Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidNeurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Connectome: A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Rats, Inbred F344Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
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"Sensations and Brain Processes." Reprinted in Materialism and the Mind-Body Problem, ed. D. Rosenthal. Indianapolis: Hackett, ... Smart, J. J. C. (1959). "Sensations and Brain Processes". The Philosophical Review. 68 (2): 141. doi:10.2307/2182164. ISSN 0031 ... could be instantiated by many different neurological processes (even non-neurological processes, in the case of machine or ... Token physicalism is the proposition that "for every actual particular (object, event or process) x, there is some physical ...
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The mental state of belief, for example, just is whatever brain or neurological process that realizes the appropriate belief ... Smart, J.J.C. (1959). "Sensations and Brain Processes". Philosophical Review LXVIII. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ... Searle, John (1980). "Minds, Brains and Programs". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 3. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00005756. Archived ... Searle, John (1980). "Minds, Brains and Programs". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 3. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00005756. Archived ...
But where does this relation come from? In the brain, there are only electrochemical processes and these seem not to have ... The brain is simply the wrong context for the use of mental vocabulary-the search for mental states of the brain is therefore a ... Smart, J.J.C. (1956). "Sensations and Brain Processes". Philosophical Review. Donald Davidson (1980). Essays on Actions and ... ISBN 0-226-73295-9. Place, Ullin (1956). "Is Consciousness a Brain Process?". British Journal of Psychology. 47: 44-50. doi: ...
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Vision, Brain, and Behavior in Birds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. 239. Koboroff, A., Kaplan, G. and Rogers, L.J. (2008). " ... This theory postulates that changing sounds such as these are preferentially processed by the left hemisphere. As a result of ... Cattle use visual/brain lateralisation in their visual scanning of novel and familiar stimuli. Domestic cattle prefer to view ... Functional and structural differences between left and right brain hemispheres can be found in many other vertebrates and also ...
Brain Processes, Theories and Models. An international conference in honor of W.S. McCulloch 25 years after his death. ... In 1945, the first volume of his book Research on the new Brain Dynamics. The brain activity as a function of the dynamic ... He interpreted this syndrome by developing a model of brain dynamics based on neurophysiological studies of brain injury cases ... Brain Processes, Theories and Models. An International Conference in Honor of W.S. McCulloch 25 years after His Death. ...
Luria, A.R. (1966). Human brain and psychological processes. New York: Harper & Row. Gallagher, Sherri L.; Sullivan, Amanda L ... The original KABC was developed from neuropsychological theory, merging left brain-right brain research on cerebral ... Luria's model consists of four scales: Sequential Processing Scale, Simultaneous processing Scale, Learning Ability and ... The KABC focuses on the processes needed to solve problems rather than their content i.e. verbal vs. non verbal. The KABC was ...
Ridgway N, Milders M, Sahraie A (May 2008). "Redundant target effect and the processing of colour and luminance". Exp Brain Res ... The neocortex in the mammalian brain has parcellations that primarily process sensory input from one modality. For example, ... The Role of Visual Cortex in Tactile Processing: A Metamodal Brain. Touch and blindness : psychology and neuroscience. Mahwah, ... A framework for defining "early" visual processing". Exp Brain Res. 142 (1): 139-50. doi:10.1007/s00221-001-0906-7. PMID ...
The parietal lobes of the brain are largely involved in attention. Lesions to this region of the brain in humans result in ... There are many aspects to the process of decision making, including those discussed above. Other processes involved that ... The process of planning would be done congruently with decision making in determining the outcome behavior. As has been shown ... doi:10.1093/brain/112.6.1587. Harrison, Y.; Horne, J.A. (1999). "One night of sleep loss impairs innovative thinking and ...
Discourse Processes, 14, 133-145. Whitney, P., Arnett, P.A., Driver, A., & Budd, D. (2001). Measuring central executive ... functioning: What's in a reading span?. Brain and Cognition, 45, 1-14. van den Noort, Maurits; Bosch, Peggy; Haverkort, Marco; ... 2007). Genetics of verbal working memory processes: A twin study of middle-aged men. Neuropsychology, 21(5), 569-580. doi: ... cognitive processing, and reading comprehension that was first published by Meredyth Daneman and Patricia Carpenter in 1980. ...
Frith was one of the first neuroscientists to recognise "autism as a condition of the brain rather than the result of cold ... ISBN 0-19-920756-9. Frith, Uta (1983). Cognitive Processes in Spelling. London, UK: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-268662-4. Frith, ... Kellaway, Kate (17 February 2013). "Uta Frith: 'The brain is not a pudding; it is an engine'". London, UK. Retrieved 5 April ... ISBN 1-84310-419-9. Elisabeth Hill; Frith, Uta (2004). Autism, mind, and brain. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ...
Brain Impairment, 10(1), 23-33. Einstein, G.O., & McDaniel, M.A. (2005). Prospective Memory: Multiple retrieval processes. ... The parietal lobe is typically involved in processing sensory information and is situated in the superior region of the brain. ... LeDoux, J.E. (1993). Emotional memory systems in the brain. Behavioural Brain Research, 58, 69-79. Dickerson, B.C., & ... even when no preparatory attentional processes are engaged). Therefore, multiple processes can be used for successful ...
Plato believed that the brain was where all mental thought and processes happened. In contrast, Aristotle believed that the ... Lesions can be placed with relatively high accuracy "Thanks to a variety of brain 'atlases' which provide a map of brain ... It can monitor brain development and cognitive engagement. Functional neuroanatomy - A more complex counterpart of phrenology. ... For example, when using an electrolytic probe to create a purposeful lesion in a distinct region of the rat brain, surrounding ...
We're born to learn: using the brain's natural learning process to create today's curriculum (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, ... These observations suggest that underlying an apparently parallel process of face perception, a serial oculomotor process is ... Thus, it appears that a neural code or representation for the learned skill is created in our brain, which is usually called ... Animal Behavior Processes. 32 (2): 150-163. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.32.2.150. ISSN 0097-7403. OCLC 109191993. PMID 16634658. ...
Bower, J.E.; Kemeny, ME; Taylor, SE; Fahey, JL (1998). "Cognitive processing, discovery of meaning, CD 4 decline, and AIDS- ... McKay, Ryan T.; Dennett, Daniel C. (2009). "The evolution of misbelief". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Cambridge University ... Dykman, B. M.; Abramson, L. Y.; Alloy, L. B.; Hartlage, S. (1989). "Processing of ambiguous and unambiguous feedback by ... Kruger, Justin; Chan, Steven; Roese, Neal (2009). "(Not so) positive illusions". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Cambridge ...
Cerebral organization of component processes in reading. Brain, 119, 1221-1238. Pugh, K. R., Sandak, R., Frost, S. J., Moore, D ... From Brain Scan to Lesson Plan Watch this. No. Read it! Pugh speaks at OAS symposium on school readiness and brain ... Cerebral organization of component processes in reading. Brain, ,119, 1221-1238 Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A., Pugh, K.R., ... He was among the first scientists to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal brain activity associated with ...
Event-related potentials showed that enactment leads to deeper processing of new information, eliciting the assumption that by ... Brain, and Education 5:4, 196-211. Quinn-Allen, Linda (1995) "The effects of emblematic gestures on the development and access ... Brain Research 1101:102-109. Kelly, Spencer D., Tara McDevitt, & Megan Esch (2009) "Brief training with co-speech gesture lends ... a hand to word learning in a foreign language". Language and Cognitive Processes, 24:313-334.. ...
Functional-MRI evidence for context-dependent retrieval processes". Brain. 121 (10): 1985-2002. doi:10.1093/brain/121.10.1985. ... Functional-MRI evidence for context-dependent retrieval processes". Brain. 121 (10): 1985-2002. doi:10.1093/brain/121.10.1985. ... However, due to the fact that extinction is a context-dependent process, it may lead to relapse once the patient is no longer ... A cue may be considered "better" simply because it has been more deeply processed, repeated more often, or has fewer items ...
... a functional MRI study on the modularity of reading and object processing". Brain Topogr. 20 (2): 89-96. doi:10.1007/s10548-007 ... American English Auditory processing disorder British English Reading for special needs Whole language Note: This article uses ... "An Evaluation of Basic Reading Processes" (pdf). Powered by Google Docs. Borowsky R, Esopenko C, Cummine J, Sarty GE (2007). " ... Synthetic phonics does not teach anything about reading as a meaning-focused process. It highlights decoding and pronunciation ...
Lalonde R, Botez MI (1990). "The cerebellum and learning processes in animals". Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 15 (3 ... Brain. 114 (1A): 333-48. PMID 1705463. Reader TA, Strazielle C, Botez MI, Lalonde R (March 1998). "Brain dopamine and amino ... as well as concentrations and receptor density of these neurotransmitters and glutamic acid in mouse brain, he and his co- ... "Regional distribution of the 5-HT innervation in the brain of normal and lurcher mice as revealed by [3H]citalopram ...
Tegmark, Max (April 2000). "Importance of quantum decoherence in brain processes". Phys. Rev. E. 61 (4): 4194-4206. doi:10.1103 ... Popper, Karl & Eccles, John (2002). The Self and Its Brain. Springer Verlag. ISBN 3-492-21096-1. Chalmers, David J. (2003). " ... been to suggest the mind influences the distribution but not the quantity of energy in the brain and to deny that the brain is ... dark matter or some other currently unknown scientific process. Another possible resolution is akin to parallelism-Eugene Mills ...
These four processes are functions of four areas of the brain. Planning is broadly located in the front part of our brains, the ... Simultaneous processing and Successive processing occur in the posterior region or the back of the brain. Simultaneous ... The three aspects of intelligence are referred to as processing skills. The processing skills are applied to the pursuit of ... Because intelligence appears to be at least partly dependent on brain structure and the genes shaping brain development, it has ...
Tegmark, M. (2000). "Importance of quantum decoherence in brain processes". Phys. Rev. E. 61 (4): 4194-4206. arXiv:quant-ph/ ... We're not working with a brain that's near absolute zero. It's reasonably unlikely that the brain evolved quantum behavior', he ... Penrose lacked a detailed proposal for how such quantum processes could be implemented in the brain. Subsequently, Hameroff ... According to Searle, no mathematical function can be used to connect a known VIN with its LPN, but the process of assignment is ...
Sensory processing[edit]. Early models of sensory processing understood within a theoretical framework are credited to Horace ... The brain seems to be able to discriminate and adapt particularly well in certain contexts. For instance, human beings seem to ... Michael A. Arbib; Shun-ichi Amari; Prudence H. Arbib (2002). The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, ... Blue Brain, a project founded by Henry Markram from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, aims to construct a ...
Additionally, reports have shown decreased HRQOL in mild traumatic brain injured patients and different emotional responses to ... A grounded, iterative analytic process will be used to analyze the narratives. ...
Brain signal processing laboratory, Korea University, Brain Cognitive Engineering, 고려대학교 뇌신호처리 연구실, 뇌신호처리 ...
Brain Signal Processing Laboratory Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering Korea University 고려대학교 뇌공학과 뇌신호처리 연구실 ... Korean Chapter of OHBM (Organization for Human Brain Mapping) Summer School 2019: Using this material, you can learn how to ... Hyun-Chul Kims paper ("Deep neural network predicts emotional responses of the human brain from functional magnetic resonance ... Evidence from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of schizophrenia. ...
Part I is devoted to basic theoretical and technical approaches in studying brain organization of cognitive processes. Hanlon ... toms of brain damage in developing a structural model of hierarchic levels through which the process of cognitive function ... permitting a step-by-step approach to a deeper understanding of the tremendously complex relationships existing between brain ... present new research and clinical perspectives or interpretations about brain-behavior relationships. Some chapters present new ...
Prog Brain Res. 2011;189:77-92. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53884-0.00019-1. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review ... Postnatal brain development: structural imaging of dynamic neurodevelopmental processes.. Jernigan TL1, Baaré WF, Stiles J, ... Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain-behavior ... Estimated volumes of brain structures in normal volunteers are plotted against age. The volumes in the figures are presented as ...
... a new study examines the neural pathways responsible for processing fear and anxiety in the human brain. ... "This is the first study in humans to delineate the mechanism by which our brain processes fear at the circuitry level. This has ... New research uncovers the brain circuit involved in processing fear, which could eventually lead to new treatment options for ... Bipolar disorder: Brain mechanism could be key for prevention Scientists have identified a brain mechanism making siblings of ...
... the underlying brain activity changes by shifting from sensory to emotional processes. ... Short pain stimuli are processed in sensory brain areas, whereas ongoing pain is processed in frontal brain areas which are ... A look inside the brain: How differently do we perceive pain?. Brain processes ongoing pain more emotionally. A momentary lapse ... Previous studies showed that brief pain stimuli are predominantly processed by sensory areas of the brain that process the ...
Error Neurons play role in how brain processes mistakes Findings yield information on neurons affecting executive function ... Error Neurons play role in how brain processes mistakes. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center ... error-neurons-play-role-in-how-brain-processes-mistakes/. Related Journal Article. http://dx.. doi.. org/. 10.. 1016/. j. ... "One of the brain areas that is known to be important for self-monitoring is the medial frontal cortex, but how exactly this ...
New research led by a scientist at the University of York reveals that a process that forms a key element in the development of ... Breast cancer replicates brain development process. University of York. Journal. International Journal of Cancer. Funder. ... A process that is important in the development of the nervous system is being co-opted to play an insidious role in tumour ... New research led by a scientist at the University of York reveals that a process that forms a key element in the development of ...
Information Processing Meets Brain Science - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780120885664, 9780080458267 ... Cognitive Systems - Information Processing Meets Brain Science 1st Edition. Write a review ... Cognitive Systems - Information Processing Meets Brain Science presents an overview of the exciting, truly multidisciplinary ... We cannot process tax exempt orders online. If you wish to place a tax exempt order please contact us. ...
Arithmetic processing in the brain shaped by cultures. Yiyuan Tang, Wutian Zhang, Kewei Chen, Shigang Feng, Ye Ji, Junxian Shen ... Arithmetic processing in the brain shaped by cultures. Yiyuan Tang, Wutian Zhang, Kewei Chen, Shigang Feng, Ye Ji, Junxian Shen ... Arithmetic processing in the brain shaped by cultures. Yiyuan Tang, Wutian Zhang, Kewei Chen, Shigang Feng, Ye Ji, Junxian Shen ... The brain masks defined the brain regions over each of which the SVC was performed. These brain regions included fusiform, ...
Processed: Fix more brain-damage from bug. *To: Colin Watson ,[email protected], ... Processing commands for [email protected]: , retitle 113860 ITP: qed -- A (very) Quick English Dictionary for Linux Bug# ... thanks Stopping processing here. Please contact me if you need assistance. Debian bug tracking system administrator ( ...
As an introduction to human information processing and learning, the topics include the nature of mental representation and ... processing, the architecture of memory, pattern recognition, attention, imagery and mental codes, concepts and prototypes, ... This undergraduate course is designed to introduce students to cognitive processes. The broad range of topics covers each of ... This undergraduate course is designed to introduce students to cognitive processes. The broad range of topics covers each of ...
The results indicate that inflammatory processes represent a potential target for future therapies. ... Inflammation drives the progression of neurodegenerative brain diseases and plays a major role in the accumulation of tau ... Inflammatory processes drive progression of Alzheimers and other brain diseases New insights into disease mechanisms, report ... Inflammatory processes drive progression of Alzheimers and other brain diseases. DZNE - German Center for Neurodegenerative ...
This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less ... Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using ... Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We ... both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional ...
The process called CLARITY allows a transparent view of the brain without having to slice o... ... Scientists at Stanford have developed a technique to see the structural detail of actual brains with resolution down to the ... The process called CLARITY allows a transparent view of the brain without having to slice or section it in any way. From the ... Hydrogel Process Creates Transparent Brain For Research 46 Posted by samzenpus on Wednesday April 10, 2013 @06:05PM. from the I ...
Treating an Injured Brain Is a Long, Uncertain Process. By LAWRENCE K. ALTMAN, M.D.. JAN. 9, 2011. ... Treating an Injured Brain Is a Long, Uncertain Process. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ... "Brain swelling is the biggest threat now," Dr. Lemole said, "because it can take a turn for the worse at any time." ... Giffordss brain, the bullet went through what is the dominant side in about 85 percent of people, whether they are right- or ...
... Laurens son, Connor, has been struggling with reading and light sensitivity ... Lauren had Connor take a test to identify whether he had perceptual processing issues. Find out how a pair of glasses helped ...
... takes design cues from the wrinkled outer layer of the human brain. Though it is no match for a conventional microprocessor at ... crunching numbers, the chip consumes significantly less power, and is vastly better suited to processing images, sound, and ... IBM Chip Processes Data Similar to the Way Your Brain Does. A chip that uses a million digital neurons and 256 million synapses ... New thinking: IBM has built a processor designed using principles at work in your brain.. IBMs SyNapse chip processes ...
IBM Chip Processes Data Similar to the Way Your Brain Does. A chip that uses a million digital neurons and 256 million synapses ... IBMs SyNapse chip processes information using a network of just over one million "neurons," which communicate with one another ... A new kind of computer chip, unveiled by IBM today, takes design cues from the wrinkled outer layer of the human brain. Though ... A nearby laptop that had been programed to do the same task processed the footage 100 times slower than real time, and it ...
A team of scientists has mapped out how our brains process visuals we dont even know weve seen, indicating that the neuronal ... A team of scientists has mapped out how our brains process visuals we dont even know weve seen, indicating that the neuronal ... A team of scientists has mapped out how our brains process visuals we dont even know weve seen, indicating that the neuronal ... Scientists Shed New Light on How the Brain Processes & Maintains What We Dont See ...
... have found both structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain regions of schizophrenic patients who experience ... Home Brain & Behavior Hallucinations in schizophrenia linked to brain area that processes voices ... "The results showed abnormalities in specific areas of the brain associated with the capacity to process human voices," said ... Hallucinations in schizophrenia linked to brain area that processes voices. July 31, 2007. ...
Problems in how the brain recognizes and processes novel information lie at the root of psychosis, researchers from the ... Problems in how the brain recognizes and processes novel information underlie psychosis. *Download PDF Copy ... Problems in how the brain recognizes and processes novel information lie at the root of psychosis, researchers from the ... The brain updates beliefs according to the size of this prediction error: large errors signal that the brains model of the ...
Despite of much evidence suggesting how and where sensory information converge in the human brain, the neural mechanisms of ... The chapter explores emulation of multimodal information processing in a brain-like manner through evolving spiking neural ... Wysoski S.G., Benuskova L., Kasabov N. (2010) Brain-Like Evolving Spiking Neural Networks for Multimodal Information Processing ... Calvert, G.A.: Crossmodal processing in the human brain: insights from functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex 11, ...
Scientists have long believed that human speech is processed towards the back of the brains cerebral cortex, behind auditory ... Researchers Rewrite Textbook On Location Of Brains Speech Processing Center. by editor ... which in total had included over 1,900 participants and generated over 800 brain coordinates for speech processing. They then ... sounds but the fact that they dont have the same elaborate language that we do is due to different brain processing centers," ...
  • Despite of much evidence suggesting how and where sensory information converge in the human brain, the neural mechanisms of interaction among modalities at the level of neuronal cells and ensembles are still not well understood. (
  • Both attentional and absorption mechanisms involve the activity of a supervisory attentional control system in the frontal cortex interacting with posterior cortical and subcortical brain regions. (
  • The earlier negativity is thought to index more automatic mechanisms mediating syntactic processing, while the posterior positivity is hypothesized to reflect later, more controlled mechanisms ( Friederici, 2002 ). (
  • The diversity of contemporary investigative approaches included in this volume provides an exciting account of our current understanding of brain mechanisms responsible for sensory and perceptual experience in the areas of touch, kinesthesia, and pain. (
  • The research, published by Cell Press in the April 30th issue of the journal Neuron , provides important insight into brain mechanisms associated with reading and may lead to a better understanding of reading disabilities. (
  • Several key developments were to bring the neuroscience of higher mental processes into focus again, with a particular emphasis on specificity in the underlying brain mechanisms. (
  • Research over the past several years has shown that the brain regions most vulnerable to mechanisms of inflammation, apoptosis, and free radical generation are those that serve primary functions in cognition. (
  • During brain aging, the brain accumulates a series of insults and injuries and therefore must compensate through the activation of homeostatic mechanisms. (
  • Thus, the aging brain must accomplish homeostatic maintenance without the engagement of unregulated degenerative mechanisms. (
  • November 18, 2016 - Notice to Encourage Eligible NIMH BRAIN Initiative Awardees to Apply to PA-16-288. (
  • The autopsies showed that about 85 percent of the individuals had evidence of at least one chronic disease process, such as Alzheimer's disease, strokes, Parkinson's disease, hemorrhages, tumors, traumatic brain injury or others. (
  • Blast-related and blunt traumatic brain injury is a key priority area of Rehabilitation Research & Development (RR&D) and represents a critically important public health problem facing the Veteran population. (
  • They also ex- plore how micro genesis can be extended to the interpretation of symp- toms of brain damage in developing a structural model of hierarchic levels through which the process of cognitive function unfolds. (
  • Postnatal brain development: structural imaging of dynamic neurodevelopmental processes. (
  • Reviewed here are studies using structural imaging techniques, with a special focus on diffusion weighted imaging, describing age-related brain maturational changes in children and adolescents, as well as studies that link these changes to behavioral differences. (
  • MRI is a diagnostic tool that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce images of structural and chemical changes in the brain. (
  • In Alzheimer's, this protein also accumulates in the brain. (
  • Thus, the inflammasome plays a key role in Alzheimer's and other brain diseases," said Heneka, who is involved in the Bonn-based "ImmunoSensation" cluster of excellence and who also teaches at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. (
  • Instead of looking at what was going wrong to give people Alzheimer's disease they started looking at what was going right for those whose brains weren't ageing the same way. (
  • And others - as seen with Margaret - show a distinct lack of brain proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The study findings may also point to future research into treatment for adult neurological disorders involving miR-107, the expression of which is dramatically lost in the brain of early Alzheimer's patients, the paper noted. (
  • Several investigators have suggested that Alzheimer's disease may represent an accelerated decline of the normal processes of brain aging. (
  • Among their findings is the observation that the combination of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral infarcts (strokes) is the most common mix of pathologies in the brains of people with dementia. (
  • Also, 80 of the 141 volunteers who died had sufficient Alzheimer's disease pathology in their brains to fulfill accepted neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer's disease, although in life only 47 were clinically diagnosed with probable or possible Alzheimer's disease. (
  • This finding suggests the architecture and processing between the two species is more similar than many people thought. (
  • The finding, published online in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , suggests that these brain regions could be the evolutionary starting point for language. (
  • Assuming this is an adaptive mechanism, it suggests that vocalizations can be deciphered better if they are processed by only one temporal pole rather than by both. (
  • Our finding of a positive shift in the ERP at intonational phrase boundaries suggests a specific on-line brain response to prosodic processing. (
  • The new study suggests that while genetics or parental influence may play a significant role, being a Republican or Democrat changes how the brain functions. (
  • As in all maturation processes, there are important individual variations to when a clear day-night cycling is attained (14-18) . (
  • The brain areas with the strongest activity are depicted in red. (
  • While the ERN is easy to measure, it is unclear what specific aspect of brain activity it is related to. (
  • As well as regulating electrical activity in neurons, Beta-one also regulates the migration of neurons during brain development and the breast cancer signalling mechanism seems to be the same. (
  • However, beyond our empirical findings, this study demonstrates that machine learning tools can be remarkably powerful at decoding neuronal activity from MEG recordings-a preview of what we can uncover about the workings of the brain. (
  • In the study, MRI was used to monitor the brain activity of 20 volunteers as they watched video clips of a person either acting out gestures or voicing phrases that matched the gestures' meanings. (
  • Both the gestures and words triggered high levels of activity in the inferior frontal and posterior temporal areas, which are the language regions of the brain. (
  • Unifying optogenetics and CLARITY enables us to discover how behavior arises from whole brain circuit activity patterns without losing sight of individual neurons," Deisseroth said. (
  • Letters and other images but also false numbers lead to a significantly lower brain activity in this area. (
  • We found a characteristic pattern of brain activity when the jokes used were puns," Matt Davis, who co-led the research, said in a statement. (
  • Using MEG, we can record the tiny magnetic fields associated with electrical brain activity, said Timothy Roberts, Ph.D., vice chair of research in the Department of Radiology at Children s Hospital of Philadelphia. (
  • Recorded brain waves change with every sensation, thought and activity. (
  • We found that signatures of autism are revealed in the timing of brain activity, Dr. Roberts said. (
  • Dr. Roberts predicts that the signatures of autism found in brain activity will become biomarkers to improve classification of the disorder and aid in treatment and therapy planning. (
  • A predominance of left-sided visual activity for low spatial frequency imaging and normal faces suggested piecemeal encoding and detail analysis rather than holistic processing. (
  • PET scan of monkey brain cross-section, showing greater activity in left dorsal temporal pole than in same area of right hemisphere (arrows) while animal listens to monkey vocalizations. (
  • Anyway, after the advent of neuroimaging techniques it turned out that neural activity measures are most adequate to demonstrate non-conscious brain processes, some of them even in the absence of any conscious behavioural consequence at the very moment of testing. (
  • These findings suggested the operation of a top-down inhibitory process that started from frontal cerebral cortex and cooperate in the regulation of talamocortical activity. (
  • For the entire duration of the experiment, brain activity was measured using electroencephalography (EEG). (
  • In fact, brain activity in these two regions alone can be used to predict whether a person is a Democrat or Republican with 82.9% accuracy. (
  • In the Wake Forest Baptist study, two monkeys were trained to detect images on a computer screen while activity in both areas of the brain was recorded. (
  • They also discovered that similar subjective feelings - whether evoked from the eye or tongue - resulted in a similar pattern of activity in the OFC, suggesting the brain contains an emotion code common across distinct experiences of pleasure (or displeasure), they say. (
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate how people's endogenous levels of oxytocin were related to brain activity when they viewed social interactions," said Katie Lancaster, a Ph.D. candidate in psychology at the University of Virginia and first author of the study. (
  • their brain activity resembles the patterns of neural activity previously observed when people focus on non-socially relevant information. (
  • Areas of increased brain activity are labeled in yellow, and areas of decreased brain activity are labeled in blue. (
  • Previous research has shown that alcohol suppresses activity in the amygdala, the area of the brain responsible for perceiving social cues such as facial expressions. (
  • Global brain states are characterized by slow oscillations of neuronal activity across the entire cortex-what are commonly referred to as brainwaves. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we plan to use imaging techniques to visualize global patterns of brain activity while a mouse transitions from one global brain state to another-in this case, the global brain state will be changed by having the mouse engage in a visually demanding task followed by passive viewing. (
  • Our research will reveal how global patterns of activity affect processing of local circuitry, shedding light on a common motif in neuronal computation. (
  • One of the brain areas that is known to be important for self-monitoring is the medial frontal cortex, but how exactly this process works and how it fails when it does not work remains poorly understood," said Ueli Rutishauser, PhD, principal investigator and senior author of the study and an associate professor in the Department of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai. (
  • In a second part of the study, 59 of the healthy volunteers had their brains scanned after taking medications that act on the signaling of dopamine in the brain. (
  • Now, by uniting optogenetics and CLARITY, Deisseroth's team has shown how to study both the function and the wiring of neurons simultaneously, thus hitting a crucial target for the National Institutes of Health's BRAIN Initiative . (
  • A defective ERAD (Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation) system in their POMC brain neurons can make an individual eat far more than usual and gain weight rapidly even though if they eat low-fat diet finds a new study. (
  • LOS ANGELES, Dec. 3 -- Abnormal processing of visual details may lead individuals with body dysmorphic disorder to perceive themselves as ugly and disfigured, a case-control study found. (
  • But amazingly, regular brain scans have found that Margaret - now 86 - has virtually no chance of developing dementia, says Jo Robertson, a neuropsychologist with the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, who is involved in the AIBL study. (
  • Alcoholics' brains may process emotion differently than those of people who don't have a history of alcohol abuse, according to a study published in the November issue of the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research . (
  • A study completed recently in December 2013 on nearly 1,000 brain scans has surprisingly confirmed what many of us thought…that there are major differences between the male & female brain . (
  • In the present study, data are presented of the morphology and neuronal responses of three local brain neurones (LBNs) that respond best to ultrasound. (
  • A new study provides direct experimental evidence that a brain region important for reading and word recognition contains neurons that are highly selective for individual real words. (
  • Our study adds to the list of important functions of astrocytes in the central nervous system, the cells that we increasingly view as the brain of the brain, a system that controls many processes in healthy and diseased brain - explains Ulrika Wilhelmsson. (
  • This study will use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify brain regions involved in performing certain tasks, especially those involving emotions. (
  • The study will also examine which MRI techniques are best to use when scanning brain areas involved in different emotions. (
  • In the present study, we molecularly identified viral infection in the brain of mice with rigidity. (
  • THURSDAY, Feb. 18 (HealthDay News) -- For those with the common mental illness known as generalized anxiety disorder, a new study has found that the brain processes emotions in abnormal ways. (
  • The findings of the study are of huge significance since they explode fundamental notions about the way our brain works. (
  • Few older people die with brains untouched by a pathological process, however, an individual's likelihood of having clinical signs of dementia increases with the number of different disease processes present in the brain, according to a new study. (
  • The study argues that the brains of senior citizens take longer to process ever increasing amounts of knowledge, and this has been misidentified as declining cognitive ability due to aging. (
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and disabling brain disorder that affects approximately 1 percent of the global population, according to the National Institute of Mental Health. (
  • Issa used a two-photon microscope to peer into the brains of live mice as they listened to sounds and saw which neurons lit up in response, piecing together a global map of a given mouse's auditory cortex. (
  • When the plasma of older mice was injected into young mice, the production of new nerve cells in the brain slowed down. (
  • Whereas previous neuroimaging studies have revealed differential activation patterns during reading processes (e.g., the temporal-parietal regions being activated in NES but the middle frontal gyrus in NCS), the question remains whether these differences are derived from culture characteristics rather than ethnic or hereditary factors ( 1 , 9 ). (
  • The number of methods, theoretical ap- proaches, and publications has been steadily increasing, permitting a step-by-step approach to a deeper understanding of the tremendously complex relationships existing between brain and behavior. (
  • Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain-behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions, and hormonal variation associated with puberty. (
  • Since neurotrophins and their receptors control the communication between the brain and peripheral organs, they could be new therapeutic targets with implications in both metabolic and neurologic diseases. (
  • This endogenous clock is synchronized to day/night changes, thanks to photic information that it receives from the retina and then transmits to cells in other brain regions and peripheral organs via a variety of outputs. (
  • Systematically mapping and better understanding this complex neurological phenomenon of 'pain' in the brain is a big challenge, but is absolutely essential for improving therapeutic options for pain patients," in Ploner's opinion. (
  • This view often prevailed back then, even though Broca & Wernicke had reported on rather specific language deficits after particular brain damage in neurological patients considerably earlier (late nineteenth century). (
  • So I've been very motivated to understand these processes on a level in which there could be some level of driving true correction - true neurological correction. (
  • I'm not talking about necessarily substituting function - one function for another around processes that aren't correctable - I'm talking about, in so far as it's possible, to drive true neurological correction in the brains of individuals that are struggling and experiencing difficulty. (
  • The universal use of Arabic numbers in mathematics raises a question whether these digits are processed the same way in people speaking various languages, such as Chinese and English, which reflect differences in Eastern and Western cultures. (
  • Yet, understanding the brain processes and regions that drive those behavioral differences is very much a work in progress. (
  • The goal was to see if there were any major differences between the alcoholics and the control group in how more complex processing (making a judgment about intellect), might compare with simple, straightforward tasks. (
  • In Ms. Giffords's case, the doctors were encouraged because the simple tests showed that she could hear and respond appropriately, indicating that key brain circuits were working. (
  • Karl Deisseroth, professor of bioengineering and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, developed the novel techniques - optogenetics and CLARITY - that were combined for the first time to reveal how the prefrontal circuits that process positive and negative experiences are distinctly and fundamentally different from one another. (
  • Only the neurons that had been strongly active during the experience became labeled - along with their outgoing connections - allowing effective tracing of the distinct circuits through the brain. (
  • Scans have pinpointed circuits in the monkey brain that could be precursors of those in humans for speech and language. (
  • This concept is the basis of the notion that neuronal information in the brain, somewhat like electricity in a computer, only spreads directionally in the brain, following specific ordered circuits. (
  • You'd think this is crazy because engineers are always fighting to reduce the noise in their circuits, and yet here's the best computing machine in the universe - and it looks utterly random," said Rochester brain boffin, Alex Pouget. (
  • A representation of physical surroundings in the neuronal circuits is required for the normal information processing by the brain. (
  • Representation of time in neuronal circuits is responsible for the temporal order of information reaching the nervous system, which is important for information processing. (
  • The maintenance of equivalency of time representation in neuronal circuits and external events indicates that the processing of various types of information occurs together with the processing of temporal information. (
  • For example, neuronal circuits processing motor movements, also process the time interval during a particular movement. (
  • Output from circuits in primary motor area producing motor movements is processed from inputs from many sources. (
  • These global states can affect the processing carried out by local circuits. (
  • Learning problems were related to alterations in brain activation in the superior frontal cortex, with patients with severe symptoms of psychosis showing more significant alterations. (
  • If gesture and language were not processed by the same system, you'd have spoken language activating the inferior frontal and posterior temporal areas, and gestures activating other parts of the brain. (
  • The brain is further divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. (
  • A look inside the brain: How differently do we perceive pain? (
  • Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context. (
  • Contrasting to native English speakers, who largely employ a language process that relies on the left perisylvian cortices for mental calculation such as a simple addition task, native Chinese speakers, instead, engage a visuo-premotor association network for the same task. (
  • The involvement of numbers in mental calculation has been associated with language processing as proposed by Dehaene and others ( 4 - 8 ). (
  • We hypothesize that number representation and arithmetic processing in the brain may be affected by a variety of cultural factors such as educational systems and mathematics learning strategies that are beyond language-related experiences. (
  • If you Google 'language organization in the brain,' probably every cartoon illustration out there is wrong," says lead author Iain DeWitt, a Ph.D. candidate in Georgetown's Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience. (
  • They say monkeys make communication sounds but the fact that they don't have the same elaborate language that we do is due to different brain processing centers," Rauschecker says. (
  • Our findings specify that the hippocampal complex contributes to language in an active fashion, relating incoming words to stored semantic knowledge, a necessary process in the generation of sentence meaning. (
  • The medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampus, has not been considered as a key brain structure supporting language. (
  • In addition, learning more about how the brain processes gestures and words may help treat aphasia, a disorder that impairs a person's ability to produce or understand language. (
  • involved brain areas for language processing more than jokes that didn't involve wordplay. (
  • Mapping how the brain processes jokes and sentences shows how language contributes to the pleasure of getting a joke. (
  • We want to understand how the brain processes and perceives sounds in noisy environments, when there are lots of background sounds," says Elhilali, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at the center for language and speech processing at the Johns Hopkins University. (
  • This delay in processing certain types and streams of sound may underpin the subsequent language processing and communication impairment seen in autistic children, Dr. Roberts said. (
  • Neurohacking describes how to use the R programming language ( and its associated package to perform manipulation, processing, and analysis of neuroimaging data. (
  • Syntactic processing is one of the most complex cognitive tasks that humans routinely engage in: languages contain countless syntactic rules, which must be accessed rapidly and simultaneously during normal language processing. (
  • Table 1: The table above displays the process that bilinguals who obtain language through sequential acquisition undergo when learning a new language. (
  • Despite the fact that language acquisition has been examined through multiple investigations, language processing is still in question, though possible models have been proposed. (
  • 1824 words - 7 pages Encyclopedia of Pragmatics (2009) as, "the bilingual child has one single language system that they use for processing both of their languages in the repertoire" (May, p.39). (
  • According to Dartmouth, the cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain and is responsible for numerous functions including sensation, language, creati. (
  • We hope that mouse experiments like this can provide a basis for figuring out how our own brains process language and, eventually, how to help people with cochlear implants and similar interventions hear better. (
  • A Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) helps with many brain injury issues including speech, language, social communication, cognitive communication, and swallowing disorders in children or adults. (
  • Advances in neuroscience have now led to wide acceptance in science and medicine that all aspects of our mental life-our perceptions, thoughts, memories, actions, plans, language, understanding of others and so on-in fact depend upon brain function. (
  • High resolution MRI brain scans collected from adolescents with ASD who vary in their language ability from minimally verbal to normal (and a typical control group). (
  • Language processing refers to the way humans use words to communicate ideas and feelings, and how such communications are processed and understood. (
  • Thus it is how the brain creates and understands language. (
  • however, environmental factors play a role in the development of language processing as well. (
  • Studies have shown that most of the language processing functions are carried out in the cerebral cortex. (
  • Further analysis shows that Broca's area may have less involvement with information for producing individual words, but, instead, Broca's area is shown to coordinate language processing information for speech production on a greater scale. (
  • This talk will explore ways to improve those thought processes through looking at techniques like mindfulness, having a growth mindset, implementing new habits like how you do a sprint and even why speed reading might work for you. (
  • Which portion of the brain is responsible for higher thought processes, such as logical thinking? (
  • The representation of temporal order in information processing is also important for working memory, planning and normal thought processes. (
  • However, and contrarily to theoretical predictions, the authors also showed that invisible images can be partially maintained within high-level regions of the brain. (
  • Our results fit a longstanding theory which says that the common ancestor of humans and apes communicated through meaningful gestures and, over time, the brain regions that processed gestures became adapted for using words," Braun said. (
  • Their findings provide insight into how the brain represents our innermost feelings - what Anderson calls the last frontier of neuroscience - and upend the long-held view that emotion is represented in the brain simply by activation in specialized regions for positive or negative feelings , he says. (
  • We found that people with higher oxytocin levels showed greater recruitment of brain regions that support social cognition, suggesting that these people are naturally attending to the more social aspects of the interactions. (
  • Current models of speech perception include greater Wernicke's area, but also implicate a "dorsal" stream that includes regions also involved in speech motor processing. (
  • Furthermore, the results indicate that inflammatory processes represent a potential target for future therapies. (
  • A significant role in the development of inflammatory processes in the brain is also played by microglia (residual macrophages in the brain and the spinal cord), which act as the first line of defense in the central nervous system, and astrocytes--Whose most important function is to maintain homeostasis for the proper functioning of neurons. (
  • Knowing that Wernicke's area is in the front of the auditory cortex could also provide clinical insights into patients suffering from brain damage, such as a stroke, or in disorders in speech comprehension. (
  • This is the area that Rauschecker had found to be activated in his own studies of speech processing. (
  • He and his colleagues defined a processing "stream" in speech perception that is hierarchical, and which moves increasingly to the front of the superior temporal gyrus. (
  • Performance of hearing systems and speech technologies can benefit greatly from a deeper appreciation and knowledge of how the brain processes and perceives sounds. (
  • Brain potentials indicate immediate use of prosodic cues in natural speech processing. (
  • Speech boundaries, syntax and the brain. (
  • Speech is more complicated, less universal, yet it is like walking, something learned as a child that is much more difficult to learn with an injured brain versus a developing brain. (
  • This portion of the brain serves as a transit center between the two areas dealing most largely with speech and communication. (
  • for instance, they would block one eye (the eye that "feeds" the side of the brain that controls speech and then show something funny to the subject who would laugh. (
  • The chapter explores emulation of multimodal information processing in a brain-like manner through evolving spiking neural network (ESNN) architectures that use several multimodal characteristics of the biological brains, e.g., multisensory neurons, crossmodal connections, capacity of lifelong adaptation and evolution, adaptive pattern recognition. (
  • Everytime I read something mind-blowing, such as this, my mind is boggled thinking about evolution resulting in the complexity that is our minds, bodies, biological processes. (
  • She doesn't have any of the brain proteins that we know start to accumulate two decades before people start to have symptoms of dementia. (
  • Dr. Sacks has found that the parts of the brain connected to music can randomly trigger, allowing hearing-impaired people to hear music in their silence. (
  • Some people can hear fine, and their brains seem to receive music in a normal way, but they just don't enjoy music. (
  • When Blue brains process risk, they are calculating risk on other people s money. (
  • When people were trying to block distraction in a brain area, the probability of seeing these beta events went up," said senior author Stephanie R. Jones, an associate professor of neuroscience at Brown. (
  • The site newly identified is about 3 centimeters closer to the front of the brain and on the other side of auditory cortex - miles away in terms of brain architecture and function. (
  • However, relatively little is known about the neural correlates of processing passive sentences, which differ from other complex sentences in terms of representation ( i.e ., noun phrase (NP)-movement) and processing ( i.e ., the time course of syntactic reanalysis). (
  • All cognitive models and processes are explained on the basis of the object-attribute- relation (OAR) model for internal information and knowledge representation and manipulation. (
  • Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle. (
  • ERAD, a brain protein quality regulating process can control the food intake and obesity by tightly regulating the amount of POMC hormone released by the cells. (
  • Mutated POMC molecules evade the ERAD quality control process and built up inside of the brain cells where they were made - getting in the way of the production of normal POMC which regulate hunger mechanism. (
  • This new discovery could open doors to new experiments with drugs that could boost the ERAD process in POMC-producing brain cells. (
  • After it's produced by the cells in the region of the brain called the hypothalamus, it gets chopped up to make several important appetite-regulating hormones. (
  • In addition to its role in the brain, p75 NTR is present throughout the body, including in the liver and fat cells. (
  • A molecular mechanism more commonly associated with brain cells, regulates energy expenditure and may help prevent obesity and the metabolic syndrome. (
  • In the developing brain, the 3 main cell types, specifically neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are generated from neural stem cells. (
  • In its most basic definition, autophagy (literally meaning "self-eating") is the natural process by which cells disassemble and clean out unnecessary or dysfunctional components. (
  • Sickle cell anemia may cause brain ischemia associated with the irregularly shaped blood cells. (
  • Sickle shaped blood cells clot more easily than normal blood cells, impeding blood flow to the brain. (
  • How the prefrontal cortex governs these opposing processes of reward or aversion, however, has been largely unknown. (
  • 3D CLARITY image shows neural connections from the prefrontal cortex across an entire transparent mouse brain. (
  • Professor Rogalski says Super Agers do appear to have a slower rate of thinning of the cortex (the outer part of the brain) compared to normal agers. (
  • A student in the mid-twentieth century might have been taught simply that 'association cortex' is involved in higher mental processes, in some non-specific (or 'mass action') way. (
  • The ability to easily map connections in the living brain with high precision opens doors for other applications in medicine and engineering. (
  • While these kind of abnormal brain responses were predicted several years ago, this is the first time the changes have actually been shown to be present. (