Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Receptors, Neurotransmitter: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.New York CityNew YorkUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Receptor/signaling modulators. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogen receptor modulators. ... Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 37 (1-3): 110-5. doi:10.1016/s0165-0173(01)00129-1. PMID 11744079.. ... Receptor/signaling modulators. GABAA receptor positive modulators. GABA metabolism/transport modulators. ... 5α-DHP is an agonist of the progesterone receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor (albeit with an ...
The receptor for ghrelin, the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found on the same cells in the brain as ... Ghrelin receptor. The ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a (a splice-variant of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, with the ... "Functional implications of limited leptin receptor and ghrelin receptor coexpression in the brain". The Journal of Comparative ... Ghrelin was discovered after the ghrelin receptor (called growth hormone secretagogue type 1A receptor or GHS-R) was discovered ...
Brain. 129 (Pt 6): 1470-80. doi:10.1093/brain/awl077. PMID 16621918. "Entrez Gene: RYR1 ryanodine receptor 1 (skeletal)". ... Ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR-1) also known as skeletal muscle calcium release channel or skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor ... binding site on different isoforms of the ryanodine receptor and of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor". The Biochemical ... Feng W, Tu J, Yang T, Vernon PS, Allen PD, Worley PF, Pessah IN (November 2002). "Homer regulates gain of ryanodine receptor ...
... receptor binding. Cellular component. • recycling endosome. • vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late ... A major source of transferrin secretion in the brain is the choroid plexus in the ventricular system. The main role of ... Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies. ... positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. • cellular response to iron ion. • regulation of protein stability. • ...
GABAB receptor-mediated function". Brain Research. 1090 (1): 15-22. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.02.131. PMID 16647690. Knerr, I ... The GABAB receptor has been found to be the most important of the three receptors for this disorder as it is vital in both GABA ... Studies have shown that alterations of both the GABAA receptor and the GABAB receptor early in the life of the Aldh5a1-/- mice ... kainite receptor. High levels of GHB have been shown to depress both the NMDA and AMPA/kainite receptor mediated functions and ...
2004). "GPR105, a novel Gi/o-coupled UDP-glucose receptor expressed on brain glia and peripheral immune cells, is regulated by ... 2003). "Characterization of the UDP-glucose receptor (re-named here the P2Y14 receptor) adds diversity to the P2Y receptor ... This receptor is a P2Y purinergic receptor for UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugars coupled to G-proteins. It has been implicated ... 1997). "The isolation and characterization of a novel G protein-coupled receptor regulated by immunologic challenge". Brain Res ...
Stimulation of the dopamine receptors in the area postrema activates these vomiting centers of the brain; this is why nausea is ... Mangurian, L. P.; Jurjus, A. R.; Walsh, R. J. (1999). "Prolactin receptor localization to the area postrema". Brain Research. ... The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting. Its privileged location in the brain also ... since this part of the brain contains a high density of dopamine receptors. The area postrema is very sensitive to changes in ...
5α-DHP is an agonist of the progesterone receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor (albeit with an ... Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 37 (1-3): 110-5. doi:10.1016/s0165-0173(01)00129-1. PMID 11744079. Rupprecht R, Reul JM, Trapp T, et ... In addition, it is a weak agonist of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) (EC50 >10,000 µM)), with approximately six-fold lower ... Lehmann JM, McKee DD, Watson MA, Willson TM, Moore JT, Kliewer SA (1998). "The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated ...
GABAA receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and so when muscimol is administered, it alters neuronal activity in ... Muscimol is a potent GABAA agonist, activating the receptor for the brain's principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA. ... association with synaptic GABA receptors". Brain Res. 148 (1): 153-62. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(78)90385-2. PMID 207386. CS1 maint ... While muscimol is normally thought of as a selective GABAA agonist, it is also a partial agonist at the GABAA-rho receptor, and ...
Simantov, R.; Snyder, S. H. (Dec 1976). "Opiate receptor binding in the pituitary gland" (pdf). Brain Research. 124 (1): 178- ... It acts as a σ1 receptor agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist. It has no significant affinity for the σ2, μ-opioid, or δ-opioid ... One example of dextrallorphan being used to mask σ1 receptor sites was seen in a study on the localization of the σ2 receptor ... Dextrallorphan is often used in research to block σ1 receptor sites so that σ2 receptor sites (which have not been cloned yet) ...
"Molecular cloning and characterisation of a novel GABAB-related G-protein coupled receptor". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 110 (2 ... "Molecular cloning and characterisation of a novel GABAB-related G-protein coupled receptor". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 110 (2 ... GPR156 (G protein-coupled receptor 156), is a human gene which encodes a G protein-coupled receptor belonging to metabotropic ... By sequence homology, this gene was proposed as being a possible GABAB receptor subunit, however when expressed in cells alone ...
"Localization of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in living human brain by positron emission tomography using N1-([11C]-methyl)-2-bromo ... flumazenil for GABAA receptors. (+)PHNO for D2 dopamine receptors. [11C]raclopride for D2 dopamine receptors. Binding potential ... A PET study of 44 patients". Brain. 126 (Pt 6): 1300-1308. doi:10.1093/brain/awg138. PMID 12764053. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... for 5-HT2 receptors 18F-altanserin and 18F-setoperone for the 5-HT2A receptor 11C-ketanserin and tritiated ketanserin 11C-DASB ...
"An update on GABAA receptors". Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 29 (2-3): 196-217. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(98)00052-6. PMID 10209232. ... receptor beta subunits that mediate both homomeric and heteromeric receptor expression". J. Neurosci. 19 (15): 6360-71. PMID ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRP gene. The gamma-aminobutyric ... This subunit can assemble with known GABA A receptor subunits, and the presence of this subunit alters the sensitivity of ...
Buatti, M.C. & Pasternak, G.W. (1981). "Multiple opiate receptors: phylogenetic differences". Brain Research. 218: 400-405. doi ... These fulfilled criteria include a suitable nervous system and sensory receptors, opioid receptors and reduced responses to ... and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor are regulated in the fish brain after a nociceptive event. Somatosensory evoked potentials ( ... stimulus-response properties of receptors on the head of trout Oncorhynchus mykiss". Brain Research. 1166: 47-54. doi:10.1016/j ...
... a potent and selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist". Behavioural Brain Research. 73 (1-2): 157-61. doi:10.1016/0166-4328(96) ... GR-127935 is a drug which acts as a selective antagonist at the serotonin receptors 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D. It has little effect ... Bannai M, Fish EW, Faccidomo S, Miczek KA (August 2007). "Anti-aggressive effects of agonists at 5-HT1B receptors in the dorsal ... Przegaliński E, Gołda A, Filip M (2008). "Effects of serotonin (5-HT)(1B) receptor ligands on cocaine-seeking behavior in rats ...
"Roles for oestrogen receptor β in adult brain function". Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 24 (1): 160-73. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... Brain and behavior. Sex drive. See also: Sexual motivation and hormones ... Once inside the cell, they bind to and activate estrogen receptors (ERs) which in turn modulate the expression of many genes.[5 ...
doi:10.1093/brain/119.6.2085. PMID 9010012.. *^ Farde L, Gustavsson JP, Jönsson E (1997). "D2 dopamine receptors and ... A potent substituted benzamide drug with high affinity for dopamine D-2 receptors in the rat brain". Biochemical Pharmacology. ... Raclopride is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective antagonist on D2 dopamine receptors. ... Its selectivity to the cerebral D2 receptors is characterized by its respective Ki-values, which are as follows: 1.8, 3.5, 2400 ...
Vanilloid receptor TRPV Vanilloid receptor subtype 1 TRPV1 Transient receptor potential channel Capsaicin Capsazepine ... Brain Research Reviews. 60 (1): 267-77. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.12.006. PMID 19150372. Messeguer A, Planells-Cases R, ... The vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) is one of six sub-members that belong to the transient receptor potential channel (TRP) ... Wu C, Gavva NR, Brennan TJ (June 2008). "Effect of AMG0347, a transient receptor potential type V1 receptor antagonist, and ...
"Receptor-receptor interactions within receptor mosaics. Impact on neuropsychopharmacology". Brain Research Reviews. 58 (2): 415 ... Graham AJ, Martin-Ruiz CM, Teaktong T, Ray MA, Court JA (August 2002). "Human brain nicotinic receptors, their distribution and ... Ligand-gated ion channels such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and GABAA receptor are composed of five subunits ... "Adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromers: new targets for caffeine in the brain". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 2391-9. doi: ...
Behav Brain Funct. 3 (1): 33. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-3-33. PMC 1949817 . PMID 17623072. "Entrez Gene: DRD1IP dopamine receptor ... The encoded protein interacts with dopamine receptor D1 and may interact with other DA receptor subtypes and/or GPCRs. GRCh38: ... Ali MK, Bergson C (2004). "Elevated intracellular calcium triggers recruitment of the receptor cross-talk accessory protein ... a D1 dopamine receptor interacting protein". Science. 287 (5458): 1660-4. doi:10.1126/science.287.5458.1660. PMID 10698743. ( ...
Brain. 131: 1618-1629. doi:10.1093/brain/awn064. Tabet, N. (July 2008). "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's ... A receptor is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine ... In addition, the receptor for the merocrine sweat glands are also cholinergic, since acetylcholine is released from ... However, reversing memory impairments in AD patients may not be this easy due to permanent changes in brain structure. When ...
... to tease apart the specific brain mechanisms of extinction, in particular the role of the brain structures (amygdala, ... D-Cycloserine (DCS) is an agonist for the glutamate receptor NMDA, and has been trialed as an adjunct to conventional exposure- ... Abraham, Antony D.; Neve, Kim A.; Lattal, K. Matthew (2016-07-01). "Activation of D1/5 Dopamine Receptors: A Common Mechanism ... Specifically, the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGlu5) is important for the extinction of a cocaine-associated context and ...
Brain. 129 (Pt 10): 2773-83. doi:10.1093/brain/awl219. PMID 16945936. Müller JS, Baumeister SK, Rasic VM, Krause S, Todorovic S ... "Rapsyn-mediated clustering of acetylcholine receptor subunits requires the major cytoplasmic loop of the receptor subunits". ... 43 kDa receptor-associated protein of the synapse (rapsyn) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPSN gene. This ... "Entrez Gene: RAPSN receptor-associated protein of the synapse". Cossins J, Burke G, Maxwell S, Spearman H, Man S, Kuks J, ...
The compound has demonstrated the ability to selectively block postsynaptic glutamate potentials, AMPA glutamate receptors, and ... Brain Research. 481 (1): 16-24. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(89)90480-0. PMID 2565131. Sahara, Yoshinori; Robinson, Hugh P.C.; Miwa, ... Kawai, Nobufumi; Niwa, Akiko; Abe, Takashi (1982). "Spider venom contains specific receptor blocker of glutaminergic synapses ... Kawai, Nobufumi (1991). "Spider toxin and pertussis toxin differentiate post- and presynaptic glutamate receptors". ...
"Sulfated and unsulfated steroids modulate gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor function through distinct sites". Brain Res. 830 (1 ... It acts as a negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor and reverses the effects of potentiators like allopregnanolone ... The sulfate of epipreganolone, epipregnanolone sulfate, is a negative allosteric modulator of the NMDA and GABAA receptors and ... Norman G. Bowery (19 June 2006). Allosteric Receptor Modulation in Drug Targeting. CRC Press. pp. 112-. ISBN 978-1-4200-1618-5 ...
The brain seems to be able to discriminate and adapt particularly well in certain contexts. For instance, human beings seem to ... Stereochemically detailed models of the acetylcholine receptor-based synapse with the Monte Carlo method, working at the time ... Michael A. Arbib; Shun-ichi Amari; Prudence H. Arbib (2002). The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, ... Blue Brain, a project founded by Henry Markram from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, aims to construct a ...
Studying orphan brain receptors in mice. The researchers examined both rodents that had the receptor and those that did not. ... Martemyanov explains that GPR158 brain receptors are called "orphan receptors" because it is not yet known what chemical the ... So-called orphan brain receptors may explain why some people develop depression after a traumatic event. ... So, Martemyanov and colleagues examined the behavior of this brain receptor in mice that had been subjected to chronic stress. ...
It is the absence of a vital brain receptor that make schizophrenics experience turbulence in their brains, new research ... It is the absence of a vital brain receptor that makes schizophrenics experience turbulence in their brains, new research ... Parkinsons Disease Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Brain Brain Facts Ataxia Language Areas in The Brain Ways to Improve ... Language Areas in The Brain. The mechanism of how human brain processes the language to express and comprehend the verbal, ...
The switch is a brain receptor known as GABA-A; an enzyme - carbonic anhydrase - produced by the body controls how the receptor ... Findings suggest that enzyme may be manipulated phamalogically to control brain receptor ... 18 in the online edition of Nature Neuroscience finds that a region of the brain called the VTA contains receptors that, when ... Some brain tumors may respond to immunotherapy, new study suggests 11.12.2018 , Columbia University Irving Medical Center ...
Beers taste, sans alcoholic effect, triggers dopamine in brain. *. Hoarding, hand-washing and obsessive checking: Which of ... The brains dorsolateral prefrontal cortex performs some of our most important mental feats: working memory, attention, ... The brains dorsolateral prefrontal cortex performs some of our most important mental feats: working memory, attention, ... And dialing up their function in the brains of people with schizophrenia, Alzheimers, ADHD or autism may help correct some of ...
It has been demonstrated that nutritional iron-deficiency induced in rats results in the reduction of DA D2 receptor binding ... Brain Iron and Dopamine Receptor Function Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1983;37:309-21. ... which could explain the reduction of DA D2 receptor number and function. Given the fact that the highest brain concentrations ... It has been demonstrated that nutritional iron-deficiency induced in rats results in the reduction of DA D2 receptor binding ...
The receptor, which regulates most electrical signaling in the brain, is involved in several important brain activities, ... Medical Center researchers have captured the first three-dimensional snapshots of the AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor in action ... The receptor, which regulates most electrical signaling in the brain, is involved in several important brain activities, ... Scientists capture first image of major brain receptor in action New images reveal workings of a fundamental process involved ...
The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline can directly bind and stimulate the growth factor receptors TrkA and TrkB in the ... brain. Other antidepressants do not have the same properties. The finding suggests a distinct mechanism by which some ... Antidepressant directly stimulates brain growth factor receptors. Emory Health Sciences. Journal. Chemistry and Biology. Funder ... However, NGF cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and has puzzled investigators with its side effects, such as increased ...
When the beta2 nicotinic receptor in the brain was re-expressed, a normal balance between social contact and novelty seeking ... Your Brain On Nicotine: Nicotine Receptors Affect Social Behavior. by Sam Savage ... the nicotinic receptors in the prefrontal cortex are essential for social interaction in mice and that this area of the brain ... research in the FASEB Journal suggests that activation of nicotinic receptors within the prefrontal region of the mouse brain ...
... the PAC1-Receptor (PAC1-R), the VPAC1-Receptor (VPAC1-R) and VPAC2-Receptor (VPAC2-R). These receptors have high homology to ... receptor, and calcitonin receptor. This novel receptor was screened using a rat VIP receptor cDNA as a probe by cross- ... on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and somatostatin gene expression in the rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 41:157-162CrossRef ... these peptides share three class B-G-protein coupled receptors: the PAC1 receptor (PAC1-R), VPAC1 receptor (PVAC1-R) and VPAC2 ...
Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate ... Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation ... In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss ...
... has a wealth of glutamate receptors, you can find various receptor types spread across the brain. [i] ... The density of these receptors in an area of the brain called the nucleus accumbens plays an important role in both mating and ... Neuropsychiatric disease can result from too few or too many receptors in different parts of the brain, leading to too little ... What is a receptor?. A receptor is a protein that resides on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron. The binding of ...
Binding of neuroactive substances to specific receptor sites initiates sophisticated events which result in specific ... Two distinct serotonin receptors: regional variations in receptor binding in mammalian brain. Brain Res. 208: 339-347.PubMed ... Corticosterone receptors decline in a site-specific manner in the aged rat brain. Brain Res. 289: 235-240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Quantitative autoradiography of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. Brain Res. 242: 197-204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Evidence for a new G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor in mouse brain.. Breivogel CS1, Griffin G, Di Marzo V, Martin BR. ... Thus anandamide and WIN55212-2 seemed to be active in CB(1)(-/-) mouse brain membranes via a common G protein-coupled receptor ... The purpose of these studies was to support the hypothesis that an undiscovered cannabinoid receptor exists in brain. [(35)S] ... implying the existence of an unknown cannabinoid receptor subtype in brain. ...
The messenger RNA (mRNA) of this A2 receptor is found in the brain, heart, kidney and spleen. Receptor autoradiography with [3H ... Cloning and expression of the A2a adenosine receptor from guinea pig brain.. Meng F1, Xie GX, Chalmers D, Morgan C, Watson SJ ... A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the guinea pig brain A2 adenosine receptor has been isolated by ... CGS21680, a specific A2 agonist, and in situ hybridization with A2 cRNA probe in guinea pig brain indicate that the receptor is ...
Brain Receptor Function in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Official Title Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Receptor ... Brain Receptor Function in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Participants will also undergo a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain as well as eye blink trace conditioning and ... The purpose of this study is to examine the function of cortisol receptors in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). ...
... can alter brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) densities. For the proposed study, brain imaging with PET scanning ... Brain Nicotine Receptor Density in Veteran Smokers (BNRDVS). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability and response to smoking cessation treatment: a randomized trial. JAMA ... The PET scan will determine relative densities of nicotine receptors in different brain regions. The rating scales will ...
The brain receptor helped regulate metabolic processes that control body weight, and reducing the number of p75 NTR in fat ... "Since neurotrophins and their receptors control the communication between the brain and peripheral organs, they could be new ... Lowering the levels of P75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR)-a receptor involved in neuron growth and survival--protected mice fed a ... The Enigma ChemicalLiposuctionBrainBrain FactsAtaxiaQuiz on Weight Loss ...
Pentobarbital: dual actions to increase brain benzodiazepine receptor affinity Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... diazepam to benzodiazepine receptors by increasing the apparent affinity of [3H]diazepam for the benzodiazepine receptor. The ... The binding of [3H]diazepam to benzodiazepine receptors was studied in extensively washed membranes of rat cerebral cortex in ...
... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of this study is to examine the function of cortisol receptors in post-traumatic stress disorder ... More From BioPortfolio on "Brain Receptor Function in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder". *Related Companies*Related Events* ... Brain Receptor Function in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. 2014-07-23 21:52:38 , BioPortfolio ... Home » Topics » Anxiety Disorders » Research » Brain Receptor Function in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ...
Glycine and glycine receptor immunoreactivity in brain and spinal cord Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Glycine and glycine receptor immunoreactivity in brain and spinal cord. AN van den Pol and T Gorcs ... tested with different monoclonal antisera against strychnine-purified glycine receptor. Glycine receptor immunoreactivity was ... To study the distribution of glycine immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cord and brain, antisera were raised against glycine ...
The Hardcover of the Presynaptic Receptors in the Mammalian Brain by T. Dunwiddie at Barnes & Noble. FREE Shipping on $25.0 or ...
Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) antagonists might be useful for treating obesity, liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and ... Pyrazole antagonists of the CB1 receptor with reduced brain penetration. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 24(5), 1063-1070. ... Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) antagonists might be useful for treating obesity, liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and ... Select compounds were further studied using in vitro models of brain penetration, oral absorption and metabolic stability. ...
... 30.09.2015 ... DKFZ researchers identified nuclear receptor tailles (Tlx) as a valuable drug target for brain tumors especially gliobastomas. ... In addition a highly significant correlation between expression of Tlx in brain tumor cells and survival of the patient was ... In vivo experiments showed almost doubling in survival time of mice harbouring brain tumors by inhibiting the expression of Tlx ...
OBESITY and diabetes could be avoided by switching off a receptor in the brain that prevents fat burning, according to research ... Revolutionary research identifies brain receptor that regulates fat-burning. University of Glasgow researchers have identified ... OBESITY and diabetes could be avoided by switching off a receptor in the brain that prevents fat burning, according to research ... discovered that suppressing levels of a specific brain receptor can help to protect against diet-induced obesity. ...
Targeting Brain AT1 Receptors By RNA Interference. Curt D. Sigmund, Robin L. Davisson ...
Parkinson'sLigandMiceGlutamate receptorMammalian brainResearchersNeuronsRatsAcetylcholine receptorsBlood-brain bSerotonin receptorsSubtypeHippocampusInhibitionAdenosine receptorMicrogliaCellsAntagonistPharmacologicalTrkA and TrkBStimulatesVivoExpressionMembraneProtein-coupled receptorsSynaptic transmissionMechanismOpioid receptorsGlucocorticoid receptorsEstrogenMacrophagesEncephalitisPhysiologicalNeuronCholinergic receptorMineralocorticoid receptorNeuroscienceMetabolismBlockadeNeurotransmittersFunctionActivates the receptorCerebralNuclearHypothesisHeterogeneityExtracellularRoleScientistsTumorNicotine receptorPostsynaptic
- Ionotropic receptors result in quick, direct effects to signal propagation through ligand-gated ion channels. (dana.org)
- The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a nuclear receptor that functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor. (sciencemag.org)
- In vitro studies reveal that nuclear receptor coactivators enhance the transcriptional activity of steroid receptors, including estrogen (ER) and progestin receptors (PR), through ligand-dependent interactions. (biomedsearch.com)
- These findings suggest that interactions of SRC-1 from brain with PR and ER are dependent on ligand, receptor subtype, and brain region to manifest the pleiotropic functional consequences that underlie steroid-regulated behaviors. (biomedsearch.com)
- The binding of radioactive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to receptor-like sites in mammalian brain membranes was analyzed by computer for comparison with models which might explain the observed apparent heterogeneity of ligand binding. (aspetjournals.org)
- Transendothelial migration assay showed that the migration of MIP-1α (a CCR5 ligand)-expressing AD patients' T cells through in vitro blood-brain barrier model was effectively blocked by anti-RAGE Ab, overexpression of truncated RAGE, and dominant-negative PI3K, JNK/ERK, or Egr-1 RNA interference in HBMECs, respectively. (jimmunol.org)
- A cDNA encoding a G protein-coupled receptor of unknown ligand specificity was isolated from a human hippocampal cDNA library by virtue of the high degree of structural homology between members of this receptor family. (garvan.org.au)
- Moreover, in vitro experiments using cells transfected with recombinant MOR indicate that basal activity of the receptor is regulated by morphine pretreatment, resulting in at least two significant changes in receptor and ligand properties. (aspetjournals.org)
- Changes in ligand properties from neutral antagonist to inverse agonist effects also occur at other G protein-coupled receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
- So, Martemyanov and colleagues examined the behavior of this brain receptor in mice that had been subjected to chronic stress . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 35)S]GTP gamma S binding was stimulated by anandamide and WIN55212-2 in brain membranes from both CB(1)(+/+) and CB(1)(-/-) mice. (nih.gov)
- Lowering the levels of P75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR)-a receptor involved in neuron growth and survival--protected mice fed a high-fat diet from developing obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease, say scientists at the Gladstone Institutes. (medindia.net)
- The scientists discovered that the receptor helped regulate metabolic processes that control body weight, and reducing the number of p75 NTR in fat cells prevented weight gain in mice. (medindia.net)
- In vivo experiments showed almost doubling in survival time of mice harbouring brain tumors by inhibiting the expression of Tlx in tumor cells. (innovations-report.com)
- Researchers found that decreasing levels of the receptor prevented obesity and metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. (scotsman.com)
- Mice with lower levels of p75 receptors fed a high-fat diet were protectected from developing obesity. (scotsman.com)
- The team behind the California-led project used small molecules to target the p75 NTR receptor in the mice and "switch off" the signal that prevents fat burning. (scotsman.com)
- Lowering levels of p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR)-a receptor involved in neuron growth and survival-protected mice fed a high-fat diet from developing obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. (healthcanal.com)
- The Hopkins study, conducted on mice, is believed to be the first to demonstrate that a protein on the surface of nerve cells called the EP1 receptor is the switch, and that a specific compound, known as ONO-8713, turns it off. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Doré's team first injected either the EP1 blocker ONO-8713 or the EP1 stimulator, ONO-DI-004 into the ventricles (fluid-filled areas of the brain) of mice. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- In mice that had first received the EP1 stimulator ONO-DI-004, the area of brain damage was more than 28 percent greater than in control animals. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The team next showed that in mice lacking the gene for the EP1 receptor, the volume of brain damage caused by stimulation of the NMDA receptor was only about 75 percent that of mice with the EP1 gene. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- In addition, when the researchers injected the EP1 blocking drug ONO-8713 in mice lacking the gene for the EP1 receptor, the drug did not provide any additional protection. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The team blocked blood flow in one of the main arteries feeding specific areas of the brain in mice lacking the gene for the EP1 receptor and then restored blood flow after 90 minutes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Therefore, in this study, the effect of the DP1 receptor on the outcome of cerebral ischemia in wildtype (WT) and DP1 knockout (DP1(-/-)) C57Bl/6 mice was investigated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- To investigate the role of brain (pro)renin receptor in hypertension, adeno-associated virus-mediated (pro)renin receptor short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown (pro)renin receptor expression in the brain of nontransgenic normotensive and human renin-angiotensinogen double-transgenic hypertensive mice. (ahajournals.org)
- Intracerebroventricular delivery of (pro)renin receptor short-hairpin RNA significantly reduced blood pressure, cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic tone, and improved baroreflex sensitivity compared with the control virus treatment in double-transgenic mice. (ahajournals.org)
- Pro)renin receptor knockdown significantly reduced angiotensin II type 1 receptor and vasopressin levels in double-transgenic mice. (ahajournals.org)
- We conclude that central (pro)renin receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension in human renin-angiotensinogen transgenic mice. (ahajournals.org)
- Here, we identified a factor in brain tissue from adult mice that activates RXR in cell-based assays. (sciencemag.org)
- Equipped with the knowledge of acetylcholine and its potential receptors, the researchers turned to large-scale genetic screening in mice in search of the specific acetylcholine receptors. (jhunewsletter.com)
- The present study investigated whether the PGI2 IP receptor plays an important role in brain injury after global cerebral ischemia in aged mice. (mdpi.com)
- Adult young (2-3 months) and aged (12-15 months) male C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) or IP receptor knockout (IP KO) mice underwent a 12 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) or a sham surgery. (mdpi.com)
- We'd previously observed that if we bioengineered mice so their brain cells lacked this receptor, there was a huge reduction in inflammatory activity in the brain," she said. (healthcanal.com)
- This early hint that age-related changes in EP2 action in microglia might be promoting some of the neuropathological features implicated in Alzheimer's was borne out in subsequent experiments for which Andreasson's team used mice genetically predisposed to get the mouse equivalent of Alzheimer's, as well as otherwise normal mice into whose brains the scientists injected either A-beta or a control solution. (healthcanal.com)
- A research team led by Dr. Sonoko Ogawa at the University of Tsukuba showed that activation of an estrogen receptor in a region of the limbic system during the pubertal period is needed for adult mice to express typical male social behaviors. (brightsurf.com)
- The article, "Pubertal activation of estrogen receptor α in the medial amygdala is essential for the full expression of male social behavior in mice" was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (DOI:10.1073/pnas.1524907113). (brightsurf.com)
- IL-6 knockout in Axl −/− Mertk −/− double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. (jimmunol.org)
- Despite these modest apparent affinities, both compounds given orally to mice, nearly doubled steady-state tele- methylhistamine levels in brain, with ED 50 values as low as 1 and 3 mg/kg, respectively, an effect comparable to those of potent H 3 -receptor antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
- With embranes from normal ICR mice, glucose (100-400 mg/dl) caused small but significant concentrationdependent decreases in receptor affinities for [ 3 H]naloxone and [ 3 H]dihydromorphine, both in the absence and presence of 20 mM NaCI, without changing the maximum number of binding sites. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Similar results were obtained with brain membranes from streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
- By the age of 8 months, Alzheimer's mice with no functioning Scara1 genes had double the A-beta in their brains as did a control group of Alzheimer's mice, while normal mice had virtually none. (medicalxpress.com)
- Adding Protollin-stimulated microglia to brain samples from Alzheimer's mice reduced the size and number of A-beta deposits in the hippocampus, an area particularly damaged by the disease, but that reduction was significantly less when microglia from Scara1-deficient mice were used. (medicalxpress.com)
- In this study, we tested basal MOR-signaling activity in brain tissue from untreated and morphine-pretreated mice, in comparison to antagonist-induced withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice. (aspetjournals.org)
- Using guanosine 5′- O -(3-[ 35 S]thio)triphosphate ([ 35 S]GTPγS) binding and adenylyl cyclase activity assay in brain homogenates, we demonstrated that morphine pretreatment of mice enhanced basal MOR signaling in mouse brain homogenates and, moreover, caused persistent changes in the effects of naloxone and naltrexone, antagonists that elicit severe withdrawal in dependent subjects. (aspetjournals.org)
- In the current study, wild-type, heterozygous and null mutant mice were employed to test the hypothesis that genotypic depletion of the alpha7 receptor would render animals less sensitive to tissue loss and brain inflammation following experimental brain injury. (eurekamag.com)
- In wild-type mice, brain injury caused a significant decrease in BTX binding in several hippocampal regions, consistent with what we have measured in rat brain following TBI. (eurekamag.com)
- Since the perivascular macrophages expressing the mannose receptor are known to be the only constitutively phagocytic cells in the normal CNS, we injected clodronate-loaded liposomes intracerebroventricularly in control mice to deplete these cells. (soton.ac.uk)
- In these mice, there was no detectable mannose receptor expression in perivascular spaces after immunocytochemistry with the 5D3 monoclonal antibody. (soton.ac.uk)
- We developed a PET radiotracer with a unique combination of good CB1 binding affinity and relatively low non-specific binding in mice and baboon brains,' he added. (drugs-forum.com)
- Although further behavioral paradigms and additional cohorts need to be examined in humanized AVPR1A mice, the results demonstrate that species-specific variations in the genomic content of regulatory regions surrounding the AVPR1A locus are responsible for differential receptor protein expression patterns across species and that they are likely to contribute to species-specific behavioral variation. (biologists.org)
- Structures of the ion channel of the glutamate receptor in the closed (left, blue) and open (right, orange) states viewed parallel (top) or perpendicular (bottom) to the membrane, from the. (eurekalert.org)
- New York, NY (July 24, 2017)?Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) researchers have captured the first three-dimensional snapshots of the AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor in action. (eurekalert.org)
- Understanding these processes will impact future studies on glutamate receptor signaling in neurodegenerative diseases as well as drug design. (eurekalert.org)
- The new structure of an active AMPA receptor and understanding of the activating mechanism create a solid platform for developing therapeutics to treat neurological disorders that are associated with glutamate receptor dysfunction. (eurekalert.org)
- Problems with glutamate receptor function are thought to be involved in many disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, depression, Parkinson's disease, and some types of cancer. (neurosciencenews.com)
- A team led by Dr. Sriram Subramaniam of NIH's National Cancer Institute (NCI), in collaboration with colleagues at NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and others, set out to determine the structure of the glutamate receptor as it transitions from its resting state to open to desensitized (reduced response to glutamate) states. (neurosciencenews.com)
- A structure of one glutamate receptor variant in its resting state had previously been determined by using X-ray crystallography. (neurosciencenews.com)
- Structure of the glutamate receptor, showing the part where glutamate binds outside the cell and the part that spans the cell membrane (between the dotted lines). (neurosciencenews.com)
- Abstract for "Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization" by Joel R. Meyerson, Janesh Kumar, Sagar Chittori, Prashant Rao, Jason Pierson, Alberto Bartesaghi, Mark L. Mayer and Sriram Subramaniam in Nature . (neurosciencenews.com)
- Lau explained that each glutamate receptor is a united group of four protein segments that has a pocket for clamping down on glutamate like a Venus fly trap snaring a bug. (medicalxpress.com)
- Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have created high-resolution images of the glutamate receptor, a protein that plays a key role in nerve signaling. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- The discovery of a molecular "addiction switch" in the mammalian brain has the potential to control the addiction process in drug addicts, say U of T researchers. (innovations-report.com)
- Purification and analysis of the factor by mass spectrometry revealed that it is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that is highly enriched in the adult mammalian brain. (sciencemag.org)
- The researchers examined both rodents that had the receptor and those that did not. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In the current study, the researchers captured the AMPA receptor in action, as glutamate activates the receptor to allow ions to flow through its channel and initiate signaling in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
- To freeze the AMPA receptor in an active state, the researchers fused it with stargazin, a regulatory protein that prompts the channel to open. (eurekalert.org)
- Researchers have learned that receptors are equally as important as the neurochemicals they receive in maintaining healthy neurobiology. (dana.org)
- Consequently, researchers have targeted these receptors and others as a potential avenue for drug treatment. (dana.org)
- DKFZ researchers identified nuclear receptor tailles (Tlx) as a valuable drug target for brain tumors especially gliobastomas. (innovations-report.com)
- University of Glasgow researchers have identified the part of the brain that regulates fat burning. (scotsman.com)
- The researchers say the next step is to develop molecules or drugs that regulate the receptor to reproduce this effect. (scotsman.com)
- Researchers at Johns Hopkins have discovered how to block a molecular switch that triggers brain damage caused by the lack of oxygen during a stroke. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- For their experiment, researchers bathed slices of rat brain in a nicotine solution for fifteen minutes. (emaxhealth.com)
- The study shows nicotine and cocaine stimulate the same reward pathway in the brain, explaining why it's so difficult to curb nicotine addiction that the researchers say are persistent. (emaxhealth.com)
- The present book attracts researchers in the field of neurobiology and receptor biology. (novapublishers.com)
- Researchers at New York University Langone Medical Center used brain imaging techniques to find the connection, Fox News reports. (drugfree.org)
- The researchers decided to study CB1 receptors because many PTSD patients use marijuana in an attempt to relieve their symptoms, Dr. Neumeister said. (drugfree.org)
- The researchers found people with PTSD had higher levels of CB1 receptors in the parts of the brain associated with fear and anxiety, compared with participants without PTSD. (drugfree.org)
- A daylong trip through hallucinations and assorted other psychedelic experiences For the first time, researchers at the UNC School of Medicine have discovered precisely what the drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) looks like in its active state when attached to a human serotonin receptor of a brain cell, and their first-ever crystal structure revealed a major clue for why the psychoactive effects of LSD last so long. (phys.org)
- Postdoctoral researchers Daniel Wacker, PhD, and Sheng Wang, PhD, led the experiments to crystallize LSD bound to a serotonin receptor and discover why it stays bound so long. (phys.org)
- Researchers at the RIKEN Center for BDR found that two acetylcholine receptors in the brain are linked to dreaming. (jhunewsletter.com)
- Chrm1 and Chrm3 had never been extensively studied prior to this discovery, but researchers are currently aware that they are distributed over a wide range of distinct regions in the brain. (jhunewsletter.com)
- The mass die-off of nerve cells in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease may largely occur because an entirely different class of brain cells, called microglia, begin to fall down on the job, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine . (healthcanal.com)
- UConn School of Medicine researchers, in Experimental Neurology , demonstrated how they successfully inhibited an important receptor implicated in post-stroke damage and recovery. (rehabpub.com)
- By partially short-term blocking this receptor, the researchers limited the overstimulated immune response to improve both acute and chronic stroke recovery. (rehabpub.com)
- The researchers first examined a group of receptor proteins known to be used by microglia, monocytes and macrophages to interact with insoluble A-beta. (medicalxpress.com)
- After they first identified the involvement of a receptor called Scara1 in the uptake of soluble A-beta by monocytes and macrophages, the researchers then confirmed that Scara1 appears to be the major receptor for recognition and clearance of A-beta by the innate immune system, the body's first line of defense. (medicalxpress.com)
- Opioid receptors fall into this category, but researchers at the University of North Carolina and the Scripps Research Institute were able to stabilize a form of opioid receptor for X-ray crystallography through a protein-fusion process. (labroots.com)
- In one interesting discovery, the researchers found that some drugs that would normally attach to the delta receptor activated a secondary signaling pathway (the beta-arrestin pathway) in some of the modified receptors. (labroots.com)
- Development of [11C]JHU75528 will allow noninvasive research of CB1 receptor,' he added, indicating that Johns Hopkins researchers need to complete various safety studies and obtain Food and Drug Administration approval before [11C]JHU75528 can be used for PET imaging in people. (drugs-forum.com)
- To study the distribution of glycine immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cord and brain, antisera were raised against glycine conjugated to protein carriers. (jneurosci.org)
- Using Ca(2+) imaging and behavioral assays, we show that the gustatory receptor 43a (Gr43a) functions as a narrowly tuned fructose receptor in taste neurons. (nih.gov)
- By using different feeding paradigms and artificial activation of Gr43a-expressing brain neurons, we show that Gr43a is both necessary and sufficient to sense hemolymph fructose and promote feeding in hungry flies but suppress feeding in satiated flies. (nih.gov)
- Thus, our studies indicate that the Gr43a-expressing brain neurons function as a nutrient sensor for hemolymph fructose and assign opposing valence to feeding experiences in a satiation-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
- Neurons are the cells within the brain that are responsible for rapid communication of information. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons. (jimmunol.org)
- On trigeminal ganglion neurons, pain-sensing P2X3 receptors are constitutively inhibited by brain natriuretic peptide via its natriuretic peptide receptor-A. This inhibition is associated with increased P2X3 serine phosphorylation and receptor redistribution to non-lipid raft membrane compartments. (unboundmedicine.com)
- In knock-in neurons, anantin did not affect P2X3 receptor activity, membrane distribution, or serine phosphorylation level, implying ineffective inhibition by the constitutive brain natriuretic peptide/natriuretic peptide receptor-A pathway. (unboundmedicine.com)
- P2X3 receptors on mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons are subjected to contrasting modulation by inhibitory brain natriuretic peptide and facilitatory calcitonin gene-related peptide that both operate via complex intracellular signaling. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major form of dementia characterized by progressive loss of neurons and neuronal processes and impaired brain function ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The NMDA receptor is an ionotropic receptor that allows for the transfer of electrical signals between neurons in the brain and in the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
- It has been demonstrated that nutritional iron-deficiency induced in rats results in the reduction of DA D2 receptor binding sites, leading to down-regulation of dopaminergic activity similar to that observed in neuroleptic-treated animals. (nih.gov)
- In vivo binding of [3H]ketanserin was studied in various brain regions in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- M. Xiong, R. Graca, J. Li, H. Kota and J. Ye, "Blockade of Brain γ-Aminobutyric Acid a Receptors Antagonizes Hypnotic Action of Isoflurane in Rats―GABA Receptor and Isoflurane Induced Hypnosis," Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science , Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 188-193. (scirp.org)
- Purpose: In the present study we assessed the ability of BSF476921, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) kinase signal transduction, to reduce edema formation and neurologic motor dysfunction following lateral fluid percussion (FP) brain injury in rats. (iospress.com)
- M ethods: Anesthetized adult male rats were subjected to either lateral FP brain injury of moderate severity (n = 37) or sham injury (n = 22, surgery without brain injury). (iospress.com)
- But a new study finds that without properly functioning acetylcholine receptors, this circuitry will falter. (dailypress.com)
- They knocked out different genes encoding a variety of acetylcholine receptors and as a result, found that the absence of two acetylcholine receptors, Chrm1 and Chrm3, cause the elimination of REM sleep in mouse models. (jhunewsletter.com)
- Like other transmembrane receptors, acetylcholine receptors are classified according to their "pharmacology," or according to their relative affinities and sensitivities to different molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Although all acetylcholine receptors, by definition, respond to acetylcholine, they respond to other molecules as well. (wikipedia.org)
- Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR, also known as "metabotropic" acetylcholine receptors) are particularly responsive to muscarine. (wikipedia.org)
- Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors can be blocked by the drugs atropine and scopolamine. (wikipedia.org)
- However, NGF cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and has puzzled investigators with its side effects, such as increased sensitivity to pain. (eurekalert.org)
- We have studied the involvement of the thrombin receptor [protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)] in astrogliosis, because extravasation of PAR-1 activators, such as thrombin, into brain parenchyma can occur after blood-brain barrier breakdown in a number of CNS disorders. (jneurosci.org)
- We propose that this PAR-1-mediated mechanism underlying astrocyte proliferation will operate whenever there is sufficient injury-induced blood-brain barrier breakdown to allow extravasation of PAR-1 activators. (jneurosci.org)
- During parenchymal brain metastasis formation tumor cells need to migrate through cerebral endothelial cells, which form the morphological basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (mdpi.com)
- Purinergic receptor P2RY12-dependent microglial closure of the injured blood-brain barrier. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- We show here that following blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 12)-mediated chemotaxis of microglia processes is required for the rapid closure of the BBB. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- However, how circulating T cells of AD patients penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that mainly consists of endothelial cells with tight junctions is not clear. (jimmunol.org)
- For example, studies have shown that certain types of serotonin receptors are linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder. (dana.org)
- Quantitative autoradiography of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. (springer.com)
- Roth's lab has shown for the first time that LSD is very much not washed out of the serotonin receptors located within the membrane of brain cells in a few hours. (phys.org)
- The paper is titled "Channel opening and gating mechanism in AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors. (eurekalert.org)
- Thus anandamide and WIN55212-2 seemed to be active in CB(1)(-/-) mouse brain membranes via a common G protein-coupled receptor with a distinct CNS distribution, implying the existence of an unknown cannabinoid receptor subtype in brain. (nih.gov)
- The pharmacological profile and anatomical distribution of this receptor indicate that it is of the A2a subtype. (nih.gov)
- To immunohistochemically differentiate these receptor subtypes, rabbits were immunized with C-terminal fragments of these subtypes to generate receptor subtype-specific antibodies. (hindawi.com)
- Decreased serotonin turnover in the dorsal hippocampus of rat brain shortly after adrenalectomy: selective normalization after corticosterone substitution. (springer.com)
- Finally, assays of different central nervous system (CNS) regions demonstrated significant activity of cannabinoids in CB(1)(-/-) membranes from brain stem, cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, midbrain, and spinal cord, but not basal ganglia or cerebellum. (nih.gov)
- As in the hippocampus, these receptors inhibit the release of glutamate or GABA transmitter, resulting in decreased excitation or reduced inhibition based on the cell they are expressed in. (primidi.com)
- Furthermore, SRC-1 from hypothalamus, but not hippocampus, interacted more with ERalpha than ERbeta, suggesting distinct expression patterns of other cofactors in these brain regions. (biomedsearch.com)
- All TRPCs except TRPC7 have been found in various regions of the brain, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, forebrain and hippocampus. (springer.com)
- 1) The thalamus expressed only a limited number of receptor subtypes compared with the cortex, hippocampus, and other subcortical regions. (frontiersin.org)
- Importantly, blockage of intracerebral RAGE abolished the up-regulation of CCR5 on brain endothelial cells and the increased T cell infiltration in the brain induced by Aβ injection in rat hippocampus. (jimmunol.org)
- We found that TAAR5 is expressed not only in the glomerular layer in the olfactory bulb but also in deeper layers projecting to the limbic brain olfactory circuitry with prominent expression in numerous limbic brain regions, such as the anterior olfactory nucleus, the olfactory tubercle, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the amygdala, the hippocampus, the piriform cortex, the entorhinal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, and the thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
- and type 4: lesions in both the hippocampus and other brain areas. (ajnr.org)
- Short-term P2X4R inhibition works perfectly to prevent brain damage immediately after stroke as well as during long-term recovery. (rehabpub.com)
- Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3 −/− Axl −/− Mertk −/− triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. (jimmunol.org)
- In the familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 migraine model, the action of calcitonin gene-related peptide appears to prevail over brain natriuretic peptide, thus suggesting that peripheral inhibition of P2X3 receptors becomes insufficient and contributes to trigeminal pain sensitization. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Unlike reserpine, TBZ completely abolished the apomorphine-induced inhibition of DA synthesis under conditions in which this effect is mediated by presynaptic DA receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
- This inhibition may be benefit for the injured brain to prevent the brain edema. (nii.ac.jp)
- Journal Article] Overexpression of aquaporin 4 on traumatic brain edema and hypothermic inhibition of aquaporin 4. (nii.ac.jp)
- Cloning and expression of the A2a adenosine receptor from guinea pig brain. (nih.gov)
- A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the guinea pig brain A2 adenosine receptor has been isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and low-stringency-hybridization screening of a guinea pig brain cDNA library. (nih.gov)
- Radioligand binding assay and functional (GTPase and cAMP) assays of the receptor, transiently expressed in mammalian cells, demonstrate typical characteristics of the A2 type adenosine receptor. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest that CR3 limits Aβ clearance from the ISF, illustrating a novel role for CR3 and microglia in brain Aβ metabolism and defining a potential new therapeutic target in AD. (rupress.org)
- Microglia, which constitute about 10-15 percent of all the cells in the brain, actually resemble immune cells considerably more than they do nerve cells. (healthcanal.com)
- Microglia are tough cops, protecting the brain against invading bacteria and viruses by gobbling them up. (healthcanal.com)
- Isolating viable microglia from the brain is quite difficult. (healthcanal.com)
- This innate immunity includes the activation of resident brain cells such as microglia and astrocytes, and involvement of a broad variety of inflammation-related proteins, such as complement factors, acute-phase proteins, proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. (jimmunol.org)
- In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
- We are interested in the receptors that are differentially expressed by perivascular macrophages and microglia in both the normal CNS as well as in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. (soton.ac.uk)
- In particular, activated microglia and invading hematogenous leukocytes were mannose receptor negative while expressing the F4/80 antigen, macrosialin (CD68), FcRII (CD32), scavenger receptor (CD204), and CR3 (CD11b/CD18). (soton.ac.uk)
- The authors further showed that this protection was associated with better clearance of Aβ and apolipoprotein E by macrophage-like brain cells called microglia. (sciencemag.org)
- When applied to rat brain cells, they found the drug changed the frequency of its electrical activity by blocking the NMDA brain receptor. (medindia.net)
- Parkinson s disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss. (medindia.net)
- [ii] In any one synapse, there may be hundreds of molecules moving between cells and making alterations to the action potential by interacting with different receptor types. (dana.org)
- In addition to its role in the brain, p75 NTR is present throughout the body, including in the liver and fat cells. (medindia.net)
- Deleting p75 NTR only from fat cells resulted in similar outcomes as deleting the receptors from all cell types in the body. (medindia.net)
- In addition a highly significant correlation between expression of Tlx in brain tumor cells and survival of the patient was demonstrated. (innovations-report.com)
- The study's results allow scientists to now prove that the receptor helps regulate metabolic processes that control body weight, and that reducing the number of receptors in fat cells prevents weight gain. (scotsman.com)
- Receptors are protein-docking sites on cells into which "signaling" molecules such as nerve chemicals or hormones insert themselves. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The Hopkins study results suggest that PGE2 causes brain damage following stroke by binding to the EP1 receptor on nerve cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The findings presented here demonstrate the expression of CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors on cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (HBEC). (unboundmedicine.com)
- therefore, in the present study we sought to investigate the role of CB2 receptors in the interaction of melanoma cells with the brain endothelium. (mdpi.com)
- First, we identified the presence of CB1, CB2(A), GPR18 (transcriptional variant 1) and GPR55 receptors in brain endothelial cells, while melanoma cells expressed CB1, CB2(A), GPR18 (transcriptional variants 1 and 2), GPR55 and GPR119. (mdpi.com)
- We observed that activation of CB2 receptors with JWH-133 reduced the adhesion of melanoma cells to the layer of brain endothelial cells. (mdpi.com)
- Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a receptor that recognizes apoptotic cells through its conserved type I thrombospondin repeats and triggers their engulfment through an ELMO1/Dock/Rac1 signaling module. (pnas.org)
- Recognition of bacteria by host cells is essential for initiation of the innate immune response, in which pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play an important role ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- PRRs represent a family of molecules that include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, C-type lectin receptors, and cytosolic sensors such as NOD1 and NOD2 that allow cells to recognize and clear unwanted particles or foreign molecules ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- More recently it was discovered that BAI1 is expressed on macrophages, where it acts as a receptor for the clearance of apoptotic cells ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Also, brain cells eventually respond to this strange molecule by sucking the receptor into the cell, where it - along with the LSD-is degraded or disassembled for recycling. (phys.org)
- Although other labs have reported that LSD "washes" out of the brain's fluid within four hours, such experiments could not determine what was happening on or inside brain cells. (phys.org)
- Cells have receptors on their surface that serve as gatekeepers to transmit signals between the outside and inside. (neurosciencenews.com)
- Nerve cells contain glutamate receptors that span the cell membrane. (neurosciencenews.com)
- The process is crucial for communication between nerve cells and plays a role in brain development, learning, and memory. (neurosciencenews.com)
- To understand why ERα silencing in different areas of the brain had varying effects, the team examined MeA cells. (brightsurf.com)
- Damaged or dying brain cells release excessive amounts of stored adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that carries energy within cells, leading to over-stimulation of its receptor P2X4 (P2X4R). (rehabpub.com)
- When P2X4R is overactive, it causes a cascade of detrimental effects in brain cells, leading to ischemic brain injury. (rehabpub.com)
- There is a widespread presence of both adenosine (P1) and P2 nucleotide receptors in the brain on both neurones and glial cells. (eurekaselect.com)
- How circulating T cells infiltrate into the brain in Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unclear. (jimmunol.org)
- We previously reported that amyloid β (Aβ)-dependent CCR5 expression in brain endothelial cells is involved in T cell transendothelial migration. (jimmunol.org)
- We showed that inhibitors of JNK, ERK, and PI3K significantly decreased Aβ-induced CCR5 expression in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). (jimmunol.org)
- Besides periphery, activated T cells also exist as infiltrates in the brain of AD ( 19 , 24 , 25 , 26 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Particularly, increased occurrence of T cells was found in the brains of AD patients compared with subjects with non-AD degenerative dementias and aged-matched controls ( 26 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Our previous study revealed that the MIP-1α interacts with CCR5 on brain endothelial cells to induce tight junction opening for T cell TEM, and that CCR5 expression in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was up-regulated by Aβ in a time- and dose-dependent manner ( 28 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Johns Hopkins biophysicists have discovered that full activation of a protein ensemble essential for communication between nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord requires a lot of organized back-and-forth motion of some of the ensemble's segments. (medicalxpress.com)
- There would be sharply reduced communication between nerve cells in our brains if these receptors were disabled, he added, and thought and normal brain function in general would be severely compromised. (medicalxpress.com)
- All cells have protein-based receptors on their surface, which act as specific docking sites for key chemicals that trigger a cellular reaction. (integrativepractitioner.com)
- Activating mutations in EGF receptor (EGFR) are commonly found in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and cells expressing mutant alleles depend on EGFR signaling for survival. (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, receptor cross-talk in some cells may not be bidirectional, but rather unilateral from EGFR to MET ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The cloned receptor DNA was transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. (garvan.org.au)
- We identified a receptor protein that mediates clearance from the brain of soluble A-beta by cells of the innate immune system ," says Joseph El Khoury, MD, of the Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases in the MGH Division of Infectious Diseases, co-corresponding author of the report. (medicalxpress.com)
- At early stages, these cells mount a response against the buildup of A-beta, the primary component of the toxic plaques found in the brains of patients with the devastating neurological disorder . (medicalxpress.com)
- But as the disease progresses and A-beta plaques become larger, not only do these cells lose their ability to take up A-beta, they also release inflammatory chemicals that cause further damage to brain tissue . (medicalxpress.com)
- In their investigation of factors that may underlie the breakdown of the immune system's clearance of A-beta, El Khoury's team with the hypothesis that, in addition to recognizing and binding to the insoluble form of A-beta found in amyloid plaques , the brain's immune cells might also interact with soluble forms of A-beta that could begin accumulating in the brain before plaques appear. (medicalxpress.com)
- Mannose receptor expression by macrophages located at blood-brain (perivascular), brain-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (meningeal), and CSF-blood (choroid plexus) interfaces supports a functional role of these cells in responding to external stimuli such as infection. (soton.ac.uk)
- Here, we have optimized HER2-CAR T cells for the treatment of breast to brain metastases, and determined optimal second generation CAR design and route of administration for xenograft mouse models of breast metastatic brain tumors, including multifocal and leptomeningeal disease. (aacrjournals.org)
- We also evaluated HER2-CAR T cells delivered by intravenous, local intratumoral, or regional intraventricular routes of administration using in vivo human xenograft models of breast cancer that have metastasized to the brain. (aacrjournals.org)
- Importantly, we demonstrated robust anti-tumor efficacy following regional intraventricular delivery of HER2-CAR T cells for treatment of multifocal brain metastases and leptomeningeal disease. (aacrjournals.org)
- Conclusions: Our study shows the importance of CAR design in defining an optimized CAR T cell, and highlights intraventricular delivery of HER2-CAR T cells for treating multifocal brain metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
- The selective TRPV1 receptor antagonist (capsazepine), CB1 receptor antagonist (SR141716A) and CB2 receptor antagonist (SR144528) inhibited these responses. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Is the Subject Area "Receptor antagonist therapy" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- The natriuretic peptide receptor-A antagonist anantin reverses these effects. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Binding of neuroactive substances to specific receptor sites initiates sophisticated events which result in specific pharmacological, behavioral and physiological responses. (springer.com)
- This work represents the first cloning of an A2a receptor in a rodent species, offers a complete pharmacological characterization of the receptor and provides an anatomical comparison between binding profile and gene expression of the receptor. (nih.gov)
- Thus, the data demonstrate the presence of another functional CRF receptor, with significant differences in the pharmacological profile and tissue distribution from the CRF1 receptor, which would predict important functional differences between the two receptors. (pnas.org)
- have addressed the physiological and pharmacological relevance of basal receptor activity in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
- The mechanisms by which PAR-1 stimulates glial proliferation appear to be related to the ability of PAR-1 receptor signaling to induce sustained extracellular receptor kinase (ERK) activation. (jneurosci.org)
- Angiotensin II increases blood pressure and stimulates thirst and sodium appetite in the brain. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore, a small molecule modulator of CR3 reduces soluble Aβ levels and Aβ half-life in brain interstitial fluid (ISF), as measured by in vivo microdialysis. (rupress.org)
- In vivo binding of [3H]ketanserin on serotonin S2-receptors in rat brain. (biomedsearch.com)
- We conclude that in contrast to "typical" antipsychotics, "atypical" antipsychotics stimulate histamine neuron activity via blockade of the 5-HT 2A receptor in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
- The usefulness of in vivo (in the body) radioligands for studying cerebral receptors by PET depends on the image quality, and a good PET radiotracer must display a high level of specific receptor binding and low non-specific binding (binding with other proteins, cell membranes, etc.), said Horti. (drugs-forum.com)
- In situ hybridization studies indicate specific expression within the brain in the ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus, the lateral septum, the amygdala, and entorhinal cortex, but there is unremarkable expression in the pituitary. (pnas.org)
- This study aimed to enhance our understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. (lu.se)
- This treatment effectively reduced the cell surface expression and activation of P2X4R without reducing its total protein level in brain tissue after stroke injury. (rehabpub.com)
- This suggests a high correlation between serotonin availability and receptor expression at these locations. (frontiersin.org)
- This species difference demonstrates the importance of exploring the expression profiles of serotonin and its receptors in primates. (frontiersin.org)
- In view of the heterogeneity of serotonin receptor subtypes, we wanted to obtain an integrated view of serotonergic modulation in primates by compiling the expression profiles of all the subtypes along with the termination pattern of serotonergic projections in the primate, which may contribute to an understanding of serotonin function in the primate brain. (frontiersin.org)
- Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Aβ-activated JNK, ERK, and PI3K promoted brain endothelial CCR5 expression via transcription factor Egr-1. (jimmunol.org)
- an Aβ receptor) effectively blocked Aβ-induced JNK, ERK, and PI3K activation, contributing to CCR5 expression in HBMECs. (jimmunol.org)
- Our results suggest that intracerebral Aβ interaction with RAGE at BBB up-regulates endothelial CCR5 expression and causes circulating T cell infiltration in the brain in AD. (jimmunol.org)
- While TAAR1 expression has been reported in the brain as well as in peripheral organs, the other TAARs appear to be expressed in the olfactory epithelium of all the species studied ( Liberles, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
- We also found that deficiency of this receptor in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease leads to greater A-beta deposition and accelerated death, while upregulating its expression enhanced A-beta clearance from the brain. (medicalxpress.com)
- Although the results of this study were largely negative, it is still plausible that changes in the activity/expression of native alpha7 receptors contribute to pathophysiology following TBI. (eurekamag.com)
- In this article we report the use of a well-characterized monoclonal antibody, 5D3, to localize the expression of the mannose receptor to perivascular macrophages in the normal CNS and in various models of brain pathology. (soton.ac.uk)
- A receptor is a protein that resides on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron. (dana.org)
- Together with constant progress obtained for the biochemical characterization of those binding sites by conventional binding assays (mainly carried out on membrane preparations), recent autoradiographic techniques provide us with new interpretations about the numerous interactions underlying brain functions. (springer.com)
- What sets TRPCs apart from other subfamilies in TRPs is that their activation, stimulated by a membrane receptor-phospholipid C (PLC) cascade, contributes to the slow and sustained elevation of intracellular free calcium. (springer.com)
- Because of the high homology of the amino acid sequences of PACAP and VIP, these peptides share three class B-G-protein coupled receptors: the PAC1-Receptor (PAC1-R), the VPAC1-Receptor (VPAC1-R) and VPAC2-Receptor (VPAC2-R). These receptors have high homology to each other, and their high homology is utilized for these discoveries. (springer.com)
- These peptides share two common G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), VPAC1-R and VPAC2-R, while PACAP also has an additional specific receptor, PAC1-R. PACAP is primarily expressed in nervous tissues, where its receptors are also widely distributed. (springer.com)
- In contrast, metabotropic receptors do not have channels and work in a more indirect fashion through G-protein coupled receptors. (dana.org)
- These prostanoids mediate their effects mainly through G-protein-coupled receptors, i.e. (mdpi.com)
- Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a class of G-protein-coupled receptors found in mammals. (frontiersin.org)
- In contrast, the mAChRs are not ion channels, but belong instead to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors that activate other ionic channels via a second messenger cascade. (wikipedia.org)
- Synaptic transmission begins when one brain cell releases a neurochemical into the synapse . (dana.org)
- Receptors can result in both direct and indirect effects on synaptic transmission, depending on the receptor type. (dana.org)
- Thus, understanding all of these behavioral actions of alcohol requires some knowledge of neuronal signaling in the brain and, especially, the process of synaptic transmission. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Calcium ions, one of the most important types of second messengers, mediate a variety of physiological functions in the brain, including progenitor cell proliferation, dendritic formation, synaptic transmission and neuronal survival. (springer.com)
- Adenosine receptors play a major role in presynaptic neuromodulation, while P2X receptors are involved in fast synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. (eurekaselect.com)
- The mechanism of how human brain processes the language to express and comprehend the verbal, written, gestures and symbols is still a mystery. (medindia.net)
- MET amplification as a mechanism of acquired resistance to EGF receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) led to investigation of novel combinations of EGFR and MET kinase inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, the mechanism of sodium's effect was poorly understood, in part because the receptors were not stable enough to be mapped by X-ray crystallography. (labroots.com)
- The team also expects these findings to transfer to the other main classes of opioid receptor (mu receptors and kappa receptors), due to similarities in the architecture of the sodium-retaining sites and the presumed mechanism for orientation change. (labroots.com)
- Dexamethasone decreases insulin-like growth factor-I and -II via a glucocorticoid receptor dependent mechanism in developing rat brain. (nel.edu)
- The approximately threefold greater binding of beta-endorphin suggests that individuals carrying A118G may show differences in some of the functions mediated by beta-endorphin action at the altered mu opioid receptors," says Kreek. (bio-medicine.org)
- For years, scientists have known that sodium is a key component in basic cell function, and also that sodium ions have an indirect switching effect on the signaling of opioid receptors-an important component of the system controlling pain responses, mood, addictive behaviors and reward mechanisms. (labroots.com)
- Estrogen treatment enhances dopamine receptor sensitivity in the rat striatum. (springer.com)
- Briefly, estrogen mediates its multiple functions in the brain through two well-characterized receptors: ERá and ERâ. (novapublishers.com)
- Furthermore, the role of estrogen and its receptors are explained in the context of aging. (novapublishers.com)
- Taken together, this book shall be self-explanatory concerning estrogen action in the brain in various aspects. (novapublishers.com)
- Testosterone binds and activates estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) after it is converted into estradiol by a process known as aromatization. (brightsurf.com)
- The active metabolite of vitamin D 3 has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. (mdpi.com)
- Together these findings identify BAI1 as a pattern recognition receptor that mediates nonopsonic phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages and directly affects the host response to infection. (pnas.org)
- Anti- N -methyl-D-aspertate receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune-mediated disease without specific brain MRI features. (ajnr.org)
- Our aim was to investigate the brain MR imaging characteristics of anti- N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and their associations with clinical outcome at a 2-year follow-up. (ajnr.org)
- We enrolled 53 patients with anti- N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and performed 2-year follow-up. (ajnr.org)
- Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a virus. (baptisthealth.net)
- When this reaction is against proteins in the brain it's called autoimmune encephalitis. (baptisthealth.net)
- Symptoms of anti-NDMA receptor encephalitis that are similar to those that accompany certain psychotic disorders, like schizophrenia and bipolar episodes, have led to misdiagnoses in the past," Dr. De Los Rios said. (baptisthealth.net)
- While the effects of Ang II on the adrenal are thought to arise primarily from blood-borne Ang II, it is clear that there is a local brain angiotensinergic system as illustrated by biochemical, immunohistochemical, behavioral, physiological, and receptor binding studies [ 4 - 8 ] and reviews [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- This book discusses the latest findings on the physiological and pathological functions of transient receptor potential canonical/classical (TRPC) proteins in the brain. (springer.com)
- This review examines evidence for non-immunological roles of TNFRSF members in brain development, function and maintenance under normal physiological conditions. (degruyter.com)
- By contrast, we demonstrate that Idol is a primary physiological regulator of LDLR protein in the brain, controlling the clearance of both ApoE-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and Aβ. (sciencemag.org)
- The p75 neurotrophin (NTR) receptor controls a range of functions throughout the central nervous system and is involved in neuron growth and survival. (scotsman.com)
- Lower levels of p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) - a receptor involved in neuron growth and survival - has been shown to "put the brakes" on the body's metabolism of fat. (healthcanal.com)
- In addition to reviewing the functions of TRPCs in brain development and neuron transmission, it mainly covers the potential roles of TRPCs in brain disorders. (springer.com)
- A summary of the results, published online in the journal Neuron on Aug. 7, shows that full activation of so-called ionotropic glutamate receptors is more complex than previously envisioned. (medicalxpress.com)
- Scienitsts led by Kirill Martemyanov, Ph.D. - co-chair of the TSRI Department of Neuroscience - focused on a brain receptor called GPR158 after they noticed that levels of the GPR158 protein were very high in people with depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A study published Jan. 18 in the online edition of Nature Neuroscience finds that a region of the brain called the VTA contains receptors that, when exposed to a certain enzyme, can control the switch from an addicted to non-addicted state and back again. (innovations-report.com)
- S. Ueno, J. Bracamontes, C. Zorumski, D. S. Weiss and J. H. Steinbach, "Bicuculline and Gabazine Are Allosteric Inhibitors of Channel Opening of the GABAA Receptor," The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1997, pp. 625-634. (scirp.org)
- Discipline of Neuroscience and Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (Q.H. (ahajournals.org)
- This study was conducted to measure the effects of opioid and NK1R blockade on the potentiation of brain stimulation reward (BSR) by morphine using the intracranial self-stimulation method. (diva-portal.org)
- The decrease in θ(0) by morphine reflects its rewarding effects, which were attenuated by NK1R and opioid receptor blockade. (diva-portal.org)
- To quantify the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) blockade effect, rat pups in the DexTD group on PD 3 and 5 received vehicle or RU486 (GR blocker, 60 mg/kg) s.c., twenty minutes prior to Dex treatment. (nel.edu)
- The binding of neurotransmitters to receptors is often described using a lock and key metaphor. (dana.org)
- After binding with a specific receptor type, neurotransmitters may also activate so-called second messengers, or other proteins or enzymes within the cell that changes its internal chemistry. (dana.org)
- Chemists were able to use this structural knowledge to theorize, design, and synthesize modified versions of the delta receptor and test their effect on neurotransmitters. (labroots.com)
- Scientists have been looking more closely at some of the differences between the brain function of people with and without the condition. (medindia.net)
- Our hope would be that in the long term this could lead to a method for actually improving brain function, not only for people with schizophrenia, but potentially for many other brain conditions. (medindia.net)
- And dialing up their function in the brains of people with schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, ADHD or autism may help correct some of those disorders' symptoms, say the authors of the article in PNAS. (dailypress.com)
- Additionally, nutritional iron-deficiency lowers brain iron and interferes with protein synthesis in this organ, which could explain the reduction of DA D2 receptor number and function. (nih.gov)
- This provides the first precise insights into how receptors mediate brain function. (eurekalert.org)
- The purpose of this study is to examine the function of cortisol receptors in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study will evaluate the function of cortisol receptors to determine their roles in maintaining PTSD HPA axis dysregulation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Professor George Baillie, from the University of Glasgow's Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, said: "This research is important because it identifies a new function for a receptor called p75. (healthcanal.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Human brain endothelium: coexpression and function of vanilloid and endocannabinoid receptors. (unboundmedicine.com)
- This book provides students and investigators with comprehensive information on the regulation, function and potential of TRPCs and brain diseases in order to attract more attention to this field. (springer.com)
- ERα is known to function differently in different parts of the adult mouse brain. (brightsurf.com)
- In particular, the last decade has provided evidence for important roles in brain development, function and the emergent field of neuronal homeostasis. (degruyter.com)
- In addition, several aspects of brain function during inflammation will also be described, when illuminating and relevant to the non-immunological role of TNFRSF members. (degruyter.com)
- It isn't clear yet how this rocking motion affects receptor function, but we now know that activation depends on more than how much each glutamate-binding segment clamps down," says Lau. (medicalxpress.com)
- The mu opioid receptor system plays a key role in the body, including pain management, the stress response, normal gastrointestinal function and the immune system. (bio-medicine.org)
- After assessment of motor function using a standard 28-point neuroscore, animals were sacrificed 24 hours following trauma and their brains evaluated for regional water content using the wet-weight/dry-weight technique. (iospress.com)
- The binding of [3H]diazepam to benzodiazepine receptors was studied in extensively washed membranes of rat cerebral cortex in the presence of the depressant barbiturate, pentobarbital. (sciencemag.org)
- Development of drugs to stimulate the DP1 receptor in brain could provide a new therapeutic strategy against cerebral ischemia and potentially other neurological conditions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Quantitative imaging of the central CB1 using PET could provide a great opportunity for the development of cannabinergic medications and for studying the role of CB1 in these disorders,' added the co-author of 'PET Imaging of Cerebral Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors with [11C]JHU75528. (drugs-forum.com)
- Even though PET methodology was developed 30 years ago, its application for studying cerebral receptors is limited due to the lack of suitable radioligands,' said Horti. (drugs-forum.com)
- Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a small molecule VEGFR kinase inhibitor reducing cerebral edema in a widely accepted model of brain injury. (iospress.com)
- The purpose of these studies was to support the hypothesis that an undiscovered cannabinoid receptor exists in brain. (nih.gov)
- The two-site model fit the data better than did models with one site, three sites, or negative cooperativity, but the fit to the mobile receptor-effector coupling hypothesis was almost as good as that of the two-site model. (aspetjournals.org)
- Thus the heterogeneity of GABA binding would appear to involve two discrete populations of receptors on the grounds of noninterconvertible heterogeneity under the conditions tested, whereas the similarity in the drug specificity of the two populations would be more consistent with a model involving multiple coupled or conformational states of a single receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
- Its name derives from an initial observation that an extracellular fragment of the receptor inhibited neovascularization in an experimental brain tumor model ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Thrombin has both extracellular proteolysis and cell mediated functions thorough the protease-activated receptor 2. (nii.ac.jp)
- New research published in the FASEB Journal ( http://www.fasebj.org ) suggests that these receptors also play an important role in social interaction and the ability to choose between competing motivations. (redorbit.com)
- In fact, studies have demonstrated that receptors play a critical role in mood, learning, and the formation of social bonds. (dana.org)
- Receptors play an important role in both neuropathology and behavior in animals and humans. (dana.org)
- Down-regulation of beta adrenergic receptors following repeated desmethyl-imipramine injections: permissive role of serotoninergic axons. (springer.com)
- These findings demonstrate the critical role played by the EP1 receptor in brain damage caused by stroke," he added. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- PAR1 - / - animals show a reduced astrocytic response to cortical stab wound, suggesting that PAR-1 activation plays a key role in astrogliosis associated with glial scar formation after brain injury. (jneurosci.org)
- It has long been described as a modulator of the neuroinflammatory process, but little is known regarding the role of its Galpha(s)-coupled receptor, DP1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In this study, we uncovered a novel role for the microglial complement receptor 3 (CR3) in the regulation of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) clearance independent of phagocytosis. (rupress.org)
- The localization of AT 1 receptors in the rat brain regions mediating pressor and dipsogenic actions of Ang II, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and area postrema [ 27 - 29 ] is consistent with this role. (hindawi.com)
- The research team, led by University of Tokyo Professor Hiroki Ueda, was aware from previous studies that acetylcholine and its receptors might play a role in inducing REM sleep. (jhunewsletter.com)
- Identification of a protein that appears to play an important role in the immune system's removal of amyloid beta (A-beta) protein from the brain could lead to a new treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease. (medicalxpress.com)
- Role of Protease-Activated Receptor on Brain Injury. (nii.ac.jp)
- On the other hand, we found a clear role of aquaporin on the brain edema. (nii.ac.jp)
- since the receptors also play an important role in normal glutamatergic neurotransmission, blocking them causes side-effects. (wikipedia.org)
- OBESITY and diabetes could be avoided by switching off a receptor in the brain that prevents fat burning, according to research by Scottish scientists. (scotsman.com)
- Scientists from the University of Glasgow and the Gladstone Institutes in California, discovered that suppressing levels of a specific brain receptor can help to protect against diet-induced obesity. (scotsman.com)
- Finally, the Hopkins scientists showed that stimulation of EP1 receptors triggers the damage caused when blood flow is suddenly restored after a stroke. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Scientists say even though the two feel very different, they both stimulate reward pathways in the brain that cause permanent changes. (emaxhealth.com)
- Now, because of the work of Roth's lab, scientists can begin to parse how the drug sparks such a dramatic reaction in the brain, just as the scientific and medical communities renew interest in the drug as a potential treatment for a number of conditions, such as cluster headaches, substance abuse, and anxiety associated with life-threatening conditions. (phys.org)
- The scientists note that while several technical hurdles remain, the technique will allow them to analyze the structures of many other proteins, as well as study receptor-drug interactions. (neurosciencenews.com)
- The purpose of this study is to evaluate if the study drug palbociclib has anti-tumor activity against the breast cancer that has spread to the brain and also to determine the overall radiographic response rate in the CNS. (pfizer.com)
- Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) members were initially identified as immunological mediators, and are still commonly perceived as immunological molecules. (degruyter.com)
- Brain injury and brain tumor causes brain edema. (nii.ac.jp)
- For the proposed study, brain imaging with PET scanning will be used to determine nicotine receptor densities in Veteran cigarette smokers with and without heavy marijuana or caffeine use, and in menthol and non-menthol Veteran smokers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Cigarette smoking contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality among patients with drug (and alcohol) dependencies, making it vital to understand better the complex relationship between drug/alcohol dependence and brain nicotine receptor densities in cigarette smokers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The distribution of glycine-immunoreactive boutons correlated well with the distribution of glycine receptor immunoreactivity on postsynaptic elements of the spinal cord, tested with different monoclonal antisera against strychnine-purified glycine receptor. (jneurosci.org)
- We conclude that, in addition to depleting monoamines, TBZ also blocks both presynaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors in rat brain. (aspetjournals.org)