Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The period during a surgical operation.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.

On the neural correlates of visual perception. (1/14812)

Neurological findings suggest that the human striate cortex (V1) is an indispensable component of a neural substratum subserving static achromatic form perception in its own right and not simply as a central distributor of retinally derived information to extrastriate visual areas. This view is further supported by physiological evidence in primates that the finest-grained conjoined representation of spatial detail and retinotopic localization that underlies phenomenal visual experience for local brightness discriminations is selectively represented at cortical levels by the activity of certain neurons in V1. However, at first glance, support for these ideas would appear to be undermined by incontrovertible neurological evidence (visual hemineglect and the simultanagnosias) and recent psychophysical results on 'crowding' that confirm that activation of neurons in V1 may, at times, be insufficient to generate a percept. Moreover, a recent proposal suggests that neural correlates of visual awareness must project directly to those in executive space, thus automatically excluding V1 from a related perceptual space because V1 lacks such direct projections. Both sets of concerns are, however, resolved within the context of adaptive resonance theories. Recursive loops, linking the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) through successive cortical visual areas to the temporal lobe by means of a series of ascending and descending pathways, provide a neuronal substratum at each level within a modular framework for mutually consistent descriptions of sensory data. At steady state, such networks obviate the necessity that neural correlates of visual experience project directly to those in executive space because a neural phenomenal perceptual space subserving form vision is continuously updated by information from an object recognition space equivalent to that destined to reach executive space. Within this framework, activity in V1 may engender percepts that accompany figure-ground segregations only when dynamic incongruities are resolved both within and between ascending and descending streams. Synchronous neuronal activity on a short timescale within and across cortical areas, proposed and sometimes observed as perceptual correlates, may also serve as a marker that a steady state has been achieved, which, in turn, may be a requirement for the longer time constants that accompany the emergence and stability of perceptual states compared to the faster dynamics of adapting networks and the still faster dynamics of individual action potentials. Finally, the same consensus of neuronal activity across ascending and descending pathways linking multiple cortical areas that in anatomic sequence subserve phenomenal visual experiences and object recognition may underlie the normal unity of conscious experience.  (+info)

Physiological characteristics of capacity constraints in working memory as revealed by functional MRI. (2/14812)

A fundamental characteristic of working memory is that its capacity to handle information is limited. While there have been many brain mapping studies of working memory, the physiological basis of its capacity limitation has not been explained. We identified characteristics of working memory capacity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy subjects. Working memory capacity was studied using a parametric 'n-back' working memory task involving increasing cognitive load and ultimately decreasing task performance. Loci within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) evinced exclusively an 'inverted-U' shaped neurophysiological response from lowest to highest load, consistent with a capacity-constrained response. Regions outside of DLPFC, in contrast, were more heterogeneous in response and often showed early plateau or continuously increasing responses, which did not reflect capacity constraints. However, sporadic loci, including in the premotor cortex, thalamus and superior parietal lobule, also demonstrated putative capacity-constrained responses, perhaps arising as an upstream effect of DLPFC limitations or as part of a broader network-wide capacity limitation. These results demonstrate that regionally specific nodes within the working memory network are capacity-constrained in the physiological domain, providing a missing link in current explorations of the capacity characteristics of working memory.  (+info)

Morphogenesis of callosal arbors in the parietal cortex of hamsters. (3/14812)

The morphogenesis of callosal axons originating in the parietal cortex was studied by anterograde labeling with Phaseolus lectin or biocytin injected in postnatal (P) hamsters aged 7-25 days. Some labeled fibers were serially reconstructed. At P7, some callosal fibers extended as far as the contralateral rhinal fissure, with simple arbors located in the homotopic region of the opposite cortical gray matter, and two or three unbranched sprouts along their trajectory. From P7 to P13, the homotopic arbors became more complex, with branches focused predominantly, but not exclusively, in the supra- and infragranular layers of the homotopic region. Simultaneously, the lateral extension of the trunk axon in the white matter became shorter, finally disappearing by P25. Arbors in the gray matter were either bilaminar (layers 2/3 and 5) or supragranular. A heterotopic projection to the lateral cortex was consistently seen at all ages; the heterotopic arbors follow a similar sequence of events to that seen in homotopic regions. These observations document that callosal axons undergo regressive tangential remodeling during the first postnatal month, as the lateral extension of the trunk fiber gets eliminated. Radially, however, significant arborization occurs in layer-specific locations. The protracted period of morphogenesis suggests a correspondingly long plastic period for this system of cortical fibers.  (+info)

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (4/14812)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

Trans-synaptically induced bursts in regular spiking non-pyramidal cells in deep layers of the cat motor cortex. (5/14812)

In deep layers of the cat motor cortex, we have investigated the properties of neurons displaying trans-synaptically induced bursts. In in vivo experiments, extracellularly recorded burst neurons were separated into two subtypes based on their dependence on stimulation sites, the medullary pyramid or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus, from which bursts of 10-20 spikes were triggered. The spike amplitude attenuation and frequency adaptation during a burst were more prominent in pyramid-dependent burst neurons than in VL-dependent burst neurons. Intracellular recordings in in vivo experiments revealed that pyramid-dependent bursts emerged from a long-lasting depolarization, while each spike during a VL-dependent burst was narrow in half-width and was followed by a fast AHP, similar to fast spiking neurons. In in vitro slice experiments, intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons that displayed a burst of attenuated spikes emerging from a long-lasting depolarization, and were also obtained from fast spiking neurons. They were morphologically recovered to be multipolar cells with sparsely spiny dendrites and local axonal networks, suggesting that they are inhibitory interneurons. The multipolar neurons displaying bursts of attenuated spikes may mediate the recurrent inhibition of pyramidal tract cells.  (+info)

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (6/14812)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Major changes in the brain histamine system of the ground squirrel Citellus lateralis during hibernation. (7/14812)

Hibernation in mammals such as the rodent hibernator Citellus lateralis is a physiological state in which CNS activity is endogenously maintained at a very low, but functionally responsive, level. The neurotransmitter histamine is involved in the regulation of diurnal rhythms and body temperature in nonhibernators and, therefore, could likely play an important role in maintaining the hibernating state. In this study, we show that histamine neuronal systems undergo major changes during hibernation that are consistent with such a role. Immunohistochemical mapping of histaminergic fibers in the brains of hibernating and nonhibernating golden-mantled ground squirrels (C. lateralis) showed a clear increase in fiber density during the hibernating state. The tissue levels of histamine and its first metabolite tele-methylhistamine were also elevated throughout the brain of hibernating animals, suggesting an increase in histamine turnover during hibernation, which occurs without an increase in histidine decarboxylase mRNA expression. This hibernation-related apparent augmentation of histaminergic neurotransmission was particularly evident in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, areas of importance to the control of the hibernating state, in which tele-methylhistamine levels were increased more than threefold. These changes in the histamine neuronal system differ from those reported for the metabolic pattern in other monoaminergic systems during hibernation, which generally indicate a decrease in turnover. Our results suggest that the influence of histamine neuronal systems may be important in controlling CNS activity during hibernation.  (+info)

The effect of face inversion on activity in human neural systems for face and object perception. (8/14812)

The differential effect of stimulus inversion on face and object recognition suggests that inverted faces are processed by mechanisms for the perception of other objects rather than by face perception mechanisms. We investigated the face inversion using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The principal effect of face inversion on was an increased response in ventral extrastriate regions that respond preferentially to another class of objects (houses). In contrast, house inversion did not produce a similar change in face-selective regions. Moreover, stimulus inversion had equivalent, minimal effects for faces in in face-selective regions and for houses in house-selective regions. The results suggest that the failure of face perception systems with inverted faces leads to the recruitment of processing resources in object perception systems, but this failure is not reflected by altered activity in face perception systems.  (+info)

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Echolalia is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in neurology and psychology. It refers to the repetition of words or phrases spoken by another person, mimicking their speech in a near identical manner. This behavior is often observed in individuals with developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Echolalia can be either immediate or delayed. Immediate echolalia occurs when an individual repeats the words or phrases immediately after they are spoken by someone else. Delayed echolalia, on the other hand, involves the repetition of words or phrases that were heard at an earlier time.

Echolalia is not necessarily a pathological symptom and can be a normal part of language development in young children who are learning to speak. However, when it persists beyond the age of 3-4 years or occurs in older individuals with developmental disorders, it may indicate difficulties with initiating spontaneous speech or forming original thoughts and ideas.

In some cases, echolalia can serve as a communication tool for individuals with ASD who have limited verbal abilities. By repeating words or phrases that they have heard before, they may be able to convey their needs or emotions in situations where they are unable to generate appropriate language on their own.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

The somatosensory cortex is a part of the brain located in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe, which is responsible for processing sensory information from the body. It receives and integrates tactile, proprioceptive, and thermoception inputs from the skin, muscles, joints, and internal organs, allowing us to perceive and interpret touch, pressure, pain, temperature, vibration, position, and movement of our body parts. The somatosensory cortex is organized in a map-like manner, known as the sensory homunculus, where each body part is represented according to its relative sensitivity and density of innervation. This organization allows for precise localization and discrimination of tactile stimuli across the body surface.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

Peptide mapping is a technique used in proteomics and analytical chemistry to analyze and identify the sequence and structure of peptides or proteins. This method involves breaking down a protein into smaller peptide fragments using enzymatic or chemical digestion, followed by separation and identification of these fragments through various analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS).

The resulting peptide map serves as a "fingerprint" of the protein, providing information about its sequence, modifications, and structure. Peptide mapping can be used for a variety of applications, including protein identification, characterization of post-translational modifications, and monitoring of protein degradation or cleavage.

In summary, peptide mapping is a powerful tool in proteomics that enables the analysis and identification of proteins and their modifications at the peptide level.

Epitope mapping is a technique used in immunology to identify the specific portion or regions (called epitopes) on an antigen that are recognized and bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This process helps to understand the molecular basis of immune responses against various pathogens, allergens, or transplanted tissues.

Epitope mapping can be performed using different methods such as:

1. Peptide scanning: In this method, a series of overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the antigen are synthesized and tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. The peptide that shows binding is considered to contain the epitope.
2. Site-directed mutagenesis: In this approach, specific amino acids within the antigen are altered, and the modified antigens are tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This helps in identifying the critical residues within the epitope.
3. X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy: These techniques provide detailed information about the three-dimensional structure of antigen-antibody complexes, allowing for accurate identification of epitopes at an atomic level.

The results from epitope mapping can be useful in various applications, including vaccine design, diagnostic test development, and understanding the basis of autoimmune diseases.

A brain abscess is a localized collection of pus in the brain that is caused by an infection. It can develop as a result of a bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection that spreads to the brain from another part of the body or from an infection that starts in the brain itself (such as from a head injury or surgery).

The symptoms of a brain abscess may include headache, fever, confusion, seizures, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, and changes in vision, speech, or behavior. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection, as well as surgical drainage of the abscess to relieve pressure on the brain.

It is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent potentially life-threatening complications such as brain herniation or permanent neurological damage.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Physical chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping or genomic mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or DNA sequences along a chromosome based on their physical distance from one another. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques such as restriction enzyme digestion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and chromosome walking to identify the precise location of a particular gene or sequence on a chromosome.

Physical chromosome mapping provides important information about the organization and structure of chromosomes, and it is essential for understanding genetic diseases and disorders. By identifying the specific genes and DNA sequences that are associated with certain conditions, researchers can develop targeted therapies and treatments to improve patient outcomes. Additionally, physical chromosome mapping is an important tool for studying evolution and comparative genomics, as it allows scientists to compare the genetic makeup of different species and identify similarities and differences between them.

Body Surface Potential Mapping (BSPM) is a non-invasive medical technique used to record and analyze the electrical activity of the heart from the surface of the body. It involves placing multiple electrodes on the skin of the chest, back, and limbs to measure the potential differences between these points during each heartbeat. This information is then used to create a detailed, visual representation of the electrical activation pattern of the heart, which can help in the diagnosis and evaluation of various cardiac disorders such as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and ventricular hypertrophy.

The BSPM technique provides high-resolution spatial and temporal information about the cardiac electrical activity, making it a valuable tool for both clinical and research purposes. It can help identify the origin and spread of abnormal electrical signals in the heart, which is crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies. Overall, Body Surface Potential Mapping is an important diagnostic modality that offers unique insights into the electrical functioning of the heart.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

Brain hypoxia is a medical condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function properly, and even a brief period of hypoxia can cause significant damage to brain cells.

Hypoxia can result from various conditions, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, loss of consciousness, and ultimately, brain death.

Brain hypoxia is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of hypoxia, such as administering oxygen therapy, resuscitating the heart, or treating respiratory failure. In some cases, more invasive treatments, such as therapeutic hypothermia or mechanical ventilation, may be necessary to prevent further brain damage.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized, selective interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulating blood. It is formed by unique endothelial cells that line the brain's capillaries, along with tight junctions, astrocytic foot processes, and pericytes, which together restrict the passage of substances from the bloodstream into the CNS. This barrier serves to protect the brain from harmful agents and maintain a stable environment for proper neural function. However, it also poses a challenge in delivering therapeutics to the CNS, as most large and hydrophilic molecules cannot cross the BBB.

Epicardial mapping is a medical procedure used to create a detailed map of the electrical activity on the surface of the heart (epicardium). This technique is often used during electrophysiology studies to help diagnose and locate the source of abnormal heart rhythms, such as ventricular tachycardia or atrial fibrillation.

During epicardial mapping, a specialist (usually an electrophysiologist) will introduce a catheter through a vein or artery, which is then guided to the heart. Once in position, electrodes on the tip of the catheter record electrical signals from the heart's surface. These signals are used to create a detailed map of the heart's electrical activity, allowing the specialist to identify areas with abnormal electrical patterns.

This information can be crucial for determining the best course of treatment, such as targeted ablation therapy to eliminate the source of the arrhythmia. Epicardial mapping is typically performed in an electrophysiology lab or cardiac catheterization laboratory under fluoroscopy guidance, and it requires expertise in both cardiovascular medicine and interventional techniques.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Genetic linkage is the phenomenon where two or more genetic loci (locations on a chromosome) tend to be inherited together because they are close to each other on the same chromosome. This occurs during the process of sexual reproduction, where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over.

The closer two loci are to each other on a chromosome, the lower the probability that they will be separated by a crossover event. As a result, they are more likely to be inherited together and are said to be linked. The degree of linkage between two loci can be measured by their recombination frequency, which is the percentage of meiotic events in which a crossover occurs between them.

Linkage analysis is an important tool in genetic research, as it allows researchers to identify and map genes that are associated with specific traits or diseases. By analyzing patterns of linkage between markers (identifiable DNA sequences) and phenotypes (observable traits), researchers can infer the location of genes that contribute to those traits or diseases on chromosomes.

Chronic brain damage is a condition characterized by long-term, persistent injury to the brain that results in cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments. It can be caused by various factors such as trauma, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), infection, toxic exposure, or degenerative diseases. The effects of chronic brain damage may not be immediately apparent and can worsen over time, leading to significant disability and reduced quality of life.

The symptoms of chronic brain damage can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include:

* Cognitive impairments such as memory loss, difficulty concentrating, trouble with problem-solving and decision-making, and decreased learning ability
* Motor impairments such as weakness, tremors, poor coordination, and balance problems
* Sensory impairments such as hearing or vision loss, numbness, tingling, or altered sense of touch
* Speech and language difficulties such as aphasia (problems with understanding or producing speech) or dysarthria (slurred or slow speech)
* Behavioral changes such as irritability, mood swings, depression, anxiety, and personality changes

Chronic brain damage can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neurological evaluation, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maximizing function through rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, and physical therapy. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address specific symptoms or underlying causes of the brain damage.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Optogenetics is not a term with a specific medical definition, but it is a scientific technique that is used in biomedical research. Here's a general definition:

Optogenetics is a neuroscientific technique that involves the use of light to control and manipulate the activity of individual neurons or groups of neurons in living organisms, typically using genetic modification to introduce light-sensitive proteins into specific cells. This allows researchers to precisely control the electrical activity of targeted neurons with high temporal resolution, providing insights into their function and connectivity in various physiological and pathological processes.

Optogenetics has been used to study a wide range of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and addiction, among others. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines optics, genetics, molecular biology, and neuroscience.

Molecular biology is a branch of biology that deals with the structure, function, and organization of molecules involved in biological processes, especially informational molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. It includes the study of molecular mechanisms of genetic inheritance, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cellular regulation. Molecular biology also involves the use of various experimental techniques to investigate and manipulate these molecules, including recombinant DNA technology, genomic sequencing, protein crystallography, and bioinformatics. The ultimate goal of molecular biology is to understand how biological systems work at a fundamental level and to apply this knowledge to improve human health and the environment.

... And Language F.J. Chen (2006). Focus on Brain Mapping Research. F.J. Chen (2006). Trends in Brain Mapping ... Outline of brain mapping Outline of the human brain Brain Mapping Foundation BrainMaps Project Center for Computational Biology ... Atlas of Brain Mapping: Topographic Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials. Konrad Maurer (1989). Topographic Brain Mapping of ... At higher resolutions brain maps are called connectomes. These maps incorporate individual neural connections in the brain and ...
... in collaboration with the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT), hold the Brain Mapping ... Mapping of the Human Brain Tumors The Brain Mapping Foundation has been supporting annual meetings of Society for Brain Mapping ... Brain Mapping Foundation has partnered with Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) to identify the most important ... "Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) announce the formation of American Board of Brain Mapping, its 2013 award ...
Human Brain Mapping is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by John Wiley & Sons covering research on human brain ... mapping. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 5.969, ranking it second out of 14 ...
Medical image computing Blue Brain Project and Artificial brain International Consortium for Brain Mapping see Brain Mapping ... brain resulting in maps. Brain mapping is further defined as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord ... Brain Activity Map Project - 2013 NIH $3 billion project to map every neuron in the human brain in ten years, based upon the ... The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to brain mapping: Brain mapping - set of neuroscience ...
... Retrieved 4 November 2015. "Past Officers of OHBM". Organization for Human Brain Mapping ... ORGANIZATION FOR HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING GLASS BRAIN AWARD OHBM Young Investigator Award "Eligibility & Benefits". Organization for ... Organization for Human Brain Mapping. Retrieved 4 November 2015. The Governing Council of the Organization for Human Brain ... Since the human brain mapping field is cross-disciplinary the members range from neurologists, psychiatrists and psychologists ...
"Brain Mapping Foundation Turned Los Angeles into the Brain Capital of the World and will be holding its first World BRAIN Expo ... International Brain Mapping and Intraoperative Surgical planning Foundation (IBMISPF) DBA The Brain Mapping Foundation provides ... In 2013 SBMT Board and Members defined Brain Mapping as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord ... planning and execution of Obama's BRAIN Initiative and in 2013 pioneered the G20+ World Brain Mapping & Therapeutic Initiative ...
G20 Brain Mapping Istanbul 2015 G20 Brain Mapping Istanbul 2015 G20 Brain Mapping Antalya 2015 "News Hub Post". "G20 World ... G20 World Brain Mapping Summit was launched in 2014 on the initiative of The Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT ... The G20 World Brain Mapping & Therapeutic Scientific Summit aims to contribute to President Obama's BRAIN initiative and to ... brain cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, big data in brain mapping, strategies for global clinical trials, policies that ...
Sensory maps are the representations of sense organs as organized maps in the brain, and it is the fundamental organization of ... Sensory maps and brain development is a concept in neuroethology that links the development of the brain over an animal's ... List of known sensory maps: Somatotopic maps: homunculus, rat barrel cortex, star-nose mole nose Retino-topic maps: visual ... Sensory maps are not always close to an exact topographic projection of the senses. The fact that the brain is organized into ...
These maps may be thought of as a mapping of the surface of the body onto the brain structure. Phrased another way, topographic ... Abstract maps are maps that are also created by stimuli outside of an organism, but it has no surface by which it creates a map ... In addition to non-mapped and mapped processing, stimuli may be processed under multiple maps as in the human visual system. ... The Jeffres Map was a theory of how the brain might compute interaural time differences (ITD), or differences in time of ...
Jacobs, Frank (18 September 2013). "This is your brain on maps". Strange Maps. Big Think. Van Damme, Bramus. "Mercator Puzzle ... Map orientation UV mapping - Process of projecting a 3D model's surface to a 2D image for texture mapping World map - Map of ... Geometric aspects of mapping: map projection (KartoWeb.itc.nl). Java world map projections, Henry Bottomley (SE16.info). Map ... The purpose of the map determines which projection should form the base for the map. Because maps have many different purposes ...
In CA mapping of dense information measured within Magnetic resonance image (MRI) based coordinate systems such as in the brain ... Christensen, G. E.; Rabbitt, R. D.; Miller, M. I. (1994-03-01). "3D brain mapping using a deformable neuroanatomy". Physics in ... Du, Jia; Younes, Laurent; Qiu, Anqi (2011-05-01). "Whole brain diffeomorphic metric mapping via integration of sulcal and gyral ... A diffeomorphic mapping system is a system designed to map, manipulate, and transfer information which is stored in many types ...
Kolarik, B.; Ekstrom, A. (2015-01-01). "The Neural Underpinnings of Spatial Memory and Navigation". Brain Mapping. pp. 507-514 ... street names forming a straight line on the map, but omitting intermediate streets Map Random - streets on map presented in ... Brain. 122 (1): 47-59. doi:10.1093/brain/122.1.47. PMID 10050894. Tucker, DM; Hartry-Speiser, A; McDougal, L; Luu, P; ... For example, cognitive maps are not "absolute" but rather, as anyone can attest, are "used to provide a default...(which) ...
Human Brain Mapping. 30 (4): 1168-87. doi:10.1002/hbm.20585. PMC 6870597. PMID 18465747. Obrig, H; Wenzel, R; Kohl, M; Horst, S ... "The Virtual Brain - Our Leaders". The Virtual Brain. Retrieved 20 August 2018. "Press release: Petra Ritter now Johanna Quandt ... Former lab website at Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences: "Brain Modes". Max Planck Institute for ... She is a co-founder of The Virtual Brain open-source brain simulation platform. Since October 2017 she has held a lifetime BIH ...
Human Brain Mapping. 6 (4): 270-288. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.501.6259. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0193(1998)6:4. 3.3.co;2-h. PMC 6873370. ... The Brain Age: Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day! software program, produced by Ryūta Kawashima for the Nintendo DS portable ... Researchers also use the Stroop effect during brain imaging studies to investigate regions of the brain that are involved in ... suggests there is a lag in the brain's ability to recognize the color of the word since the brain reads words faster than it ...
Human Brain Mapping. 30 (11): 3475-3494. doi:10.1002/hbm.20771. PMC 2767459. PMID 19387980. Assal, F. D. R.; Schwartz, S.; ... I". Brain. 88 (2): 237-294. doi:10.1093/brain/88.2.237. PMID 5318481. Leader, Darian (21 May 2016). "Darian Leader: how ... It also occurs in some cases after brain surgery, stroke, infection, tumor, aneurysm, migraine and specific degenerative brain ... Human Brain Mapping. 30 (11): 3704-3718. doi:10.1002/hbm.20800. PMC 6870802. PMID 19517530. Fried, Itzhak; Mukamel, Roy; ...
Human Brain Mapping. 31 (10): 1459-1468. doi:10.1002/hbm.20950. PMC 6870700. PMID 20108224. S2CID 22661328. James W. Lewis " ... An abstraction can be seen as a compression process, mapping multiple different pieces of constituent data to a single piece of ... Anatol Rapoport wrote "Abstracting is a mechanism by which an infinite variety of experiences can be mapped on short noises ( ... Other research into the human brain suggests that the left and right hemispheres differ in their handling of abstraction. For ...
Human Brain Mapping. 38 (3): 1208-1223. doi:10.1002/hbm.23449. ISSN 1065-9471. PMC 5324567. PMID 27774713. Das, P; Lagopoulos, ... Brain. 121 (11): 2103-18. doi:10.1093/brain/121.11.2103. PMID 9827770. Sehm, Bernhard; Frisch, S; Thone-Otto, A; Horstmann, A; ... which measured their brain activity. Several brain regions implicated in social perceptual and cognitive processes were of ... The brain integrates different sensory inputs to create a representation of one's body and its location in its surrounding. ...
Bernard Mazoyer (2008). "Jean Talairach (1911-2007): A life in stereotaxy". Human Brain Mapping. 29 (2): 250-252. doi:10.1002/ ... "The Electronic Clinical Brain Atlas: Multiplanar Navigation of the Human Brain", Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, 1997 ( ... He created a detailed map of the tunnels under Paris, which he gave to the allies. In 1944 he was inducted into the Legion of ... J. Talairach and P. Tournoux, "Co-planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain: 3-Dimensional Proportional System - an Approach ...
Human Brain Mapping. 31 (5): 758-769. doi:10.1002/hbm.20903. PMC 6871188. PMID 19957268. Xu, Min; Johnson, Lee N.; Anderson, ... As such, the period after a traumatic brain injury such as a frontal lobe disorder can be marked by emotional dysregulation. ... Emotion dysregulation can be associated with an experience of early psychological trauma, brain injury, or chronic maltreatment ... This is manifested biologically by deficits[clarification needed] in the frontal cortices of the brain. ...
Human Brain Mapping. 38 (1): 541-560. doi:10.1002/hbm.23402. ISSN 1065-9471. PMC 6866912. PMID 27647695. Kohl, Simon H.; Mehler ... are associated with different brain activities or brain states. Similarly, symptoms of mental or brain-related health issues ... Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback that focuses on the neuronal activity of the brain. The training method is based on ... In this study, half an hour of voluntary control of brain rhythms led to a lasting shift in cortical excitability and ...
Human Brain Mapping, 5, 273-279. Martinez, A., Anllo-Vento, L., Sereno, M. I., Frank, L. R., Buxton, R. B., Dubowitz, D. J., ... Human Brain Mapping, 2, 170-187. Cobb, W. A. & Dawson, G. D. (1960). The latency and form in man of the occipital potentials ... Human Brain Mapping. vol. 30 (5) pp. 1723-1733 Spehlmann, R. (1965). The average electrical responses to diffuse and to ... Human Brain Mapping, 5(4), 280-286. (Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from June 2022, Articles needing footnote ...
Toga, A.W.; Thompson, P.M. (2003). "Mapping brain asymmetry". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4 (1): 37-48. doi:10.1038/nrn1009. PMID ... Brain asymmetry Lateralization of brain function Chris Smith (11 Aug 2023). "Question of the Week". www.thenakedscientists.com ... The Visual Map Theory and the Axial Twist Theory have been formulated in detail and can be regarded as scientific theories, and ... The visual map theory was published by the famous neuroscientist and pioneer Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1898). (See also and for ...
Sergent, J (1993). "Mapping the musician brain". Human Brain Mapping. 1 (1): 20-38. doi:10.1002/hbm.460010104. S2CID 144502262 ... A positron emission tomography study". Brain. 115 (1): 15-36. doi:10.1093/brain/115.1.15. PMID 1559150. Sergent, J.; Signoret, ... doi:10.1093/brain/115.1.15. PMID 1559150. Sergent, J (1990). "The neuropsychology of visual image generation: Data, method, and ... Sergent, J (1994). "Brain-imaging studies of cognitive functions". Trends in Neurosciences. 17 (6): 221-227. doi:10.1016/0166- ...
Human Brain Mapping. 38 (4): 1723-1740. doi:10.1002/hbm.23413. PMC 6866926. PMID 28105655. McLaren DG, Ries ML, Xu G, Johnson ... the time series of a brain region). If the interaction term can explain the brain activation of another brain region after ... The PPI method can also be applied to every pair of regions in the brain, so that the whole-brain task modulated connectivity, ... Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) is a brain connectivity analysis method for functional brain imaging data, mainly ...
"Does the superior fronto-occipital fascicle exist in the human brain? Fiber dissection and brain functional mapping in 90 ... Human Brain Mapping. 36 (12): 4964-4971. doi:10.1002/hbm.22990. ISSN 1065-9471. PMC 4715628. PMID 26435158. Liu X, Kinoshita M ... however the latter is no longer believed to exist in the human brain. This article incorporates text in the public domain from ...
Human Brain Mapping. 41 (17): 4804-4814. doi:10.1002/hbm.25159. PMC 7643371. PMID 32786059. Sadigh-Eteghad S, Majdi A, Farhoudi ... Seed-based d mapping (previously signed differential mapping, SDM): a method for conducting meta-analyses of voxel-based ... Brain Image Analysis Package CamBA Caret Van Essen Lab, Washington University in St. Louis CONN (functional connectivity ... Neuroimaging software is used to study the structure and function of the brain. To see an NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience ...
February 2009). "Functional neuroanatomy of CCK-4-induced panic attacks in healthy volunteers". Human Brain Mapping. 30 (2): ... CCK-4 acts primarily in the brain as an anxiogenic, although it does retain some GI effects, but not as much as CCK-8 or the ...
Toga, A. W.; Thompson, P. M. (2003). "Mapping brain asymmetry". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4 (1): 37-48. doi:10.1038/nrn1009. PMID ... Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M. (2003). "Mapping brain asymmetry". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4 (1): 37-48. doi:10.1038/nrn1009. ... Brain asymmetry Contralateral brain inversion (evolutionary biology) de Lussanet, M. H. E.; Osse, J. W. M. (2012). "An ... The Yakovlevian torque (aka "counterclockwise brain torque" refers to an anatomical peculiarity of the normal brain. On average ...
Human Brain Mapping. 39 (8): 3241-3252. doi:10.1002/hbm.24073. ISSN 1065-9471. PMC 6055807. PMID 29665228. (Creativity, ... Behavioural Brain Research. 214 (2): 143-156. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2010.05.015. PMID 20488210. S2CID 16666568. Guilford, J.P. ( ...
Human Brain Mapping. 38 (12): 6096-6106. doi:10.1002/hbm.23814. ISSN 1097-0193. PMC 6867091. PMID 28940969. Lugmayr, Artur; ... But when reading a story, both the language parts and those parts of the brain that would be engaged if the events of the story ... "Why Our Brains Crave Storytelling in Marketing Archived 2014-09-10 at the Wayback Machine." June 4, 2014. September 9, 2014. ... A Nielsen study shows consumers want a more personal connection in the way they gather information since human brains are more ...
Brain Mapping And Language F.J. Chen (2006). Focus on Brain Mapping Research. F.J. Chen (2006). Trends in Brain Mapping ... Outline of brain mapping Outline of the human brain Brain Mapping Foundation BrainMaps Project Center for Computational Biology ... Atlas of Brain Mapping: Topographic Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials. Konrad Maurer (1989). Topographic Brain Mapping of ... At higher resolutions brain maps are called connectomes. These maps incorporate individual neural connections in the brain and ...
National Healthy Brain Initiative (NHBI)plus icon *National Healthy Brain Initiative Road Map Series and Resources ... DEVELOPING THE HBI ROAD MAP FOR INDIAN COUNTRY. The Healthy Brain Initiatives (HBI) Road Map for Indian Country was shaped by ... The Healthy Brain Initiatives (HBI) Road Map for Indian Country is a guide for AI/AN leaders to learn about dementia and start ... The Healthy Brain Initiatives Road Map for Indian Country is tailored for leaders of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN ...
JavaScript must be enabled in order for you to use BrainMaps.org. However, it seems JavaScript is either disabled or not supported by your browser. To view BrainMaps.org, enable JavaScript by changing your browser options, and then try again ...
... one of the major models for studying brain functions. To date, several Drosophila brain templates and digital atlases have been ... one of the major models for studying brain functions. To date, several Drosophila brain templates and digital atlases have been ... We illustrate the validity of our methodology and brain atlas with registration-based predictions of expression patterns in a ... We illustrate the validity of our methodology and brain atlas with registration-based predictions of expression patterns in a ...
Home -> Datasets -> Mus Musculus -> AChE, (Acetyl Cholinesterase), coronal, histo, Whole-Brain, adult -> a15 ...
brain mapping from Neuroscience News features breaking science news from research labs, scientists and colleges around the ... Blind People Have Brain Map For Visual Observations Too. Researchers discover those who were born blind use a brain map, ... Biggest Ever Map of Human Alzheimers Brain Published. An international team of researchers have compiled the largest dataset ... Ballet Dancers Brains Adapt to Stop Them Feeling Dizzy. Researchers report on differences in the brain structures of ballet ...
Differences in the patterns of genes that are turned on in brains of people and mice suggest glial cells may have helped humans ... develop brains that can acquire language and solve complex problems. ... And the lab has begun studying astrocytes in the human brain. But thats difficult. "Its actually very hard to get human brain ... Patterns of gene expression in human and mouse brains suggest that cells known as glial cells may have helped us evolve brains ...
PET Mapping for Brain-Computer Interface Stimulation of the Ventroposterior Medial Nucleus of the Thalamus in Rats with ... PET Mapping for Brain-Computer Interface Stimulation of the Ventroposterior Medial Nucleus of the Thalamus in Rats with ... PET Mapping for Brain-Computer Interface Stimulation of the Ventroposterior Medial Nucleus of the Thalamus in Rats with ... PET Mapping for Brain-Computer Interface Stimulation of the Ventroposterior Medial Nucleus of the Thalamus in Rats with ...
Gradient echo-based quantitative MRI of human brain at 7T : Mapping of T1, MT saturation and local flip angle. *Mark ... Magnetization transfer (MT) of human brain at 7T in the context of a 3D multi-parameter mapping protocol (Paper in conference ... Mapping magnetization transfer saturation (MTsat) in human brain at 7T: Protocol optimization under specific absorption rate ... Reducing bias in DREAM flip angle mapping in human brain at 7T by multiple preparation flip angles (Article) ...
Brain Sections, connectome, Brain Evolution, Brain Development, Brain Circuitry, Brain Functions, brain atlases, primate brain ... brain atlas, neuroscience, coronal, sagittal, brain pics, atlas and pics of brain, mind/brain, brain, neuroscience, mind, brain ... brain, neuroscience, neuroinformatics, brain, monkey brain, macaque brain, macaca mulatta, brains, neuroanatomy, ... brain structure, primate brain, brain atlas, stereotaxic atlas, ... brain maps. neural coding. baseline brain activity. articles. ...
Regarding brain functions, brain mapping techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG), among others, offer important ... Two skills widely studied in young adults, but still little explored through brain mapping in children at early stages of ... Executive Functions and Brain Mapping Techniques in Early Childhood: A Review. Estud. pesqui. psicol. [online]. 2018, vol.18, n ...
Room 120 (*note room change) in the Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center has been designated as a research study Prep Room. ... UCLA Brain Mapping Center. 660 Charles E. Young Drive South. Los Angeles, CA 90095. Phone: 310-825-2699 ...
Home -> Datasets -> Mus Musculus -> AChE, (Acetyl Cholinesterase), coronal, histo, Whole-Brain, adult -> a09 ...
How this nonprofit is advancing human brain cell mapping Mar 15, 2024 ...
Using deep brain stimulation to map dysfunctional brain circuits linked to four disorders Mass General Brigham researchers ... Mapping the human dysfunctome with deep brain stimulation A new study led by investigators from Mass General Brigham ... Non-invasive brain stimulation can change specific brain mechanism linked to human behavior For the first time, researchers at ... demonstrated the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to map a human dysfunctome -; a collection of dysfunctional brain ...
Altered brain response without behavioral attention deficits in healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients. ... Nicotine Enhances but Does Not Normalize Visual Sustained Attention and the Associated Brain Network in Schizophrenia. ... Attentional bias of competitive interactions in neuronal networks of early visual processing in the human brain. ... Methylphenidate modulates sustained attention and cortical activation in survivors of traumatic brain injury: A perfusion fMRI ...
Exploring Brain Cell Mapping via AI but without Coding Expertise. Drug Discovery ...
We aimed to characterise the brain response to three stimulations applied in the oral cavity-sour taste, retronasal smell of ... These findings elucidated how neural signals triggered by sour taste and smell presented in liquid form interact in the brain, ... we investigated the brain responses to taste and smell in the sour flavour-processing network in 35 young healthy adults. ... The anterior insula and rolandic operculum are key regions for flavour perception in the human brain; however, it is unclear ...
"Human Brain Mapping. 32 (3): 450-460. doi:10.1002/hbm.21035. PMC 3607301. PMID 20578170.. ... Peripheral chemoreceptors in the brain monitor the carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the brain to give a perception of ... of the brain. Just as different nerves are dedicated to sensory and motors tasks, different areas of the brain (cortices) are ... damage to the optic nerve that connects each eye to the brain, and/or from stroke (infarcts in the brain). Temporary or ...
As outlined by a prophetic viewpoint, there is actually position by point policies for managing carrying a child. And some celestial signatures are viewed as getting much more ripe than others. There is certainly also the astrology of questions, wherein a diagram is to establish for your particular time an inquiry is posed. As an illustration: I, after your day, would not cope with a customer like this. I understand that labour and pregnancy are unobtrusive and carefully balance, and so i first acknowledge the psychological aspect assumes an important component. In the away from possibility that somebody is informed that they would not ever have youngsters, the emotional impact on this prediction may be so breaking as to make an expected outcome. On the other hand, presuming a crystal gazer is exceedingly hopeful, and allows a client realize that she is going to before long have children, then sizeable assumptions might be created. And also as every single soothsayer needs to be mindful, ...
Did the person responsible of this map @WrexhamFX have a brain? ... However, a map of English clubs has left those watching on ... While the team who are owned by Hollywood stars Rob McElhenney and Ryan Reynolds were in their rightful spot on the map in ... Did Taylor Swift put Travis Kelce on the map? Pop stars latest lyrics from The Alchemy have Swifties cracking up as she ... Ryan Reynolds has a lot of explaining to do!: Wrexham documentary leaves fans BAFFLED as map of English clubs has Everton in ...
Science of Brain Mapping Sparks Renewed Hope for Traumatic Brain Injury Patients - Neurologics Offers Brain Optimization ... It shows brain function in real time, creating a functional data map of the injured brain. With this information, doctors and ... Neurologics brain assessment maps the areas of the brain impacted by injury, allowing scientists and doctors to develop an ... Taking readings using non-invasive electrodes placed on the scalp, brain maps measure 293 brain functions related to memory, ...
Brain Mapping* * Computer Simulation * Decision Making / physiology* * Gyrus Cinguli / cytology* * Macaca mulatta ...
於: Human Brain Mapping, 卷 36, 編號 3, 01.03.2015, p. 852-861.. 研究成果: Article › 同行評審 ... Statistical mapping of metabolites in the medial wall of the brain: A proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging study. Human ... Statistical mapping of metabolites in the medial wall of the brain : A proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging study. 於: Human ... Statistical mapping of metabolites in the medial wall of the brain: A proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging study. / Niddam ...
Regional mapping of prion proteins in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7620-4. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... The sequential development of the brain lesion of scrapie in three strains of mice. J Comp Pathol. 1968;78:301-11. DOIPubMed ...
Deep brain stimulation didnt work for a young OCD patient until new brain maps changed everything. Posted on March 16, 2024 by ... The team used their maps to adjust deep brain stimulators for three patients, including Hum.. All of them saw substantial ... Refining deep brain stimulation. Hum had a deep brain stimulator implanted in 2021.. Her psychiatrist, Dr. Darin Dougherty of ... Training of brain processes makes reading more efficient * Protecting brain cells with cannabinol: Research suggests CBN shows ...
Brain-wide Maps Reveal Stereotyped Cell-Type-Based Cortical Architecture and Subcortical Sexual Dimorphism.. Kim, Yongsoo; Yang ... Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly ... Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic ... The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process ...
... can be used to map the neural connectivity between distinct areas in the intact brain, but the standard resolution achieved ... Predicted topographic maps based on dMRI data largely matched the established retinotopy of both LGN and V5/MT. Furthermore, ... of high-resolution postmortem dMRI and probabilistic tractography in rhesus macaque brains to produce retinotopic maps of the ... yielded comparable topographic maps in many cases. We conclude that tractography based on dMRI is sensitive enough to reveal ...
  • Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has gained great visibility in the past few years as it merges the fields of biorobotics and neuroscience. (snmjournals.org)
  • In a recent study published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, Horn and an international team of researchers took data from more than 530 electrodes implanted in the brains of more than 200 people living with four conditions: Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome and OCD. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • Those measurements are then compared to databases that contain thousands of brain scans of undamaged, functioning brains, enabling identification of specific brain conditions. (mensnewswire.com)
  • Far more effective than CAT, PET, and MRI scans alone, the Neurologics Neuroengineering® approach is more than just a structural scan of the brain. (mensnewswire.com)
  • Brain scans given to veterans who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan show that those suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develop distinct differences in their brain that cause memory impairment. (dotmed.com)
  • This supports the exploration of machine learning methods for predicting gait dysfunction in Parkinson's disease" using region-of-interest (ROI) brain scans, the team writes in the abstract to the study. (medscape.com)
  • Visual assessment of brain perfusion MRI scans in dementia: a pilot study. (lu.se)
  • It may be that most brain functions will only be described correctly after being measured with much more fine-grained measurements that look not at large regions but instead at a very large number of tiny individual brain circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants at 7 months of age who go on to develop autism are slower to reorient their gaze and attention from one object to another when compared to 7-month-olds who do not develop autism, and this behavioral pattern is in part explained by atypical brain circuits. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors , yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain . (bvsalud.org)
  • Rhiner's project seeks to understand the molecular and cellular circuits that help the brain recover from injuries. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • Dementia is a chronic condition that affects a person's brain. (cdc.gov)
  • They looked at where the devices were stimulating each person's brain and how much improvement each had. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • In 2021, the most comprehensive 3D map of the human brain was published by an U.S. IT company. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEWPORT BEACH, Calif. , Sept. 17, 2021 /PRNewswire/ - Neurologics recently highlighted its proprietary and groundbreaking Neurologics Neuroengineering® as a proven solution for the ongoing epidemic of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in a peer-reviewed article published in Cureus Journal of Medical Science . (mensnewswire.com)
  • Hum had a deep brain stimulator implanted in 2021. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behavior onto brain regions (see fMRI). (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Of specific interest is using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI (dMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and other non-invasive scanning techniques to map anatomy, physiology, perfusion, function and phenotypes of the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract Background We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. (pearltrees.com)
  • M. W. Chee, V. Venkatraman, C. Westphal and S. C. Siong, "Comparison of Block and Event-Related fMRI Designs in Evaluating the Word-Frequency Effect," Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 18, No.3, 2003, pp. 186-193. (scirp.org)
  • AI/AN leaders can use the Road Map for Indian Country to learn about Alzheimer's, find out what some AI/AN communities are doing, plan their response, and start taking action throughout their own community. (cdc.gov)
  • Alzheimer's is a disease that damages and destroys brain cells over time. (cdc.gov)
  • The Healthy Brain Initiative's Road Map for Indian Country is tailored for leaders of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities as they develop a broad response to Alzheimer's and other dementias. (cdc.gov)
  • An international team of researchers have compiled the largest dataset to date that details differences between healthy brains and those with Alzheimer's disease. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME) in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. (pearltrees.com)
  • For the concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔoxyHb), we found that significant deactivation was induced by sweetness and sourness in parts of the frontopolar area, orbitofrontal area and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in bilateral hemisphere of human brain. (scirp.org)
  • However, the human brain is so large that the number of neurons by far exceeds that of a bird. (lu.se)
  • Assessment of brain metabolite correlates of adeno-associated virus-mediated over-expression of human alpha-synuclein in cortical neurons by in vivo (1) H-MR spectroscopy at 9.4 T. (lu.se)
  • Nonparametric D-R1-R2 distribution MRI of the living human brain. (lu.se)
  • Towards non-parametric diffusion-T1 characterization of crossing fibers in the human brain. (lu.se)
  • Computing and visualising intra-voxel orientation-specific relaxation-diffusion features in the human brain. (lu.se)
  • This study aimed to use PET mapping for BCI-based stimulation in a rat model with electrodes implanted in the ventroposterior medial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus. (snmjournals.org)
  • Taking readings using non-invasive electrodes placed on the scalp, 'brain maps' measure 293 brain functions related to memory, attention, impulse control, decision making, and other attributes. (mensnewswire.com)
  • The devices have two electrodes that target a pea-size structure deep inside the brain called the subthalamic nucleus. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • page needed] It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries (as in the case of Phineas Gage) and improving brain injury treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain-wide Maps Reveal Stereotyped Cell-Type-Based Cortical Architecture and Subcortical Sexual Dimorphism. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic subcortical areas, in contrast to the overall larger brains in males . (bvsalud.org)
  • According to the definition established in 2013 by Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT), brain mapping is specifically defined, in summary, as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging, immunohistochemistry, molecular & optogenetics, stem cell and cellular biology, engineering, neurophysiology and nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both healthy and diseased brains may be mapped to study memory, learning, aging, and drug effects in various populations such as people with schizophrenia, autism, and clinical depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study finds that the ear delivers sound information to the brain in a surprisingly organized fashion. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • This study demonstrated that PET mapping after VPM stimulation can identify specific brain regions associated with orienting performance. (snmjournals.org)
  • Dr. Sameer Sheth, a professor of neurosurgery at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston who was not involved in the study, says that the research is encouraging because it uses data from a large number of people but that trying it out in just three people isn't enough to know whether these brain maps are accurate. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • Using a fruit fly model to study adult brain injury, Rhiner's team has advanced our understanding of key repair mechanisms in the brain. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • In this webinar Tuba will share her own mind mapping journey and how she uses mind maps (with examples) to aid her study. (biggerplate.com)
  • The author offers an original method of the study of the midbrain structures and liquor circulation system (the third ventricle, brain water-pipe, the fourth ventricle) in the small cavity in the course of autopsy. (who.int)
  • Stanley Heinze will study insect brains and their neural circuitry in a new ERC Consolidator grant. (lu.se)
  • EJF2: study conception, data en el hemicuello derecho con afectación del plexo braquial, adenopatías cervicales, infraclaviculares y axilares derechas. (bvsalud.org)
  • In a recently published study [1], the researchers managed to determine the density and number of neurons in the brains of a variety of organisms, says Mathias. (lu.se)
  • The Neurologics approach has been developed over decades, beneficially transforming the lives of patients by helping them navigate multiple TBI challenges using the science of brain optimization and neuroplasticity. (mensnewswire.com)
  • The Neurologics brain optimization program is far superior to other programs marketed as brain training programs,' said Dr. Dallas Hack , Chairman of Neurologics Scientific Advisory Board. (mensnewswire.com)
  • This is primarily because the main modules in Neurologics optimization are customized to each individual's brain map and dynamically adapted with a real time brain computer interface. (mensnewswire.com)
  • Headquartered in Southern California, Neurologics is an innovative and highly effective brain function assessment and optimization company utilizing FDA-registered techniques and proprietary software. (mensnewswire.com)
  • page needed] The ultimate goal is to develop flexible computational brain atlases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding brain functions, brain mapping techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG), among others, offer important insights into cognitive abilities, the form in which they manifest not only behaviorally, but also at the organic level, and how they develop across the life span. (bvsalud.org)
  • These modules are designed to strengthen the critical brain networks that are the foundation of that individual's cognitive performance. (mensnewswire.com)
  • Therefore, solely measuring the size of the brain is incorrect when mapping cognitive abilities. (lu.se)
  • Researchers discover infant brains are surprisingly sensitive to other people's movements. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Researchers report on differences in the brain structures of ballet dancers which could help them avoid feeling dizzy when they pirouette. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Researchers discover those who were born blind use a brain map, similar to that in people with full vision, to distinguish between objects. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • High levels of SNTF in the blood after TBI correlate with brain tissue damage, researchers discover. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation can be life-changing, but it doesn't work equally well for everyone, and researchers say they're getting closer to understanding why. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • University of California, Irvine biomedical engineering researchers have uncovered a previously unknown source of two key brain waves crucial for deep sleep: slow waves and sleep spindles. (medicalxpress.com)
  • MIT researchers have discovered a brain circuit that drives vocalization and ensures that you talk only when you breathe out, and stop talking when you breathe in. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Quantitative MRI (qMRI) refers to the process of deriving maps of MR contrast parameters, such as relaxation times, from conventional images. (lu.se)
  • Here we apply our quantitative brain -wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some scientists have criticized the brain image-based claims made in scientific journals and the popular press, like the discovery of "the part of the brain responsible" things like love or musical abilities or a specific memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • About two months later, scientists reported that they created the first complete neuron-level-resolution 3D map of a monkey brain which they scanned via a new method within 100 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurologics' brain assessment maps the areas of the brain impacted by injury, allowing scientists and doctors to develop an optimized plan for improved brain function that is unique to each patient. (mensnewswire.com)
  • Medical University of South Carolina scientists report in Neuron that they have uncovered a way to restore an opioid-weakened brain pathway in a preclinical model. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, the underlying brain mechanisms are unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • The project aims to delve deeper, and to establish how brain injuries change the properties of brain cells and networks, to discover mechanisms of regeneration, and to investigate how such injuries impact the functioning of other organs in the body. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • Highlighting the broader implications of this research, Rhiner notes, "Brain tissue damage significantly affects the functioning of other organs in the body, but the mechanisms behind this are still a mystery. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • A steady CBF is achieved by vasodilation and vasoconstriction of cerebral arterioles which in turn are influenced by neurogenic, myogenic, and metabolic mechanisms responding to changes in MAP [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This grant will fund the project "BrainSySTEMic", aimed at understanding the link between local and bodywide (systemic) responses initiated by brain damage. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has great potential for improving the quality of life for neurologic patients. (snmjournals.org)
  • This exam is usually used to detect brain or nerve (neurologic) problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The team used their maps to adjust deep brain stimulators for three patients, including Hum. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • Generic brain-activation maps for ( a ) control group and ( b ) patients with schizophrenia. (jci.org)
  • Implementation is performed within the well-established multi-parameter mapping (MPM) framework and special attention is afforded to the reduction of biases as well as overcoming saftey restrictions imposed by SAR. (lu.se)
  • The Road Map provides a framework for building strategic partnerships for increased investment in maternal and newborn health at institutional and programme levels, focusing particularly on the health service and community levels. (who.int)
  • Firstly, it is demonstrated how to most effectively obtain B1-corrected MPRAGE images of "pure" T1 contrast using a sequential protocol This is followed by a description of T1-mapping using MP2RAGE. (lu.se)
  • Many mapping techniques have a relatively low resolution, including hundreds of thousands of neurons in a single voxel. (wikipedia.org)
  • It shows neurons and their connections along with blood vessels and other components of a millionth of a brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • "They counted the number of neurons and studied the number in relation to the size of the brain. (lu.se)
  • In this comparison, song birds (a very large group of birds) and parrots had the highest densities of neurons of all (they have a high density and a relatively large brain). (lu.se)
  • 3 Exploring how brain injuries affect other organs in the body by tracking signals from the brain that target tissues in the periphery. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • The method allows to assess morphometrically the degree of dislocation of the middle structures in pathological conditions accompanied by brain edema. (who.int)
  • The Healthy Brain Initiative's (HBI) Road Map for Indian Country is a guide for AI/AN leaders to learn about dementia and start discussions throughout their communities. (cdc.gov)
  • Vascular dementia is caused by conditions or lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking cigarettes or not being active, that weaken or block blood flow the brain. (cdc.gov)
  • Components in this research: (1) understanding of insect brain organization, here represented by a 3D reconstruction of all neuronal branches of one bumblebee nodulus at medium resolution (24nm), demonstrating ability to obtain connectomics data. (lu.se)
  • Many functions also involve multiple parts of the brain, meaning that this type of claim is probably both unverifiable with the equipment used, and generally based on an incorrect assumption about how brain functions are divided. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhiner continues, "With the FCT's generous support, we can now track molecules the brain releases to instruct other organs. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • MRA can be used to image the thoracic and abdominal aorta and arteries of the brain, neck, abdominal organs, kidneys, and lower extremities. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of brain mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, spoiled gradient-recalled echo (GRE) techniques are employed to map (primarily) two structural MR parameters, i.e. the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and the magnetization transfer (MT) saturation (MTsat). (lu.se)
  • The brain and its abilities have been studied in crows, among other animals. (lu.se)
  • Previous research has shown that birds have advanced abilities and a well-developed brain. (lu.se)
  • FDG-PET brain imaging and network analysis can be used to identify specific disease-related metabolic brain patterns related to PD, PSP, and MSA, Perovnik told the audience. (medscape.com)
  • Perovnik said this shows that "metabolic brain networks identified in one institution can be used at different sites. (medscape.com)
  • Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on. (bvsalud.org)
  • We have yet to learn how memory and many functions of the brain are constructed, both in humans and in animals. (lu.se)
  • This approach has revealed a crucial cell-to-cell communication network that activates dormant brain cells that are capable of supplying new cells for tissue repair-a phenomenon observed not just in fruit flies, but also in mammals like mice. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • In this context, the WHO Regional Office for Africa took the lead and, with the participation of all relevant partners, developed a Road Map to accelerate the attainment of the MDGs relating to maternal and newborn health in Africa. (who.int)
  • The PSYCHOLOGY mind map was created by WikiSummarizer application based on the Wikipedia article about PSYCHOLOGY. (biggerplate.com)
  • Although interest in excessive brain iron deposition is increasing, a paucity of evidence shows changes in brain iron exceeding that in healthy individuals. (medscape.com)
  • It shows brain function in real time, creating a functional data map of the injured brain. (mensnewswire.com)
  • If the qMRI maps have a high degree of precision and a low degree of bias, they can be compared longitudinally, across subjects, and (ideally) between measurement protocols and research sites. (lu.se)
  • She and her doctors credit this lifesaving improvement to innovative research that allowed them to more precisely target a dysfunctional circuit with a device called a deep brain stimulator, which acts like a pacemaker for her brain. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • The Brain Injury Association of America estimates that one person in the U.S. sustains an acquired brain injury every nine seconds. (mensnewswire.com)
  • BrainSySTEMic adopts a comprehensive approach to address three key aspects of brain injury and recovery at the tissue and organismal level. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • 1 Mapping the molecular changes in different brain cells after injury. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • Two skills widely studied in young adults, but still little explored through brain mapping in children at early stages of development, are language and executive functions. (bvsalud.org)
  • The qBrain resource can be further mined to link stereotyped aspects of neuronal distributions to known and unknown functions of diverse brain regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Then, they used these records to map the nerve networks that seem to become dysfunctional in each of the four disorders. (natureknowsproducts.com)
  • The team derived three datasets for the machine learning models: one based on previously validated clinical features in the Slovenian cohort, another on analogous feature patterns in the US cohort, and the third using a support vector machine based on 95 brain ROIs. (medscape.com)
  • Neuroscientists take the first step toward deciphering the connection between general brain function and emergent behavioral patterns in autism. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Finally, we confirmed that the PFC was involved in sweet and sour taste processing, and fNIRS provided an alternative way for studying taste-related brain function under more natural conditions. (scirp.org)
  • Impaired brain metabolism and neurocognitive function in childhood leukemia survivors despite complete hormone supplementation in adulthood. (lu.se)
  • One simple test may tell you… call today for a free brain exam. (skepdoc.info)
  • This exam creates a map of your central 30 degrees of vision. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is the book that shows the world the genius of Dr. Paul Dennison, co-creator of Brain Gym, or Educational Kinesiology. (biggerplate.com)
  • Brain mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualization and interpretation techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases the brain mapping techniques are used for commercial purposes, lie detection, or medical diagnosis in ways which have not been scientifically validated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the nervous system disrupts the strongly linked networks of brain cells, leading to drastically altered cellular interactions that are not well understood. (fchampalimaud.org)
  • One such map, called a connectogram, depicts cortical regions around a circle, organized by lobes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be kept in mind, however, that there is likely segmental and regional heterogeneity between the pial and parenchymal arteries and arterioles and their response to the above regulatory factors which can result in varying levels of CBF over the same range of CPP in different regions of the brain [ 8 , 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Intracerebroventricular apelin-13 administration promotes antinociception in mice, an effect markedly antagonized by coagulation factor XIII A chain (an APJ antagonist) and naloxone, suggesting that apelin is involved in opioid receptor signaling and corroborating reports that apelin is located in opioid-rich brain areas, including the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the spinal trigeminal nucleus ( 19 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Understanding of the neuro-architecture of key areas in the insect brain and its attached sensory systems will be used to create III-V nanowire and molecular dye-based network systems that mimic neural computations underlying specific behaviours (in particular, navigation). (lu.se)
  • In addition, brain activities were more sensitive to sourness than sweetness. (scirp.org)
  • The interactive and citizen science website Eyewire maps mices' retinal cells and was launched in 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffusion tensor distribution imaging of an in vivo mouse brain at ultra-high magnetic field by spatiotemporal encoding. (lu.se)
  • Brain imaging experiments uncouple two apparently intimately connected mental processes In everyday life, attention and awareness appear tightly interwoven. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • An approach to obtain high-SNR low-bias flip angle maps at 7T, using the dual refocusing echo acquisition mode (DREAM) technique is also presented. (lu.se)

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