Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems: The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Mice, Inbred C57BLBrain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation: A degradation process whereby incorrectly folded proteins are selectively transported out of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and into the CYTOSOL. The misfolded proteins are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded by the PROTEASOME.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Gliosis: The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Anaplasma ovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria producing mild to severe ANAPLASMOSIS in SHEEP and GOATS, and mild or inapparent infections in DEER and CATTLE.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Connaraceae: A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical plants. The flowers are usually bisexual and have 5 sepals and petals; 5 or 10 stamens; and 1, 4, or usually 5 separate, one-chambered, female ovule-bearing structures (carpels).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.AccidentsCerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.Coma, Post-Head Injury: Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cerebrovascular Trauma: Penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries to an extracranial or intracranial blood vessel that supplies the brain. This includes the CAROTID ARTERIES; VERTEBRAL ARTERIES; MENINGEAL ARTERIES; CEREBRAL ARTERIES; veins, and venous sinuses.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Percussion: Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Legislation, Hospital: Laws and regulations concerning hospitals, which are proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Boxing: A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

A(2A) adenosine receptor deficiency attenuates brain injury induced by transient focal ischemia in mice. (1/72)

Extracellular adenosine critically modulates ischemic brain injury, at least in part through activation of the A(1) adenosine receptor. However, the role played by the A(2A) receptor has been obscured by intrinsic limitations of A(2A) adenosinergic agents. To overcome these pharmacological limitations, we explored the consequences of deleting the A(2A) adenosine receptor on brain damage after transient focal ischemia. Cerebral morphology, as well as vascular and physiological measures (before, during, and after ischemia) did not differ between A(2A) receptor knock-out and wild-type littermates. The volume of cerebral infarction, as well as the associated neurological deficit induced by transient filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, were significantly attenuated in A(2A) receptor knock-out mice. This neuroprotective phenotype of A(2A) receptor-deficient mice was observed in different genetic backgrounds, confirming A(2A) receptor disruption as its cause. Together with complimentary pharmacological studies, these data suggest that A(2A) receptors play a prominent role in the development of ischemic injury within brain and demonstrate the potential for anatomical and functional neuroprotection against stroke by A(2A) receptor antagonists.  (+info)

Reversible neuropsychological deficits after mild traumatic brain injury. (2/72)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of motivation on performance in a divided attention test of patients after mild traumatic brain injury (MBI). METHODS: Comparison of the performance of 12 patients with MBI with 10 patients with severe brain injury (SBI) and 11 healthy controls in a computer supported divided attention task before (T1) and after (T2) verbal motivation. RESULTS: At T1, the MBI group performed the same as the SBI group but significantly worse than the controls in all variables. At T2, the MBI group performed worse than the controls at T2 but the results were equal to the results of the controls at T1 and significantly better than the SBI group at T1 or T2. At T2 the MBI group performed at the level of published norms for the rest. CONCLUSION: Before verbal motivation the MBI group's results in the divided attention task were comparable with those from patients with severe brain injury. They failed to exploit their performance potential when it depended on self motivation but were able to perform at the level of the control group when external motivation was applied.  (+info)

Visual search and visual working memory in patients with chronic focal cortical lesions. (3/72)

Visually guided behavior is known to involve temporo-parietal, inferotemporal, and prefrontal cortex and each of these areas appears to contribute to visual working memory. We explored the extent to which chronic lesions in one of these cortical areas affect visually guided oculomotor performance. We also explore whether possible impairments become more pronounced with increasing memory load. With this aim we recorded saccadic eye movements in 19 patients with a chronic focal postsurgical lesion in either temporo-parietal, inferior temporal or prefrontal cortex. Their results are compared to those of 19 age-matched volunteers. The subjects performed three different visual search tasks with increasing memory load: Instructed search, cue-guided search and memory-guided search. In addition, the latter task was performed with a short (1 s) and a long (6 s) delay. All tasks required the subjects to make a saccade to a single target presented together with one or three distractors. The results indicate that patients with inferotemporal lesions make the most task-related errors. Saccadic reaction times (SRTs) were significantly prolonged in patients with temporo-parietal and prefrontal lesions, but were unaffected in the patients with lesions in the inferotemporal cortex. The spatial accuracy of saccades was lowest in patients with temporo-parietal lesions. An increase in memory load led to more errors, to longer reaction times and to lower saccadic precision. However, the effect was similar across the three patient groups and the controls. An error analysis indicated that both patients and controls tended to weight global (luminance contrast and form) features higher than local features (line-segment orientation) when making difficult perceptual decisions.  (+info)

The structural basis of moderate disability after traumatic brain damage. (4/72)

The objective was to discover the nature of brain damage in survivors of head injury who are left with moderate disability. Macroscopic and microscopic examination was carried out on the brains of 20 persons who had died long after a head injury that had been treated in a neurosurgical unit. All had become independent but had various disabilities (moderate disability on the Glasgow outcome scale) Most deaths had been sudden, which had led to their referral from forensic pathologists. Post-traumatic epilepsy was a feature in 75%. An intracranial haematoma had been evacuated in 75%, and in 11 of the 15 with epilepsy. Diffuse axonal injury was found in six patients, five of the mildest type (grade 1) and one of grade 2. No patient had diffuse thalamic damage but one had a small focal ischaemic lesion in the thalamus. No patient had severe ischaemic brain damage, but three had moderate lesions which were bilateral in only one. No patient had severe cortical contusions. In conclusion, the dominant lesion was focal damage from an evacuated intracranial haematoma. Severe diffuse damage was not found, with diffuse axonal injury only mild and thalamic damage in only one patient.  (+info)

Effectiveness of bed rest after mild traumatic brain injury: a randomised trial of no versus six days of bed rest. (5/72)

BACKGROUND: Outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is determined largely by the appearance of post-traumatic complaints (PTC). The prevalence of PTC after six months is estimated to be between 20 and 80%. Bed rest has been advocated to prevent PTC but its effectiveness has never been established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of bed rest on the severity of PTC after MTBI. METHODS: Patients presenting with MTBI to the emergency room were randomly assigned to two intervention strategies. One group was advised not to take bed rest (NO) and the other to take full bed rest (FULL) for six days after the trauma. The primary outcome measures were severity of PTC on a visual analogue scale and physical and mental health on the medical outcomes study 36 item short form health survey (SF-36) at two weeks and three and six months after the trauma. RESULTS: Between October 1996 and July 1999, 107 (54 NO, 53 FULL) patients were enrolled. Outcome variables in both groups clearly improved between two weeks and six months. After adjustment for differences in baseline variables, most PTC tended to be somewhat more severe in the FULL group six months after the trauma, but no significant differences were found. Neither were there any significant differences in the outcome parameters between the two groups after three months. Two weeks after the trauma, most PTC in the FULL group were slightly less severe than those in the NO group, and physical subscores of the SF-36 in the FULL group were slightly better. These differences were not significant. Patients in the FULL group reported significantly less dizziness during the intervention period. CONCLUSIONS: As a means of speeding up recovery of patients with PTC after MTBI, bed rest is no more effective than no bed rest at all. Bed rest probably has some palliative effect within the first two weeks after the trauma.  (+info)

Increased diffusion in the brain of professional boxers: a preclinical sign of traumatic brain injury? (6/72)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Professional boxing is associated with chronic, repetitive head blows that may cause brain injuries. Diffusion-weighted imaging is sensitive to microscopic changes and may be a useful tool to quantify the microstructural integrity of the brain. In this study, we sought to quantify microscopic alterations associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in professional boxers. METHODS: MR and diffusion-weighted imaging were performed in 24 boxers and in 14 age- and sex-matched control subjects with no history of head trauma. Using distribution analysis, the average diffusion constant of the entire brain (BD(av)) and diffusion distribution width (sigma) were calculated for each subject; findings in professional boxers were compared with those of control subjects. In the boxer group, correlations between diffusion changes and boxing history and diffusion changes and MR imaging findings were assessed. RESULTS: The measured diffusion values in the boxer group were significantly higher than those measured in the control group (BD(av), P <.0001; sigma, P <.01). In the boxer group, a robust correlation was found between increased BD(av) and frequency of hospitalization for boxing injuries (r = 0.654, P <.05). The most common MR finding in the boxer group was volume loss inappropriate to age followed by cavum septum pellucidum, subcortical white matter disease, and periventricular white matter disease. CONCLUSION: Boxers had higher diffusion constants than those in control subjects. Our data suggest that microstructural damage of the brain associated with chronic traumatic brain injury may elevate whole-brain diffusion. This global elevation can exist even when routine MR findings are normal.  (+info)

Diffuse axonal injury associated with chronic traumatic brain injury: evidence from T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging at 3 T. (7/72)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffuse axonal injury is frequently accompanied by tissue tear hemorrhages. We examined whether high field strength T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging performed during the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury may have advantages in the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury as compared with T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. METHODS: Prospective MR imaging of 66 patients (age range, 17-57 years) was performed using a 3-T system 3 to 292 months (median, 23.5 months) after traumatic brain injury. T1-, T2-, T2*-hypointense and T2-hyperintense foci of 1- to 15-mm diameter were registered in 10 brain regions by two readers separately. Foci that appeared hypointense both on the T1- and T2- and/or on the T2*-weighted images were defined as traumatic microbleeds. RESULTS: For 46 (69.7%) of the patients, T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed traumatic microbleeds. Hyperintense foci were observed on the T2-weighted images of only 15 (22.7%) patients. T2*-weighted imaging showed significantly more traumatic microbleeds (P =.000) than did T1- and T2-weighted imaging. Interobserver agreement was strong (kappa = 0.79, tau = 0.749, P =.000). For 14 (21.2%) of the patients, T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed traumatic microbleeds in the corpus callosum, whereas for only two (3%), hyperintense callosal lesions were seen on the T2-weighted images. Although a significant correlation existed between the total amount and callosal appearance of traumatic microbleeds and Glasgow Coma Scale scores (P =.000), no correlation existed with extended Glasgow Outcome Scale scores. CONCLUSION: T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging at high field strength is a useful tool for the evaluation of diffuse axonal injury during the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury. Diffuse axonal injury-related brain lesions are mainly hemorrhagic. The relevance of diffuse axonal injury for long-term clinical outcome is uncertain.  (+info)

Diffusion-weighted imaging of acute corticospinal tract injury preceding Wallerian degeneration in the maturing human brain. (8/72)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wallerian degeneration, the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injury, is associated with poor neurologic outcome. Since diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging is sensitive to early changes of cytotoxic edema, DW imaging may depict the acute injury to descending white matter tracts that precedes Wallerian degeneration; this injury is not visible on conventional CT or MR images in the maturing human brain. METHODS: Two neuroradiologists retrospectively analyzed clinical MR images in six children (aged 3 days to 5 months) with DW findings consistent with acute injury of the descending white matter tract due to territorial anterior or middle cerebral artery infarction. In five patients, images were obtained as a part of routine clinical evaluation. The remaining patient was a part of a prospective study of brain injury. Imaging findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: In all six patients, DW imaging performed 2-8 days after the onset of ischemia depicted injury to the descending white matter tract ipsilateral to the territorial infarct. Conventional MR images of the ipsilateral descending white matter tracts were abnormal in three patients. In all five patients for which follow-up results were available, the presence of DW changes was correlated with persistent neurologic disability. CONCLUSION: As shown in this retrospective analysis, DW imaging can depict acute injury to the descending white matter tract in neonates and infants, when conventional MR imaging may show normal findings. These DW findings likely precede the development of Wallerian degeneration, and they may portend a poor clinical outcome.  (+info)

*Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). Chronic pain. Turning Point provides a comprehensive program to the local general public, ...

*Insomnia

Certain neurological disorders, brain lesions, or a history of traumatic brain injury. Medical conditions such as ... Chronic users of hypnotic medications for insomnia do not have better sleep than chronic insomniacs not taking medications. In ... Ouellet, M. C.; Beaulieu-Bonneau, S.; Morin, C. M. (2006). "Insomnia in patients with traumatic brain injury: Frequency, ... Chronic insomnia lasts for longer than a month. It can be caused by another disorder, or it can be a primary disorder. People ...

*Management of multiple sclerosis

"Multi-disciplinary rehabilitation for acquired brain injury in adults of working age". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ... Chronic pain is very common and harder to treat as its most common cause is dysesthesias. Acute pain due to trigeminal ... Hyland, MJ (3 May 2013). "The drugs do work: my life on brain enhancers". The Guardian. London. Rammohan KW, Rosenberg JH, Lynn ... In a similar way, other factors such as disturbed sleep, chronic pain, poor nutrition, or even some medications can contribute ...

*Luxol fast blue stain

"Chronic neuropathological and neurobehavioral changes in a repetitive mild traumatic brain injury model". Ann. Neurol. 75 (2): ... traumatic brain injury is associated with ongoing white matter degeneration with survival > 1 year post-injury. H&E stain ... "Inflammation and white matter degeneration persist for years after a single traumatic brain injury". Brain. 136 (1): 28-42. doi ... 10.1093/brain/aws322. PMC 3562078 . PMID 23365092. Mouzon, B; Bachmeier, C (February 2014). " ...

*Barnes maze

"Chronic neuropathological and neurobehavioral changes in a repetitive mild traumatic brain injury model". Ann. Neurol. 75 (2): ... Genes Brain Behav. 6:54-65 (2007). Mouzon, B; Chaytow, H (December 2012). "Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in a Mouse ... Effect of traumatic brain injury on mouse spatial and nonspatial learning in the Barnes circular maze. J Neurotrauma. 15:1037- ... It is also used by neuroscientists to determine whether there is a causative effect after mild traumatic brain injury on ...

*Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics

"Huntington's Disease: Discovery Of Mechanism In Brain Cell Injury Offers New Treatment Approaches". Medicalnewstoday.com. ... "Early-Life Experience Linked to Chronic Diseases Later in Life: UBC Research". publicaffairs.ubc.ca. Retrieved 2009-07-13. " ... Daniel Goldowitz is the Scientific Director of the Kids Brain Health network (formerly NeuroDevNet), which is a Canada Networks ...

*Stephen T. Wegener

PMID 1633388 Elliott, T.R. & Wegener, S.T. (Eds.). (1992). Chronic pain and spinal cord injury (Special section). The Clinical ... Their relationship to coping and depression in traumatic brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 48, 131-136. Haythornthwaite ... Topics in Spinal Cord Injury, 7, 73-83. Benrud-Larsen LM, Wegener ST (2000). Psychosocial aspects of chronic pain in ... including occupational injuries, rheumatic disease, spinal cord injury or limb loss. He also develops cognitive-behavioral ...

*Proteopathy

Advancing age is a strong risk factor, as is traumatic brain injury. In the aging brain, multiple proteopathies can overlap. ... 2015). "The Neuropathology of chronic traumatic encephalopathy". Brain Pathol. 25: 350-364. doi:10.1111/bpa.12248. CS1 maint: ... DeKosky ST, Ikonomovic MD, Gandy S (2010). "Traumatic brain injury--football, warfare, and long-term effects". New England ... doi:10.1093/brain/awn216. PMID 18790819. Sipe, Jean D.; Benson, Merrill D.; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Merlini, ...

*Roberta A. Ballard

These contributions have helped to prevent chronic lung disease and brain injury harming infants. Hospitals that Dr. Ballard is ... Ballard studies ways to treat and prevent chronic lung disease in premature infants. Some of her research includes the ...

*Excitotoxicity

"Mechanisms of chronic central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury". Brain Res Rev. 60 (1): 202-13. doi:10.1016/j. ... This pathologic phenomenon can also occur after brain injury and spinal cord injury. Within minutes after spinal cord injury, ... Excitotoxicity may be involved in spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss (through noise overexposure ... a deep chemical coma may be induced in patients with brain injury to reduce the metabolic rate of the brain (its need for ...

*SYNCTHINK

Anticipatory control of eye movements in chronic mild traumatic brain injury". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMC 4473731 . Missing or empty ... He is also the founder of the Brain Trauma Foundation. Other notable board members include Alan Quasha, Ernie Santin, Kevin ... The Department of Defense has funded SyncThink and its partner, the Brain Trauma Foundation, with about $30 million for the ... Jam Ghajar, a clinical professor of neurosurgery at Stanford and founder and director of its Concussion and Brain Performance ...

*Kernohan's notch

... this phenomenon occurs in patients with advanced brain tumor or severe head injury. In the case of severe head injury, a clot ... Chronic subdural hematomas have been known to be a familiar cause of Kernohan's notch. MRIs have shown evidence of Kernohan's ... Because of the fact that a Kernohan's notch is caused by an injury creating pressure on the opposite hemisphere of the brain, ... Intracranial pressure Traumatic brain injury Duret haemorrhage This is an interesting story in that Kernohan and Woltman's ...

*Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor

Increased levels of CSF1R1 are found in microglia in Alzheimer's disease and after brain injuries. The increased receptor ... Mutations in CSF1R are associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and type M4 acute myeloblastic leukemia. Mutations in ...

*Liver

... allografts for transplant usually come from donors who have died from fatal brain injury. Living donor liver ... Most transplants are done for chronic liver diseases leading to cirrhosis, such as chronic hepatitis C, alcoholism, autoimmune ... Chronic (rather than acute) infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus is the main cause of liver cancer. Globally, ... For example, acute-phase reactants are produced by the liver in response to injury or inflammation. The classic symptoms of ...

*Post-traumatic epilepsy

... is a form of epilepsy that results from brain damage caused by physical trauma to the brain (traumatic brain injury, ... Excitotoxicity is a possible factor in the development of PTE; it may lead to the formation of a chronic epileptogenic focus. ... In the period between a brain injury and onset of epilepsy, brain cells may form new synapses and axons, undergo apoptosis or ... Blood that gathers in the brain after an injury may damage brain tissue and thereby cause epilepsy. Products that result from ...

*Bethesda Hospital, St. Paul

Brain Injury Services patients comprise about 20 percent of the population admitted to Bethesda Hospital. Their brain injury ... Respiratory Care patients suffer from severe respiratory failure or chronic respiratory disability; they may come directly from ... Outpatient services include Alzheimer's & Memory Loss Care, Brain Injury Care, Capistrant Center for Parkinson's Disease and ... Brain Injury (14%) National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) Exemplary Psychiatrist: Awarded to Robert Sevenich, MD, JD and ...

*John Wesson Ashford

"Neuropsychiatric diagnosis and management of chronic sequelae of war-related mild to moderate traumatic brain injury" (PDF). ... He also serves as a Director of the War Related Illness and Injury Study Center in the VA Palo Alto Health Care System, as well ... at the UCLA Brain Research Institute. Halbauer, Joshua; et al. (November 2009). " ...

*Terry Wahls

... sees patients in a traumatic brain injury clinic and conducts clinical trials. She has been diagnosed with a chronic ...

*Don W. Cleveland

Tau is now recognized to misaccumulate in Alzheimer's disease and to be the basis for chronic brain injury. He also developed ... 2009). "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury". J. Neuropath Exp ... an inherited and degenerative brain disorder for which there is no cure. A one-time injection of a new DNA-based drug treatment ...

*Subdural hematoma

Chapter 5, "Pathology of brain damage after head injury" Cooper P and Golfinos G. 2000. Head Injury, 4th Ed. Morgan Hill, New ... They may not be discovered until they present clinically months or years after a head injury. The bleeding from a chronic bleed ... A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury. Blood gathers between the ... Acute subdural bleeds have a high mortality rate, higher even than epidural hematomas and diffuse brain injuries, because the ...

*Excitotoxicity

Apr 2009). "Mechanisms of chronic central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury". Brain Res Rev. 60 (1): 202-13. doi: ... This pathologic phenomenon can also occur after brain injury and spinal cord injury. Within minutes after spinal cord injury, ... Excitotoxicity may be involved in spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss (through noise overexposure ... a deep chemical coma may be induced in patients with brain injury to reduce the metabolic rate of the brain (its need for ...

*Schizoid personality disorder

"Right Frontal Pole Cortical Thickness and Social Competence in Children With Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury". Journal of Head ... Those who have experienced traumatic brain injury may be also at risk of developing features reflective of schizoid personality ... Being a personality disorder, which are usually chronic and long-lasting mental conditions, schizoid personality disorder is ... Brigham Young University (2014): Head injuries can make children loners. For original study, see " ...

*Brian Schaefering

After football, he was diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the possibility of also having chronic traumatic ... "Former NFL player with brain injury uses GoFundMe". Retrieved February 19, 2016. ... During the 2003 season, he took a medical redshirted due to a shoulder injury. He appeared in 8 games for Illinois in 2004 ...

*Neurofibrillary tangle

NFTs are most commonly seen associated with repetitive mild TBI as opposed to one instance of severe traumatic brain injury. ... It was found that only an increase in neurofibrillary tangle load was associated with severity of aggression and chronic ... DeKosky S. T.; Ikonomovic M. D.; Gandy S. (2010). "Traumatic Brain Injury -- Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects". New ... Preliminary research indicates that iron deposits due to hemorrhaging, following traumatic brain injury (TBI), may increase tau ...

*Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago

... traumatic brain injury, amputation and chronic pain. They work with pediatric and geriatric clients as well as adults. They ... RIC specializes in the treatment of complex conditions such as spinal cord injury, stroke, ...

*Paresthesia

Stroke survivors and those with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) may experience paresthesia from damage to the central nervous ... Nerves below the head may be compressed where chronic neck and spine problems exist and can be caused by, among other things, ... Chronic paresthesia can sometimes be symptomatic of serious conditions, such as a transient ischemic attack, or autoimmune ... Without a proper supply of blood and nutrients, nerve cells can no longer adequately send signals to the brain. Because of this ...

*Substance P

Donkin JJ, Turner RJ, Hassan I, Vink R (2007). "Substance P in traumatic brain injury". Progress in Brain Research. 161: 97-109 ... Steinitz H (Aug 1979). "[Chronic recurrent intestinal amebiasis in Israel (author's transl)]". Leber, Magen, Darm (in German). ... Substance P and the NK1 receptor are widely distributed in the brain and are found in brain regions that are specific to ... Yip J, Chahl LA (Apr 2001). "Localization of NK1 and NK3 receptors in guinea-pig brain". Regulatory Peptides. 98 (1-2): 55-62. ...

*Alcohol (drug)

Chronic alcohol abusers are at additional risk for brain injury from related causes, such as poor nutrition, liver disease, and ... The brain is a major target for the actions of alcohol, and heavy alcohol consumption has long been associated with brain ... It can have a variety of long-term adverse effects on health, for instance liver damage, brain damage, and increased risk of ... Chronic consumption is also associated with an effect on CREB phosphorylation and function via postsynaptic NMDA receptor ...
Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and ...
Looking for online definition of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in the Medical Dictionary? chronic traumatic encephalopathy explanation free. What is chronic traumatic encephalopathy? Meaning of chronic traumatic encephalopathy medical term. What does chronic traumatic encephalopathy mean?
The study is a retrospective review of the authors experience treating chronic brain injury with HBOT, supplemented by cases communicated to the author, who developed untoward effects during or after their HBOT. The object of the study was to affirm or refute the authors general impression that there was an optimal dose of HBOT in chronic brain injury which was lower than the traditional dose applied in chronic non-central nervous system wounding. Furthermore, when this lower dosage range was exceeded and approached the traditional doses for non-CNS wounding oxygen toxicity would result. To address these impressions the study seeks to review the authors medical records and other patient/doctor communications to the author where side effects of HBOT occurred in the treatment of chronic brain injury and abstract signs, symptoms, and the dose of HBOT employed ...
The study is a retrospective review of the authors experience treating chronic brain injury with HBOT, supplemented by cases communicated to the author, who developed untoward effects during or after their HBOT. The object of the study was to affirm or refute the authors general impression that there was an optimal dose of HBOT in chronic brain injury which was lower than the traditional dose applied in chronic non-central nervous system wounding. Furthermore, when this lower dosage range was exceeded and approached the traditional doses for non-CNS wounding oxygen toxicity would result. To address these impressions the study seeks to review the authors medical records and other patient/doctor communications to the author where side effects of HBOT occurred in the treatment of chronic brain injury and abstract signs, symptoms, and the dose of HBOT employed ...
Chronic neurodegeneration following a history of neurotrauma is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms. In order to enhance understanding about the underlying pathophysiology linking neurotrauma to neurodegeneration, a multi-model pre-clinical approach must be established to account for the different injury paradigms and pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated the development of tau pathology and behavioral changes using a multi-model and multi-institutional approach, comparing the pre-clinical results to tauopathy patterns seen in post-mortem human samples from athletes diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We utilized a scaled and validated blast-induced traumatic brain injury model in rats and a modified pneumatic closed-head impact model in mice. Tau hyperphosphorylation was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Elevated plus maze and Morris water maze were employed to measure impulsive-like behavior and cognitive deficits
The diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) upon autopsy in a growing number of athletes and soldiers alike has resulted in increased awareness, by both the scientific/medical and lay communities, of the potential for lasting effects of repetitive traumatic brain injury. While we have come to better understand the clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology of CTE, the diagnosis of CTE remains autopsy-based, which prevents adequate monitoring and tracking of the disease. The lack of established biomarkers or imaging modalities for diagnostic and prognostic purposes also prevents the development and implementation of therapeutic protocols. In this work the clinical history and pathologic findings associated with CTE are reviewed as well as imaging modalities that have demonstrated some promise for future use in the diagnosis and/or tracking of CTE or repetitive brain injury. Biomarkers under investigation are also discussed with particular attention to the timing of release and
Concluding that mild traumatic brain injury, including repetitive concussive and subconcussive brain trauma, causes chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is scientifically premature.
According to the attorney for convicted murderer Aaron Hernandez, tests show the former NFL star had the brain disease CTE. CTE, or Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, is believed to stem from repeated...
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome, which is caused by single, episodic, or repetitive blunt force impacts to the head and transfer of acceleration-dece
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a degenerative brain disease that results in behaviors similar to Alzheimers disease (AD).
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE): Clinical, Pathophysiologic and Therapeutic Aspects. Patricio F. Reyes, MD, FAAN Program Director HealthPartners Medical Group St. Paul, MN. Affiliations. Yuma Pharmaceuticals Chief Medical Officer Chair, Scientific Advisory Board Slideshow...
Former Major League Baseball player Ryan Freel was suffering from the degenerative brain disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) when he committed suicide last year, his family said Sunday.
Learn more about Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy at Atlanta Outpatient Surgery Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Headquartered in Denver, CereScan uses its patented process to combine patient-clinical information, functional brain imaging and advanced processing software to help medical providers and their patients find a more complete and accurate diagnosis. Through its agreement, NCH has integrated CereScans patented process, using qSPECT (quantitative Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging data to assist referring physicians in the evaluation of complex neurological conditions.. "CereScan values the practice philosophy of NCH. Both parties believe that every person is unique and so is their diagnosis and treatment," said neurosurgeon Shaun T. OLeary, M.D., Ph.D., FAANS. "Through the clinical data, the innovations and the imaging software available through CereScan, we have a plethora of resources to make NCH an even higher-quality institution for brain disorders.". Dr. OLeary joined NCHs Medical Group in December 2014 and is helping lead the hospitals growth of neurosurgical patient ...
Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Players of American Football - JAMA (free). Author interview: Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Football Players (free video). Commentaries: High Prevalence of Evidence of CTE in Brains of Deceased Football Players - JAMA Network (free) AND Brain disease CTE seen in most football players in large report - STAT News (free) AND 110 N.F.L. Brains - The New York Times (10 articles per month are free) AND Signs of brain disease in 99 percent of ex-NFL players studied: paper - Reuters (free) AND Study: CTE Found In Nearly All Donated NFL Player Brains - NPR (free). "A neuropathologist has examined the brains of 111 N.F.L. players - and 110 were found to have C.T.E., the degenerative disease linked to repeated blows to the head" (from NYT).. ...
Novel strategies for the Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortally and morbidity in modern warfare. TBI is also a major cause of death and disability in the US, in particular in those under age 40, and ~2% of the US population is living with a chronic TBI-related disability. It is well recognized that a significant percentage of patients including active duty service members (ADSM) and veterans, after sustaining mild traumatic injury (mTBI) may complain of a syndrome including poor concentration, memory dysfunction, and altered mood that may persist for years, which may be defined as the chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In fact, the long-term pathological consequences of CTE have remained underexplored. In particular, whether chronic post traumatic processes exacerbate chronic neuroinflammation and suppressed neurogenesis is not fully understood. Dr. Shi is focus on the molecular and cellular mechanisms, and novel treatment strategies ...
Two pioneering researchers of brain disease among athletes in violent sports recommended Saturday that investigators conduct special autopsy tests on amateur boxer Tamerlan Tsarnaev to determine whether the Boston Marathon bombing suspect could have been affected by boxing-related brain damage. The researchers expressed serious doubt the disease - chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE - could have factored in the wave of violence that led to Tsarnaevs death early Friday in a firefight with police. But they suggested investigators would be remiss if they did not autopsy Tsarnaevs brain for signs of the disease. Both Cantu and Dr. Robert Stern, cofounders co-founders of the Center for the Study of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Encephelopathy at BU, were personally touched by the tragedy. They have friends and relatives who remain hospitalized from injuries they suffered in the Marathon bombings.
One question theyd like to answer is how much brain injury a person can handle before CTE sets in. With support from the Nevada Athletic Commission and local fight promoters, the group is gathering data by periodically testing its fighters and comparing them with a control group of age- and education-matched people who have never had head trauma. When the test subjects visit the Lou Ruvo Center, they update their fight records, take cognitive tests, and lie down inside a magnetic resonance imaging machine ...
Association football (soccer) is the most popular sport in the world, and the growing recognition that playing soccer is associated with CTE has significant public health implications. However, the health benefits of playing sport are also recognised to reduce all cause mortality, particularly from cardiovascular causes. A public health policy limiting or restricting access to contact sports, which is not carefully considered, may therefore cause more harm than good. This retrospective case control study identified former professional footballers and compared mortality outcomes with a cohort of matched controls.. 7,676 registered soccer players were recruited by searching the records of the Scottish football museum and professional soccer clubs for registered professionals. The records (name and date of birth) were then linked with the community health number (a health record number unique to each individual in Scotland) on a probabilistic basis. Former soccer players were matched to other ...
We are going to study these brains to the full extent that we are capable," said Dr. C. Dirk Keene, who leads the neuropathology core at UW Medicine. "They are so rare, so valuable and just so precious, and can give us so much information about what these exposures mean." ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Such use of a diagnostic test designed for deer is possible because CWD is in a family of neurodegenerative ailments called prion diseases, characterized by protein misfolding that triggers a cascade of ultimately fatal brain damage. Protein misfolding in prion diseases is strikingly similar to cellular malfunction that occurs in human neurological conditions including concussion, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease, said University Distinguished Professor Edward Hoover, who works in the CSU Infectious Disease Research and Response Network.. In the last five years, theres been an interest in applying this new technology to other neurological diseases, Davin Henderson, a researcher in the Hoover Laboratory, explained. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, is similar to prion disease.. CTE, a degenerative disease likely caused by head trauma, has gained significant attention in recent years because of brain injuries among military veterans and ...
Dr. Ann McKee, a professor of Neurology and Pathology of Boston University School of Medicine and co-director of the Veterans Affairs Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, inspects a brain in the Bedford Veteran Medical Center. Said McKee: "These are the brains of people that have suffered repetitive brain trauma and after many years they have this progressive neurological deterioration called Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy What has been so amazing to me was until four years ago we had no idea (that it existed.)-Now we see it in our sports players-even in high school- and our military veterans. It can happen. It really doesnt matter what the sport is, what matters is the head is traumatized so many times. "Helmets are never going to solve the problem, theyre going to make the problem better but they are never going to eliminate the problem of repetitive trauma. Thats because the brain is floating freely in the skull. Its got this cerebral spinal fluid inside the skull. "I like ...
From the WashU Newsroom…. Damaging tangles of the protein tau dot the brains of people with Alzheimers and many other neurodegenerative diseases, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which plagues professional boxers and football players. Such tau-based diseases can lead to memory loss, confusion and, in some, aggressive behavior. But there is no easy way to determine whether peoples symptoms are linked to tau tangles in their brains.. Now, however, a team led by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has found a way to measure tau levels in the blood. The method accurately reflects levels of tau in the brain that are of interest to scientists because they correlate with neurological damage. The study, in mice and a small group of people, could be the first step toward a noninvasive test for tau.. While further evaluation in people is necessary, such a test potentially could be used to quickly screen for tau-based diseases, monitor disease progression and ...
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and/or concussions can negatively affect memory, judgment, reflexes, speech, balance, coordination, and sleep patterns, particularly when more than one injury has been sustained. Additionally, repetitive brain trauma increases the risk for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicide and can lead to impulse control problems, aggressiveness, behavior and personality disturbances, and progressive cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimers disease. Both active duty service members and athletes involved in physical contact sports are at an increased risk for suffering from mTBI and may be at increased for functional decline, neurodegenerative dementia, and possible death from repetitive mTBI. Diagnosing mTBI is difficult because it does not have a standardized definition, those with mTBI often do not seek treatment for some time following the injury, an mTBI diagnosis is based on the ...
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is an intermittent inhalation of 100% oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber at a pressure higher than 1 absolute atmosphere (ATA). There is a growing body of evidence that HBOT can enhance ability of brain to changes its structure (neuroplasticity) in order to recover. Exercise program during HBOT can augment the effect. Although, recent randomized controlled trials in patients with chronic brain injury showed promising results, there are no studies demonstrating combine effect HBOT and exercise rehabilitation program on stroke recovery ...
In a prospective community cohort study in Finland (New England Journal of Medicine1998;338:1715-22) 220 children with epilepsy were followed up for 30 years. Forty four died, most of whom (39) had continued to have seizures which, in 33, were remote symptomatic (resulting from chronic brain injury). Of the survivors, 64% had been seizure free for five years or more and almost half (47%) had stopped antiepileptic drug treatment. They were, however, more likely than people without epilepsy to be unemployed, unmarried, and childless, even in the absence of neurological impairment.. Data from the British Births Survey (now called the Child Health and Education Study) of children born in one week in April 1970 (New England Journal of Medicine1998;338:1723-8) have confirmed the benign nature of febrile convulsions. Neither simple nor complex nor repeated febrile convulsions were followed by detectable impairment of school progress, intelligence, or behaviour at the age of 10.. Flucloxacillin ...
brightcove:5114194401001 default]. This article originally appeared on Time.com.. The link between football and traumatic brain injury continues to strengthen. Now, one of the largest studies on the subject to date finds that 110 out of 111 deceased NFL players had chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a degenerative brain disorder associated with repetitive head trauma.. Several studies have linked CTE to suicidal behavior, dementia and declines in memory, executive function and mood. Professional athletes may be at higher risk for CTE because of their high likelihood for concussions and other traumatic brain injuries; up to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur in the United States each year. In 2016, a health official with the NFL acknowledged the link between football and CTE for the first time.. In the new study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers looked at the brains of 202 deceased people who had played football at various levels, from high ...
Advanced tests done at the National Institutes of Health on the brain of football star Junior Seau, who committed suicide in May, showed he had signs of a degenerative brain disease, the Associated Press reported.. The examination of Seaus brain showed abnormalities consistent with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), the kind of injury associated with repetitive head injuries, the AP said.. An initial autopsy on Seau performed by the San Diego County medical examiner found no apparent damage to his brain from years of football. But the Seau family, searching for a reason the 43-year-old Seau took his life, asked for a more in-depth examination by the NIH.. PHOTOS: Junior Seau , 1969 - 2012. Seau killed himself May 2 in his beachfront home in Oceanside with a gunshot to the chest. He left no note and his live-in girlfriend, who was at the gym at the time, told investigators he had given no indication that he was contemplating suicide.. The issue of brain injuries among football players has ...
Researchers at the largest U.S. brain bank have found 87 of 91 NFL players whose brains were analyzed post-mortem tested positive for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The degenerative disease is caused by repeated blows to the head-a common occupational risk for football players. CTE may lead to a spectrum of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, including memory…. ...
Long-term traumatic brain injury, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), was identified by neuropathologist Dr. Bennet Omalu in 2002. The finding resulted from a brain autopsy performed on Mike Webster, a well-known former Steelers football player. According to a recently produced FRONTLINE documentary called
A new JAMA study reveals chronic traumatic encephalopathy was present in a high number of brains of former football players. Researchers looked at the brains of former high school, college and NFL football players. Of the 202 brains analyzed, 177 showed signs of CTE. 110 of the 111 former NFL players brains were diagnosed with CTE. Researchers say that, while the findings are significant, the findings could have limitations due to the players families being motivated to donate the brains as a result of public awareness of the lasting effects of head injuries in football players.... Read More... ...
An article published May 16, 2012 in the New York Times discusses similarities between combat veterans who are exposed to roadside bombs and a degenerative brain disease found in athletes. Essentially, football players who are tackled and punched have brain injuries similar to veterans who have lived through explosions.. This research was done at a Veterans Affairs center in Bedford, Massachusetts. The scientists call the damage to the brain by explosions chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE. They replicated explosions on mice and found that within two weeks of the explosion, the CTE was evident. This research caused scientists to believe that many combat veterans have undiagnosed brain trauma and are in jeopardy of having neurological disease. Currently, the only way to determine if someone has CTE is through an autopsy, which is of course too late. This study will hopefully lead to the development of diagnostic testing and drug therapies for this disease.. These new findings cause many to ...
Bennet Omalu, the famous Nigerian-American pathologist who discovered chronic traumatic encephalopathy in the brains of deceased American football players, made the disturbing suggestion on Twitter. Recall Concussion starring Will Smith was about Omalus groundbreaking discovery ...
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative brain disease that results from repetitive "closed" head trauma and produces symptoms that range from problems with attention, concentration, disorientation, and depression to memory loss and dementia. In CTE, the skull is not damaged but brain tissue deteriorates as harmful abnormal proteins, called "tau prions," accumulate in and eventually kill brain cells. Tau prions are formed from normal tau proteins in the brain that mis-fold and, though a self-propagating process, induce nearby tau proteins to similarly mis-fold. Affected brain cells release their aggregated tau that is then taken up by nearby brain cells. As tau prions aggregate within brain cells, they form "neurofibulary tangles" that impede cell-to-cell communication. This process continues to spread in the brain, impeding brain cell communication and causing cells to degenerate and die. The variation in CTE symptoms, therefore, depends upon where in the brain, and ...
Although there have been many reports about athletes and soldiers suffering from traumatic brain injuries, scientists have recently recognized a new kind of brain disease. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) can occur from repeated knocks on the head. According to the Marine Times, with the opening of the new brain bank in the Washington suburbs, researchers will be able to study the brains of deceased soldiers who were exposed to blast waves in order to discover more effective treatments for CTE and other injuries.. This year, scientists conducted a small study that looked at the brains of four military members and found evidence for CTE. While its similar to TBI, Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease, CTE is a different degenerative condition that can start months or years after brain trauma has occurred. Repetitive hits or blasts to the head that cause injury can lead to a destructive buildup of a tau protein, which is indicative of CTE and can only be determined in an autopsy.. A study of ...
by Dr. Tyeese Gaines. There have been numerous reports in the past two weeks about the four former NFL stars - Tony Dorsett, Joe DeLamielleure, Leonard Marshall and Mark Duper - diagnosed with early signs of a brain condition called chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE.. These reports have shifted into discussions on how to prevent other players from developing CTE, including possible changes to game rules, special testing and delaying youth involvement.. But, what exactly is CTE?. CTE is a condition where repeated blows to the head or neck - in contact sports such as boxing, football and hockey - eventually lead to long-term brain damage. The head trauma can be as simple as hitting the ground during a tackle or a full speed helmet-to-helmet collision.. In CTE, the brain breaks down and develops a build-up of an abnormal protein called tau, which contributes to the symptoms.. What CTE looks like. The symptoms include cognitive deficits such as memory loss, impaired judgment and confusion; ...
Recent neuropathological autopsy findings of a 26-year-old NFL player lend further credence to the idea that perhaps our high school children should not be playing football. Former Cincinnati Bengals player Chris Henry, who died after falling from a moving pick-up truck during a fight with his fiancee, was found to have histomorphologic evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). See the tau-immunohistochemistry photomicrograph from Henrys brain above. The findings consist of neurofibrillary tangles similar to those seen in Alzheimer disease. This CNN.com article raises the question in my mind of whether school districts should offer genetic testing to potential players, as ones apolipoprotein E genetic status seems to indicate the likelihood that one might be more susceptible to the development of CTE. In any case, I intend to forbid my own son from playing football and from boxing. Any other sport is fair game. But I will not allow him to a participate in a sport where head injury is ...
[email protected] BOSTON (August 7, 2015) - Which athletes are at risk for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)? Can it be prevented? How is CTE related to sports concussions? When-and how-can CTE be diagnosed?. "Our knowledge of CTE is extremely limited," says Rebekah Mannix, MD, MPH, of Boston Childrens Hospital Emergency Medicine Division and author of a review article published in the August 7, 2015, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.. Doctors first observed signs of CTE in 1928, and described boxers affected by the condition as "punch drunk." These sluggers had developed an unsteady gait, mental confusion, delayed reaction times, hesitant speech and tremors. Physicians knowledge of CTE has inched forward in the last 90 years. Even today doctors can observe signs and symptoms of the condition, but it can be diagnosed only via brain autopsy. NFL legend Junior Seaus suicide and subsequent diagnosis of CTE in 2012 ...
CHICAGO - Former football star Aaron Hernandez brain was riddled with damage from a degenerative brain disease linked with head blows, but that does not necessarily explain the troubles that plagued his young life.. The diagnosis comes from a Boston University researcher who has studied hundreds of brains from football players, college athletes and even younger players, donated after their deaths. Dr. Ann McKee announced Thursday she found evidence of severe chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, in Hernandez brain. Her autopsy also found signs of early brain shrinkage even though Hernandez was only 27 when he hung himself in prison in April.. His lawyer filed a lawsuit against the NFL and the New England Patriots on Thursday, claiming they failed to protect their players safety.. What is known about CTE and how it affects the brain:. DOES CTE MAKE PEOPLE VIOLENT?. CTE can affect areas of the brain involved with regulating behavior and emotions. Aggression, depression, memory loss and ...
BMX legend David Mirra was suffering from CTE when he committed suicide in February, the ESPN The Magazine reported Tuesday. Mirra, who died of a a self-inflicted gunshot wound, is the first action sports athlete to be diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. A neuropathologist said protein deposits on Mirras brain were indistinguishable from those found on the brains of football players and hockey players diagnosed with the condition.. "I couldnt tell the difference," Dr. Liz-Naz Hazrati of Toronto said.. Mirras widow Lauren Mirra said told the magazine her husband began to change in the last year of his life.. "He was always a really intense person. His intensity just started to increase. For sure, last summer, I started to see changes related to his mood. And then it quickly started to get worse.". David Mirra began BMX biking at a young age. He won a record 24 medals at the X Games. He had a number of concussions during his career and once fractured his skull when struck by a car ...
Brain injury can predispose the brain to neurodegenerative processes and may be implicated in a host of diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Parkinsons disease multiple scelerosis, amyotrophic lateral scelerosis, stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimers disease and others. The simplified explanations in this post allow us to consider whether we are monitoring and treating neuroinflammatory influences…
As someone who has been educating sports parents about head trauma in sports for the past seventeen years, and about the very real risk posed by chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) for the last decade, it is not surprising that I receive emails from parents all the time expressing deep concern about stories in the media that have led them - wrongly - to fear that playing contact or collision sports, or suffering a sports-related concussion, especially one slow to heal, makes it inevitable that their child will develop CTE and is at greatly increased risk of committing suicide. When a recent email prompted me to pick up the phone to talk to one concerned mother, she told me that her son - who had suffered a concussion playing indoor lacrosse, but, seven months later, and after seeing a number of concussion specialists, was still experiencing symptoms - was giving up hope of ever getting better. Most disturbingly, she said he had begun expressing the belief that he might be better off dead, ...
Researchers have found the hallmarks of chronic traumatic encephalopathy spread throughout the brain of a 25-year-old former college football player who sustained more than 10 concussions during some 16 years of playing football.
The research is designed to benefit athletes and the general population, including members of the military, Goodell said.. Potential areas of research under the grant include the brain, specifically chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), concussion management and treatment, and the understanding of the relationship between traumatic brain injury and late-life neurodegenerative disorders, especially Alzheimers disease.. "We hope this grant will help accelerate the medical communitys pursuit of pioneering research to enhance the health of athletes past, present and future," Goodell said.. Dr. Stephanie James, NIH acting executive director, expects the grant will have a positive effect on people in all walks of life.. "We are grateful for the NFLs generosity," James said. "The research to be funded by this donation will accelerate scientific discovery that will benefit athletes and the general public alike.". The distribution of funds from the grant will be governed by federal law and policy ...
A study from Boston Universitys Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Center finds that athletes who began playing tackle football before the age of 12 were more likely to have behavioral issues later in life. The long-term research, released Tuesday in the journal Natures Translational Psychiatry, focused on 214 former football players and found playing tackle football before 12 increased the risk of problems with behavioral regulation, apathy and executive functioning by two-fold and increased the risk of clinically elevated depression scores by three-fold. Of those participating in the study, 43 played through high school, 103 through college and 68 in the NFL, with the... ...
Mike Adamle was holding court.. In the kitchen of his Evanston home, he was waving his arms, telling jokes like a late-night host, reciting an old football poem he wrote, "The Ballad of Special Teams," and rattling off phrases in Spanish, Russian and Korean.. Adamle, a retired NBC5 sports anchor and former Bears running back, doesnt seem like someone whos exhibiting the symptoms of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, the crippling brain disease that has affected many football players.. But the Mike Adamle who can command a room is just the surface.. Adamles neurologist, Michael Smith of Rush University Medical Center, said Adamle has post traumatic epilepsy, which... ...
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and the rise of liability lawsuits over head injuries eventually makes it impossible for insurance companies to insure colleges and high schools against similar lawsuits. With fewer teams to play for, basketball and baseball see an influx of talent, and some turn to alternatives such as lacrosse or soccer. Conferences where football doesnt define most of their universities mission - Big Ten, Pac-12, ACC, Ivy and other East Coast schools - drop the sport. Back to the issue of parents: I have no doubt the sport helped me, giving me lifelong friends and extra parents in coaches who kept me out of trouble when trouble was there for the taking. [...] as evidence mounts to the dangers of young minds in a helmet meant to protect the skull but little of the brain that slams around inside, that thought changes.
As someone who has been educating sports parents about head trauma in sports for the past seventeen years, and about the very real risk posed by chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) for the last decade, it is not surprising that I receive emails from parents all the time expressing deep concern about stories in the media that have led them - wrongly - to fear that playing contact or collision sports, or suffering a sports-related concussion, especially one slow to heal, makes it inevitable that their child will develop CTE and is at greatly increased risk of committing suicide. When a recent email prompted me to pick up the phone to talk to one concerned mother, she told me that her son - who had suffered a concussion playing indoor lacrosse, but, seven months later, and after seeing a number of concussion specialists, was still experiencing symptoms - was giving up hope of ever getting better. Most disturbingly, she said he had begun expressing the belief that he might be better off dead, ...
Like any other sports fanatic, nothing else evokes a greater wave of emotional outbursts from me than a really good game. Whether I am watching a speedy game of basketball or a crawling game of baseball, feelings of celebration, anxiety, and disappointment can billow through my body within the span of a few seconds. In June, the UEFA Euro 2012 was all the rage amongst sports fans, causing many professionals to cancel work meetings, return late from lunch breaks, or simply remain home on the grounds of an "unidentified but completely legitimate sickness". As I was one of those many individuals crowding around a large food court flat screen, milking the last few seconds of my fifth (and very necessary) break, I could not help but cringe every time I witnessed a player heading a soccer ball.. Because I work in trauma research, I have become very familiar with cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional athletes. CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that can only be ...
Even a single mild explosion can cause changes in the brain that have similarities to those found in diseases like Alzheimers disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy reveals a new study.
New findings that onetime star linebacker Junior Seau had a degenerative brain disease when he shot himself in the chest last May have turned up the heat on the NFL, which claims its doing its best to protect its players and support medical research. The suits, awaiting review by a federal judge in Philadelphia, could be a replay of the tobacco cases -- the long-running and ultimately successful claims by smokers and state governments that the industry hid the lethal risks of its products. The concussion suits nevertheless have potentially huge consequences, both for the NFLs finances and for its safety policies, in light of mounting evidence of the cumulative effects of years of violent gridiron collisions. Seau, who never had a reported concussion in his 20-year career, suffered from a brain disease called chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE, National Institutes of Health researchers said last week. [...] comments are reminiscent of the response by tobacco companies to the first expressions
Earlier this year, Jordan Parsons, a former Bellator MMA fighter, was tragically killed in a hit-and-run accident. He was subsequently diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) after a post-mortem brain autopsy. CTE is a progressive degenerative disease found in individuals who sustain repeated blows to the head. Parsons is the first MMA fighter to be…
Junior Seau, one of the NFLs best and fiercest players for nearly two decades, had a degenerative brain disease when he committed suicide last May, the National Institutes of Health told The Associated Press on Thursday.Results of an NIH study of Seaus brain revealed abnormalities consistent with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).The NIH, based in Bethesda, Md., conducted a study of three unidentified brains, one of which was Seaus. It said the findings on Seau were similar to autopsies
Postmortem analysis of the brains of ten professional athletes with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) provides new insights into the specific types of brain abnormalities associated with this diagnosis, reports a study in the July issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.
Influence of insomnia and emotional disorders on the development of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic brain ischemia and arterial hypertension
University of Cincinnati head football coach Luke Fickell acknowledged Thursday theres a likelihood he has chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) stemming from his playing days...
Researchers say they have developed a potential method to diagnose chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, while patients are still alive.
For the first time, researchers have shown that inflammation in the brain may have direct involvement in the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In addition, they found that the number of years one plays ...
When he ended his life last year by shooting himself in the chest, Junior Seau had a degenerative brain disease often linked with repeated blows to the head.. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health said Thursday the former NFL stars abnormalities are consistent with chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE.. The hard-hitting linebacker played for 20 NFL seasons with San Diego, Miami and New England before retiring in 2009. He died at age 43 of a self-inflicted gunshot in May, and his family requested the analysis of his brain.. "We saw changes in his behavior and things that didnt add up with him," his ex-wife, Gina, told The Associated Press. "But (CTE) was not something we considered or even were aware of. But pretty immediately (after the suicide) doctors were trying to get their hands on Juniors brain to examine it.". The NIH, based in Bethesda, Md., studied three unidentified brains, one of which was Seaus, and said the findings on Seau were similar to autopsies of people ...
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is udring neurodegenerative disease caused by repetitive mTBI, or repetitive concussion. You could continue experiencing headaches or backaches, but these are of course natural. This normally happens on the early stages of pregnancy and also towards the end. Its difficult to predict what will happen to any one individual. While you may not have a strong desire to eat pickles and ice cream, many women will feel cravings for certain foods when they are pregnant. In most cases it elevated body temp during pregnancy a sign that there is some danger of miscarriage. Its one you need to consider if you want to get pregnant and youve had no luck so far. i want to know that we had some unprotective sex 0n pregnxncy girlfriend got her period on 26 aug this month she is still not getting her period as on 28 their still chances of getting pregnant. With so many shapes, colours, textures and designs of handbags available, matching them with clothing may seem an ...
The neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy can start early and without any signs of concussion, according a study released Thursday
Michael Lipton serves as a thought process-imaging authority. Total, these white-issue changes afflicted some five situations more of the brains volume in women compared with men. So could possibly genetics and chemicals, the creators famous July 31 in Radiology.. One concern is CTE, quick for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (En-seff-uh-LAH-puh-thee). I consistently engage in together with the very same means and superior quality, Danger says. As a winger and striker, I simply endeavor to experience my soccer. Hasenhuettl had above within the fired Level Hughes and missing his very first video game in demand, at Cardiff previous weekend break. SOUTHAMPTON, Britain (AP) Arsenals 22-computer game unbeaten run to all tournaments arrived into an finish with a 3-2 decline at Southampton while in the Leading League on Weekend, with Charlie Austins 85th-min purpose securing a primary acquire for brand spanking new Saints manager Ralph Hasenhuettl.. Going football balls seems to take a better ...
An autopsy confirmed that former Kansas City Chiefs linebacker Jovan Belcher displayed signs of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Read more on CSCS blog.
An autopsy confirmed that former Kansas City Chiefs linebacker Jovan Belcher displayed signs of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Read more on CSCS blog.
In February, BMX legend Dave Mirra reportedly committed suicide at the age of 41. Now, it appears the trick bike trailblazer suffered from CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy) in the lead up to his death. For the most part, when we hear and read…
You are who we think you are. This would include a prison tour, meetings with grass roots organizations, policy makers/non profit leaders, police, families in the community and formerly incarcerated individuals.. Project cost is estimated at about Rs 5,000 crore proposed to be financed with debt equity ratio of 70:30, with NFLs contribution of 26 per cent of the equity. Miamis offense is converting just 21.1 percent on third downs, which ranks last in the NFL. He has shown that potential. Brady said in August he preferred to keep his medical history private, adding that he wasnt blind to issues such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, the debilitating brain disease that can cause a range of symptoms, including memory loss.. Do I expect in the near future we are going to be presenting something to our board on the first issue? Yes.". The owner of the seat will have the ability to transfer or resell the PSL, the right to purchase Falcons season tickets and playoff tickets as well as ...
(CNN) -- Star NFL linebacker Junior Seau -- just 43 years old when he took his own life last May -- suffered from chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a neurodegenerative brain disease that can follow multiple hits to the head, the National Institutes of Hea...
Soccer, one of the worlds most popular sports with more than 200 million players, has been linked to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. A study is looking at the consequences of these
Two NHMRC Project Grants as a co-investigator (CIB) for 2014-2016: (i) A mechanistic approach to therapy development for chronic traumatic encephalopathy using small and large animal models of concussion, led by Professor Robert Vink (CIA) from the University of Adelaide ($475,640); and (ii) Immediate cooling and decompression for the treatment of spinal cord injury: pilot safety and feasibility studies, led by Dr Peter Batchelor (CIA) from the University of Melbourne ($581,561 ...
KW Turk, AA Elshaar, RG Deason, NC Heyworth, C Nagle, B Frustace, S Flannery, A Zumwalt and AE Budson. Late positive component event-related potential amplitude predicts long-term classroom-based learning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, April 2017, In Press.. Turk KW and Budson AE. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Review. Accepted Continuum. In Press, May 2018.. Turk, KW, Gosselin E, Palumbo R, Nagle C, Tat M and Budson AE. False Memories: the other side of forgetting. In preparation, August 2018.. Turk KW, Flanagan M, Josephson JR, Keene CD, Jayadev S and Bird T. Psychosis in Spinocerebellar Ataxias: A case series and study of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Substantia Nigra. The Cerebellum, 2018 August 17(2): 143-151.. Gallagher LG, Ilango S, Wundes A, Stobbe GA, Turk KW, MD, Franklin GM, Linet MS, Freedman DM, Alexander BH, and Harvey Checkoway H. Lifetime Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists Cohort Study. In Press, Multiple ...
Flortaucipir in former NFL players cropped up in regions known to be affected by chronic traumatic encephalopathy, but uptake was low compared with AD. Whether this reflects low tau deposition or poor tracer binding remain to be seen.. ...
Neural signal estimation in the human brain. (Editor) Front Neurosci. (Co-editor with C Howarth, LT Likova). (in press).. Deficits in the activation of human oculomotor nuclei in chronic traumatic brain injury. Front Neurol 6:173. (with LT Likova, KN Mineff, SC Nicholas SC). PDF. Shading beats binocular disparity in depth from luminance gradients: Evidence against a maximum likelihood principle for cue combination.PLoS One 10:e0132658. (with CC Chen). PDF. Analysis of neural-BOLD coupling through four models of the neural metabolic demand. Front Neurosci. 9:419. (with LT Likova and SC Nicholas). PDF. Short and sweet: peripheral color demo. i-Perception 6: 2041669515613671. PDF. Consequences of traumatic brain injury for human vergence dynamics. Front Neurol 5:282. (with LT Likova, KN Mineff, AM Elsaid, SC Nicholas).PDF. The vault of perception: Are straight lines seen as curved? Art & Perception 3:117-137. PDF. Effect of familiarity on Braille writing and reading in the blind: From graphemes to ...
Authors: de la Torre, Jack c. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic brain hypoperfusion plays a central role in the development of Alzheimers disease (AD) long before dyscognitive symptoms or amyloid-β accumulation in the brain appear. This commentary proposes that dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) may also develop from chronic brain hypoperfusion following a similar but not identical neurometabolic breakdown as AD. The argument to support this conclusion is that chronic brain hypoperfusion, which is found at the early stages of the three dementias reviewed here, will reduce oxygen delivery and lower oxidative phosphorylation promoting a steady decline in …the synthesis of the cell energy fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This process is known to lead to oxidative stress. Virtually all neurodegenerative diseases, including FTD, DLB, and CJD, are characterized by oxidative stress that ...
Researchers have discovered a protein that could help diagnose a degenerative brain disease commonly found in athletes, veterans of military service and others who have experienced brain trauma, a new study published on Tuesday showed.
Researchers have discovered a protein that could help diagnose a degenerative brain disease commonly found in athletes, veterans of military service and others who have experienced brain trauma, a new study published on Tuesday showed.
Health, ...ROSEMONT IL A study published online today in Sports Health: A M...Researchers performed in-depth neurological examinations of 45 retired... Our results indicated that there were brain lesions and cognitive imp...The players in the study had an average of 6.8 years of playing time i...,Chronic,brain,damage,not,as,prevalent,in,NFL,players,,say,researchers,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Cerebral or brain ischemia occurs when there is not enough blood flow to the brain. This reduction in blood flow restricts oxygen to the brain and may result in dead brain tissue, cerebral infarction...
People in recovery from addiction often look back and say, "I knew I wasnt a bad person, but somehow I couldnt stop doing bad things." Now theres a formal explanation - addiction is neither a choice nor a sign of weakness, but rather a chronic brain disease.. Although addiction specialists have long supported this "disease concept," the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), the nations largest professional society of physicians dedicated to treating and preventing addiction, has formalized the theory into a new definition of addiction.. What does this revised definition mean to people struggling with addiction?. You Have a Disease.. Rather than looking at addiction as a moral weakness or character flaw, ASAM defines addiction as a chronic brain disease similar to heart disease and diabetes. By bringing addiction within the scope of more widely understood diseases, addiction experts believe there will be greater support and compassion for those struggling with addiction.. "The new ...
A university student who took on the fight of her life after being diagnosed with a chronic brain condition has achieved her graduation dream.. Alison Stiles Johnson had just started her MSc Tourism and Events at the University of Sunderland when she received news that was set to change her life forever.. A section of the 44-year-olds brain was pushing down on her spinal canal, causing her horrific pain.. But despite that pain, the student, from Wideopen in North Tyneside, has managed to beat the odds to complete her Masters, and has now graduated during the winter Academic Awards at the Stadium of Light.. The former nursery nurse has come a long way since she first started feeling ill during the Autumn of 2016.. Alison, 44, had a flu jab on October 15, 2016 and a few days later she began to feel unwell.. She said: "At first I thought it was a reaction to the injection but then it became obvious something wasnt right. It was like someone had switched a pressure switch behind by right ...
Addiction isnt just about willpower. Its a chronic brain disease, says a new definition aimed at helping families and their doctors better understand the challenges of treating it.
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The pre- teens less than age 12 playing American football leads to symptoms of cognitive, behavioral and mood disorders.. The Researchers study at the Boston University School of Medicine talks on the schools website examined brain injuries for pre-teens playing American football, which includes chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). 246 American football players deceased. out of which, 211 were diagnosed with CTE after death.. "When they start to play football in early age, the earlier the symptoms began," says Michael Alosco, an assistant professor of neurology, Boston University School of Medicine and lead author on the study. This is published on Monday in the Annals of Neurology.. Pre-teens starting to play American football at 12 or even earlier than 12 mostly shows the signs of brain injury issues for 13 years on an average before those who start playing the sport after age 12.. The study also supports the fact that each year pre- teens less than 13 began playing American football is ...
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) may be more prevalent among football players than feared, according to a new study published in JAMA.. Researchers examined the brains of 202 deceased football players who donated their brains for research. Overall, CTE was diagnosed in 177 players - or 87 percent of those studied. That percentage increased significantly, however, among National Football League players: 110 of the 111 NFL players had CTE, or 99 percent of the donated brains studied.. CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome associated with repetitive head trauma. It was discovered in 2002 by forensic pathologist Bennet Omalu, MD. While working in the county coroners office in Pittsburgh, Omalu performed an autopsy of "Iron Mike" Webster, the legendary Pittsburgh Steelers lineman who died at age 50. A Hall-of-Famer, Webster was known for his durability, never missing a game during a stretch between 1975 and 1986. He spent the last decades of his life struggling with dementia, ...
A new JAMA study reveals chronic traumatic encephalopathy was present in a high number of brains of former football players. Researchers looked at the brains of former high school, college and NFL football players. Of the 202 brains analyzed, 177 showed signs of CTE. 110 of the 111 former NFL players brains were diagnosed with CTE. Researchers say that, while the findings are significant, the findings could have limitations due to the players families being motivated to donate the brains as a result of public awareness of the lasting effects of head injuries in football players.... Read More... ...
All people carry the APOE gene, which has many variations. A 2010 study found that athletes carrying three of the genes four minor variations were 10 times aslikely as those who did not to have reported a concussion and more than eight times as likely to have suffered brain injury as a result. - - - Scientists have known about the dangers of getting hit on the head since the 1920s, when they diagnosed a form of dementia in boxers. They called it dementia pugilistica or "punch-drunk syndrome." In recent years, the same condition has become known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE. Last year, McAllister and his colleagues completed a study comparing college football players with a group of track and field athletes from the same university. They tested both groups for cognition and memory, and they performed sophisticated imaging that measured changes in their brain cells from the beginning of the season to the end. While the two groups scored equally on the tests, they found that about ...
chronic traumatic encephalopathy , CTE , dementia pugilistica , progressive degenerative disease of the brain??which causes brain tissue death and is found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma, such as boxers, football players and athletes -. s. encefalopat??a traum??tica cr??nica , demencia pugil??stica - enfermedad degenerativa progresiva del cerebro que ocasiona la muerte de los tejidos cerebrales y se encuentra en personas con historia de trauma cerebral repetitivo tal como boxeadores,. …. Read more ›. ...
Football is one of Americas favorite pastimes. In recent years the health risks associated with football have stepped into the national spotlight. The NFL continues to be slammed with head injury lawsuits from well-known players like Tony Doresett, and Jim McMahon. Even with the negative publicity, the NFL has not made serious strides to prevent brain injuries and the traumatic impact they have on players lives.. Because an NFL players careers put them at risk for injury, it falls under the guise of workers compensation. Players from the 1970s through the 1990s, were instructed by NFL staff to use their helmets as a method of blocking opponents, putting their heads and necks directly in harms way. Tracy Scroggins, former Detroit Lions Defensive End, filed a lawsuit citing this, and alleging that the league knew the risks associated with the game and its teachings, specifically with head injuries.. One of the debilitating side effects of head injuries is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy ...
WEDNESDAY, May 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of a protein linked with the brain disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) were found in the cerebrospinal fluid of ex-athletes who suffered multiple concussions, Canadian researchers say.. The protein tau has been tied to CTE, a rare, degenerative brain disease believed to stem from repeated impacts to the head. People with CTE develop symptoms such as dementia, personality disorders or behavior problems.. This study included 22 former professional athletes, average age 56, with a history of multiple concussions. The men included 12 Canadian Football League players, nine hockey players and one snowboarder. They were compared to 12 people with Alzheimers disease and five healthy people.. Researchers checked tau levels in the participants cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds the spine and brain.. Of the former athletes, 12 (54%) had high levels of tau. Their levels (averaging 349 picograms per milliliter) were higher than the healthy ...
It could be weeks before the results of toxicology tests are known.. Her manager, Anthony Anzaldo, told NBC4 in Los Angeles that her brain has been given to researcher Dr. Bennet Omalu to see whether there were any effects of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). "We want to donate her brain," Anzaldo told The New York Daily News. "We want to know what made Chyna tick.". CTE, which is believed to be caused by repeated blows to the head, can be diagnosed only after death via an examination of brain tissue.. Dozens of football players who died have been diagnosed with CTE -- including Ken Stabler, Frank Gifford and Junior Seau.. The tall, muscle-bound, raven-haired Laurer billed herself as the "9th Wonder of the World" because her wrestling predecessor Andre the Giant had already called himself the eighth. She was a member of the wrestling squad D-Generation X, often wrestled against men and at one point was the WWE womens champion.. After leaving WWE in 2001, Laurer was determined to stay ...
A new imaging technique has allowed the detection of protein abnormalities in the concussed brains of living retired football players that are identical to the autopsy findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in deceased athletes, researchers reported. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using a tracer for tau protein known as FDDNP found significantly higher binding values among retired players than in controls in several regions of the brain, including the amygdala and caudate, according to Dr. Gary Small of the University of California Los Angeles and colleagues. Read this story on www.medpagetoday.com. In addition, the tau binding values were highest in the players who had experienced the most concussions during their careers, which "suggests a link between the players history of head injury and FDDNP binding," the researchers wrote in the February American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. "If this research continues in the direction we expect, it would have a big impact ...
Eanna Falvey addressed the challenges of deciding on return to play in concussion and he challenged what many US newspapers are taking as gospel - that repeated concussion leads to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). BJSMs 4th issue of 2014 addressed this question and Paul McCrory is on BJSM podcasts (LISTEN HERE).. Senior Associate Editor Peter Brukner (@PeterBrukner) reviewed the challenges of managing groin pain in sport. He argues that Copenhagens Per Holmichs entities approach is a useful one. You can see watch Per Holmich talk about history and clinical examination on YouTube (HERE) and read about the entities (HERE).. To close off the educational event, BJSM Editor in Chief Karim Khan reviewed the pathogenesis of tendinopathy arguing that collagen failure and abnormal tendon cells/matrix needs to be respected even if there are some biochemical changes that have loosely been linked to inflammatory pathways. The new BJSM paper Time to revisit inflammation" (OPEN ACCESS) is a ...
The National Football League (NFL) will donate $30 million to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health in support of research on serious medical conditions prominent in athletes and relevant to the general population.. With this contribution, NFL becomes the founding donor to a new Sports and Health Research Program, which will be conducted in collaboration with institutes and centers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Specific plans for the research to be undertaken remain to be developed, but potential areas under discussion include concussion; chronic traumatic encephalopathy; the potential relationship between traumatic brain injury and late life neurodegenerative disorders, especially Alzheimer disease; chronic degenerative joint disease; the transition from acute to chronic pain; sudden cardiac arrest in young athletes; and heat and hydration-related illness and injury.. The announcement of the philanthropic gift, the largest that NFL has given in the leagues 92-year ...
The National Football League (NFL) will donate $30 million to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health in support of research on serious medical conditions prominent in athletes and relevant to the general population.. With this contribution, NFL becomes the founding donor to a new Sports and Health Research Program, which will be conducted in collaboration with institutes and centers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Specific plans for the research to be undertaken remain to be developed, but potential areas under discussion include concussion; chronic traumatic encephalopathy; the potential relationship between traumatic brain injury and late life neurodegenerative disorders, especially Alzheimer disease; chronic degenerative joint disease; the transition from acute to chronic pain; sudden cardiac arrest in young athletes; and heat and hydration-related illness and injury.. The announcement of the philanthropic gift, the largest that NFL has given in the leagues 92-year ...
After examining the brains of former professional football players, researchers might be a step closer to diagnosing the devastating brain disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy in the living, according to a study published Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Dear Mr. Bettman:. Its time to act. The National Hockey League must take immediate steps to ban fighting and outlaw all blows to the head. And you, Mr. Bettman, as league commissioner, must lead the way.. Fighting in hockey can no longer be a long-debated issue pitting those who find it barbaric and unsportsmanlike and those who argue that its an integral part of the fabric of the game. The growing mound of research on sports concussions and brain injuries has taken the fighting issue to an entirely different level. Were talking about short-and-long-term damage to the brain, the very foundation of who we are as people.. Commissioner Bettman, its very possible that concussions and degenerative brain disease caused by blows to the head - such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) - will be the biggest issue in sports in the coming decade. Continuing to downplay what we know about sports-based brain injuries, while simultaneously supporting fighting as an elemental aspect of theNHLgame, is ...
AIDS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimers disease, cancer, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Crohns disease, epilepsy or another seizure disorder, fibromyalgia, glaucoma, hepatitis C, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, pain that is either chronic and severe or intractable, Parkinsons disease, positive status for HIV, post-traumatic stress disorder, sickle cell anemia, spinal cord disease or injury, Tourettes syndrome, traumatic brain injury and ulcerative colitis. How much marijuana can a person have? ...
CHAPTER 156 - PROFESSIONAL BOXING AND WRESTLING CONTROL ACT: SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION INDEX TO SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION Professional Boxing Control Regulations Professional Boxing and Wrestling (Prescribed Forms) Regulations Professional Wrestling Control Regulations Professional Boxing and Wrestling Control (Insurance) (No. 2) Regulations Zambia Professional Boxing and Wrestling Control (Benevolent Fund) Regulations PROFESSIONAL BOXING CONTROL REGULATIONS [Section 10] [RETAINED AS PER SECTION 15 OF THE INTERPRETATION AND GENERAL PROVISIONS ACT] Arrangement of Regulations Regulation 1. Title 2. Interpretation 3. Application for registration as a boxer, official, manager or promoter 4. Contracts between boxers and managers, etc., to be approved by Board 5. Applications for licences to hold tournaments 6. Police to be notified of intention to hold a tournament 7. Tickets, etc., not to be sold prior to the issue of a licence 8. Notice to be given to Board of any cancellation or abandonment of a ...
HealthDay News) -- Brain injuries among pro football players are in the headlines, but pro fighters often suffer damaging head injuries, too.. Now, research with boxers and mixed martial arts professionals suggests that combination MRI technology can help pinpoint which injuries might lead to brain damage.. In the boxing ring, as on the football field, recurring blows to the head can cause mild traumatic brain injury. Over time, this can lead to progressive brain disorders like chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and create problems with mood and movement.. A study published this week found that 110 of 111 brains of deceased National Football League players whose brains were autopsied showed signs of CTE.. Currently, the disease can only be diagnosed with an autopsy, but scientists are seeking to improve detection.. Previous studies have focused on the brain cells in gray matter or the fiber tracts in white matter, the researchers said.. For this new study, the researchers combined two MRI ...
Shelby Walker (February 27, 1975 - September, 24, 2006) was an American professional boxer and mixed martial artist. Walker, also known as Shelby Girl, was born as Shelby Rogers. After five years in active duty and in the reserve of the US Army, Walker began her career as an mixed martial artist. Of her six MMA bouts, she won three and lost three. In 2002, Walker became a professional boxer. In her boxing career, she completed 14 bouts. She won seven (six of them by K.O.), lost six and reached a draw. "Interview with Shelby Walker - BoxingInsider.com". 15 April 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2017. "Shelby Walker Fights for Boxing Title". www.mmaweekly.com. Retrieved 1 July 2017. Sherdog.com. "Shelby Walker Passes Away of Apparent Drug Overdose". Sherdog. Retrieved 1 July 2017. "Shelby Girl Walker Found Dead - The Sweet Science". Retrieved 1 July 2017 ...
Looking for online definition of Traumatic brain injuries in the Medical Dictionary? Traumatic brain injuries explanation free. What is Traumatic brain injuries? Meaning of Traumatic brain injuries medical term. What does Traumatic brain injuries mean?
Scheenen ME(4), Jacobs B(3), Hageman G(5), Yilmaz T(6), Roks G(6), Spikman JM(7).. BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for most cases of TBI ...
New Book - Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Symptom Validity Assessment and Malingering - Editors: Dominic A. Carone and Shane S. Bush Publication Date: 8/2012448pp SoftcoverISBN-13: 9780826109156. Price: $75.00 USDThis authoritative volume is the first book specifically devoted to symptom validity assessment with individuals having a known or suspected history of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). It brings together leading experts in MTBI, symptom ... International Brain Injury Association - IBIA International Brain Injury Association - IBIA
TY - JOUR. T1 - Working memory in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. T2 - Functional MR imaging analysis. AU - Chen, Chi-Jen. AU - Wu, Chih-Hsiung. AU - Liao, Yen Peng. AU - Hsu, Hui Ling. AU - Tseng, Ying-Chi. AU - Liu, Ho Ling. AU - Chiu, Wen-Ta. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Purpose: To analyze brain activation patterns in response to tests of working memory after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Materials and Methods: Research ethics committee approval and patient written informed consent were obtained. Brain activation patterns in response to n-back working memory tasks (n = 1, 2, 3) were assessed with functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 20 patients with MTBI within 1 month after their injury and in 18 healthy control subjects. In n-back working memory tasks, participants monitored a series of number stimuli and were to indicate when the presented number was the same as that presented n back previously. Nine (45%) MTBI patients underwent follow-up functional MR ...
Principle Investigator: Ruben J. Echemendia, Ph.D.. Institution: Pennsylvania State University, Department of Psychology. Title: Neuropsychological Assessment of Sports-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Multi-Sport Study. Update. Abstract: Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (mTBI) are serious, at times catastrophic, injuries which pose risks to athletes as all levels of competition. The Penn State Cerebral Concussion Program was developed in 1995 as a multi-sport (both sexes) prospective state-of-the-art neuropsychological assessment program. Recognize as a model for neuropsychological testing programs, baseline assessments have been conducted with 476 athletes in football, ice hockey, mens and womens soccer, mens and womens basketball. Swim teams serve as controls. This proposal requests funds to continue and improve the program. The overall goal of the project is to prevent catastrophic injury by determining when it is safe to return a player to competition. Specific aims ...

Oxygen Toxicity of HBOT in Chronic Brain Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govOxygen Toxicity of HBOT in Chronic Brain Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Brain Injuries. Brain Injury, Chronic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Craniocerebral ... Oxygen Toxicity of HBOT in Chronic Brain Injury. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The study is a retrospective review of the authors experience treating chronic brain injury with HBOT, supplemented by cases ... Oxygen Toxicity Effects Using Los-Pressure Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Brain Injury. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00592891?cond=%22Brain+Injury%2C+Chronic%22&rank=6

Oxygen Toxicity of HBOT in Chronic Brain Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govOxygen Toxicity of HBOT in Chronic Brain Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Brain Injuries. Brain Injury, Chronic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Craniocerebral ... Oxygen Toxicity of HBOT in Chronic Brain Injury. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... The study is a retrospective review of the authors experience treating chronic brain injury with HBOT, supplemented by cases ... Oxygen Toxicity Effects Using Los-Pressure Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Brain Injury. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00592891?cond=%22Brain+Injury%2C+Chronic%22&rank=4

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model | Science Translational...Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model | Science Translational...

Research ArticleTraumatic Brain Injury. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast ... We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found ... Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. ... Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head ...
more infohttp://stm.sciencemag.org/content/4/134/134ra60.short

Federal Cerebral Palsy Lawyer Birth Injury Medical Mistake LawyerFederal Cerebral Palsy Lawyer Birth Injury Medical Mistake Lawyer

Birth Injury Lawsuits, Cerebral Palsy Lawsuits, Birth Medical Malpractice Lawsuits, and Federal Delivery Medical Mistake ... Federal Cerebral Palsy Birth Injury Lawyer Handles Federal Cerebral Palsy Birth Injury Lawsuits, Fetal Distress Lawsuits, ... Lawsuits by Federal Cerebral Palsy Birth Injury Lawyer ... areas in the brain that disrupt the ability of the brain to ... Medical Malpractice during the birthing process can result in cerebral palsy, which is a chronic condition that affects the ...
more infohttp://www.texaslawyers.com/coomer/birthinjurycerebralpalsymedicalmistakelawyer.htm

Even before injury, chronic back pain may start in the brain - LA TimesEven before injury, chronic back pain may start in the brain - LA Times

... the likelihood that the resulting pain will become chronic can be predicted by examining the brain's white matter -- the ... But a new study offers strong evidence that even before a person experiences an injury, ... s infuriating to chronic pain sufferers to be told their pain is all in the head. ... The difference between people whose back pain abates after injury and those whose pain becomes chronic lies in their brains ...
more infohttp://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-chronic-back-pain-brain-20130917-story.html

Researchers Find Association Between Brain Response to Injury and Chronic PainResearchers Find Association Between Brain Response to Injury and Chronic Pain

... Whether a persons injury will lead to chronic ... Brain regions related to emotional and motivational behavior seem to communicate more in those who develop chronic pain. ... Although the study showed an association between levels of communication in the brain and chronic pain, it did not prove a ... For the study, the researchers used brain scans to examine the interaction between 2 parts of the brain-the frontal cortex and ...
more infohttp://www.apta.org/PTinMotion/NewsNow/2012/7/3/ChronicPain/?blogmonth=7&blogday=6&blogyear=2012&blogid=10737418615

Researchers Find Association Between Brain Response to Injury and Chronic PainResearchers Find Association Between Brain Response to Injury and Chronic Pain

... Whether a persons injury will lead to chronic ... Brain regions related to emotional and motivational behavior seem to communicate more in those who develop chronic pain. ... Although the study showed an association between levels of communication in the brain and chronic pain, it did not prove a ... For the study, the researchers used brain scans to examine the interaction between 2 parts of the brain-the frontal cortex and ...
more infohttp://www.apta.org/PTinMotion/NewsNow/2012/7/3/ChronicPain/?blogmonth=2&blogday=28&blogyear=2013&blogid=10737418615

Functional Correlates of Midline Brain Volume Loss in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.  - PubMed - NCBIFunctional Correlates of Midline Brain Volume Loss in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury. - PubMed - NCBI

Functional Correlates of Midline Brain Volume Loss in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.. Guild EB1, Levine B1. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term changes in daily life functioning, yet the neuroanatomical correlates ... In the chronic stage of TBI, self-initiation, energization, and physical complaints related to a specific pattern of volume ... Volumetric data over 38 brain regions were derived from high resolution T1-weighted MRI scans. Functioning was assessed with a ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26250783

Cerebral Venous System in Acute and Chronic Brain Injuries | Min Lou | SpringerCerebral Venous System in Acute and Chronic Brain Injuries | Min Lou | Springer

This contributed volume is focused on subjects related to cerebral veins under normal conditions and after brain injuries, ... Cerebral Venous System in Acute and Chronic Brain Injuries. Editors: Lou, M., Zhang, J., Wang, Y., Qu, Y., Feng, W., Ji, X., ... Cerebral Venous System in Acute and Chronic Brain Injuries. Editors. * Min Lou ... A Movement toward Precision Medicine in Acute Brain Injury: The Role of the Cerebral Venous System ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319960524?wt_mc=

Pilot case study of the therapeutic potential of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on chronic brain injury.  - PubMed - NCBIPilot case study of the therapeutic potential of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on chronic brain injury. - PubMed - NCBI

Pilot case study of the therapeutic potential of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on chronic brain injury.. Hardy P1, Johnston KM, De ... We studied the therapeutic potential of HBO(2) therapy in a 54-year-old man who had sustained traumatic brain injuries one year ... Recently, the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO(2)) therapy was explored in the treatment of chronic TBI. It has been speculated ... Brain Injury, Chronic/diagnostic imaging. *Brain Injury, Chronic/physiopathology. *Brain Injury, Chronic/therapy* ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234213?ordinalpos=&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_TitleSearch&linkpos=1&log$=pmtitlesearch2

Rehabilitation of Executive Functions in Patients with Chronic Acquired Brain Injury with Goal Management Training, External...Rehabilitation of Executive Functions in Patients with Chronic Acquired Brain Injury with Goal Management Training, External...

Rehabilitation of Executive Functions in Patients with Chronic Acquired Brain Injury with Goal Management Training, External ... Evaluation of attention process training and brain injury education on persons with acquired brain injury. Journal of Clinical ... Cognitive interventions post acquired brain injury. Brain Injury, 21, 161-200. doi:10.1080/02699050701201813 ... Ylvisaker, M., & Feeney, T. (2000). Construction of identity after traumatic brain injury. Brain Impairment, 1, 12-28. ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society/article/rehabilitation-of-executive-functions-in-patients-with-chronic-acquired-brain-injury-with-goal-management-training-external-cuing-and-emotional-regulation-a-randomized-controlled-trial/6876A0F047B68225569DFAF780E76DCC

Frontiers | Altered Amygdala Connectivity in Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms |...Frontiers | Altered Amygdala Connectivity in Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms |...

... eight years post-injury on average) exhibiting comorbid depressive symptoms (N=31), relative to chronic TBI individuals having ... Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Though ... Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in individuals with chronic Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Though ... resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify altered amygdala connectivity in individuals with chronic TBI ( ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2015.00231/full

Frontiers | Cognitive Gains from Gist Reasoning Training in Adolescents with Chronic-Stage Traumatic Brain Injury | NeurologyFrontiers | Cognitive Gains from Gist Reasoning Training in Adolescents with Chronic-Stage Traumatic Brain Injury | Neurology

Chronic-stage, higher-order cognitive trainings may serve to elevate levels of cognitive performance in adolescents with TBI. ... Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study ... Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study ... than a bottom-up rote learning approach in achieving gains in higher-order cognitive abilities in adolescents at chronic stage ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2014.00087/full

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Traumatic and Non-traumatic Brain Injury | Clinical Research Trial Listing ( chronic brain injury |  Post...Hyperbaric Oxygen for Traumatic and Non-traumatic Brain Injury | Clinical Research Trial Listing ( chronic brain injury | Post...

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Traumatic and Non-traumatic Brain Injury ... Clinical trial for chronic brain injury , Post-concussional ... Hyperbaric Oxygen for Traumatic and Non-traumatic Brain Injury Brief description of study. The purpose of this study is to ... This study will enroll 90 individuals with persistent problems 1-5 years after a brain injury. These individuals will be ... and provide insight into whether hyperbaric oxygen can play a role in recovery from brain injury. ...
more infohttps://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/159908/brain-injury-chronic-hyperbaric-oxygen-traumatic-non-traumatic/?geo_lat=40.6916132&geo_lng=-112.0010501&radius=10&place=Valley%20City

Chronic drinking and smoking cause brain injuryChronic drinking and smoking cause brain injury

Chronic drinking and smoking cause both separate and interactive brain injury Most alcoholics in North America are chronic ... oAs chronic alcohol drinking and chronic smoking more often than not co-occur, researchers have begun to realize that the brain ... California addressed the brain injuries that chronic smoking and drinking can cause separately as well as interactively. ... which measures certain naturally occurring chemicals in the brain that tell us about injury to specific brain cells. ...
more infohttps://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/473/1/Chronic-drinking-and-smoking-cause-brain-injury/Page1.html

Distinguishing impairments in speed of information processing between traumatic brain injury and chronic painDistinguishing impairments in speed of information processing between traumatic brain injury and chronic pain

Examining Chronic Pain, MTBI, Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (STBI), and a Healthy Control group, the Computerized Tests of ... Distinguishing impairments in speed of information processing between traumatic brain injury and chronic pain. dc.contributor. ... traumatic brain injury. en_US. dc.title. Distinguishing impairments in speed of information processing between traumatic brain ... Chronic pain is a common comorbid symptom following trauma-induced brain injury and can impact information processing speed ...
more infohttps://qspace.library.queensu.ca/handle/1974/12656?show=full

Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide - Research Reports - The influence of chronic cigarette smoking on neurocognitive...Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide - Research Reports - The influence of chronic cigarette smoking on neurocognitive...

Research Reports - The influence of chronic cigarette smoking on neurocognitive recovery after mild traumatic brain injury. J ... seeking emergency care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) are classified as mild. (MTBI). Premorbid and comorbid conditions that ... influence of chronic smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption on neurocognitive. function following MTBI. A comprehensive ... point 1: AP1) and 230 ± 36 (assessment point 2: AP2) days after injury. Twenty. non-smoking light drinkers served as controls ( ...
more infohttps://www.neuroskills.com/resources/special-reports.php?report=368

Eliciting inflammation enables successful rehabilitative training in chronic spinal cord injury, Brain | 10.1093/brain/awy128 |...Eliciting inflammation enables successful rehabilitative training in chronic spinal cord injury, Brain | 10.1093/brain/awy128 |...

Brain" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available ... "Eliciting inflammation enables successful rehabilitative training in chronic spinal cord injury, ... "Eliciting inflammation enables successful rehabilitative training in chronic spinal cord injury." Brain Advance Article.7 (2018 ... 2018). Eliciting inflammation enables successful rehabilitative training in chronic spinal cord injury. Brain, AdvanceArticle(7 ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/ou_press/eliciting-inflammation-enables-successful-rehabilitative-training-in-3EvqrlxcL1

Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback and Executive Functioning in Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury | HeartMath...Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback and Executive Functioning in Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury | HeartMath...

Brain InjuryHeart Rate Variability Biofeedback and Executive Functioning in Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury. * ... people with chronic brain injury can continue to make substantial improvements in their functioning. This study used a non- ... Evidence is also presented that even individuals who sustained severe brain injuries and are long past the post-acute phase of ... self-regulation training applied to individuals with severe brain injuries who were on the average 24 years post-injury. ...
more infohttps://www.heartmath.org/research/research-library/dissertations/hrv-biofeedback-and-executive-functioning-in-individuals-with-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury/

Chronic Treatment With a Low Dose of Lithium Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury by Reducing Apoptotic Death | StrokeChronic Treatment With a Low Dose of Lithium Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury by Reducing Apoptotic Death | Stroke

Chronic Treatment With a Low Dose of Lithium Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury by Reducing Apoptotic Death. Jihong Xu ... Chronic Treatment With a Low Dose of Lithium Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury by Reducing Apoptotic Death ... Chronic Treatment With a Low Dose of Lithium Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury by Reducing Apoptotic Death ... Chronic Treatment With a Low Dose of Lithium Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury by Reducing Apoptotic Death ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/34/5/1287

Brain injury markers (S100B and NSE) in chronic cocaine dependentsBrain injury markers (S100B and NSE) in chronic cocaine dependents

... Autor Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim Woody, George Portela, ... This study aimed at comparing blood levels of S100B and NSE in chronic cocaine users and in volunteers who did not use cocaine ... Conclusions: In this first study using these specific brain damage markers in cocaine users, serum levels of S100B and neuron ... Objective: Studies have shown signs of brain damage caused by different mechanisms in cocaine users. The serum neuron specific ...
more infohttp://www.lume.ufrgs.br/handle/10183/20639

High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injuryHigh prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

... ... Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient ... Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and ... However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, ...
more infohttps://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/19631

Improved Function Following Deep Brain Stimulation for Chronic Severe Traumatic Brain Injury by Congress of Neurological...Improved Function Following Deep Brain Stimulation for Chronic Severe Traumatic Brain Injury by Congress of Neurological...

Stream Improved Function Following Deep Brain Stimulation for Chronic Severe Traumatic Brain Injury by Congress of Neurological ... Improved Function Following Deep Brain Stimulation for Chronic Severe Traumatic Brain Injury by Congress of Neurological ... Users who like Improved Function Following Deep Brain Stimulation for Chronic Severe Traumatic Brain Injury ... Users who reposted Improved Function Following Deep Brain Stimulation for Chronic Severe Traumatic Brain Injury ...
more infohttps://soundcloud.com/cnsneurosurgeon/improved-function-following-deep-brain-stimulation-for-chronic-severe-traumatic-brain-injury/recommended

Brain Injury Research Institute | Chronic Traumatic EncephalopathyBrain Injury Research Institute | Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

Renowned doctors of the Brain Injury Research Institute work to raise awareness of CTE and to find ways to treat and prevent ... Brain Injury Research Institute. Protect the Brain. At the Brain Injury Research Institute, our purpose is to study the short ... Brain Injury Research Institute - Brain Injury Research Institute Located at 1609 Warwood Avenue Wheeling, WV 26003. View Map ... In football, brain injuries account for 65% to 95% of all fatalities. Football injuries associated with the brain occur at the ...
more infohttp://www.protectthebrain.org

New Study Argues That Brain Inflammation is a Major Cause of Chronic Brain Problems Following InjuryNew Study Argues That Brain Inflammation is a Major Cause of Chronic Brain Problems Following Injury

... News Jan 16, 2015 ... The paper also points out that chronic brain inflammation related to traumatic brain injury may be treatable. Dr. Faden and Dr ... Chronic Neurodegeneration After Traumatic Brain Injury: Alzheimer Disease, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, or Persistent ... The papers, which looked at animal models of traumatic brain injury, examined the mechanisms by which even mild brain injuries ...
more infohttps://www.technologynetworks.com/proteomics/news/new-study-argues-brain-inflammation-major-cause-chronic-brain-problems-following-282868
  • To address these impressions the study seeks to review the author's medical records and other patient/doctor communications to the author where side effects of HBOT occurred in the treatment of chronic brain injury and abstract signs, symptoms, and the dose of HBOT employed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Speed of information processing deficits are hallmark symptoms of, and a primary consideration, in the differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). (queensu.ca)
  • Examining Chronic Pain, MTBI, Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (STBI), and a Healthy Control group, the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) were used to assess processing speed. (queensu.ca)
  • The Chronic Pain group performed significantly worse than the MTBI and Control groups on the CTIP with no significant differences between the Chronic Pain and Control group on any traditional NP test. (queensu.ca)
  • This study assessed the influence of chronic smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption on neurocognitive function following MTBI. (neuroskills.com)
  • A comprehensive neurocognitive battery was administered to 25 non-smoking MTBI (nsMTBI), 19 smoking MTBI (sMTBI) 38 ± 22 days (assessment point 1: AP1) and 230 ± 36 (assessment point 2: AP2) days after injury. (neuroskills.com)
  • However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. (washington.edu)
  • This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. (springer.com)
  • Studies were evaluated based on duration between injury and DTI assessment, categorized as acute, subacute/chronic, remote mTBI, and repetitive brain trauma considerations. (springer.com)
  • Since changes in brain structure after mTBI can also be affected by other co-occurring medical and demographic factors, we also briefly review DTI studies that have addressed socioeconomic status factors (SES), major depressive disorder (MDD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (springer.com)
  • It is a type of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) where the person is usually unconscious for less than 30 minutes. (headway.ie)
  • If you or a loved one has suffered multiple concussions, or if you are simply interested in assisting the cause of preventing and treating chronic traumatic encephalopathy, we welcome your contributions to our efforts. (protectthebrain.org)
  • July 31, 2018 Females are more likely than males to suffer measurable impact on their brains as a result of heading the ball during soccer. (npr.org)
  • July 25, 2018 The military is trying to figure out whether troops can sustain brain injuries from firing certain powerful weapons. (npr.org)
  • The Veritas Health platform comprising of Spine-health.com , Arthritis-health.com , Sports-health.com , and Pain-health.com , provides comprehensive information on back pain, arthritis, sports injuries, and chronic pain conditions. (spine-health.com)
  • Researchers have also shown that compared to healthy patients, the brains of chronic pain sufferers are wired differently, in ways that suggest that physical sensations and emotional responses are bound more tightly together. (latimes.com)
  • Focusing largely on the bundles of axons that carry nerve impulses across the brain, they found that within two months of recruiting patients, discernible differences in the structure and integrity of that 'white matter' could be used to distinguish subjects whose pain persisted from those whose pain was beginning to resolve. (latimes.com)
  • For the study , the researchers used brain scans to examine the interaction between 2 parts of the brain-the frontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens-in 40 patients who had recent onset of back pain for the first time. (apta.org)
  • By analyzing the scans, the investigators were able to predict whether the patients would develop chronic pain with an 85% level of accuracy. (apta.org)
  • This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of Goal Management Training TM (GMT) in improving executive functioning in patients with chronic ABI. (cambridge.org)
  • Seventy patients with a verified ABI and executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to GMT ( n =33) or a psycho-educative active control condition, Brain Health Workshop (BHW) ( n =37). (cambridge.org)
  • The results indicate that GMT combined with external cueing is an effective metacognitive strategy training method, ameliorating executive dysfunction in daily life for patients with chronic ABI. (cambridge.org)
  • These results provide additional evidence that individuals with Chronic Pain experience notable impairments in information processing speed with the potential to confound NP test results for potentially brain injured patients. (queensu.ca)
  • And patients' outcomes could be substantially improved, as the "chronic disease" of TBI would then be prominent in a patient's health history, and healthcare providers would then be better educated and able to monitor these patients for the emergence of TBI-associated conditions later in life. (passenpowell.com)
  • This study reports on a clinical series of patients with chronic headache following service-connected TBI treated with FNS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chronic inflammation measured using positron emission tomography following traumatic brain injury (months since injury below individual patients imaging). (imperial.ac.uk)
  • This study aimed to examine the associations among the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) core sets relevant to chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD) using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model based on the ICF core sets scale in Chinese patients. (springer.com)
  • Our alliance will allow CereScan's functional brain diagnostic services to be available to patients and practitioners in the Midwest region. (cerescan.com)
  • Headquartered in Denver, CereScan uses its patented process to combine patient-clinical information, functional brain imaging and advanced processing software to help medical providers and their patients find a more complete and accurate diagnosis. (cerescan.com)
  • Headed by Dr. O'Leary, NCH's Neuroscience Center will provide patients with full-service care for brain injuries. (cerescan.com)
  • These studies are expected to provide the opportunity to evaluate experimental therapies' abilities to prevent, slow or reduce tau accumulation in the animal brain and then test those that show promise in CTE patients. (dana.org)
  • One of the article's co-authors was Brent Masel, a clinical associate professor in the University's neurology department, as well as the president and director of a brain injury rehab center called the Transitional Learning Center. (passenpowell.com)
  • A new paper by researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM) argues that there is a widespread misunderstanding about the true nature of traumatic brain injury and how it causes chronic degenerative problems. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Australian scientists from University of New South Wales have discovered that temporary injury to the brain during early inflammatory stages of glandular fever could lead to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). (medindia.net)
  • The study is a retrospective review of the author's experience treating chronic brain injury with HBOT, supplemented by cases communicated to the author, who developed untoward effects during or after their HBOT. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The object of the study was to affirm or refute the author's general impression that there was an optimal dose of HBOT in chronic brain injury which was lower than the traditional dose applied in chronic non-central nervous system wounding. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All of these factors cause HBOT to be a narrow-window drug in chronic brain injury similar to digoxin and coumadin: too litfie maybe ineffective and too much can be toxic. (wordpress.com)
  • The difference between people whose back pain abates after injury and those whose pain becomes chronic lies in their brains' structures, a new study finds. (latimes.com)
  • It's infuriating to chronic pain sufferers to be told their pain is 'all in the head. (latimes.com)
  • But a new study offers strong evidence that even before a person experiences an injury, the likelihood that the resulting pain will become chronic can be predicted by examining the brain's 'white matter' -- the bundles of fatty fibers that carry electrical impulses between the brain's hemispheres and among its dense network of cells and structures. (latimes.com)
  • The new research, published Tuesday in the journal Pain, suggests that variations in brain structure could help identify people who, once injured, are more vulnerable to becoming chronic pain sufferers. (latimes.com)
  • Research has shown that there are clear differences that distinguish the brains of those with chronic pain from those without such pain. (latimes.com)
  • Chronic pain sufferers consistently show reduced volume in the brain's gray matter, the cortical structures key to perception, movement, memory and reasoning. (latimes.com)
  • But are those brain differences a response to chronic pain -- the brain's response to the experience of months or years of physical misery? (latimes.com)
  • Or do those differences predate chronic pain -- nudging what for another patient would be a short-term experience of discomfort into a lifelong ordeal? (latimes.com)
  • They did so by recruiting 46 subjects who had experienced a first episode of back pain that had already lasted four to 16 weeks, and performing regular brain scans on those subjects for a year. (latimes.com)
  • Compared to subjects whose pain resolved, subjects whose pain would become chronic also showed differences in the density of connections that lashed their nucleus accumbens -- a central structure in the brain rewards, motivation, pleasure and reinforcement learning circuit -- together with their medial prefrontal cortex, a switchboard for decision-making, emotional response and long-term memory. (latimes.com)
  • The authors made further comparisons between the original 46 subjects and two new groups: healthy recruits and people with a established history of chronic pain. (latimes.com)
  • Those comparisons showed that, from the earliest scans, the brains of subjects who would go on to become chronic pain sufferers had structural abnormalities that made them look much more like the chronic pain veterans than like healthy controls or the subjects with back pain that went away. (latimes.com)
  • And throughout the study period, the white matter and brain connections of subjects with back pain that went away looked much more like those of healthy control subjects than they did like the brains of subjects whose pain became chronic. (latimes.com)
  • The brain's white matter normally deteriorate with age, and the Northwestern researchers made a shocking calculation to show the difference that separated subjects with and without chronic pain: Compared to healthy controls or those whose pain subsided, the white matter in the subjects whose pain went on to become chronic 'exhibits 30 to 50 years of additional aging. (latimes.com)
  • Whether a person's injury will lead to chronic pain may depend on the level of communication between 2 parts of his or her brain, says a HealthDay article based on a study published in the current issue of Nature Neuroscience . (apta.org)
  • Brain regions related to emotional and motivational behavior seem to communicate more in those who develop chronic pain. (apta.org)
  • Although the study showed an association between levels of communication in the brain and chronic pain, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship, the article says. (apta.org)
  • Notably, there were no significant differences in scores on the CTIP or traditional NP tests between the Chronic Pain and the STBI groups. (queensu.ca)
  • More specifically, it might be related to specific regions of the brain that play a critical role in the perception pain and fatigue. (medindia.net)
  • Common causes for leg pain include injuries such as muscle strains, inflamed tendons, shin splints and stress fractures. (reference.com)
  • What are some chronic pain relievers? (reference.com)
  • Consensus Guidelines on the Use of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Chronic Pain Consensus Guidelines on the Use of Intravenous Ketamine Infu. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Reference Manager Save my selection doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000808 CHRONIC AND INTERVENTIONAL PAIN: SPECIAL ARTICLE Open Background Over the past 2 decades, the use of intravenous ketamine infusions as a treatment for chronic pain has increased dramatically, with wide variation in patient selection, dosing, and monitoring. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Graph theoretical analysis of functional connectivity revealed known effects of chronic pain for the first time also for the CCI model: modifications of the sensory as well as emotional system induced by thermal but also mechanical stimulation. (ismrm.org)
  • Chris sustained a traumatic brain injury (the effects of which have faded but are ongoing) and will need further PT for the pain and loss of spinal mobility incurred. (gofundme.com)
  • Because of the unpredictable episodes of extreme pain and brain fog, he can no longer make any plans in advance. (gofundme.com)
  • It can provide a rapid electroencephalographic (EEG) assessment of a person who suffered a head injury, utilizing disposable electrodes and a connected smartphone to process the information. (medgadget.com)
  • Diffuse axonal injury due to nonmissile head injury in humans: an analysis of 45 cases. (springer.com)
  • University of Virginia prospective study of football-induced minor head injury: status report. (springer.com)
  • RIVIERA BEACH, FL-If a neurologist is at a sporting event during which a player sustains a head injury, audience members or officials may look to. (mdedge.com)
  • Some evidence indicates that a head injury may interact with other factors to trigger the disease and may hasten the onset of the disease in individuals already at risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been speculated that idling neurons in the penumbra zone remain viable several years after injury and might be reactivated by enhanced oxygenation. (nih.gov)
  • 2017). As an example, Shine and colleagues showed that viral-mediated overexpression of neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) in motor neurons below the level of a corticospinal tract lesion, enhanced plasticity and sprouting in spared corticospinal axons, but only if NT-3 was expressed within 2 weeks after injury (Chen et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • For the paper in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Dr. Faden and his colleagues found that the brains of animals with mild traumatic brain injury showed substantial loss of neurons, as well as increases in microglia, a kind of inflammatory immune cell active in the brain. (technologynetworks.com)
  • It requires sufficient health and interactivity of neurons in the brain including their ability to form and maintain synaptic connections. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ACIST will test the hypothesis that the delivery of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells (BMSC) via the methods in the study with or without the addition of Near Infrared Light will improve cognition through the ability of BMSC to positively affect the health and function of neurons and the brain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At the molecular level, traumatic brain injury gives rise to accumulation of a number of proteins in the axons of neurons. (curealz.org)
  • Contrary to commonly held beliefs that further rehabilitation or recovery is impossible for such a population, one key premise of this study is that given appropriate training, people with chronic brain injury can continue to make substantial improvements in their functioning. (heartmath.org)
  • Conclusions- The present study demonstrates that chronic treatment with lithium at a low dose exhibits neuroprotection in transient focal cerebral ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 In a rat model of ischemia, chronic lithium treatment markedly reduced brain infarction and neurological deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 In the present study we tested the hypothesis that chronic treatment with lithium at a low dose improves the recovery from transient focal cerebral ischemia and reduces infarct volume. (ahajournals.org)
  • FNS may be a potentially efficacious treatment for chronic posttraumatic headache sustained in military service. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment of chronic headache associated with TBI remains highly challenging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to researchers from Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC), a class of drugs used for the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has been found to be effective in treating traumatic brain injury as well. (medindia.net)
  • In addition, the study showed that "modulation of beta and gamma secretase may provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. (medindia.net)
  • Which of the following statements is/are TRUE regarding treatment of chronic migraine? (mdedge.com)
  • Using medicinal chemistry, this research will optimize a series of novel gamma-secretase modulators with the hope of developing a preventive treatment for traumatic brain injury-induced neurodegeneration. (curealz.org)
  • Chronic treatment with paeonol improves endothelial function in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Effective treatment for people with CTE, as for other tauopathies, is lacking largely because tau prions cannot yet be imaged in the human brain to assess experimental treatment effects. (dana.org)
  • The Report from the First NIH Consensus Conference to Define the Neuropathological Criteria for the Diagnosis of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy External has additional information. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective: Studies have shown signs of brain damage caused by different mechanisms in cocaine users. (ufrgs.br)
  • It is the complex secondary mechanisms that play a critical role in the delayed progression of brain damage-presenting novel opportunities for therapeutic strategies. (lifeextension.com)
  • Interventions targeting mechanisms that generate amyloid beta-42 may ameliorate the axonal damage and spread of amyloid elicited by traumatic brain injury. (curealz.org)
  • The researchers hypothesize that a 'hit and run' brain injury associated with the viral infection could lead to CFS. (medindia.net)
  • That is why the new proposal from researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston is so encouraging to our top brain injury lawyers . (passenpowell.com)
  • Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). (frontiersin.org)
  • Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) ( 1 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • As I said in that piece, if you suffer from chronic depression, you know all too well that setbacks happen - even to those of us who think we're doing everything right to protect our limbic systems from intense sadness and anxiety . (everydayhealth.com)
  • While connecting with other people who struggle with chronic depression is a lifesaver for me most of the time, I have to be careful of the sad stories when I'm extremely low, because I will make them my own story: "If she can't get well," I start to think to myself, "neither will I. (everydayhealth.com)
  • 3 Reperfusion/reoxygenation after an ischemic episode can significantly exacerbate injury to the brain, as demonstrated in a rodent model of focal permanent and transient cerebral ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • A vegetative state can result from diffuse injury to the cerebral hemispheres of the brain without damage to the lower brain and brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. David K. Menon of the University of Cambridge talked with our reporter Heidi Splete about the challenges of assessing and treating TBI as a chronic disease at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. (wordpress.com)
  • Parkinson s disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss. (medindia.net)
  • Rather than a brain injury being viewed as a one-time event, this movement puts forth the assertion that it should be understood as a chronic disease. (wordpress.com)
  • Although TBI is at present treated as a serious injury, they propose that it instead be viewed, classified, and treated as a chronic disease triggered by a serious injury. (passenpowell.com)
  • The heightened risk of these problems throughout a victim's lifetime certainly makes TBI more akin to a chronic disease that a one-time injury with a discreet recovery period. (passenpowell.com)
  • Reclassifying TBI as a chronic disease whose effects often include these related conditions would make it easier to convince a court or jury that these effects are simply a part of the average cost of living with TBI, making it easier to obtain compensation. (passenpowell.com)
  • Burns said that the findings further cement the connection between Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. (medindia.net)
  • Surgical removal of a kidney - In the case of kidney cancer, kidney injury or kidney disease, a person may need to have one of their kidneys removed. (news-medical.net)
  • CTE is a brain disease that can only be diagnosed after death. (cdc.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic Wasting Disease suspected in second white-tailed deer in Issaqueena Co. (wlbt.com)
  • JACKSON, MS (WLBT) - A free-range, 2.5-year-old female white-tailed deer collected in Issaquena County on November 1 has tested positive for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from initial testing. (wlbt.com)
  • and long-term antibiotic therapy for chronic Lyme disease. (reuters.com)
  • A review of the literature in 2007 noted a 27.5% prevalence of hypopituitarisms in the chronic phase after traumatic brain Injury, including an 8.2% prevalence of adrenal insufficiency, 12.5% of hypogonadism, 4.1% of hypothyroidism, 12.4% of growth hormone deficiency and a 7.7% prevalence of multiple hormone deficiencies. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Here, we tested whether this could be achieved in rats with chronic (8 weeks) dorsolateral quadrant sections of the cervical spinal cord (C4) by inducing mild neuroinflammation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Treating chronic neuroinflammation may improve brain recovery. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we investigate whether minocycline therapy reduces chronic neuroinflammation following TBI, measured using PET. (imperial.ac.uk)