Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Stanford-Binet Test: An individual intelligence test designed primarily for school children to predict school performance and the ability to adjust to everyday demands.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Machiavellianism: A personality dimension characterized by the manipulation of others.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Test Taking Skills: Skills and strategies, unrelated to the traits a test is intended to measure, that may increase test takers' scores -- may include the effects of coaching or experience in taking tests. (ERIC Thesaurus)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Dyscalculia: Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Bender-Gestalt Test: A psychological test consisting of nine geometric designs on cards. The subject is asked to redraw them from memory after each one is presented individually.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Child, Gifted: A child or adolescent who, when compared to others of the same age or experience, exhibits capability of high performance in intellectual, creative, or artistic areas, possesses an unusual capacity for leadership or excels in specific academic fields. (From PL 100-297, Sec. 4103, Definitions)Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Drive: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMass Behavior: Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Physiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Alcohol Amnestic Disorder: A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)ArtNocturnal Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE during sleep at night after expected age of completed development of urinary control.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.ReadingCultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Logic: The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Psychosurgery: Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
  • They then compared the data with existing brain-imaging scans for six macaques and 28 Japanese children. (businessinsider.com)
  • past studies have instead pieced together brain development from scans on several apes of different ages, Sherwood said. (businessinsider.com)
  • Eight clinicians tested it by evaluating a set of 115 brain scans for aneurysm, once with the help of HeadXNet and once without. (stanford.edu)
  • Machine learning has detected one of the commonest causes of dementia and stroke, in brain scans (CT), more accurately than current methods. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • At the moment, doctors diagnose SVD by looking for changes to white matter in the brain during MRI or CT scans. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • High-tech scans of the resting human brain can provide a new way to define and interpret the brain's actual mental capacity, new research suggests. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Over 40 scientists from around the world were involved in analysing brain MRI scans and measures of cognitive function of 1,717 participants, with both healthy functions and patients with schizophrenia. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • An active new area in medicine involves training deep-learning models to detect structural patterns in brain scans associated with neurological diseases and disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. (mit.edu)
  • And, in some cases, such as for rare brain conditions in children, only a few scans may be available in the first place. (mit.edu)
  • There's interest in using the system, for instance, to help train predictive-analytics models at Massachusetts General Hospital, Zhao says, where only one or two labeled scans may exist of particularly uncommon brain conditions among child patients. (mit.edu)
  • Using CT scans, the scientists painstakingly mapped the affected brain regions of each participant, then pooled the data to build a collective map of the brain. (technologynetworks.com)
  • So an important goal is to find better ways to crunch the data from fMRI scans and so produce more accurate brain-image reconstructions. (technologyreview.com)
  • Brain size can be measured by weight or by volume (via MRI scans or by skull volume). (wikipedia.org)
  • High-tech cricket farming, AI learns from Minecraft, looking for lithium, a new hominid species is named, signs of life in dead pig brains, Cherokee cave texts decoded, water molecules on the moon and more. (sciencenews.org)
  • Bird Brain will start by looking at the structures and functions of the avian brain, and move on to examine different types of intelligence by profiling the extraordinary behaviours of a broad range of the species, studying the masterminds of the avian world, and examining what types of behaviour can be interpreted as 'intelligence' as we would recognize it. (lynxeds.com)
  • Bird Brain will not only look at the well-studied species such as New Caledonian crows and parrots, but also cast a broader eye over the behaviour of a wide range of species from around the world. (lynxeds.com)
  • It is shown that cranial capacity/foramen magnum area is closely related to brain/medulla volume, and may therefore be used as a related measure with fossil species. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The raw brain-to-body mass ratio is however simpler to come by, and is still a useful tool for comparing encephalization within species or between fairly closely related species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Either octopuses or jumping spiders have some of the highest for an invertebrate, although some ant species have 14%-15% of their mass in their brains, the highest value known for any animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In those speculations, Zeki noted that an image of an enemy lit up areas of the cerebral cortex part of the brain, which is associated with judgment and reasoning, while an image of a loved one didn't activate those areas. (go.com)
  • Most of the genes in this network express in cortical regions (indicated by red), except for the V1C (primary visual cortex), STR (striatum), CBC (cerebellar cortex), and MD (mediodorsal nucleus of thalamus) brain areas. (lifeboat.com)
  • Scientists from Imperial College London have identified two clusters ("gene networks") of genes that are linked to human intelligence. (lifeboat.com)
  • However, this finding does not necessarily mean that genes influence focal brain structures in the same manner throughout the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Determining the extent to which focal brain morphology and its association with cognitive functioning are influenced by genes (or environment) is important for both our understanding of healthy functioning and elucidating the causes of brain disease. (jneurosci.org)
  • Genes also contribute to intelligence, according to studies of identical twins, and paradoxically that contribution increases with age. (dana.org)
  • Other genes may be involved in brain growth in young, developing fish but no other genes were found to vary in their expression in adult fish other than Ang-1 . (su.se)
  • Future studies will aim to investigate the role of Ang-1 and possibly other genes in the formation of differently sized brains in developing embryos", says Dr Niclas Kolm, Stockholm University. (su.se)
  • The findings will "open the door to further investigations into the biological basis of intelligence , exploring how the brain , genes, nutrition and the environment together interact to shape the development and continued evolution of the remarkable intellectual abilities that make us human," Barbey said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The report on Global Brain Monitoring Market provides qualitative and quantitative analysis for the period of 2017 to 2023. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • According to report the Global Brain Monitoring Market is expected to grow at a CAGR between 6.5% and 7.0 % over the forecast period of 2017 - 2023. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • 2017). 'Cystatin D (CST5): An ultra-early inflammatory biomarker of traumatic brain injury. (bi-me.com)
  • In parallel, cognitive scientists and neuroscientists like myself accumulated myriad measurements describing how the brain processes visual information. (wired.com)
  • Scientists report that they have mapped the physical architecture of intelligence in the brain . (slashdot.org)
  • For the first time, scientists at King's College London have identified a gene linking the thickness of the grey matter in the brain to intelligence. (eurekalert.org)
  • The scientists draw significantly on HBP-developed infrastructure resources, like the unique functionalities of EBRAINS Multilevel Brain Atlases, and the powerful computing platform FENIX. (news-medical.net)
  • HIBALL will intensify the collaboration of brain scientists and AI experts to accelerate progress in both fields, and furthers international collaboration between the HBP and the global science community and is set to become an official partnering project. (news-medical.net)
  • For years, Russian scientists harvested the brains of exceptionally smart people, trying to locate the source of their intelligence. (dana.org)
  • But these animals now offer scientists a way to view how different forms of intelligence may evolve. (pacificsciencecenter.org)
  • Creating Internet Intelligence is an interdisciplinary treatise exploring the hypothesis that global computer and communication networks will one day evolve into an autonomous intelligent system, and making specific recommendations as to what engineers and scientists can do today to encourage and shape this evolution. (springer.com)
  • A team of scientists lead by prof. Stein Aerts (VIB-KU Leuven) is the first to map the gene expression of each individual brain cell during aging in fruit flies. (phys.org)
  • Working with fruit flies as model organisms, the scientists took the challenge head on, immediately starting with the most complex organ of all-the brain. (phys.org)
  • We have made all of our fly brain data freely available on a unique online analysis platform, where other scientists can deposit their data as well," says Aerts. (phys.org)
  • By studying the injuries and aptitudes of Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head wounds during the war, scientists are tackling -- and beginning to answer -- longstanding questions about how the brain works. (technologynetworks.com)
  • For decades scientists have tried, mostly in vain, to explain where intelligence resides in our brains. (newscientist.com)
  • After analysing the brain as an incredibly dense network of interconnected points, a team of Dutch scientists has found that the most efficiently wired brains tend to belong to the most intelligent people . (newscientist.com)
  • Now that scientists are finally getting a grip on what features of the brain underlie intelligence, it may be possible to manipulate them, says van den Heuvel. (newscientist.com)
  • Yet, despite the interesting findings, other scientists question how well brain imaging can explain complex emotions. (go.com)
  • Over the last decade and a half there has been a steady stream of new insights that further illuminate the dynamics of emotional intelligence. (oreilly.com)
  • And by using modern scanning techniques, they are gaining much more detailed insights into the structure and function of the brain than the Russians could achieve through dissection. (dana.org)
  • Their resulting "cell atlas" provides unprecedented insights into the workings of the brain as it ages. (phys.org)
  • Written by a leading expert and featuring a foreword by Frans de Waal, renowned for his work on animal intelligence, Bird Brain shines critical new light on the mental lives of birds. (books-express.ro)
  • This phenomenon can be described by an equation of the form E = CSr, where E and S are brain and body weights, r a constant that depends on animal family (but close to 2/3 in many vertebrates), and C is the cephalization factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been argued that the animal's ecological niche, rather than its evolutionary family, is the main determinant of its encephalization factor C. In the essay "Bligh's Bounty", Stephen Jay Gould noted that if one looks at vertebrates with very low encephalization quotient, their brains are slightly less massive than their spinal cords. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous brain imaging studies have linked general intelligence to the structure and function of the frontal and parietal cortexes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their findings show that general intelligence is associated with connectivity within and between modules in node clusters in frontal, parietal and other cortical and subcortical regions. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This findings facilitate our understanding of the biological basis of intelligence by demonstrating that intelligence is underpinned by a variety of complex neural mechanisms that engage an interacting network of regions-particularly prefrontal-parietal and basal ganglia-whereas the network pattern differs between genders. (dericbownds.net)
  • In later decades, men show greater volume loss in whole brain volume and in the frontal lobes, and temporal lobes, whereas in women there is increased volume loss in the hippocampi and parietal lobes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain Pickings has a free Sunday digest of the week's most interesting and inspiring articles across art, science, philosophy, creativity, children's books, and other strands of our search for truth, beauty, and meaning. (brainpickings.org)
  • The project aims to identify and learn more about biological and environmental factors that might have an influence on normal brain function and mental health in teenagers. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, to address often-expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if it is thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. (lifeboat.com)
  • A brain-based approach to intelligence is a biological metaphor, as Sternberg ( 1990 ) discusses in his textbook Metaphors of Mind . (oxfordre.com)
  • Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we calculate for the first time that this CVA is about 7.8, based on data from 19 recent MRI studies of adult human brain size in vivo: 11 studies on brain size means and standard deviations, and 8 studies on brain size heritabilities. (blogspot.com)
  • The adult human brain weighs on average about 1.5 kg (3.3 lb). (wikipedia.org)
  • These are the algorithms of everyday intelligence that are at work every time we recognize someone we know, tune in to a single voice at a crowded party, or learn the rules of physics by playing with toys as a baby. (wired.com)
  • Last summer, IBM noted that it had hit a milestone in its work on building a brain-inspired computer system. (computerworld.com)
  • The exercise is called "Dual N-Back" and it is the focus of a new brain training game called " Brain Workshop " that for once, may actually work. (linuxjournal.com)
  • The initiative aims at a high level of interoperability with brain initiatives in Canada and Europe, complementing the ongoing work in the HBP and Canadian initiatives in the field of AI and brain health. (news-medical.net)
  • But the deep-er sci-en-tists peer into the work-ings of mem-o-ry, the bet-ter they under-stand what helps to stave off age-relat-ed declines and the clos-er they come to devis-ing poten-tial drugs to help. (sharpbrains.com)
  • But Huettel said the multifaceted working of the brain makes studying these emotions an enormous amount of work. (go.com)
  • Dr Lisa Hill, of the Institute of Inflammation and Ageing at the University of Birmingham, said: "Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability among young adults and, according to the World Health Organization, by 2020 TBI will become the world's leading cause of neurological disability across all age groups. (bi-me.com)
  • Early and correct diagnosis of traumatic brain injury is one of the most challenging aspects facing clinicians. (bi-me.com)
  • GE Healthcare is highlighting artificial intelligence (AI) automation features on its Voluson Swift ultrasound platform at the 2020 Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) virtual meeting. (itnonline.com)
  • More specifically, it enhances our knowledge of individual variation in brain functioning and aids in the interpretation of the morphological changes as found in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. (jneurosci.org)