separated into different cellular states that are characterized by a distinct combination of molecular markers. Neurogenesis is highly regulated by a network of extrinsic and intrinsic factors, whose participation in auditory neurogenesis is discussed. Trophic factors include the fibroblast growth factor, neurotrophins and insulin-like peptide families. The expression domains of transcription factor families and their roles in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways associated with neurogenesis are also discussed. Understanding and defining the key factors and gene networks in the development and function of the inner ear represents an important step towards defeating deafness.
LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS AND CHEMICALS is manufacturer and supplier of HUMAN BRAIN STEM based in Delhi, India.Our Organization offered supreme quality range of HUMAN BRAIN STEM to their customers with good variety.
Adverse psychosocial exposures in early life, namely experiences such as child maltreatment, caregiver stress or depression, and domestic or community violence, have been associated in epidemiological studies with increased lifetime risk of adverse outcomes, including diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and psychiatric illnesses. Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes
11-20-2010, 10:50 PM Photo: the Labs first development image of a multi processor robotic brain stem made from Parallax components (the prototype is seen resting on the green cutting board). This is a hybrid brain stem processor programmed in two languages. The module is currently a hand held unit. When connected to the Giant Brain, it will pass motion mobility commands to the robot and ensure compatibility with additional components. ...
Therefore, this system has been used as a mouse model of Parkinsons disease and, interestingly, these animals show a significant decrease in the survival and proliferation of neuroblast in the SVZ [ 8687 ]. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. Shetty AK, Hattiangady B. The astrocytes are the primary precursors for rapid cell amplification. FGFresponsive Brain stem cells in adults progenitors reside in proliferative and quiescent regions of the adult rodent brain.. #Brain stem cells ...
This medical exhibit reveals cut-away comparative views of the brainstem and cerebellar region. The first detail identifies elements of normal anatomy, the second shows the appearance of an invasive tumor in the brainstem region invading the brainstem, pons and cerebellum.
The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. According to Brain-Guide.org, the brain stem functions as an autopilot for the human body, as it regulates such...
Hes dead. He shot himself in the brain stem. Nothing can survive that. The human body can survive the loss of anything else but the brain stem. Hes dead. We brought him back in to be a dead body. And, in fact, it was cheaper to get Andrew Scott than a mannequin. But hes dead." - Steven Moffat. ...
Steenweg ME, Ghezzi D, Haack T, Abbink TEM, Martinelli D, van Berkel CGM, Bley A, Diogo L, Grillo E, Naudé JTe Water, Strom TM, Bertini E, Prokisch H, van der Knaap MS & Zeviani M (2012) Leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate LTBL caused by EARS2 mutations. Brain 135, 1387-94 ...
This 3D medical animation highlights brain in a semitransparent figure. The brain is the center of the nervous system. The brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord. Its neurological functions include those necessary for survival such as alertness, breathing, digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure regulation.
Our current work with SCA involves assessing the integrity of the cerebellar and brainstem pathways using non-invasive techniques from the pre-symptomatic stage and throughout disease progression. Our work intends to yield useful insights about disease pathogenesis, as well as provide critical assessments of CNS functional pathways that may serve as surrogate biomarkers of disease progression.. For more information about these studies, please feel free to contact us.. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biochai \ cDNA _ Human Fetal Normal Tissue Brain Brain Stem \ C1244075-10 for more molecular products just contact us
Natural cast, in SOMSO-Plast®. Brain Stem from the trans- parent brain model BS 25/T. Separates into 12 parts. The ventricular cavities of the brain is extremely well modelled. A perfect teaching aid for medical students. On a stand with green base. ...
My anatomical embroidery of the brain stem was stitched as a commission for a neuroscientist. It was a joy to stitch, not just because of the monocrhomatic nature of it but because the pops of colour were too gorgeous to resist.. Each anatomical embroidery I do is on an 8 or 9 inch embroidery hoop and each image is anatomically correct and done by hand as I work from a range of medical books and dissection manuals to get the details spot on. This means I can study the texture of the organs on which Im working to try to replicate them in the stitching. Each hoop is worked with a mix of satin stitches, couching and French knots on calico, depending on the organs I am interpreting, and the backs of the hoops are covered with a complimentary colour of felt. Each hoop takes up to three months to create and its a process that begins with basic colours upon which I build up the shading and other details.. I take commissions, of course, so am open and willing to all sorts of suggestions. So far my ...
For the first time scientists have shown that brain stem cells are immune privileged, which means that they are invisible to a transplant recipients
Another day, another functional imaging modality of the brain. Developed by a team at Princeton, the new experimental technique tries to figure out the pro
If you read the Reflex Language or C++ API sections of the reference, you will quickly see that Entities form the backbone of communication with BrainStem modules. They are the basic control mechanism for interacting with the BrainStem and the hardware to which it is connected. he following subsections describe the core entities that are available on most BrainStem modules. Less common and application specific entities will be described in the modules datasheet.. Entities usually describe a class of interaction, and usually are formed by a group of individual instances. For example; the digital entity is made up of multiple digital I/Os, which can be manipulated individually. In general the following form applies to an Entity.. ...
Neuronal circuits in the brainstem control life-sustaining functions, in addition to driving and gating active sensation through taste, smell, and touch. We pro...
Scientists say they have developed a way to successfully transplant certain protective brain cells into mice - without the need for lifelong anti-rejection drugs.
We explain The Brainstem with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine the structure and function of the the brain stem.|/p|
Sselective blocking or passing sensory information to the cerebreal cortex, (e.g. the slight sound made bya sick child moving in bed may arouse his mother but the noise of regularly passing trains may be suppressed) ...
Learn Brainstem & basics neuro facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brainstem in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you can modify and make your own.
Brain stem lesion: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on brain stem lesion at PatientsLikeMe. 75 patients with brain stem lesion experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen to treat their brain stem lesion and its symptoms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aminophylline on brain stem auditory evoked potentials in preterm infants. AU - Chen, Y. J.. AU - Liou, C. S.. AU - Tsai, C. H.. AU - Yeh, T. F.. PY - 1994/8/2. Y1 - 1994/8/2. N2 - To determine the neurophysiological effects of aminophylline on apnoea of prematurity, the brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) of 30 apnoeic infants and 34 age matched controls were evaluated and compared. After six days of treatment with aminophylline, the brain stem conduction time (interpeak latency of I-V) in apnoeic infants decreased compared with controls of a similar post-conceptional age. The mean latencies of the peaks and interpeaks of all waves except wave I were significantly lower in the apnoeic infants after than before receiving aminophylline. No significant differences were found in the latencies of BAEPs between the apnoeic infants who responded and those who did not respond to aminophylline treatment, however. These results suggest that aminophylline may enhance ...
[The role of brain stem lesions in cerebral circulatory disorders accompanying severe cranio-cerebral injuries].: Clinical and anatomical comparisons were under
The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebrum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts. The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure.. The brain stem also coordinates such things as eye movements, movement of the jaw, tongue and larynx, your facial expressions, and sensations and movements of your neck and head; the brain stem accomplishes that through the cranial nerves that pass through it. Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance!. Any type of injury to the brain stem could be devastating. More serious injuries can result in a prolonged coma or what is also known as a persistent vegetative state. You ...
BACKGROUND: The specificity of imaging alone in diagnosing posterior fossa lesions is insufficient, hence the importance of biopsy for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic purposes. Concerning the operative technique, many studies have demonstrated the superior safety of stereotactic biopsy over craniotomy and superior accuracy of frame-based systems over frameless ones as far as the posterior fossa is concerned; however versatile, frame-based instruments bear some intrinsic limitations in the positioning of frame in lower lesions mainly in short neck and kyphotic patients. For all these reasons, a more proficient technical bioptic approach to the posterior fossa and lower brainstem is sometimes required ...
Looking for online definition of brain stem in the Medical Dictionary? brain stem explanation free. What is brain stem? Meaning of brain stem medical term. What does brain stem mean?
Phase-coupling of the respiratory rhythm to locomotor activity has been reported in quadrupeds and humans [1]. Ventral respiratory group (VRG) neurons are involved in respiratory rhythm generation due, in part, to both intrinsic and synaptic interactions between pre-Botzinger and Botzinger complex neurons [2], as well as the influence of extrinsic synaptic drive to the VRG network. The aim of this study was to determine the role of neuro-genic input from somatosensory receptors on the bursting patterns of respiratory neurons in the VRG network. We hypothesized that neural input from contraction-sensitive somatosensory receptors entrained respiration by modulating the phasic activity of VRG neurons. Experiments were performed using the working heart-brainstem preparation [3]. Rats (70-100 g) were anesthetized, decerebrated pre-collicularly, paralyzed and perfused with a Ringers solution plus an oncotic agent. Somatosensory afferents were stimulated by intermittent contraction of the forelimb (3 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Three cases of hereditary deafness possibly due to brainstem lesions. AU - Mus, N.. AU - Ozdamar, Ozcan. AU - Ildiz, PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - In this report, 3 cases of deafness resulting from possibly autosomal recessive disorders affecting the brainstem with no other pathologies or health problems are presented. The common characteristics of these patients are the presence of an unknown functional lesion in the brainstem as documented by the auditory brainstem response testing. Radiological, behavioral and physiological test results are presented for the first time to support a hereditary deafness symptom that might arise from interfamily marriages.. AB - In this report, 3 cases of deafness resulting from possibly autosomal recessive disorders affecting the brainstem with no other pathologies or health problems are presented. The common characteristics of these patients are the presence of an unknown functional lesion in the brainstem as documented by the auditory ...
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Brain death in the United States of America is defined as the irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brainstem … that are clinically ascertainable; in the United Kingdom the definition focuses on brainstem function. Half of those who fulfil the necessary clinical criteria will have a cardiac arrest despite intensive treatment within 24 h, and this happens to almost all within 72 h....
Pain is a highly complex and subjective experience that is not linearly related to the nociceptive input. What is clear from anecdotal reports over the centuries and more recently from animal and human experimentation is that nociceptive information processing and consequent pain perception is subject to significant pro- and anti-nociceptive modulations. These modulations can be initiated reflexively or by contextual manipulations of the pain experience including cognitive and emotional factors. This provides a necessary survival function since it allows the pain experience to be altered according to the situation rather than having pain always dominate. The so-called descending pain modulatory network involving predominantly medial and frontal cortical areas, in combination with specific subcortical and brain stem nuclei appears to be one key system for the endogenous modulation of pain. Furthermore, recent findings from functional and anatomical neuroimaging support the notion that an altered
Serotonin is known as one of the most important neurotransmitters. This amine structured neurotransmitter Ievel is influenced in migraine. Plasma serotonin Ievel is essentially decreased during migraine atacks. It is known that reserpine has an amine-releasing effect. In this study, migraine-Iike episodes were constituted in thirty-three guinea pigs by intraperitoneal reserpine administration. Then the auditory brainstem evoked potentials were recorded. All absolute and interpeak lalency values were initially increased at the second hour of reserpine administration and reached to the maximum values at third hour, and then gradually decreased up to twelfth hour. This result mainly reflects the brainstem involvement in migraine-Iike attack induced by reserpine administration. Subsequent Iatency parameters which are close to baseline values may be attributed to the fact that these changes are temporary and follow the variations in the serotonin Ievels. . ...
Poster: ECR 2019 / C-1999 / Role of Multiparametric MRI in Brainstem Lesions by: M. Harley, M. D. Patel, M. Bowen, W. Muhammad, S. Jacob, M. Douglas, I. Ughratdar, J. Herbert, V. Sawlani; Birmingham/UK
... this is a anterior view of the whole brain showing the relation of the different parts of the brain stem to the rest of the brain showing: 1. cerebrum 2. fornix 3. thalamus 4. globus pallidus 5. mammillary body 6. pons 7. medulla 8. cerebellum 9. hippocampus 10. a
Discover everything you need to know about your brain stem function and why is the brain stem considered to be the most important region of the human brain?
New research from BYUs autism experts is providing clues into the link between aggression and autism-clues the team hopes will eventually lead to more effective intervention. In the study, published in Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, researchers report an inverse correlation between aggression and brain stem volume in children with autism: the smaller the brain stem, the greater the likelihood of aggression.
Auditory brainstem neurons fire at very high rates with extraordinarily high temporal precision, allowing them to encode specific features of sound stimuli. Une...
Low-grade brain stem tumours may be partially or incompletely removed, despite being located in a vital area of the brain. This is because they are generally contained to one area of the brain stem. Additional treatment such as chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy following surgery is often not required. Chemotherapy may be necessary in children whose tumour progresses following surgery or whose tumours are not surgically accessible. High-grade brain stem tumours because of their location within the brain stem which is diffuse and infiltrating cannot be surgically resected. Surgery in this situation could lead to damage to the nerves within the brain stem that are vital for breathing, swallowing, consciousness, arm, leg and eye movement. A biopsy is rarely performed for similar reasons. Therefore diagnosis is often made on clinical presentation and an MRI. Radiation treatment to the area of the tumour is the current standard treatment for this tumour type. A large percentage of children will ...
X. The Sensory System A. Introduction 1. Receptors detect environmental changes and stimuli. 2. Different receptors are sensitive to and receive different sensory stimuli. a. Chemoreceptors - medulla in the lower brain stem, aortic and carotid bodies detect O2, CO2, and H+ levels in the blood. Receptors of the small intestine detect H+ levels in the lumen. b. Pain receptors - located in the skin and internal organs. c. Thermoreceptors - sense heat (temperature) in the skin and control body temperature in the hypothalmus of the brain. d. Mechanoreceptors - sense stretch and pressure within the skin, muscles, and joints. e. Photoreceptors - light sensitive neurons in the retina of the eye.
Read more about Brain tumor next to the brain stem treated with Radio Surgery on Business Standard. In an exemplary case of medical excellence in the treatment of brain tumors, doctors at Venkateshwar Hospital, New Delhi recently helped a 55-year-old woman combat a serious brain tumor, which was leading to progressively worsening neurological
Migraine is also thought to be an inherited disorder giving rise to a "vulnerability" to an abnormal discharge of neurons (different from that seen in epilepsy) that preferentially affects brainstem regions and is triggered by a chemical event. Still working as good as the day they were bought. Para eliminar las arruguitas finas , rocephin and xarelto lo ideal es exfoliar la piel. In addition, rocephin and decadron shot side effects the Act strengthens federal laws, provides new sources of funding to assist victims of sexual assault and stalking, and provides a means for communities to build an effective coordinated community response to these crimes! Fine structural localization of a blood-brain barrier to exogenous peroxidase! Because the medication is delivered directly to the spinal cord, rocephin injection price your symptoms can be controlled with a much smaller dose than is needed with oral medication. Always consult your doctor about your medical conditions or back problem! All possible ...
Hop on to get the meaning of H/BS acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Medical & Science Acronym / Slang H/BS means... AcronymsAndSlang. The H/BS acronym/abbreviation definition. The H/BS meaning is Hypothalamus and Brain Stem. The definition of H/BS by AcronymAndSlang.com
ICD-9 code 851.71 for Cerebellar or brain stem laceration with open intracranial wound with no loss of consciousness is a medical classification as li
851.46 ICD-9 Vol 1 Code descriptor Cerebellar or brain stem contusion without open intracranial wound with loss of consciousness of unspecified duration
Question - How are brain stem syrinx treated ?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Magnetic resonance imaging is advised, Ask a Neurologist
ICD-9 code 851.7 for Cerebellar or brain stem laceration with open intracranial wound is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - I
1. The respiratory rates in vitro of ten structures of the rabbit brain were measured in the presence of a normal (5mm) and an elevated (50mm) concentration of K+ ions. The results were expressed on a dry-weight basis and in terms of cell density. 2. On a dry-weight basis, with a normal concentration of K+, there was a steady decrease in respiratory rate on passing from the cerebral cortex through successively lower centres to the brain-stem, i.e. respiration was negatively correlated with phylogenetic age. 3. When the resting respiratory rates were expressed in terms of cell density there was no correlation with phylogenetic age. The neuron-containing structures of the cerebrum and brain-stem had identical respiratory rates with the exception of the cerebral cortex which had a higher rate. 4. The K+-stimulated respiratory rates/cell also showed a negative correlation with phylogenetic age; the higher centres responded with a greater percentage increase than the lower. 5. The results from the ...
What does Medical BAER stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of BAER. The Medical Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang BAER means Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response. by AcronymAndSlang.com
Breathe. Read. Swallow. Laugh. Blink. Choose. No matter what you are doing today, your brain is in charge. Information continually travels back and forth between your brain and body parts. One ...
Scientists at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) of the University of Luxembourg have grafted neurons reprogrammed from skin cells into the brains of mice for the first time with long-term stability.
Sometimes, as one is falling asleep, there may be a massive, involuntary jerk-amyclonic jerk-of the body. Though such jerks are generated by primitive parts of the brain stem (they are, so to speak, brain-stem reflexes), and as such are without any intrinsic meaning or motive, they may be given meaning and context, turned into acts, by an instantly improvised dream. Thus the jerk may be associated with a dream of tripping, or stepping over a precipice, lunching forward to catch a ball, and so on. Such dreams may be extremely vivid, and have several "scenes." Subjectively, they appear to start before the jerk, and yet presumably the entire dream mechanism is stimulated by the first, preconscious perception of the jerk. All of this elaborate restructuring of time occurs in a second or less ...
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Underlying condition found in 71 infants who died unexpectedly, but experts urge parents to follow safe sleep practices to cut risk
pons lesion - MedHelps pons lesion Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for pons lesion. Find pons lesion information, treatments for pons lesion and pons lesion symptoms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of doxapram on medullary respiratory neurones in brainstem-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats. AU - Osaka, Y.. AU - Onimaru, H.. AU - Kotani, S.. AU - Kashiwagi, M.. AU - Morisaki, Hiroshi. AU - Takeda, J.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Doxapram is the only dedicated respiratory stimulant used to aid recovery of breathing after major surgery. Doxapram acts on peripheral chemoreceptors and although the central action of doxapram has been suggested, its detailed neuronal mechanism is unknown. We assessed doxapram-induced changes in spontaneous cervical nerve (C4) inspiratory activity and the firing of action potentials in pre-inspiratory and inspiratory neurones in the medulla. Experiments were performed in neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations, which can produce respiratory rhythm for several hours under in vitro conditions. Doxapram application (for 15 min) increased the frequency and amplitude of C4 activity dose-dependently. Doxapram induced changes ...
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Definition of Cranial nerve nucleus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Cranial nerve nucleus? Meaning of Cranial nerve nucleus as a legal term. What does Cranial nerve nucleus mean in law?
The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebrum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts. The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive - your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure.. The brain stem also coordinates such things as eye movements, movement of the jaw, tongue and larynx, your facial expressions, and sensations and movements of your neck and head; the brain stem accomplishes that through the cranial nerves that pass through it. Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance!. Any type of injury to the brain stem could be devastating. More serious injuries can result in a prolonged coma or what is also known as a "persistent vegetative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. T2 - Brain stem findings with MR imaging. AU - Salomon, A.. AU - Yeates, A. E.. AU - Burger, P. C.. AU - Heinz, E. R.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Magnetic resonance images of 44 patients who had varying degrees of supratentorial signal abnormalities compatible with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) were reviewed for posterior fossa findings. Brain stem lesions frequently accompanied supratentorial SAE and were seen as multiple, fairly symmetric areas of poorly defined, increased signal intensity on axial T2-weighted images. Involvement was generally confined to the central portions of the mid and upper pons. The typical appearance of brain stem involvement by SAE and its probable pathogenesis are reviewed.. AB - Magnetic resonance images of 44 patients who had varying degrees of supratentorial signal abnormalities compatible with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) were reviewed for posterior fossa ...
Abstract The habenula (Hb) is a small brain structure located in the posterior end of the medial dorsal thalamus and through medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) Hb connections, it acts as a conduit of information between forebrain and brainstem structures. The role of the Hb in pain processing is well documented in animals and recently also in acute experimental pain in humans. However, its function remains unknown in chronic pain disorders. Here, we investigated Hb resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls. Twelve pediatric patients with unilateral lower-extremity CRPS (9 females; 10-17 yr) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls provided informed consent to participate in the study. In healthy controls, Hb functional connections largely overlapped with previously described anatomical connections in cortical, subcortical, and brainstem structures. Compared with controls, patients exhibited an overall Hb ...
1.2.1 Methods of modeling documents using the light of improved Koizumis method [1] Preparation of MCAO animal model. The external carotid artery ligation in rats, since the common carotid artery bifurcation to the carotid artery into plug-. line (18.5 ? 0.5) mm, block the middle cerebral artery blood flow, resulting in focal cerebral ischemia. After the tail of the plug wire placed through the skin, ischemia and 2 h after the bolt of light pulling lines caused by blood reperfusion. Survival in rats observed after 6,12,24 h reperfusion in rats changes in behavior. Zea Longa behavioral ratings refer to the five-point scale score criteria: ? 0 points: normal, no symptoms of nerve injury; ? 1 pm: contralateral forepaw flexion or full flexion part; ? 2 points: the hemiplegic side turning in circles; ? 3 points: the hemiplegic side of dumping; ? 4 points: You can not spontaneously walk, loss of consciousness. Sham-operated group, in addition to non-insertion lines, the remaining steps ibid. 1.2.2 ...
An auditory stimulus can be used to study the peripheral and central hearing apparatus. In addition to neurologic evaluation, it can also be used to evaluate peripheral (conductive and sensorimotor) hearing disorders. Clicks are used to sequentially activate the eighth nerve, followed by brainstem structures during the first ten milliseconds. The waves of the response (defined as positive upward peaks) correlate with brainstem regions. Wave I reflects acoustic nerve function. Waves II and III relate to structures in the pontomedullary region. Waves IV and V reflect function in the upper pons and low midbrain. Abnormalities occur if these structures are damaged, especially if myelin disease occurs. As such, the studies are especially useful in patients with acoustic neuromas, multiple sclerosis, brainstem gliomas, and trauma.
The authors reviewed the cases of 49 children, ranging in age from 9 months to 15 years, who were diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT) as having brain-stem glioma. Four distinct groups of brain-stem gliomas were identified based on CT scan characteristics: Group I included isodense contrast-enhancing tumors that were dorsally exophytic into the fourth ventricle; Group II(a) included hypodense nonenhancing intrinsic tumors of the brain stem; Group II(b) included intrinsic tumors of the brain stem with hyperdense exophytic components extending ventrally and laterally into the cerebellopontine and prepontine cisterns; Group III included intrinsic cystic tumors with contrast-enhancing capsules; and Group IV included focally intrinsic tumors of the brain stem that were isodense and enhanced brightly on administration of contrast medium. The clinical presentation, efficacy of surgical intervention, pathology, and prognosis of these tumors were correlated within these groupings. Eleven patients ...
When ABIs are provided to patients who have lost their auditory nerve from causes other than NF2 (non-tumor or NT patients), the outcomes of the ABI are dramatically different. Colletti and colleagues in Verona, Italy, have demonstrated that about 50% of NT ABI patients have sentence understanding of more than 50% with only the sound from the ABI without speechreading (Colletti & Shannon, 2005). Several of these patients achieved speech understanding equivalent to the best performance of CI patients. These results demonstrate that electrical stimulation of the human brainstem (CN) can provide excellent speech understanding for some patients. It also suggests that the cause of poor speech recognition in NF2 ABI patients may be related to NF2. However, recent results in Europe have demonstrated speech recognition levels similar to those of CI patients in NF2 ABI patients-a level previously not obtained by hundreds of patients with ABIs around the world (Behr et al., 2007). Several NF2 ABI patients ...
A devastating injury sustained by 26-year old Rudson Caliocane could keep him from competing in professional mixed martial arts ever again.
Brainstem glioma is a highly devastating disease, and any mass-like lesion in the brainstem can raise suspicion of this diagnosis. However, other inflammatory, demyelinating, or degenerative diseases can mimic brainstem glioma in clinical presentation and imaging features. Therefore, diagnosis based solely on imaging is often insufficient for brainstem lesions and may lead to incorrect diagnosis and treatment. This case report is the first description of central nervous system aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoimmunity confined mainly to the brainstem. It demonstrates the wide spectrum of neuroinflammatory diseases in children and highlights the utility of surgical biopsy for suspicious brainstem lesions with atypical imaging features for glioma.
The brainstem is the rear part of the brain. It has two sections: the hindbrain, which includes the pons and medula, and the midbrain. Though the brainstem is small, it is extremely important. The motor (movement) and sensory connections from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brain stem. Also, from the brainstem come the main motor and sensory nerves to the face and neck. These nerves are called the cranial nerves. The brainstem controls many bodily functions of which we are not normally aware, such as breathing, heart beat, and sweating. The brainstem controls functions which are unconscious, but necessary for life. The hindbrain consists of the pons, and the medulla oblongata; which is an extension of the spinal cord. It connects the other parts of the brain (the cerebrum and cerebellum) to the spinal cord. Its neurons are the control centre of bodily functions, such as breathing and blood pressure. ...
The brainstem is the rear part of the brain. It has two sections: the hindbrain, which includes the pons and medula, and the midbrain. Though the brainstem is small, it is extremely important. The motor (movement) and sensory connections from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brain stem. Also, from the brainstem come the main motor and sensory nerves to the face and neck. These nerves are called the cranial nerves. The brainstem controls many bodily functions of which we are not normally aware, such as breathing, heart beat, and sweating. The brainstem controls functions which are unconscious, but necessary for life. The hindbrain consists of the pons, and the medulla oblongata; which is an extension of the spinal cord. It connects the other parts of the brain (the cerebrum and cerebellum) to the spinal cord. Its neurons are the control centre of bodily functions, such as breathing and blood pressure. ...
Tumors that arise along the brain stem which consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. Most brain stem gliomas occur in the pons and are called pontine gliomas. Tumors that arise in the midbrain are referred to as Midbrain/Medullary Gliomas.
article{470a774f-0a65-447a-b891-631b0a3351b6, abstract = {The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. Examples are defense behaviors such as fight, flight, and freezing, but also sexual behavior, vocalization, and micturition. To control these behaviors the PAG depends on strong input from more rostrally located limbic structures, as well as from afferent input from the lower brainstem and spinal cord. Mouton and Holstege (2000, J Comp Neurol 428:389-410) showed that there exist at least five different groups of spino-PAG neurons, each of which is thought to subserve a specific function. The lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) in the upper cervical cord is not among these five groups. The LCN relays information from hair receptors and noxious information and projects strongly to the contralateral ventroposterior and posterior regions of thalamus and to intermediate and deep tectal layers. The question is whether the ...
We were fascinated to see that when we grew young, functioning rat brain stem cells on the stiff material, the cells became dysfunctional and lost their ability to regenerate, and in fact began to function like aged cells," explains Kevin Chalut, co-lead on the new research. "What was especially interesting, however, was that when the old brain cells were grown on the soft material, they began to function like young cells - in other words, they were rejuvenated." ...
How can senior STEM courses give students, considering studies in a variety of disciplines, an advantage? On August 6 and 7, 2013, BrainSTEM ICE provided an opportunity for guidance counsellors and Careers teachers from across Ontario to delve into Perimeter Institutes newest resource and find answers through discussions with colleagues and unique professional development at Perimeter. Launching the sharing phase of Perimeters full BrainSTEM initiative, BrainSTEM ICE also provided opportunities for educators to explore some of the latest entrepreneurial niches and new technological advances that will shape the careers available to students in the future. BrainSTEM ICE participants were invited to join Perimeters Teacher Network and share the resource across the province. The complete BrainSTEM initiative includes:. BrainSTEM unconference thought incubator (occurred June 2012). BrainSTEM ICE (August 6 and 7, 2013). BrainSTEM in-class resource kit (release date: September 2013). BrainSTEM ...
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The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses. One way the PFC regulates sensorimotor transformations is to modulate activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the prefrontal cortex can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit. However, emerging behavioral evidence suggests that the PLR may be modulated by cognitive processes. Although the neural basis of these modulations remains unknown, one possible source is the PFC, particularly the frontal eye field (FEF), an area of the PFC implicated in the control of attention. We show that microstimulation of the rhesus macaque FEF alters the magnitude of ...
A clearly defined subpopulation of neurons in the brainstem is essential to execute locomotion at high speeds. Interestingly, these high-speed neurons are intermingled with others that can elicit immediate stopping. How defined groups of brainstem neurons can regulate important aspects of full motor programs, reports a study by researchers of the Biozentrum at the University of Basel and the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research (FMI). The journal Nature has published the results.
In their experiments, Gage and his colleagues grew mouse brain stem cells, which form neurons and glial cells, in the same culture dishes with human endothelial cells, which form the lining of blood vessels. Over time, about 6 percent of the mouse neural stem cells began to show signs that they had developed into cells similar to endothelial cells. The new cells expressed CD146, Flk-1 and VE Cadherin, protein markers that are associated with endothelial cells. They also retained a single nucleus and had only mouse chromosomes, suggesting they had converted into a different type of cell rather than merged with an existing human endothelial cell. Similar results were seen when these same neural stem cells were transplanted into the brains of mice early in development ...
The atlas and axis are the only vertebrae in proximity to the brain stem. When they misalign to the extent that they put pressure on the brain stem and or spinal cord they interfere with the vital messages being sent to and from the brain to all parts of the body. If for example the atlas is impinged against the part of the cord that sends messages to the left hand, that individual may experience a numbness, burning or tingling sensation in that hand. If the nerve tracts at the brain stem level go to the heart are being impinged that individual may experience high blood pressure, palpitations or an irregular heartbeat. Any part of the body can be effected when there is pressure on the brain stem or spinal cord because almost all of the nerves have to pass through this area before reaching the part of the body they innervate.. When a vertebrae misaligns to the extent that it interferes with nerve tissue and reduces the mental impulses it is termed a subluxation. A subluxation may be present for ...
Question: I am an Instructor teaching a course on Death and Dying. The question I have is this: Can some or all of the functions of the Cerebrum and/or Cerebellum ever survive the death or injury of the Brainstem? Answer: As you may know, the brainstem is the area of the brain that is responsible for the automatic functions of the body that we don;t really ever think about such as breathing, heart rate, respiration, swallowing, etc. When a person has injured their brainstem, they typically fall into an unresponsive state for a period of time while the brain heals. Sometimes people come out of this coma state and other times, they are truly brain dead where their brainstem is unable to resume these critical functions. It really depends on the type of injury, the severity of the injury and other factors such as how soon the person received medical care following their injury, etc. It can be hard to predict who will recover and who will not recover. ** More information about the brain stem ...
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Brain Stem Glioma Treatment, Brain Stem Glioma Treatment India, Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Cost In India Info On Cost Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Mumbai Delhi Bangalore India, Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Hospitals Center India, Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Doctors Surgeon India
An auditory stimulus can be used to study the peripheral and central hearing apparatus. In addition to neurologic evaluation, it can also be used to evaluate peripheral (conductive and sensorimotor) hearing disorders. Clicks are used to sequentially activate the eighth nerve, followed by brainstem structures during the first ten milliseconds. The waves of the response (defined as positive upward peaks) correlate with brainstem regions. Wave I reflects acoustic nerve function. Waves II and III relate to structures in the pontomedullary region. Waves IV and V reflect function in the upper pons and low midbrain. Abnormalities occur if these structures are damaged, especially if myelin disease occurs. As such, the studies are especially useful in patients with acoustic neuromas, multiple sclerosis, brainstem gliomas, and trauma. ...
Bio Geo Nerd Brain Anatomy and Functions. MBBS Medicine Humanity First Anatomy of the Brain Stem. CNS Intro to Brain and Ventricles Medulla Oblongata. Introduction to Neuroanatomy Physiopedia. Midbrain powerful meditation Lyra Nara Natural Remedies. McCabism Ron Denniss brain transplant. Activity 7 Nervous System Histology Brain amp Cranial. Brain Stem. Neonatal Brain Damage and LongTerm Outcomes. MBBS Medicine Humanity First Anatomy of the Brain Stem. Brain stem anatomy. Aicardi syndrome Genetics Home Reference NIH. Activity 7 Nervous System Histology Brain amp Cranial. Cranial Nerves amp Brain dissection ppt video online download. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment PDQ174Health. Summary of the Cranial Nerves TeachMeAnatomy. CNS Intro to Brain and Ventricles Medulla Oblongata. Cerebellum and brainstem Anatomy Study Guide Kenhub. Brainstem Brain Stem Lateral View Posterior Stock. Central Nervous System at Harvard University StudyBlue. MBBS Medicine Humanity First Anatomy of the Brain Stem. ...
Angiotensinogen messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were measured in the brain (hypothalamus, lower brain stem, cerebellum), liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands of rats made hypertensive by ligation of the aorta between the renal arteries. We also measured renin mRNA in the kidneys of these renal hypertensive rats. The early phase of hypertension (day 6) was associated with significant increases in plasma renin activity and levels of circulating angiotensin II. The circulating renin-angiotensin system was not activated in the later phase of hypertension (day 24). Angiotensinogen mRNA levels were elevated in the lower brain stem of hypertensive rats at both stages of hypertension. In contrast, angiotensinogen mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were increased only at day 6 after aortic ligation. Decreased levels of angiotensinogen mRNA were observed in the cerebellum in both the early and later phases of the hypertension. Angiotensinogen mRNA levels in the adrenal gland below the ligature fell in the early ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combining Wavelet Analysis and Bayesian Networks for the Classification of Auditory Brainstem Response. AU - Zhang, R. AU - McAllister, G. AU - Scotney, BW. AU - McClean, SI. AU - Houston, G. N1 - Other Details ------------------------------------ This paper was selected (with re-review) for journal publication from papers presented at the 18th IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, June 2005. The paper develops an algorithm that enables hearing response to be assessed using less than one-tenth of the data (from auditory brainstem responses to stimuli) typically required by techniques currently used by audiologists. Thus the length of assessment sessions may be reduced, with corresponding reductions in patient discomfort and audiologists time. Hearing classification accuracy has been evaluated in collaboration with (and using data provided by) an Audiological Scientist at the Royal Hospitals, Belfast (Glen Houston).. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. N2 - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MB11 BERAphone and Auditory Brainstem Response in newborns at audiologic risk. T2 - Comparison of results. AU - Melagrana, Andrea. AU - Casale, Sara. AU - Calevo, Maria Grazia. AU - Tarantino, Vincenzo. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Objective: To compare the diagnostic effectiveness of Automated Auditory Brainstem Responses (MB11 technique) with that of standard Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR) in a sample of newborns evaluated after the second month of life. Methods: From October 2002 to February 2005, audiologic evaluations were performed in full-term newborns who presented altered otoacoustic emissions and in newborns considered at audiologic risk admitted to the ENT (Ear Nose Throat) Unit of Giannina Gaslini Institute, Genoa, Italy. Our sample included 201 children (104 males and 97 females) who underwent on the same day an audiologic test using MB11 BERAphone Maico and standard ABR test. Results: Out of the 388 ears examined, 378 (97.4%) showed agreement between the two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of beyer dt48 and etymotic insert earphones. T2 - Auditory brain stem response measurements. AU - Beauchaine, K. A.. AU - Kaminski, J. R.. AU - Gorga, Michael P. PY - 1987/10. Y1 - 1987/10. N2 - Click-evoked auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) were measured using a Beyer DT48 circumaural earphone and an Etymotic ER-3A insert earphone in a group of normal-hearing subjects. Comparisons were made between time waveforms and amplitude spectra for the two transducers. ABR waveforms, latencies, and thresholds were compared for the two transducers. Click-evoked ABR and behavioral thresholds were comparable for the two earphones. In addition, absolute response-component latencies differed by an amount that was equivalent to the travel time introduced by the insert earphones sound-delivery tube. Inter-peak latency differences were virtually identical. These findings suggest that the insert earphone is a viable transducer for clinical ABR evaluations. Further, a temporal ...

SURG.00014 Cochlear Implants and Auditory Brainstem ImplantsSURG.00014 Cochlear Implants and Auditory Brainstem Implants

Auditory Brainstem Implants (ABI) The FDA approval of the Nucleus® 24 Auditory Brain Stem Implant System (Cochlear Americas, ... One device has received FDA approval for auditory brainstem implantation, the Nucleus 24 Auditory Brain Stem Implant System. ... To date, the Nucleus 24 Auditory Brain Stem Implant has received FDA approval only for individuals with NF-2 following tumor ... The prognostic value of promontory electric auditory brain stem response in pediatric cochlear implantation. Ear Hear. 2000; 21 ...
more infohttps://www.unicare.com/medicalpolicies/policies/mp_pw_a050199.htm

https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Our+Anesthetic+Management+for+Brainstem+Evoked+a+Response+Audiometry...-a0572716874https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Our+Anesthetic+Management+for+Brainstem+Evoked+a+Response+Audiometry...-a0572716874

Our Anesthetic Management for Brainstem Evoked a Response Audiometry in a Child with Ondines Curse.(Letter to the editor) by ... Brain stem evoked audiometry (BERA) under general anesthesia was planned. The patient was diagnosed with CCSH 2 months after ... APA style: Our Anesthetic Management for Brainstem Evoked a Response Audiometry in a Child with Ondines Curse.. (n.d.) >The ... MLA style: "Our Anesthetic Management for Brainstem Evoked a Response Audiometry in a Child with Ondines Curse.." The Free ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Our+Anesthetic+Management+for+Brainstem+Evoked+a+Response+Audiometry...-a0572716874

Medical Home Portal - Auditory Brainstem ImplantsMedical Home Portal - Auditory Brainstem Implants

Twenty-year report of the first auditory brain stem nucleus implant.. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110(2):103-4. PubMed ... Auditory Brainstem Implants (Barrow Quarterly). Detailed information about the history and development of auditory brainstem ... Auditory Brainstem Implant (Mayo Clinic). Information about the Mayo Clinics auditory brainstem implantation program. ... the cochlea to the auditory processing centers of the brainstem. In contrast, auditory brainstem implants (ABI) bypass the need ...
more infohttps://www.medicalhomeportal.org/issue/auditory-brainstem-implants

Brain Stem Glioma Treatment,Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Cost IndiaBrain Stem Glioma Treatment,Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Cost India

Brain Stem Glioma Treatment India, Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Cost In India Info On Cost Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Mumbai ... Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Hospitals Center India, Brain Stem Glioma Treatment Doctors Surgeon India ... Children with a brain stem glioma may experience the following symptoms. Sometimes, children with brain stem glioma do not show ... Tumors that arise along these structures are called brain stem gliomas. Most brain stem gliomas occur in the pons ("pontine ...
more infohttp://www.indiahealthtour.com/treatments/cancer-treatment/brain-stem-glioma-treatment-india.html

Integrated Molecular Meta-Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric High-Grade and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.Integrated Molecular Meta-Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric High-Grade and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

Brain Stem Neoplasms. Cell Cycle Proteins. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I ... Pediatric glioblastoma is one of the most common and most deadly brain tumors in childhood. Using an integrative genetic ...
more infohttps://repository.icr.ac.uk/handle/internal/802

A Phase I Study of Convection-Enhanced Delivery of 124I-8H9 for Patients with Non-Progressive Diffuse Pontine Gliomas...A Phase I Study of Convection-Enhanced Delivery of 124I-8H9 for Patients with Non-Progressive Diffuse Pontine Gliomas...

... is a cancer of the brain stem, most often in children, which is very difficult to treat successfully. Radiation treatment is ... Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG, also known as brain stem glioma) is a cancer of the brain stem, most often in children ...
more infohttps://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/clinical-trials/11-011

Brainstem function: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageBrainstem function: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as ... Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. The brain stem also controls less essential ... A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as ... Brain stem stroke may also cause double ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/18007.htm

Brain stem death - NHS.UKBrain stem death - NHS.UK

Brain stem death is where a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for ... The brain stem. The brain stem is the lower part of the brain thats connected to the spinal cord (part of the central nervous ... Brain stem death is when a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for ... The brain stem also relays information to and from the brain to the rest of the body, so it plays an important role in the ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/conditions/brain-death/

FIRST Robotics - BrainSTEM EducationFIRST Robotics - BrainSTEM Education

STEM, Topics featuring robotics, audio, and circuit training from the mind of an IC Design Engineer. ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/0123icdesign/first-robotics

Brainstem | anatomy | Britannica.comBrainstem | anatomy | Britannica.com

Brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral hemispheres and the cervical ... Alternative Title: brain stem. Brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral ... brain. Brain. , the mass of nerve tissue in the anterior end of an organism. The brain integrates sensory information and ... is the death of the brain stem. Finally, the article surveys notions about the meaning of human death that have prevailed ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/brainstem

Brain stem cells against cancer?Brain stem cells against cancer?

... 10.01.2007. Gliomas are a group of brain tumors where the most common type is also the most ... If stem cells are injected into a part of the brain in laboratory animals with a glioma in another part of their brain, the ... Neural stem cells have been shown to have the ability to recognize signals from tumor cells in the brain and migrate there. ... research at Lund University in Sweden provides hope that it may be possible in the future to develop stem cells from the brain ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/report-76644.html

Brain Stem Stroke | American Stroke AssociationBrain Stem Stroke | American Stroke Association

Brain stem stroke can also cause double vision, slurred speech and decreased level of consciousness. ... Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose.A person may have vertigo, dizziness and ... Brain Stem Stroke. Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose. A person may have ... Brain stem strokes can impair any or all of these functions. More severe brain stem strokes can cause locked-in syndrome, a ...
more infohttps://www.strokeassociation.org/en/about-stroke/types-of-stroke/brain-stem-stroke

The Peppered Brain Stem (20.08.2018)The Peppered Brain Stem (20.08.2018)

Cranial MRI showed multiple small contrast-enhanced lesions predominantly located in the cerebellum and brain stem (Figure),... ... Cite this as: Schaller MA, Foerch C, Wagner M: The peppered brain stem. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018; 115: 555. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl. ... The Peppered Brain Stem. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018; 115(33-34): 555; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2018.0555 ... Cranial MRI showed multiple small contrast-enhanced lesions predominantly located in the cerebellum and brain stem (Figure), ...
more infohttps://www.aerzteblatt.de/int/archive/article/199595

Brain stem glioma - Canadian Cancer SocietyBrain stem glioma - Canadian Cancer Society

... the type of tumour the size and location of the tumour whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the brain the childs ... The treatment of brain stem gliomas depends on: ... Brain stem glioma. Brain stem gliomas are a type of glioma that ... Focal brain stem glioma occurs in one area or is contained within a small part of the brain stem. It is usually benign or low ... Treatment of focal brain stem gliomas. Some focal brain stem gliomas grow so slowly that treatment might not be needed unless ...
more infohttp://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/brain-spinal-childhood/childhood-brain-and-spinal-tumours/brain-stem-glioma/?region=pe

How the brain stem controls involuntary functions | BritannicaHow the brain stem controls involuntary functions | Britannica

Video of The brainstem is a sort of automatic control centre for several important involuntary actions of the body, such as ... These vital mechanisms are controlled by one of the brains most durable parts--the brain stem. The brain stem is an automatic ... For example, if food goes down the wrong way, the brain stem will force us to cough. If the brain stem is damaged, the ... The brain stem helps serve this purpose. It regulates heartbeat and respiration. It helps to wake up the rest of the brain from ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/video/81386/brainstem-actions-control-centre-body-blood-pressure

Brainstem | Define Brainstem at Dictionary.comBrainstem | Define Brainstem at Dictionary.com

... the portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts ... Origin of brainstem Expand. 1875-1880 First recorded in 1875-80; brain + stem1 ... The part of the vertebrate brain located at the base of the brain and made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. The ... Brain death implies the complete and permanent absence of neurological function in the cortex and the brainstem. ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/brainstem?qsrc=2446

Brainstem | Define Brainstem at Dictionary.comBrainstem | Define Brainstem at Dictionary.com

... the portion of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and comprises the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and parts ... Origin of brainstem Expand. 1875-1880 First recorded in 1875-80; brain + stem1 ... The part of the vertebrate brain located at the base of the brain and made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. The ... Brain death implies the complete and permanent absence of neurological function in the cortex and the brainstem. ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/brainstem

What Does the Brain Stem Do? | Reference.comWhat Does the Brain Stem Do? | Reference.com

According to Brain-Guide.org, the brain stem functions as an autopilot for the human body, as it regulates such... ... The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. ... The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. According to Brain-Guide.org, the brain ... Brain-Guide.org says that the pons, the third and final portion of the brain stem, contains the respiratory center, which ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/brain-stem-d61310a2a2547957

Working with Team Prion - BrainSTEM EducationWorking with Team Prion - BrainSTEM Education

STEM, Topics featuring robotics, audio, and circuit training from the mind of an IC Design Engineer. ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/0123icdesign/home/ramblings/working-with-the-team

Brain stem lesion symptoms, treatments & forums | PatientsLikeMeBrain stem lesion symptoms, treatments & forums | PatientsLikeMe

75 patients with brain stem lesion experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Hydrocodone- ... Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on brain stem lesion at PatientsLikeMe. ... Acetaminophen to treat their brain stem lesion and its symptoms. ... 3 brain stem lesion patients report mild pain (11%). * 3 brain ... 10 brain stem lesion patients report moderate anxious mood (38%). * 6 brain stem lesion patients report mild anxious mood (23%) ...
more infohttps://www.patientslikeme.com/conditions/brain-stem-lesion

v071p00i13 | Coma | Brainstemv071p00i13 | Coma | Brainstem

Brain stem compresssion Brain stem e.g. trauma ischaemia hypoglycaemia/other metabolic disorders infection drugs e.g. ... lesion determine whether it results in coma, so brain stem infarction or haemorrhage often causes coma while other brain stem ... stem areas responsible for arousal; thus, evaluation is a valuable guide to the presence and level of brain stem disease ... stem compression -ipsilateral third nerve palsy -contralateral hemiplegia c Brain stem lesion -early eye movement disorder: ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/226204355/v071p00i13

Study links SIDS to brain stem abnormalities | Toronto StarStudy links SIDS to brain stem abnormalities | Toronto Star

... had similar abnormal circuits in the brain stem.. That part of the brain controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and ... Study links SIDS to brain stem abnormalities. Underlying condition found in 71 infants who died unexpectedly, but experts urge ... brain stems.. In a study released Monday, the investigators found that infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly of SIDS, ... had distinct differences in brain stem chemistry, lead investigator and neuropathologist Dr. Hannah Kinney of Boston Childrens ...
more infohttps://www.thestar.com/life/parent/2013/11/11/study_links_sids_to_brain_stem_abnormalities.html

Brain Stem Pathologies FlashcardsBrain Stem Pathologies Flashcards

Why can a unilateral lesion of the brain stem cause contralateral hemisensory loss?. ... Why can a unilateral lesion of the brain stem cause contralateral hemiplegia?. ... What 3 things can a unilateral lesion of the brain stem cause?. ... Are there cranial nerves present in the brain stem?. Definition ... Since the brainstem contains a compact arrangement of diverse structures, what will normally happen with a single lesion?. ...
more infohttps://www.flashcardmachine.com/brain-stem-pathologies.html

Brain stem neoplasms - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | MedindiaBrain stem neoplasms - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | Medindia

Brain stem neoplasms - Tumor of the brain stem, is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary of medical terms ... Brain stem neoplasms - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/glossary/brain_stem_neoplasms.htm

Acute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation. | The BMJAcute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation. | The BMJ

Acute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288 :189 ... Acute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.288.6412. ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/288/6412/189
  • This document addresses cochlear implants, auditory brainstem implants, and replacement or upgrade of speech processor and controller components. (unicare.com)
  • An auditory brainstem implant is a device designed to restore some hearing in an individual with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) rendered deaf by the surgical removal of neurofibromas involving both auditory nerves. (unicare.com)
  • Additionally, the medulla oblongata serves as a relay system, and it plays a large part in carrying nerve impulses to and from the brain. (reference.com)
  • Brain death implies the complete and permanent absence of neurological function in the cortex and the brainstem . (dictionary.com)
  • c diVuse or extensive processes aVecting the whole brain c supratentorial mass lesions causing tentorial herniation with brain stem compression (associated with other neurological signs such as third nerve palsy and crossed hemiparesis) c brain stem lesions-for example, compression from posterior fossa mass lesions such as cerebellar haemorrhage/infarction and disorders primarily aVecting the brain stem (for example, basilar artery thrombosis). (scribd.com)
  • GOTHENBURG, Sweden -- The multiple sclerosis drug laquinimod, which crosses the blood-brain barrier, is safe for brain stem cells at concentrations relevant for treatment, according to a study presented here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Repeated blows can cause permanent damage over time, and a single severe blow, even if it doesn't crack the skull or damage the brain, can disrupt the brain's normal operation and knock the victim unconscious [sound of heart beating]. (britannica.com)
  • These vital mechanisms are controlled by one of the brain's most durable parts--the brain stem. (britannica.com)
  • New York, NY, April 22, 2012) -- Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) have identified a molecular pathway that controls the retention and release of the brain's stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • From this research, we knew that when stem cells detach from their niche, they lose their identity as stem cells and begin to differentiate into specific cell types," said co-senior author Antonio Iavarone, MD, professor of Pathology and Neurology at CUMC. (eurekalert.org)
  • Other markers of stem cell function remain to be investigated, including ability to differentiate and migrate. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The brain stem also controls less essential abilities such as articulate speech. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The brain stem controls a number of basic bodily processes that are necessary for life. (reference.com)
  • What Part of the Brain Controls Dreams? (reference.com)
  • That part of the brain controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature control during sleep, so an impairment may leave these infants vulnerable. (thestar.com)
  • More severe brain stem strokes can cause locked-in syndrome, a condition in which survivors can move only their eyes. (strokeassociation.org)
  • If the brain stem is damaged, the repercussions can be severe--paralysis, coma, death. (britannica.com)
  • The brainstem is a sort of automatic control centre for several important involuntary actions of the body, such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and many reflexes. (britannica.com)
  • Laquinimod is a monoclonal antibody in phase III trials for treatment of MS. Unlike other disease-modifying MS therapies, a portion of the drug, about 10%, crosses into the brain. (medpagetoday.com)
  • He asked whether and what stem cell therapies may be beneficial for his condition. (rutgers.edu)
  • Confirming death is now more complex, because it's possible to keep the heart beating after the brain stem has permanently stopped functioning. (www.nhs.uk)
  • To save a person's family and friends from unnecessary suffering, once there's clear evidence that brain death has occurred, the person will be disconnected from the ventilator. (www.nhs.uk)
  • After brain death, it's not possible for someone to remain conscious. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Brain death can occur when the blood and/or oxygen supply to the brain is stopped. (www.nhs.uk)
  • There's a difference between brain death and a vegetative state , which can occur after extensive brain damage. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Therefore, a number of tests are carried out to check that brain death has actually occurred, such as shining a torch into both eyes to see if they react to the light. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Read more about confirming brain death . (www.nhs.uk)
  • After brain death has occurred, it may be possible for the person's organs to be used in transplantations, which can often save the lives of others. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Complete loss of brainstem function is regarded by some experts as equivalent to brain death . (britannica.com)
  • All brain stem reflexes were absent mimicking brain death. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A person is confirmed as being dead when their brain stem function is permanently lost. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The lack of oxygen, which occurred as a result of no blood flow, quickly led to the permanent loss of brain stem function. (www.nhs.uk)
  • While stem cells can do much and are important for restoring function, they are not omnipotent. (rutgers.edu)
  • There is no credible data and no stem cell therapy has been shown to restore function yet in human. (rutgers.edu)
  • The brainstem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the pathways that regulate the interaction of stem cells with their niche were obscure," said co-senior author Anna Lasorella, MD, associate professor of Pathology and Pediatrics at CUMC and a member of the Columbia Stem Cell Initiative. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the brain, the stem cell niche is located in an area adjacent to the ventricles, the fluid-filled spaces within the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • In previous studies, Drs. Iavarone and Lasorella focused on molecules called Id (inhibitor of differentiation) proteins, which regulate various stem cell properties. (eurekalert.org)
  • They undertook the present study to determine how Id proteins maintain stem cell identity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their brains showed markedly lowered NSC proliferative capacity, and their stem cell populations were reduced. (eurekalert.org)
  • If we can understand how to manipulate the pathways that determine stem cell fate, in the future we may be able to control NSC properties for therapeutic purposes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Another aspect," added Dr. Lasorella, "is to determine whether Id proteins also maintain stem cell properties in cancer stem cells in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • I would not trust any doctor who claims that he/she has a stem cell therapy that does so and charge you for the therapy. (rutgers.edu)
  • Of course we'd love the magic stem cell or other treatment if it even gave him a hint of some movement back but so be it. (rutgers.edu)
  • Dr. Spetzler at the Barrow Institute wanted to go in on the left lateral approach, but we could not get the insurance to approve it.I want to know if there are any stem cell trials available out there for the brain. (rutgers.edu)
  • In rare cases, a person may demonstrate some sense of response that can be detected using a brain scan, but not be able to interact with their surroundings. (www.nhs.uk)
  • NARRATOR: Despite its protective coverings, the brain is still a vulnerable organ. (britannica.com)
  • The research team at Lund has also shown that stem cells can cure colon cancer in lab animals. (innovations-report.com)
  • The new research is notable because it found the SIDS babies - regardless of whether they were in positions or sleep environments that might have contributed to asphyxiation - had similar abnormal circuits in the brain stem. (thestar.com)
  • The research builds on recent studies, which showed that stem cells reside in specialized niches, or microenvironments, that support and maintain them. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stephen G. Emerson, MD, PhD, director of the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, added that, "Understanding the pathway that allows stem cells to develop into mature cells could eventually lead to more effective, less toxic cancer treatments. (eurekalert.org)
  • Brain-Guide.org explains that three primary components form the brain stem. (reference.com)