Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
Neoplasms composed of neuroepithelial cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into NEURONS, oligodendrocytes, and ASTROCYTES. The majority of craniospinal tumors are of neuroepithelial origin. (From Dev Biol 1998 Aug 1;200(1):1-5)
A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (1/10928)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors. (2/10928)

The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells.  (+info)

An improved method for the structural profiling of keratan sulfates: analysis of keratan sulfates from brain and ovarian tumors. (3/10928)

A previously developed method for the structural fingerprinting of keratan sulfates (Brown et al., Glycobiology, 5, 311-317, 1995) has been adapted for use with oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid following keratanase II digestion. The oligosaccharides are separated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on a Dionex AS4A-SC column. This methodology permits quantitative analysis of labeled oligosaccharides which can be detected at the sub-nanogram ( approximately 100 fmol) level. Satisfactory calibration of this method can be achieved using commercial keratan sulfate standards. Keratan sulfates from porcine brain phosphocan and human ovarian tumors have been examined using this methodology, and their structural features are discussed.  (+info)

Synthesis and evaluation of [18F]1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid to image brain tumors. (4/10928)

We have developed a new tumor-avid amino acid, 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), labeled with 18F for nuclear medicine imaging. METHODS: [18F]FACBC was prepared with high specific activity (no carrier added [NCA]) and was evaluated for its potential in tumor localization. A comparative study was performed for [18F]FACBC and [18F]2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in which the uptake of each agent in 9L gliosarcoma (implanted intracerebrally in Fisher 344 rats) was measured. In addition, the first human PET study of [18F]FACBC was performed on a patient with residual glioblastoma multiforme. Quantitative brain images of the patient were obtained by using a Siemens 921 47-slice PET imaging system. RESULTS: In the rat brain, the initial level of radioactivity accumulation after injection of [18F]FACBC was low (0.11 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]) at 5 min and increased slightly to 0.26 %ID/g at 60 min. The tumor uptake exhibited a maximum at 60 min (1.72 %ID/g), resulting in a tumor-to-brain ratio increase of 5.58 at 5 min to 6.61 at 60 min. In the patient, the uptake of [18F]FACBC in the tumor exhibited a maximum concentration of 146 nCi/mL at 35 min after injection. The uptake of radioactivity in the normal brain tissue was low, 21 nCi/mL at 15 min after injection, and gradually increased to 29 nCi/mL at 60 min after injection. The ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 6 at 20 min after injection. The [18F]FACBC PET scan showed intense uptake in the left frontal region of the brain. CONCLUSION: The amino acid FACBC can be radiofluorinated for clinical use. [18F]FACBC is a potential PET tracer for tumor imaging.  (+info)

Spontaneous pinealoma in a male Crj:CD (SD) IGS rat. (5/10928)

A pinealoma (benign) was found in a 61-week-old male Crj:CD (SD) IGS rat. The neoplasm was located between the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum. Histologically, the tumor cells consisted of two cell types: large, pale-staining cells and small dark-staining cells. A fibrovascular stroma divided the tumor cells into incomplete lobules or nest structures. Relatively numerous mitoses were noted in the tumor cells. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells contained dense-cored vesicles, approximately 120 nm in diameter.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (6/10928)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Expression and tissue localization of membrane-type 1, 2, and 3 matrix metalloproteinases in human astrocytic tumors. (7/10928)

Three different membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs) are known to activate in vitro the zymogen of MMP-2 (pro-MMP-2, progelatinase A), which is one of the key MMPs in invasion and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we have examined production and activation of pro-MMP-2, expression of MT1-, MT2-, and MT3-MMPs and their correlation with pro-MMP-2 activation, and localization of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and MT2-MMP in human astrocytic tumors. The sandwich enzyme immunoassay demonstrates that the production levels of pro-MMP-2 in the anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are significantly higher than that in the low-grade astrocytomas (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.05), or normal brains (P<0.01). Gelatin zymography indicates that the pro-MMP-2 activation ratio is significantly higher in the glioblastomas than in other astrocytic tumors (P<0.01), metastatic brain tumors (P<0.01), and normal brains (P<0.01). The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrate that MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are expressed predominantly in glioblastoma tissues (17/17 and 12/17 cases, respectively), and their expression levels increase significantly as tumor grade increases. MT3-MMP is detectable in both astrocytic tumor and normal brain tissues, but the mean expression level is approximately 50-fold lower compared with that of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastomas. The activation ratio of pro-MMP-2 correlates directly with the expression levels of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP but not MT3-MMP. In situ hybridization indicates that neoplastic astrocytes express MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP in the glioblastoma tissues (5/5 cases and 5/5 cases, respectively). Immunohistochemically, MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP are localized to the neoplastic astrocytes in glioblastoma samples (17/17 cases and 12/17 cases, respectively), which are also positive for MMP-2. In situ zymography shows gelatinolytic activity in the glioblastoma tissues but not in the normal brain tissues. These results suggest that both MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP play a key role in the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the human malignant astrocytic tumors and that the gelatinolytic activity is involved in the astrocytic tumor invasion.  (+info)

Early induction of angiogenetic signals in gliomas of GFAP-v-src transgenic mice. (8/10928)

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common malignant brain tumor, is characterized by extensive vascular proliferation. We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a GFAP-v-src fusion gene in astrocytes develop low-grade astrocytomas that progressively evolve into hypervascularized glioblastomas. Here, we examined whether tumor progression triggers angiogenetic signals. We found abundant transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplastic astrocytes at surprisingly early stages of tumorigenesis. VEGF and v-src expression patterns were not identical, suggesting that VEGF activation was not only dependent on v-src. Late-stage gliomas showed perinecrotic VEGF up-regulation similarly to human glioblastoma. Expression patterns of the endothelial angiogenic receptors flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2 were similar to those described in human gliomas, but flt-1 was expressed also in neoplastic astrocytes, suggesting an autocrine role in tumor growth. In crossbreeding experiments, hemizygous ablation of the tumor suppressor genes Rb and p53 had no significant effect on the expression of VEGF, flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2. Therefore, expression of angiogenic signals is an early event during progression of GFAP-v-src tumors and precedes hypervascularization. Given the close similarities in the progression pattern between GFAP-v-src and human gliomas, the present results suggest that these mice may provide a useful tool for antiangiogenic therapy research.  (+info)

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Infratentorial neoplasms refer to tumors that originate in the region of the brain called the posterior fossa, which is located below the tentorium cerebelli (a membranous structure that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum). This area contains several important structures such as the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and fourth ventricle. Infratentorial neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can arise from various cell types including nerve cells, glial cells, or supportive tissues. They can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their location and size, such as headache, vomiting, unsteady gait, weakness, numbness, vision changes, hearing loss, and difficulty swallowing or speaking. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Neuroepithelial neoplasms are a type of tumor that arises from the neuroepithelium, which is the tissue in the developing embryo that gives rise to the nervous system. These tumors can occur anywhere along the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) or the peripheral nerves.

Neuroepithelial neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and they can vary widely in their behavior and prognosis. Some common types of neuroepithelial neoplasms include:

1. Astrocytomas: These are tumors that arise from astrocytes, a type of star-shaped glial cell in the brain. Astrocytomas can be low-grade (slow-growing) or high-grade (fast-growing), and they can occur in different parts of the brain.
2. Oligodendrogliomas: These are tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, a type of glial cell that provides support and insulation to nerve cells in the brain. Oligodendrogliomas are typically low-grade and slow-growing.
3. Ependymomas: These are tumors that arise from the ependyma, which is the tissue that lines the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain and the spinal cord canal. Ependymomas can be benign or malignant, and they can occur in the brain or the spinal cord.
4. Medulloblastomas: These are fast-growing tumors that arise from primitive neuroectodermal cells in the cerebellum (the part of the brain that controls balance and coordination). Medulloblastomas are highly malignant and can spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.
5. Glioblastomas: These are the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. They arise from astrocytes and can grow rapidly, invading surrounding brain tissue.

Neuroepithelial neoplasms are typically treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the type and location of the tumor. The prognosis varies widely depending on the specific type and stage of the tumor.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iothalamic Acid" doesn't appear to be a recognized term in medical or physiological literature. It's possible there may be a spelling error or it could be a highly specialized or obscure term used only in specific research contexts.

If you meant "Iothalamate," that is a compound used as a contrast agent in medical imaging, specifically in radiology for procedures like intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and computed tomography (CT) scans. Iothalamate is not typically referred to as an acid, though.

Please double-check the term you're looking for, and if there's any chance you meant "Iothalamate," let me know so I can provide a more accurate response!

A glioma is a type of tumor that originates from the glial cells in the brain. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for nerve cells (neurons) within the central nervous system, including providing nutrients, maintaining homeostasis, and insulating neurons.

Gliomas can be classified into several types based on the specific type of glial cell from which they originate. The most common types include:

1. Astrocytoma: Arises from astrocytes, a type of star-shaped glial cells that provide structural support to neurons.
2. Oligodendroglioma: Develops from oligodendrocytes, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers.
3. Ependymoma: Originate from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain and spinal cord.
4. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): A highly aggressive and malignant type of astrocytoma that tends to spread quickly within the brain.

Gliomas can be further classified based on their grade, which indicates how aggressive and fast-growing they are. Lower-grade gliomas tend to grow more slowly and may be less aggressive, while higher-grade gliomas are more likely to be aggressive and rapidly growing.

Symptoms of gliomas depend on the location and size of the tumor but can include headaches, seizures, cognitive changes, and neurological deficits such as weakness or paralysis in certain parts of the body. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths of tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They occur when the normal control mechanisms that regulate cell growth and division are disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Cystic Neoplasms: Cystic neoplasms are tumors that contain fluid-filled sacs or cysts. These tumors can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs of the body, including the pancreas, ovary, and liver.

Mucinous Neoplasms: Mucinous neoplasms are a type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of mucin, a gel-like substance produced by certain types of cells. These tumors can occur in various organs, including the ovary, pancreas, and colon. Mucinous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and malignant forms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

Serous Neoplasms: Serous neoplasms are another type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of serous fluid, which is a thin, watery fluid. These tumors commonly occur in the ovary and can be benign or malignant. Malignant serous neoplasms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

In summary, neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths that can be benign or malignant. Cystic neoplasms contain fluid-filled sacs and can occur in various organs of the body. Mucinous neoplasms produce a gel-like substance called mucin and can also occur in various organs, while serous neoplasms produce thin, watery fluid and commonly occur in the ovary. Both mucinous and serous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, with malignant forms often being aggressive and having a poor prognosis.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

A brain abscess is a localized collection of pus in the brain that is caused by an infection. It can develop as a result of a bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection that spreads to the brain from another part of the body or from an infection that starts in the brain itself (such as from a head injury or surgery).

The symptoms of a brain abscess may include headache, fever, confusion, seizures, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, and changes in vision, speech, or behavior. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection, as well as surgical drainage of the abscess to relieve pressure on the brain.

It is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent potentially life-threatening complications such as brain herniation or permanent neurological damage.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Adenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells that line certain organs and produce mucin, a substance that lubricates and protects tissues. This type of cancer is characterized by the presence of abundant pools of mucin within the tumor. It typically develops in organs such as the colon, rectum, lungs, pancreas, and ovaries.

Mucinous adenocarcinomas tend to have a distinct appearance under the microscope, with large pools of mucin pushing aside the cancer cells. They may also have a different clinical behavior compared to other types of adenocarcinomas, such as being more aggressive or having a worse prognosis in some cases.

It is important to note that while a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, mucinous can be serious, the prognosis and treatment options may vary depending on several factors, including the location of the cancer, the stage at which it was diagnosed, and the individual's overall health.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized, selective interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulating blood. It is formed by unique endothelial cells that line the brain's capillaries, along with tight junctions, astrocytic foot processes, and pericytes, which together restrict the passage of substances from the bloodstream into the CNS. This barrier serves to protect the brain from harmful agents and maintain a stable environment for proper neural function. However, it also poses a challenge in delivering therapeutics to the CNS, as most large and hydrophilic molecules cannot cross the BBB.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor (not cancerous), which arises from glandular epithelial cells and is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue. These tumors can develop in various locations within the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and other organs that contain glands.

There are two main types of cystadenomas: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenomas are filled with a clear or watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenomas contain a thick, gelatinous material. Although they are generally not harmful, these tumors can grow quite large and cause discomfort or other symptoms due to their size or location. In some cases, cystadenomas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors, known as cystadenocarcinomas. Regular medical follow-up and monitoring are essential for individuals diagnosed with cystadenomas to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential complications.

Neoplasms of connective and soft tissue are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the body's supportive tissues, such as cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and fat. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Lipomas: slow-growing, fatty tumors that develop under the skin.
- Fibromas: firm, benign tumors that develop in connective tissue such as tendons or ligaments.
- Nevi (plural of nevus): benign growths made up of cells called melanocytes, which produce pigment.

Malignant connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Sarcomas: a type of cancer that develops in the body's supportive tissues such as muscle, bone, fat, cartilage, or blood vessels. There are many different types of sarcomas, including liposarcoma (fatty tissue), rhabdomyosarcoma (muscle), and osteosarcoma (bone).
- Desmoid tumors: a rare type of benign tumor that can become aggressive and invade surrounding tissues. While not considered cancerous, desmoid tumors can cause significant morbidity due to their tendency to grow and infiltrate nearby structures.

Connective and soft tissue neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location and size. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis (spread) of the tumor.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Plasma cell neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates from plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. These cells are responsible for producing antibodies to help fight off infections. When plasma cells become cancerous and multiply out of control, they can form a tumor called a plasmacytoma.

There are two main types of plasma cell neoplasms: solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma. Solitary plasmacytoma is a localized tumor that typically forms in the bone, while multiple myeloma is a systemic disease that affects multiple bones and can cause a variety of symptoms such as bone pain, fatigue, and anemia.

Plasma cell neoplasms are diagnosed through a combination of tests, including blood tests, imaging studies, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the stage and extent of the disease, but may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Appendiceal neoplasms refer to various types of tumors that can develop in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Carcinoids: These are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the appendix. They are typically small and slow-growing, but some can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous neoplasms: These are tumors that produce mucin, a slippery substance that can cause the appendix to become distended and filled with mucus. They can be low-grade (less aggressive) or high-grade (more aggressive) and may spread to other parts of the abdomen.
4. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a condition in which mucin produced by an appendiceal neoplasm leaks into the abdominal cavity, causing a jelly-like accumulation of fluid and tissue. It can be caused by both benign and malignant tumors.

Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Mucinous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes of the body. It is most commonly found in the ovary, but can also occur in other locations such as the pancreas or appendix.

Mucinous cystadenomas are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a slippery, gel-like substance that accumulates inside the tumor and causes it to grow into a cystic mass. These tumors can vary in size, ranging from a few centimeters to over 20 centimeters in diameter.

While mucinous cystadenomas are generally benign, they have the potential to become cancerous (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma) if left untreated. Symptoms of mucinous cystadenoma may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, and changes in bowel movements or urinary habits. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

Endocrine gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) that develop in the endocrine glands. These glands are responsible for producing hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various functions and processes in the body. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can occur in any of the endocrine glands, including:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it produces several hormones that regulate growth and development, as well as other bodily functions.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism and calcium balance.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of each kidney, they produce hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located behind the stomach, it produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels, and digestive enzymes that help break down food.
6. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.
7. Gonads (ovaries and testicles): located in the pelvis (ovaries) and scrotum (testicles), they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate reproductive function and secondary sexual characteristics.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on the type and location of the tumor. For example, a pituitary gland neoplasm may cause headaches, vision problems, or hormonal imbalances, while an adrenal gland neoplasm may cause high blood pressure, weight gain, or mood changes.

Diagnosis of endocrine gland neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to measure hormone levels. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Chernaia VI, Reva AD (1990). "[Cathepsin H activity in the human brain and human brain neoplasms]". Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 61 (5): ...
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Neoplasm Metastasis Cancer Brain tumor Garsa A, Jang JK, Baxi S, Chen C, Akinniranye O, Hall O, Larkin J, Motala A, Hempel S ( ... National Brain Tumor Society. Retrieved 1 August 2017. "Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: What are brain metastases?". ... A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore ... Walker AE, Robins M, Weinfeld FD (February 1985). "Epidemiology of brain tumors: the national survey of intracranial neoplasms ...
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... vascular malformation advanced CT and MRI techniques for the diagnosis of brain neoplasm. He is known for brain iron, ... PMID 30104767 Drayer BP, Gur D, Yonas H, Wolfson Jr SK, Cook EE (1980). "Abnormality of the xenon brain:blood partition ... Drayer BP (1988). "Imaging of the aging brain. Part II. Pathologic conditions". Radiology. 166 (3): 797-806. doi:10.1148/ ... neurodegeneration, MR angiographyn, brain infarction, Xenon CT regional cerebral blood flow, atomic, physiologic and functional ...
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... brain cancer, and sebaceous neoplasms. Increased risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer has also been associated with Lynch ... brain, and skin. The increased risk for these cancers is due to inherited genetic mutations that impair DNA mismatch repair. It ... brain or spinal cord), starting at age 25 at the earliest The following are the Amsterdam criteria in identifying high-risk ... brain, sebaceous glands, keratoacanthomas) 3. Colorectal cancer with MSI-high pathology in a person who is younger than 60 ...
For instance, in primary low-grade brain neoplasms, fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis helped with the recognition of ...
... is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life ... Brain metastasis can be single or multiple and involve any portion of the brain. Metastasis to dural structures generally ... 1. Brain Tumor Presentations In general, patients with primary brain tumors or single metastatic tumors can present with any of ... and the specific type of malignant brain neoplasm. Surgery may in some cases be curative, but, as a general rule, malignant ...
EWSR1-SMAD3-positive fibroblastic tumor: These tumors, which are a recently characterized neoplasm with distinct ... Brain Pathology (Zurich, Switzerland). 31 (4): e12918. doi:10.1111/bpa.12918. PMC 8089120. PMID 33141488. Chen Z, Yang Y, Chen ... a wide range of soft tissue neoplasms derived from mesencyhmal tissue cells. Detection of a FET gene-containing fusion gene is ... "EWSR1/FUS-CREB fusions define a distinctive malignant epithelioid neoplasm with predilection for mesothelial-lined cavities". ...
... Nervous system neoplasm List of brain tumor cases "Adult Brain Tumors Treatment". NCI. 28 February 2014. Archived ... Most brain tumors have higher ADC than normal brain tissues and doctors can match the observed ADC of the patient's brain tumor ... White British brain tumour patients 'more likely to die in a year' The Guardian "Quick Brain Tumor Facts". National Brain Tumor ... "Brain Tumors". Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. 6 March 2019. Jones C. "Brain Tumor Symptoms , Miles for Hope , Brain Tumor ...
The cancers included cancer of the brain, lung, bowel, breast, and bladder, and other neoplasms. It has been hypothesised[by ... Brain damage similar to alcoholic brain damage was observed. The CT scan abnormalities showed dilatation of the ventricular ... Transient changes in the brain have been found using neuroimaging studies, but no brain abnormalities have been found in ... Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research (in German). 147 (1-2): 37-45. doi:10.1016/j.devbrainres.2003.09.009. PMID ...
Pinealoma is often grouped with brain tumors because of its location.[citation needed] Multiple endocrine neoplasia "Thyroid ... An endocrine gland neoplasm is a neoplasm affecting one or more glands of the endocrine system.[citation needed]Examples ...
... traumatic brain injury of an expanding neoplasm in this same region can cause all or elements (acalculia is one of four ... Brain and Language 2003; 87: 165-166. Fasotti L, Bremer JJCB, Eling PATM. Influence of improved test encoding on arithmetical ... From his research, he was also able to propose that certain areas of the brain played particular roles involved in the ... Brain 122, 1107-1120 Dehaene, S., & Cohen, L. (1997). Cerebral pathways for calculation: Double dissociation between rote ...
... lack of blood flow to the brain), caused by a malignant neoplasm (cancer), in turn caused by a dose of ionizing radiation ... For example, the proximate cause or mechanism of death might be brain ischemia ( ...
Neoplasm Lipid peroxidation Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Lipoxins Resolvin Protectin Maresin India portal Medicine portal ... a type of tumor which affects brain and spinal cord. He has also worked on drug development to combat diseases and conditions ... and its metabolites on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through molecular docking simulation". Lipids in Health and ... of stabilizing and potentiating the actions and administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Method of ...
Brain Neoplasm, Central Nervous System Neoplasm, High Grade Glioma: Gliosarcoma, Medulloblastomas, Oligodendroglioma, Acute T ... It is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus it crosses the blood-brain barrier. This property makes it ideal for treating brain ... Cell Leukemia Lymphoma, Bone Cancer, Breast Neoplasms, Colorectal Neoplasms, Lung Neoplasms, Malignancies Multiple, Metastatic ... Lomustine is also a lipid soluble, which allows it to permeate the blood brain barrier well. This quality made it a reasonable ...
Primary brain tumors arise from CNS tissue and account for roughly half of all cases of intracranial neoplasms. ... Brain tumors may originate from neural elements within the brain, or they may represent spread of distant cancers. ... encoded search term (Brain Neoplasms) and Brain Neoplasms What to Read Next on Medscape ... The remainder of brain neoplasms are caused by metastatic lesions.. In adults, two thirds of primary brain tumors arise from ...
... cumulative occupational radiation exposure to the brain was not associated with malignant intracranial tumor mortality. ... Keywords: brain cancer; brain tumors; dose; epidemiology; intracranial neoplasm; mortality; occupational exposure; radiation; ... Occupational Radiation Exposure and Deaths From Malignant Intracranial Neoplasms of the Brain and CNS in U.S. Radiologic ... Based on models incorporating a 5-year lagged cumulative brain dose, cumulative brain dose was not associated with malignant ...
Keywords : Caregivers; Brain neoplasms; Quality Of life; Anxiety; Depression. · abstract in Portuguese , Spanish · text in ... anxiety and depression in children caregivers with brain neoplasm. Psicol. teor. prat. [online]. 2011, vol.13, n.1, pp. 48-61. ... This work aims in socio-demographic terms children caregivers with brain tumors treated at a public hospital in Aracaju-SE and ...
An astrocytoma that arises from the brain stem. ... brain stem astrocytic neoplasm; Brain Stem Astrocytoma; brain ... Mapping pediatric brain tumors to their origins in the developing cerebellum.. Okonechnikov K, Joshi P, Sepp M, Leiss K, ... Glioblastoma and Other Primary Brain Malignancies in Adults: A Review.. Schaff LR, Mellinghoff IK. JAMA 2023 Feb 21;329(7):574- ... Glioblastoma and Other Primary Brain Malignancies in Adults: A Review.. Schaff LR, Mellinghoff IK. JAMA 2023 Feb 21;329(7):574- ...
2024 ICD-10-CM Codes D33 - Benign neoplasm of brain and other parts of central nervous system (D33). , 2024 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis ... Benign neoplasm of brain, supratentorial (D33.0). 2024 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code D33.0 - Benign neoplasm of brain, ... 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes C00-D49 - Neoplasms (C00-D49). , 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes D10-D36 - Benign neoplasms, except benign ...
The malignant brain neoplasm excesses in certain subgroups of workers from NH may reflect external occupational factors, ... We will explore reasons for the NH excesses and examine specific types of brain neoplasms (eg, glioblastoma) in our companion ... In the combined NH plant groups, we found not statistically significant higher risks of malignant brain neoplasms for salaried ... Not statistically significant excesses in deaths from all malignant brain neoplasms were found among subjects who worked only ...
Chernaia VI, Reva AD (1990). "[Cathepsin H activity in the human brain and human brain neoplasms]". Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 61 (5): ...
Categories: Brain Neoplasms Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 4 ...
Adult, Humans, Proton Therapy/adverse effects, Brain Neoplasms/pathology, Retrospective Studies, Cohort Studies, Glioma/ ... Brain Neoplasms/pathology; Retrospective Studies; Cohort Studies; Glioma/radiotherapy}}, language = {{eng}}, number = {{4}}, ... Higher average dose to both brain and brainstem was associated with inferior PFS and OS (p ,.001). Median follow-up time were ... Higher average dose to both brain and brainstem was associated with inferior PFS and OS (p <.001). Median follow-up time ...
Benign Neoplasm of Brain * View other providers who treat Benign Neoplasm of Brain ... Brain and Nervous System Cancer (incl. Gliomas, Astrocytoma, Schwannoma, Medulloblastoma, Chordoma) * View other providers who ... treat Brain and Nervous System Cancer (incl. Gliomas, Astrocytoma, Schwannoma, Medulloblastoma, Chordoma) ...
Brain Neoplasms (Brain Tumor) 01/2015 - 04/2011. 1. Fatigue 01/2018. ... Riluzole is a radio-sensitizing agent in an in vivo model of brain metastasis derived from GRM1 expressing human melanoma cells ...
2150.0 Neoplasm of uncertain nature Excludes: Neoplasm, NOS Brain tumor (2130.0). ENDOCRINE, NUTRITIONAL, AND METABOLIC ... 2130.0 Other malignant neoplasms Includes: Metastatic carcinoma Brain tumor Bone cancer Carcinoma-in-situ, NOS. 2135.0 ... NEOPLASMS (2100-2199). Malignant neoplasms:. 2100.0 Cancer, gastrointestinal tract Includes: Esophagus Stomach Small intestine ... Benign and uncertain nature neoplasms:. 2140.0 Fibroids and other uterine neoplasms Includes: Myoma Leiomyomata Cervical polyp ...
Prospective evaluation of the utility of intraoperative confocal laser endomicroscopy in patients with brain neoplasms using ... Confocal scanning microscopy provides rapid, detailed intraoperative histological assessment of brain neoplasms: Experience ... Blood-Brain Barrier, Blood-Brain Tumor Barrier, and Fluorescence-Guided Neurosurgical Oncology: Delivering Optical Labels to ... Intraoperative imaging of brain tumors with fluorescein: confocal laser endomicroscopy in neurosurgery. Clinical and user ...
Neoplasm[edit , edit source]. There are four different classifications of brain neoplasms:[3] ... Meningiomas, which are fast-growing and make up 20% of neoplasms of the brain. Grade three meningiomas are malignant ... Even if the neoplasm is benign, it is space occupying and, thus, generates pressure on neurological tissue and increases ... This test is, in theory, designed to test the vascular supply to the brain while compromising the vertebral artery circulation. ...
We hypothesized that Sema3A directly inhibits brain tumor stem cell (BTSC) proliferation and drives invasion via Neuropilin 1 ( ... is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of approximately 15 months. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), ... Migration and invasion in brain neoplasms. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2001;1:225-32. ... BTSCs form invasive tumors in the brain. BTSCs injected into the brain of athymic nude mice formed highly invasive tumors, seen ...
Benign Neoplasm Of Brain. *Berry Aneurysm. *Biological Enhancement Of Spine Fusions. *Biopsy Of Brain ... surgical expertise he continues to create state-of-the-art treatment algorithms in the minimalistic treatment of the brain and ...
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Nervous System Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Brain Diseases. Central ... Brain Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by ... One RP2D dose of zotiraciclib given on the day prior to brain tumor biopsy or resection, a continuation of treatment with ... Diffuse gliomas are tumors that affect the brain and spinal cord. Gliomas that develop in people with certain gene mutations ( ...
Neoplasms involving the brain stem may result in cranial nerve deficits. Weakness and sensory abnormalities often are seen with ... and brain herniation. Primary brain tumors often are slow growing and the brain adapts to the slow increase in ICP. During this ... Increased CSF protein content and a normal to increased CSF white blood cell count are considered "typical" of a brain neoplasm ... Partial removal of a brain neoplasm may relieve signs of cerebral dysfunction, provide a histological diagnosis, and may make ...
Brain tumors arise from the uncontrolled proliferation of cells within the brain. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary ( ... Primary brain tumors can be benign or malignant (brain cancer). Brain tumors are classified by histologic type (e.g., ... originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. ...
Alteration of brain catecholamines during growth of benzo[a]pyrene induced murine fibrosarcoma. Neoplasm 39(3):163-5. Davis DL ... Mortality from malignant neoplasms among coke oven workers. J Occup Med 14:621-29. Redmond CK, Strobino BR, Cypress RH. 1976. ...
Malignant neoplasms of meninges, brain, and other parts of central nervous system ... In situ neoplasms, benign neoplasms and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior ...
Meningiomas are neoplasms of the meningoendothelial cells of the arachnoidal layer covering the brain. Metastasis has been ...
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... four types of cancer-malignant neoplasms of the brain, the cervix uteri, the pancreas, and the testis-are newly eligible for ... notify stakeholders that the Administrator is revising WTC Health Program policy related to coverage of cancers of the brain ...
Study 3/17 repro flashcards from Mike Mah's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Rationale and Objectives: Treatment of brain neoplasms can greatly benefit from better delineation of bulk neoplasm boundary ... Multiparametric Tissue Characterization of Brain Neoplasms and Their Recurrence Using Pattern Classification of MR Images. (. ... Cascaded Segmentation of Brain Tumors Using Multi-Modality MR Profiles. (. 2007-05-01. ) Ou, Yangming; Cai, Hongmin; Lee, Seung ... Probabilistic Segmentation of Brain Tumors Based on Multi-Modality Magnetic Resonance Images. (. 2007-04-01. ) Verma, Ragini; ...
Brain Neoplasm, Primary. *Brain Neoplasms, Recurrent. *Brain Tumor. *Cancer of the Brain ... Potential subjects with progressive Grade II primary brain tumor that have IDH1 positive testing from the primary tumor ( ... Potential subjects with progressive Grade II primary brain tumor that have IDH1 positive testing from the primary tumor ( ... transitioned to a higher grade brain tumor at the time of surgery will receive temozolomide and radiation therapy per standard ...
  • Riluzole is a radio-sensitizing agent in an in vivo model of brain metastasis derived from GRM1 expressing human melanoma cells. (curehunter.com)
  • In this nationwide cohort of radiologic technologists, cumulative occupational radiation exposure to the brain was not associated with malignant intracranial tumor mortality. (nih.gov)
  • The patients receiving PT were younger, had a lower tumor grade, more oligodendrogliomas and received a lower mean brain and brainstem dose. (lu.se)
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of approximately 15 months. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that Sema3A directly inhibits brain tumor stem cell (BTSC) proliferation and drives invasion via Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) and Plexin A1 (PlxnA1) receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, identification of novel therapeutics that target these brain tumor stem cell (BTSC) populations is essential to effectively treating this disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurological signs resulting from a brain tumor depend primarily on the location, size, and rate of growth of the mass. (vin.com)
  • The majority of cats or dogs with a brain tumor will be presented to a veterinarian with problems related to the secondary effects of a tumor. (vin.com)
  • Although plain skull radiographs are of limited value in the diagnosis of a primary brain tumor, their use may facilitate detection of skull or nasal cavity neoplasms. (vin.com)
  • The accurate identification of the brain tumor boundary and its components is crucial for their effective treatment, but is rendered challenging due to the large variations in tumor size, shape and location, and the inherent inhomogeneity, presence of edema, and infiltration into surrounding tissue. (upenn.edu)
  • Potential subjects with progressive Grade II primary brain tumor that have IDH1 positive testing from the primary tumor (initial diagnosis) will be offered this treatment study in order to test the safety of the PEPIDH1M vaccine in combination with standard chemotherapy (temozolomide). (mycancergenome.org)
  • Patients that have transitioned to a higher grade brain tumor at the time of surgery will receive temozolomide and radiation therapy per standard of care and monthly vaccines (vaccines #4-6). (mycancergenome.org)
  • Flat tumors, termed en plaque, infiltrate the dura and grow as a thin carpet or sheet of tumor along the convexity dura, falx, or tentorium. (medscape.com)
  • Because the pia and arachnoid form a membranous barrier between brain and tumor, some meningiomas grow into the subarachnoid space, but invasion of the brain is infrequent. (medscape.com)
  • a mushroom-like appearance reflects tumor invagination in the brain parenchyma. (medscape.com)
  • Childhood exposure to acute, high-dose radiation has consistently been associated with risk of benign and malignant intracranial tumors of the brain and CNS, but data on risks of adulthood exposure to protracted, low-to-moderate doses of radiation are limited. (nih.gov)
  • During follow-up (median, 26.7 years), 193 technologists died of a malignant intracranial neoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Not statistically significant excesses in deaths from all malignant brain neoplasms were found among subjects who worked only at NH (49 deaths, SMR= 1.11, CI= 0.82 to 1.47) or partly at NH (24 deaths, SMR= 1.04, CI= 0.67 to 1.55) compared with deficits in non-NH plant groups. (cdc.gov)
  • In the combined NH plant groups, we found not statistically significant higher risks of malignant brain neoplasms for salaried workers, older hires and the most recent time period, but no association with duration of employment or time since first employment. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: Total cohort mortality rates for malignant, benign or unspecified CNS neoplasms were not elevated relative to the US and CT general populations. (cdc.gov)
  • The malignant brain neoplasm excesses in certain subgroups of workers from NH may reflect external occupational factors, nonoccupational factors or workplace factors unique to NH that were not measured in the current study. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary brain tumors can be benign or malignant ( brain cancer ). (emf-portal.org)
  • four types of cancer-malignant neoplasms of the brain, the cervix uteri, the pancreas, and the testis-are newly eligible for certification as WTC-related health conditions as a result of this action. (cdc.gov)
  • An astrocytoma that arises from the brain stem. (nih.gov)
  • Brain tumors are classified by histologic type (e.g., astrocytoma , glioma , glioblastoma , meningioma and medulloblastoma ). (emf-portal.org)
  • We will explore reasons for the NH excesses and examine specific types of brain neoplasms (eg, glioblastoma) in our companion cancer incidence, case-control and exposure assessment studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Brain and Nervous System Cancer (incl. (sharecare.com)
  • Objective: In response to an unusual occurrence of glioblastoma at one jet engine manufacturing facility located in North Haven (NH), Connecticut (CT), we examined mortality rates from central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms at NH and seven other company facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Gliomas , metastases, meningiomas , pituitary adenomas , and acoustic neuromas account for 95% of all brain tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Meningiomas are neoplasms of the meningoendothelial cells of the arachnoidal layer covering the brain. (omicsonline.org)
  • Meningiomas are also the most common extra-axial tumors in the brain and the most frequently occurring tumors of mesodermal or meningeal origin. (medscape.com)
  • Most grade I typical meningiomas grow inward toward the brain as discrete well-defined, dural-based masses and are spherical or lobulated in contour. (medscape.com)
  • MRI is preferred for the diagnosis and evaluation of brain meningiomas. (medscape.com)
  • On brain MRI without contrast, meningiomas usually appear as hypointense on T1-weighted imaging and as hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] MRI more accurately evaluates en plaque and posterior fossa meningiomas, which may be missed on CT scanning. (medscape.com)
  • Primary brain tumors originate from cells normally found within the brain and meninges. (vin.com)
  • The remainder of brain neoplasms are caused by metastatic lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue ) and secondary (i.e., metastatic ) forms. (emf-portal.org)
  • In adults, two thirds of primary brain tumors arise from structures above the tentorium (supratentorial), whereas in children, two thirds of brain tumors arise from structures below the tentorium (infratentorial). (medscape.com)
  • Primary brain tumors arise from CNS tissue and account for roughly half of all cases of intracranial neoplasms. (medscape.com)
  • Brain tumors arise from the uncontrolled proliferation of cells within the brain . (emf-portal.org)
  • Background: This study was aimed at determining the ophthalmic manifestations of patients presenting with brain tumours in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mapping pediatric brain tumors to their origins in the developing cerebellum. (nih.gov)
  • Long-term health experience of jet engine manufacturing workers: I. Mortality from central nervous system neoplasms. (cdc.gov)
  • Transmission an incidence rate of 1.5 cases/1,000 live births and a of T. gondii can occur through food items and the en- burden of disease of 1.2 million disease-adjusted life vironment. (cdc.gov)
  • Although brain tumors occur in dogs of all breeds, either sex, and any age, the incidence increases over 5 years of age, and with certain breeds. (vin.com)
  • Neoplasms involving the brain stem may result in cranial nerve deficits. (vin.com)
  • METHODS: Thirty women eligible for bariatric surgery were randomly assigned to a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB: n = 15, age = 41.0 ± 7.3 years) or RYGB plus Exercise Training (RYGB + ET: n = 15, age = 41.9 ± 7.2 years). (bvsalud.org)
  • RESULTS: Exercise superimposed on bariatric surgery (RYGB + ET) increased connectivity between hypothalamus and sensorial regions (seed-to-voxel analyses of hypothalamic connectivity), and decreased default mode network (DMN) and posterior salience (pSAL) network connectivity (ROI-to-ROI analyses of brain networks connectivity) when compared to RYGB alone (all p-FDR (bvsalud.org)
  • Brain tumors cause cerebral dysfunction through infiltration of normal brain tissue, compression of adjacent structures, disruption of cerebral circulation, and local necrosis. (vin.com)
  • Hearing loss involves the cerebellomedullary region, the brain stem, or temporal lobes of the cerebrum. (vin.com)
  • Intraventricular tumors represent a unique group of intracranial neoplasm separate from the classic division as intra- vs extra-axial masses. (psu.edu)
  • Brain tumors may originate from neural elements within the brain, or they may represent spread of distant cancers. (medscape.com)
  • Presenting complaints of patients with an intracranial neoplasm tend to be similar for primary brain tumors and intracranial metastases. (medscape.com)
  • Most primary brain tumors are solitary, but multiple primary brain tumors have been reported. (vin.com)
  • Primary brain tumors often are slow growing and the brain adapts to the slow increase in ICP. (vin.com)
  • Where do primary brain neoplasms often metastasize to? (brainscape.com)
  • Cumulative mean absorbed brain dose was 12 mGy (range, 0-290 mGy). (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: Exercise training is an important component in the management of post-bariatric patients and may improve the hypothalamic connectivity and brain functional networks that are involved in controlling food intake. (bvsalud.org)
  • Method: A retrospective crossectional review of patients with brain tumors in the Neurosurgical Unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife from January 2003 to December 2007 was conducted. (bvsalud.org)
  • from April 2008) after acquisition of a TP53 mutation or loss of 1p/19q, suggesting that IDH1 We assessed IDH1 mutations in brain mutations are very early events in tumors diagnosed in patients from 3 gliomagenesis and may affect a common families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. (who.int)
  • Another commonly missed disorder is PHACES syndrome- p osterior fossa brain malformations, h emangiomas of the face, a rterial anomalies, c ardiac anomalies, and e ye abnormalities. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Skull tumors may affect the brain by local extension. (vin.com)
  • Occupational brain doses through 1997 were based on work history, historical data, and, for most years after the mid 1970s, individual film badge measurements. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical, laboratory, and brain functional connectivity parameters were assessed at baseline, and 3 (POST3) and 9 months (POST9) after surgery. (bvsalud.org)