Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Mice, Inbred C57BLBrain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Gliosis: The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.AccidentsCerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Coma, Post-Head Injury: Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cerebrovascular Trauma: Penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries to an extracranial or intracranial blood vessel that supplies the brain. This includes the CAROTID ARTERIES; VERTEBRAL ARTERIES; MENINGEAL ARTERIES; CEREBRAL ARTERIES; veins, and venous sinuses.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Percussion: Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Boxing: A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

Optimization of magnesium therapy after severe diffuse axonal brain injury in rats. (1/4075)

A number of studies have demonstrated that magnesium salts given after traumatic brain injury improve subsequent neurologic outcome. However, given that these earlier studies have used a number of different salts, dosages, and routes of administration, follow-up studies of the neuroprotective properties of magnesium are complicated, with comparisons to the earlier literature virtually impossible. The present study has therefore characterized the dose-response characteristics of the most commonly used sulfate and chloride salts of magnesium in a severe model of diffuse traumatic axonal injury in rats. Both magnesium salts improved neurologic outcome in rats when administered as a bolus at 30 min after injury. The i.v. and i.m. optima of each salt was 250 micromol/kg and 750 micromol/kg, respectively. The identical concentrations required for improved neurologic outcome suggest that improvement in outcome was dependent on the magnesium cation and not the associated anion. Subsequent magnetic resonance studies demonstrated that the administered magnesium penetrated the blood-brain barrier after injury and resulted in an increased brain intracellular free magnesium concentration and associated bioenergetic state as reflected in the cytosolic phosphorylation potential. Both of these metabolic parameters positively correlated with resultant neurologic outcome measured daily in the same animals immediately before the magnetic resonance determinations.  (+info)

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (2/4075)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

One year outcome in mild to moderate head injury: the predictive value of acute injury characteristics related to complaints and return to work. (3/4075)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic value of characteristics of acute injury and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) for long term outcome in patients with mild to moderate head injury in terms of complaints and return to work. METHODS: Patients with a Glasgow coma score (GCS) on admission of 9-14 were included. Post-traumatic amnesia was assessed prospectively. Follow up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome was determined by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 1 year after injury and compared with a more detailed outcome scale (DOS) comprising cognitive and neurobehavioural aspects. RESULTS: Sixty seven patients were included, mean age 33.2 (SD 14.7) years and mean PTA 7.8 (SD 7.3) days. One year after injury, 73% of patients had resumed previous work although most (84%) still reported complaints. The most frequent complaints were headache (32%), irritability (34%), forgetfulness and poor concentration (42%), and fatigue (45%). According to the GOS good recovery (82%) or moderate disability (18%) was seen. Application of the DOS showed more cognitive (40%) and behavioural problems (48%), interfering with return to work. Correlation between the GOS and DOS was high (r=0.87, p<0.01). Outcome correlated with duration of PTA (r=-0.46) but not significantly with GCS on admission (r=0.19). In multiple regression analysis, PTA and the number of complaints 3 months after injury explained 49% of variance on outcome as assessed with the GOS, and 60% with the DOS. CONCLUSIONS: In mild to moderate head injury outcome is determined by duration of PTA and not by GCS on admission. Most patients return to work despite having complaints. The application of a more detailed outcome scale will increase accuracy in predicting outcome in this category of patients with head injury.  (+info)

Parkinson's syndrome after closed head injury: a single case report. (4/4075)

A 36 year old man, who sustained a skull fracture in 1984, was unconscious for 24 hours, and developed signs of Parkinson's syndrome 6 weeks after the injury. When assessed in 1995, neuroimaging disclosed a cerebral infarction due to trauma involving the left caudate and lenticular nucleus. Parkinson's syndrome was predominantly right sided, slowly progressive, and unresponsive to levodopa therapy. Reaction time tests showed slowness of movement initiation and execution with both hands, particularly the right. Recording of movement related cortical potentials suggested bilateral deficits in movement preparation. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed no evidence of major deficits on tests assessing executive function or working memory, with the exception of selective impairments on the Stroop and on a test of self ordered random number sequences. There was evidence of abulia. The results are discussed in relation to previous literature on basal ganglia lesions and the effects of damage to different points of the frontostriatal circuits.  (+info)

Cerebral blood flow in the monkey after focal cryogenic injury. (5/4075)

A focal cryogenic lesion was made in the left superior frontal gyrus of the anesthetized macaque brain. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by the hydrogen clearance technique before and during the 4 hours following trauma. Local CBF in tissue adjacent to the lesion increased in the first half hour after the lesion was made and then decreased during the ensuing 3 1/2 hours. Local CBF in the contralateral superior frontal gyrus, as well as total CBF and oxygen consumption, were unchanged by cryogenic trauma. The spread of vasogenic edema into uninjured tissue probably accounts for the observed decrease in local CBF. This experimental model may assist in discovering therapy to alter favorably the spatial and temporal profile of pathologic CBF changes in tissue surrounding an acute lesion of the brain.  (+info)

An intrathecal bolus of cyclosporin A before injury preserves mitochondrial integrity and attenuates axonal disruption in traumatic brain injury. (6/4075)

Traumatic brain injury evokes multiple axonal pathologies that contribute to the ultimate disconnection of injured axons. In severe traumatic brain injury, the axolemma is perturbed focally, presumably allowing for the influx of Ca2+ and initiation of Ca2+ -sensitive, proaxotomy processes. Mitochondria in foci of axolemmal failure may act as Ca2+ sinks that sequester Ca2+ to preserve low cytoplasmic calcium concentrations. This Ca2+ load within mitochondria, however, may cause colloid osmotic swelling and loss of function by a Ca2+ -induced opening of the permeability transition pore. Local failure of mitochondria, in turn, can decrease production of high-energy phosphates necessary to maintain membrane pumps and restore ionic balance in foci of axolemmal permeability change. The authors evaluated the ability of the permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) to prevent mitochondrial swelling in injured axonal segments demonstrating altered axolemmal permeability after impact acceleration injury in rat. At the electron microscopic level, statistically fewer abnormal mitochondria were seen in traumatically injured axons from CsA-pretreated injured animals. Further, this mitochondrial protection translated into axonal protection in a second group of injured rats, whose brains were reacted with antibodies against amyloid precursor protein, a known marker of injured axons. Pretreatment with CsA significantly reduced the number of axons undergoing delayed axotomy, as evidenced by a decrease in the density of amyloid precursor protein-immunoreactive axons. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that CsA protects both mitochondria and the related axonal shaft, suggesting that this agent may be of therapeutic use in traumatic brain injury.  (+info)

Evaluating methods for estimating premorbid intellectual ability in closed head injury. (7/4075)

OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the utility of three measures of premorbid intellectual functioning in closed head injury, the National adult reading test (NART), the Cambridge contextual reading test (CCRT), and the spot the word test (STW). METHODS: In the first experiment, a group of 25 patients with closed head injury were compared with 50 healthy controls and 20 orthopaedic trauma controls. In the second experiment, the strength of correlation between the premorbid measures and current intellectual level were assessed in 114 healthy adults. RESULTS: The head injured group performed significantly more poorly than both control groups on measures of current intellectual ability. However, no significant differences emerged between the groups on any of the premorbid measures. In the large control sample, both the NART and the CCRT accounted for about 50% of the variance in current verbal intelligence. However, by contrast, the STW only accounted for 29% of the variability in verbal intelligence. Adding demographic variables to the prediction of current intellectual level increased the amount of variance explained to 60% for the NART, 62% for the CCRT, but only 41% for the STW. CONCLUSION: The results provide supportive evidence for the use of the CCRT and NART in estimating premorbid intellectual functioning in patients who have sustained closed head injuries, but suggest caution when employing the STW.  (+info)

Frozen in time: life in the face of chronic care cutbacks. (8/4075)

Kathy Cook won the $750 first prize in CMAJ's 7th Annual Amy Chouinard Memorial Essay Contest. The deadline for entries to the contest, which is designed to stimulate interest in medical writing among journalism students, is June 1. Entries should be forwarded to the news and features editor. In her winning essay, Cook explores the frustrations and quality-of-life issues that arise in a chronic care institution that is trying to operate in the midst of serious funding cuts.  (+info)

*Stem-cell therapy

Brain and spinal cord injury[edit]. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[86] Spinal injuries occur in two ... Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis, and sub-chondral ... Autologous stem cell based treatments for tendon injury, ligament injury, and osteoarthritis in dogs have been available to ...

*Axotomy

Traumatic Brain Injuries[edit]. A traumatic brain injury is defined as a blunt non-missile penetrating or missile injury to the ... This drawing compares a normal neuron to one undergoing chromatolysis after axonal injury. Regeneration after axonal injury may ... Associated injuries and pathologies[edit]. Although many times axotomy occurs due to intended surgical treatment, it is also ... Upon injury of a peripheral axon, the entire neuron immediately reacts in order to regenerate the axon.[3] This reaction ...

*Posterior cingulate cortex

Traumatic brain injury[edit]. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), abnormalities have been shown in the PCC. Often, head ... doi:10.1093/brain/awt162. PMC 3891440. PMID 23869106.. *^ a b c d e Pearson, John M.; Heilbronner, Sarah R.; Barack, David L.; ... "Brain. 137 (1): 12-32. doi:10.1093/brain/awt162. ISSN 0006-8950. PMC 3891440. PMID 23869106.. ... injuries produce widespread axonal injury that disconnect brain regions and lead to cognitive impairment. This is also related ...

*Neurofibrillary tangle

Traumatic brain injury[edit]. Preliminary research indicates that iron deposits due to hemorrhaging, following traumatic brain ... DeKosky S. T.; Ikonomovic M. D.; Gandy S. (2010). "Traumatic Brain Injury -- Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects". New ... NFTs are most commonly seen associated with repetitive mild TBI as opposed to one instance of severe traumatic brain injury.[5] ... and cognitive deficits induced by repetitive mild brain injury in a transgenic tauopathy mouse model. [Article]". Journal of ...

*Disabilities affecting intellectual abilities

Acquired brain injuries[edit]. An acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part ... social or independent functioning and can result from either traumatic brain injury or nontraumatic injury such as stroke, ... People with a brain injury may have difficulty controlling, coordinating and communicating their thoughts and actions. They may ... However, the intellectual abilities of a person with a brain injury are likely to be interfered with by the resulting thought ...

*Long-term memory

Traumatic brain injury[edit]. The majority of findings about memory have been the result of studies that lesioned specific ... Prog Brain Res. Progress in Brain Research. 169. pp. 81-95. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00005-2. ISBN 9780444531643. . PMID ... doi:10.1093/brain/aws101. hdl:2434/211210. PMID 22561640.. *^ Langraf, S.; Steingen, J.; Eppert, Y.; Neidermeyer, U.; Elke, U ... more serious problems with memory occur due to traumatic brain injury or neurodegenerative disease. ...

*Conversion disorder

"Hysteria following brain injury". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 55 (11): 1046-53. doi:10.1136/jnnp.55.11.1046. PMC 1015291 ... During the 18th century, there was a move from the idea of hysteria being caused by the uterus to it being caused by the brain ... A number of such studies have been performed, including some which suggest that the blood-flow in patients' brains may be ... EEG brain biofeedback need further trials. Psychoanalytic treatment may possibly be helpful.[25] However, most studies ...

*Persistent vegetative state

Two other patients with non-anoxic, multifocal brain injuries demonstrated several isolated brain regions with higher metabolic ... after a non-traumatic brain injury or one year after a traumatic injury. Today, doctors and neuroscientists prefer to call the ... Brain Injury. 21 (1): 101-103. doi:10.1080/02699050601151761. PMID 17364525.. *. Canavero S, et al. (2009). "Recovery of ... who sustained catastrophic anoxic brain injury in the 1989 Hillsborough disaster.[3] An application to the Court of Protection ...

*Fluid and crystallized intelligence

Sensitivity to subtle sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury". Brain Injury. 21 (1): 69-80. doi:10.1080/02699050601149088. ... Evidence is consistent with the view that Gf is more affected by brain injury.[7][8] ... Geary, D. C. (2005). The origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American ... This decline may be related to local atrophy of the brain in the right cerebellum.[26] Other researchers have suggested that a ...

*Pediatrics

Brain injury medicine. *Clinical neurophysiology. *Endovascular neuroradiology. *Epilepsy. * Headache medicine. *Neurocritical ...

*Psychiatry

"Brain Injury Medicine". American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Retrieved 2017-08-20.. ... Hausman K (6 December 2013). "Brain Injury Medicine Gains Subspecialty Status". Psychiatric News. 48 (23): 10. doi:10.1176/appi ... a brain scan might be used to rule out other medical illnesses, but at this time relying on brain scans alone cannot accurately ... "Neuroimaging and Mental Illness: A Window Into the Brain". National Institute of Mental Health. U.S. Department of Health and ...

*Special education in the United States

Special education coverage was extended to the categories of autism and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In 1997 IDEA was ... multiple disabilities and traumatic brain injury. Depending on the students' individual needs, they may be included, ... Drug abuse, weapons possession, or inflicting serious bodily injury (e.g., by assaulting a staff person, student, or visitor to ... such as pushing a buzzer when they want attention or using a brain implant if they are unable to move their hands, some ...

*VistA

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). *Virtual Patient Record. *VistA Imaging System. *VistAWeb. *Visual Impairment Service Team (VIST) ...

*Phineas Gage: Difference between revisions

In investigating reports on diseases and injuries of the brain, I am constantly amazed at the inexactitude and distortion to ... 5 Brain damage and mental changes *5.1 Extent of brain damage. *5.2 First-hand reports of mental changes *5.2.1 Harlow's 1848 ... as well as about victims of other unlikely-sounding brain-injury accidents-see Macmillan 2000).[1]:66-7 Noting dryly that, "The ... destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over ...

*Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Katz DI, Polyak M, Coughlan D, Nichols M, Roche A (2009-01-01). Natural history of recovery from brain injury after prolonged ... Injuries[edit]. Injuries from CPR vary. 87% of patients are not injured by CPR.[39] Overall, injuries are caused in 13% (2009- ... Following cardiac arrest, effective CPR enables enough oxygen to reach the brain to delay brain stem death, and allows the ... "Anoxic Brain Injury". Mount Sinai Medical Centre. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15.. ...

*Dysautonomia

"Dysautonomia after pediatric brain injury". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54 (8): 759-764. doi:10.1111/j.1469- ... or it may occur due to injury of the autonomic nervous system from an acquired disorder (secondary dysautonomia).[6][8] The ...

*Strangulation (domestic violence)

Valera EM, Berenbaum H (2003). "Brain injury in battered women". J Consult Clin Psychol. 71 (4): 797-804. PMID 12924684. ... Victims may have internal injuries, such as laryngo-tracheal injuries, digestive tract injuries, vascular injuries, ... neurological system injuries and orthopedic injuries. Clinical symptoms of these internal injuries may include neck and sore- ... Strangulation can produce minor injuries, serious bodily injury, and death. Evidence of the assault can be difficult to detect ...

*Mannitol

Wakai A, McCabe A, Roberts I, Schierhout G (August 2013). "Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury". The Cochrane Database of ... The three studies[30][31][32] that initially found that high-dose mannitol was effective in cases of severe head injury were ... Mannitol is in the osmotic diuretic family of medications and works by pulling fluid from the brain and eyes.[4] ... "Doubts over head injury studies". BMJ. 334 (7590): 392-4. doi:10.1136/bmj.39118.480023.BE. PMC 1804156. PMID 17322250 ...

*Kent Cochrane

He suffered a traumatic brain injury. Upon arrival at a hospital, Cochrane was experiencing clonic epileptic seizures and was ... Phineas Gage, a 19th-century railroad worker who had major personality changes after a traumatic brain injury ... Tulving E (2002). "Episodic memory: from mind to brain". Annu Rev Psychol. 53: 1-25. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135114 ... He had severe injury to his medial temporal lobes, along with almost complete bilateral hippocampal loss. Ultimately, his ...

*Glasgow Coma Scale

The initial indication for use of the GCS was serial assessments of patients with traumatic brain injury[1] and coma for at ... A similar scale, the Rancho Los Amigos Scale is used to assess the recovery of traumatic brain injury patients. ... "A comparison of the Glasgow Coma Scale score to simplified alternative scores for the prediction of traumatic brain injury ... GCS was initially used to assess level of consciousness after head injury, and the scale is now used by first responders, EMS, ...

*308 Winchester

Links between traumatic brain injury and ballistic pressure waves originating in the thoracic cavity and extremities. Brain ... Suneson A, Hansson HA, Seeman T: Pressure Wave Injuries to the Nervous System Caused by High Energy Missile Extremity Impact: ...

*Woodpecker

Gibson, L. (2006). "Woodpecker pecking: how woodpeckers avoid brain injury". Journal of Zoology. 270 (3): 462-465. doi:10.1111/ ... how woodpeckers avoid brain injury". Journal of Zoology. 270 (3): 462-465. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00166.x. ISSN 0952-8369 ... woodpeckers have a number of physical features which protect the brain.[7] These include a relatively small and smooth brain, ... the orientation of the brain within the skull (which maximises the contact area between the brain and the skull) and the short ...

*Henry VIII of England

"Henry VIII's Obesity Following Traumatic Brain Injury". Endocrine. 42 (1): 218-9. doi:10.1007/s12020-011-9581-z. PMID 22169966 ... Henry VIII's history and body morphology may have been the result of traumatic brain injury after his 1536 jousting accident, ... The accident re-opened and aggravated a previous injury he had sustained years earlier, to the extent that his doctors found it ...

*Etomidate

In people with traumatic brain injury, etomidate use is associated with a blunting of an ACTH stimulation test. The clinical ... Etomidate also has interesting characteristics for people with traumatic brain injury because it is one of the only anesthetic ... Schulz-Stubner, S (2005). "Sedation in traumatic brain injury: Avoid etomidate". Crit Care Med. 33 (11): 2723. doi:10.1097/01. ... "Adrenal inhibition following a single dose of etomidate in intubated traumatic brain injury victims". CJEM. 14 (5): 270-82. ...

*Shooting of Keith Lamont Scott

He has a TBI [traumatic brain injury]. He's not going to do anything to you guys. He just took his medicine." She then says, " ... as his brain injury limited him from staying in the direct sun for long periods of time.[4] ... His neighbors stated that he had previously suffered brain damage in an accident and had difficulty communicating.[3] They said ... eye injuries; and three officers were treated for heat-related ailments.[21][35] ...

*Paleolithic

Thus, a thrown hand axe would not usually have penetrated deeply enough to cause very serious injuries. Nevertheless, it could ... and brains. Upper Paleolithic cultures appear to have had significant knowledge about plants and herbs and may have, albeit ... allowing them to shrink the size of the gastrointestinal tract relative to body mass and to increase the brain mass instead.[ ...
Title:18FDG-PET/CT in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: The Relative Hypermetabolism of Vermis Cerebelli as a Medium and Long Term Predictor of Outcome. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Andrea Lupi, Giannettore Bertagnoni, Anna Borghero, Alessandro Picelli, Vincenzo Cuccurullo and Pierluigi Zanco. Affiliation:Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale "S. Bortolo" - Via M. Rodolfi, 36100 Vicenza - ITALY.. Keywords:Brain trauma, imaging, prognosis, vermis cerebelli.. Abstract:Purpose: Both, the constant presence of apparent hypermetabolism of the vermis cerebelli compared to the cerebellar hemispheres in traumatic brain injury, and the presence of a good relationship between the intensity of this sign and the severity of the clinical conditions have been addressed in previous studies. Aim of the present paper is to evaluate the possible correlation between the intensity of the finding and the medium and long term outcome in a group of patients. Materials and Methods: A group of 105 patients consecutively ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), along with Rep Bill Pascrell (D-NJ) and Sen Robert Menendez (D-NJ), recently announced that CDC will form an expert panel to establish national guidelines for pediatric traumatic brain injury and concussion. This initiative was a major component of the Concussion Treatment and Care Tools (ConTACT) Act, legislation that was not passed into law but was supported by APTA in past congressional sessions. This announcement marks a positive step forward by the federal government through a united commitment by Congress and the Department of Health and Human Services to address the important issue of concussion management. The expert panel will define the need, scope, and expectations of federal guidelines for pediatric mild traumatic brain injury, including those for student athletes. The national guidelines will take into account advice from experts across the country, laying the foundation for all 50 states to implement a standard and protect young ...
The Brain Trauma Foundation is presenting a free webinar on Assessment & Prognosis in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury on Wednesday, April 25, 2012, 12-1 Eastern Time. This webinar is open to all. Survivors of severe traumatic brain injury face a wide range of possible prognoses, from nearly complete recovery to permanent unconsciousness. The ability to predict prognosis at an early point is limited, but the time until return of consciousness (e.g., command following) and orientation (e.g., duration of post-traumatic amnesia) are useful predictors in the early days and weeks. More specialized assessment techniques exist of those with persistent disorders of...
1 Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Jaw-Opening Oromandibular Dystonia Karen Gisotti DO 1, Scott Fuchs DO 1, Gilbert Siu DO PhD 1, Sooja Cho MD 2, C.R. Sridhara MD 1,2 1 Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 2 MossRehab, Elkins Park, PA ABSTRACT Setting: Tertiary care rehabilitation center and electrodiagnostic laboratory Patient: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury. Case: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury due to a motor vehicle collision who sustained a right subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury along with right orbital and mandible fractures and remained minimally responsive at admission. She had upper motor neuron syndrome, severe spasticity, and hyperreflexia with minimal voluntary control. The patient also presented with severe jaw-closing impairment, which affected her oral hygiene, swallowing mobility, and speech presentation. Electrodiagnostic studies ...
About: Predicting Seizures In The Acute Stage Of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Blog by a compassionate yet aggressive San Francisco Injury Attorney.
Content for ASHAs Practice Portal is developed through a comprehensive process that includes multiple rounds of subject matter expert input and review. ASHA extends its gratitude to the following subject matter experts who were involved in the development of the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury page. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities Following Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Hammond, Flora M.. AU - Corrigan, John D.. AU - Ketchum, Jessica M.. AU - Malec, James F.. AU - Dams-OConnor, Kristen. AU - Hart, Tessa. AU - Novack, Thomas A.. AU - Bogner, Jennifer. AU - Dahdah, Marie N.. AU - Whiteneck, Gale G.. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. N2 - Objective: To examine the prevalence of selected medical and psychiatric comorbidities that existed prior to or up to 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring acute rehabilitation. Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: Six TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) centers. Participants: In total, 404 participants in the TBIMS National Database who experienced TBI 10 years prior. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Self-reported medical and psychiatric comorbidities and the onset time of each endorsed comorbidity. Results: At 10 years postinjury, the most common comorbidities developing postinjury, in order, ...
What is a brain injury? Brain injury can be defined as a type of head injury that is caused by rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head during which the brain bounces off the inside of the skull. Brain injury can also be caused by a car accident, gunshot wound, or other external factor. What are the different types of brain injuries? There are many different types of brain injuries with varying levels of severity. The different types of brain injuries are: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Acquired Brain Injury, Open Brain Injury, and Closed Brain Injury. An Anoxic brain injury occurs when the oxygen supply is somehow cut off, and can cause serious and irreversible damage if it\s interrupted for even just a few minutes. What are the most common causes of brain injury? Some of the most common causes of brain injury include car accidents, motorcycle accidents, slip-and-fall accidents, gunshots, stabbings, and pedestrian accidents. This also varies according to an age group, as young children ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased adenosine in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. T2 - Association with severity of injury and excitotoxicity. AU - Robertson, Courtney. AU - Bell, M. J.. AU - Kochanek, P. M.. AU - Adelson, P. D.. AU - Ruppel, R. A.. AU - Carcillo, J. A.. AU - Wisniewski, S. R.. AU - Mi, Z.. AU - Janesko, K. L.. AU - Clark, R. S B. AU - Marion, D. W.. AU - Graham, S. H.. AU - Jackson, E. K.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objectives: To measure adenosine concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants and children after severe traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the contribution of patient age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Outcome Score, and time after injury to cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentrations. To evaluate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid adenosine and glutamate concentrations in this population. Design: Prospective survey. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit in a university-based ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of Age on Long-Term Recovery From Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Marquez de la Plata, Carlos D.. AU - Hart, Tessa. AU - Hammond, Flora. AU - Frol, Alan B.. AU - Hudak, Anne. AU - Harper, Caryn R.. AU - ONeil-Pirozzi, Therese M.. AU - Whyte, John. AU - Carlile, Mary. AU - Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Marquez de la Plata CD, Hart T, Hammond FM, Frol AB, Hudak A, Harper CR, ONeil-Pirozzi TM, Whyte J, Carlile M, Diaz-Arrastia R. Impact of age on long-term recovery from traumatic brain injury. Objective: To determine whether older persons are at increased risk for progressive functional decline after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) rehabilitation centers. Participants: Subjects enrolled in the TBIMS national dataset. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Disability Rating Scale (DRS), FIM instrument cognitive items, and the Glasgow Outcome ...
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The Traumatic Brain Injury Model System (TBIMS) program was created and funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) in 1987 to demonstrate the benefits of a coordinated system of neurotrauma and rehabilitation care and conduct innovative research on all aspects of care for those who sustain traumatic brain injuries. Each Center systematically collects important data about each individual who meets criteria for inclusion in the TBI National Database and sends this information to the TBI National Data Center at KMRREC. The Centers are currently located at 16 sites throughout the United States that provide comprehensive systems of brain injury care to individuals who sustain a traumatic brain injury, from acute care through community re-entry. The mission of the TBIMS is to improve the lives of persons who experience traumatic brain injury, their families and communities by creating and disseminating new knowledge about the course, treatment and outcomes relating to
From the age of five through adulthood, trauma is the leading cause of death, and many traumatic injuries involve brain injury. Fortunately, the majority of traumatic brain injuries are mild, but nevertheless, some children will experience a severe traumatic brain injury.
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17, 10-13. Haarbauer-Krupa, J. (2012b). Taking care of children after traumatic brain injury. Perspectives on School-Based Issues, 13, 79-86. Halstead, M. E., McAvoy, K., Devore, C. D., Carl, R., Lee, M., Logan, K., . . . LaBella, C. R. (2013). Returning to learning following a concussion. Pediatrics, 132, 948-957. Hickey, E. M., & Saunders, J. N. (2010). Group intervention for adolescents with chronic acquired brain injury: The future zone. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 20, 111-119. Hotz, G., Castelblanco, A., Lara, I., Weiss, A., Duncan, R., & Kuluz, J. (2006). Snoezelen: A controlled multi-sensory stimulation therapy for children recovering from severe brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 879-888. Hotz, G., Quintero, A., Crittenden, R., Baker, L., Goldstein, D., & Nedd, K. (2014). A countywide program to manage concussions in high school sports. The Sport Journal. Retrieved from ...
CC Grand Rounds: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Novel Biomarkers and Implications for Therapy
Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), primary brain injury occurs during the initial insult, and results from displacement of the physical structures of the brain. Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes. Secondary injury, which is not caused by mechanical damage, can result from the primary injury or be independent of it. The fact that people sometimes deteriorate after brain injury was originally taken to mean that secondary injury was occurring. It is not well understood how much of a contribution primary and secondary injuries respectively have to the clinical manifestations of TBI. Primary and secondary injuries occur in insults other than TBI as well, such as spinal cord injury and stroke. In TBI, primary injuries result immediately from the initial trauma. Primary injury occurs at the moment of trauma and includes contusion, damage to blood ...
Brain injury can occur in different ways. Trauma is often involved, such as a sports injury, fall or motor vehicle accident. Brain injury can also occur without trauma, for example, the result of a stroke or infection.. Medical care is the first step in treatment to stabilize and promote the brains healing. For long-term treatment planning, rehabilitation plays an important role. With a long track record of experienced, specialized brain injury rehabilitation, HealthSouth has restored hope and encouraged maximum outcomes for many patients and their families.. Brain injury rehabilitation focuses on: ...
Brain injury or damage is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injury can be caused by a variety of internal and external factors. A common category is traumatic brain injury that occurs after head damage from an outside source. Mild traumatic brain injury may cause temporary dysfunction of brain cells. More serious traumatic brain injury can result in more extensive physical damage to the brain that can lead to long-term complications or death. Loss of brain function can also be caused by stroke, a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain, which deprives brain tissue of oxygen and food and causes consequent brain cell death.. Feinstein Institute researchers are studying different aspects of brain injury. They are developing "smart catheters," the next generation of monitoring devices that will allow clinicians to continuously measure functional parameters in the injured brain during surgery. They are studying recovery from central nervous system injury, like spinal cord ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI, physical trauma to the brain) can cause a variety of complications, health effects that are not TBI themselves but that result from it. The risk of complications increases with the severity of the trauma; however even mild traumatic brain injury can result in disabilities that interfere with social interactions, employment, and everyday living. TBI can cause a variety of problems including physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral complications. Symptoms that may occur after a concussion - a minor form of traumatic brain injury - are referred to as post-concussion syndrome. Generally, there are six abnormal states of consciousness that can result from a TBI: Stupor is a state of partial or near complete unconsciousness in which the patient is lethargic, immobile, and has a reduced response to stimuli. Coma is a state in which the patient is totally unconscious and cannot be aroused even with strong stimuli. Persistent vegetative state is a condition in which ...
Patients who are hospitalized and who have suffered mild TBI (loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia; Glasgow Coma Score 13-15; admitted within 24 hours of injury; able to read, speak, and understand English) who do not have pre-injury dementia or significant cognitive impairment will undergo computerized neuropsychologic testing using a previously validated tool that has been effective in sports-related mild TBI. Sequential testing will be performed during recovery and patients who report disabling symptoms and/or functional impairment will be compared to patients who recover uneventfully. Goal is to identify those parameters that predict early who may suffer long term sequelae or functional impairment and therefore benefit from early cognitive rehabilitation. Secondary goals are to establish objective parameters for functional recovery after mild TBI ...
New Book - Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Symptom Validity Assessment and Malingering - Editors: Dominic A. Carone and Shane S. Bush Publication Date: 8/2012448pp SoftcoverISBN-13: 9780826109156. Price: $75.00 USDThis authoritative volume is the first book specifically devoted to symptom validity assessment with individuals having a known or suspected history of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). It brings together leading experts in MTBI, symptom ... International Brain Injury Association - IBIA International Brain Injury Association - IBIA
Study evaluates associations between fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions with long-term functional outcome and survival in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and moderate hemostatic laboratory abnormalities. Data examined included patient demographics, several initial injury severity metrics, daily laboratory values, Glasgow Outcome Score- Extended (GOSE) scores, Functional Status Examination (FSE) scores, and survival to 6 months. Correlations were evaluated between these variables and transfusion of FFP, platelets, packed red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, recombinant factor VIIa, and albumin. Analyses showed significant correlations between poor outcome scores and FFP, platelet, or packed RBC transfusion; the volume of FFP or packed RBCs transfused also correlated with poor outcome. Several measures of initial injury and laboratory abnormalities also correlated with poor outcome. Patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and highest recorded serum sodium ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is said to be one of the signature injuries of the conflict in Iraq, and accounts for a larger proportion of troop casualties than it has in previous wars fought by the United States. According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, the U. S. military formally diagnosed 2,121 cases…
Objectives. Voluntarily stopping an on-going motor response has been shown to engage a specific prefrontal-basal-ganglia (PBG) neural network. However, it is not known whether the PBG network is also crucial for other types of response inhibition such as suppressing an urge to act (i.e., habitual impulse), a common impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objectives of this protocol are: 1) to determine whether the PBG network is engaged in suppressing habitual impulses and, 2) to determine the extent to which the (PBG) neural network can account for the deficiency in response inhibition after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). The proposed studies will involve performance of simple behavioral tasks, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). tDCS will be applied separately from fMRI scans. TMS will be applied separately or concurrently during fMRI ...
BACKGROUND: Serum albumin level is correlated with outcome in various clinical situations. Albumin has multiple physiologic properties that could be beneficial in brain injury. The Lund therapy for elevated intracranial pressure uses albumin as part of its protocol and demonstrates favorable outcome. We sought to find out if albumin is associated with outcome after traumatic brain injury to justify conducting a randomized trial. METHODS: A retrospective study of traumatic brain injury patients was conducted. Characteristics known to influence outcome were included in a multiple logistic regression model to analyze predictors of poor outcome at 6 months.. RESULTS: Data were available for 138 patients. The majority of patients (65%) had a severe injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score ,9). Seventy percent of patients had a favorable outcome. Albumin levels decrease considerably from normal values in the first few days after injury irrespective of outcome. Albumin remained ,25 g/L for a longer period of ...
One of the most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury to the head that can affect brain functioning. However, traumatic brain injury involves more than getting hit on the head; it also means that the brain temporarily stops working in its usual way. A service member with a traumatic brain injury might become dazed, or see stars, or have trouble remembering what happened before or after the injury, or even become unconscious for a few seconds to half an hour ...
A traumatic brain injury is caused by a bump or blow to the head or an injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. Often the injury seems harmless at first and the person notices they arent thinking or performing like they used to. Traumatic brain injuries can range from a mild concussion, brief change in mental status or consciousness to a severe extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia. Veterans are at high risk for traumatic brain injury and blast-related concussions. These types of injuries account for more than 65 percent of combat injuries, and of these vets, 60 percent have symptoms of traumatic brain injury.. ...
Prof. Sean Keogh, a retrieval physician, professor of paramedic science at the University of the Sunshine Coast, and CEO at Australian Air Medical in Queensland, suggested that TBI patients should be flown at sea level pressure to avoid an increase in ICP: "Intracranial air is not an absolute contraindication to flying, and there is little evidence that it has ever caused a temporary or permanent neurological decline during air transport, but computer modelling suggests it may increase ICP as cabin pressure decreases. It seems sensible to fly all of these patients in a sea level cabin if possible." Arizona, US-based Angel MedFlight also subscribes to this view, as Kimberly Halloran, vice-president of business development explained: "Altitude can increase ICP, which can be detrimental for patients with brain injuries. To reduce this risk, [we] might fly at a lower altitude than a standard flight, adjust interior cabin pressure, or administer medication to reduce ICP." ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Working memory in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. T2 - Functional MR imaging analysis. AU - Chen, Chi-Jen. AU - Wu, Chih-Hsiung. AU - Liao, Yen Peng. AU - Hsu, Hui Ling. AU - Tseng, Ying-Chi. AU - Liu, Ho Ling. AU - Chiu, Wen-Ta. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Purpose: To analyze brain activation patterns in response to tests of working memory after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Materials and Methods: Research ethics committee approval and patient written informed consent were obtained. Brain activation patterns in response to n-back working memory tasks (n = 1, 2, 3) were assessed with functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 20 patients with MTBI within 1 month after their injury and in 18 healthy control subjects. In n-back working memory tasks, participants monitored a series of number stimuli and were to indicate when the presented number was the same as that presented n back previously. Nine (45%) MTBI patients underwent follow-up functional MR ...
Primary objective : During childhood, the central nervous system is in a state of rapid development which can be interrupted by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed to describe if and how TBI during childhood influences health and life situation, 5-8 years later.. Research design : A case-control retrospective design was employed for the assessment of 61 adolescents and young adults with a mild, moderate or severe TBI and 229 matched controls from a normative group (16-24 years).. Methods and procedures : SF-36 (Short Form 36 health survey) and a self-reported questionnaire measuring life situation were distributed to youths suffering TBI 5-8 years ago. Forty-five youths (74%) completed the questionnaires.. Main outcomes and results : Participants with a TBI stated lower self-estimated health compared with the normative group.. Remaining self-reported symptoms were physical and cognitive. Negative effects of TBI influencing school results, leisure activities and thoughts about future ...
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. This study was conducted to report the presentation, management, outcomes and prognostic indicators in a large series of patients from a tertiary care centre in a developing country. It is a review of prospectively collected data of paediatric patients with TBI admitted at our centre between July 2010 and December 2013. A total of 291 patients with a mean age of 7.2±5.0 years were dichotomised into survivors and non-survivors, and variables were compared between the two groups. The mean post-resuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score was 11.6±3.9, mean Marshall Score was 2.26±0.95 and the mean revised trauma score at presentation was 10.58±1.7. Younger age, lower GCS score after resuscitation, lower revised trauma score, absent cisterns on imaging, associated subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and a lower Marshall score were associated with higher
Principle Investigator: Ruben J. Echemendia, Ph.D.. Institution: Pennsylvania State University, Department of Psychology. Title: Neuropsychological Assessment of Sports-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Multi-Sport Study. Update. Abstract: Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (mTBI) are serious, at times catastrophic, injuries which pose risks to athletes as all levels of competition. The Penn State Cerebral Concussion Program was developed in 1995 as a multi-sport (both sexes) prospective state-of-the-art neuropsychological assessment program. Recognize as a model for neuropsychological testing programs, baseline assessments have been conducted with 476 athletes in football, ice hockey, mens and womens soccer, mens and womens basketball. Swim teams serve as controls. This proposal requests funds to continue and improve the program. The overall goal of the project is to prevent catastrophic injury by determining when it is safe to return a player to competition. Specific aims ...
This prospective consecutive double-blinded randomized study investigated the effect of prostacyclin on pressure reactivity (PR) in severe traumatic brain injured patients. Other aims were to describe PR over time and its relation to outcome. Blunt head trauma patients, Glasgow coma scale a parts per thousand currency sign8, age 15-70 years were included and randomized to prostacyclin treatment (n = 23) or placebo (n = 25). Outcome was assessed using the extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOSE) at 3 months. PR was calculated as the regression coefficient between the hourly mean values of ICP versus MAP. Pressure active/stable was defined as PR a parts per thousand currency sign0. Mean PR over 96 h (PRtot) was 0.077 +/- A 0.168, in the prostacyclin group 0.030 +/- A 0.153 and in the placebo group 0.120 +/- A 0.173 (p , 0.02). There was a larger portion of pressure-active/stable patients in the prostacyclin group than in the placebo group (p , 0.05). Intra-individual changes over time were common. ...
Kessler Foundation researchers conducted a pilot study to determine ways to assess social communication difficulties in children with impaired social functioning caused by moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). ...
INFLAMMATION DISRUPTS THE BODYS BARRIER SYSTEMS, AND MOST PARTICULARLY, NEURO-NFLAMMATION DISRUPTS THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER: There are over 10,000 studies showing that inflammation causes something called LEAKY GUT SYNDROME. But would you have guessed that neuro-inflammation can disrupt the barrier that keeps toxicity out of the brain --- the BBB or Blood Brain Barrier? How big a deal is this? Last Aprils issue of the FASEB Journal (Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction and Microvascular Hyperpermeability Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury) concluded that, "Brain edema, elevated intracranial pressure and reduced cerebral perfusion pressure occurring in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are attributed heavily to the hyperpermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)." This "hyperpermeability of the brain is widely known as "LEAKY BRAIN SYNDROME". Furthermore, just a few months ago on his blog, Ivy League Neurosurgeon and researcher, David Younger, wrote that, "Treatment options have generally been ...
Is the average person at risk for such an injury? Are not traumatic brain injuries something that happens infrequently? Unfortunately, such injuries are not uncommon. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reveals that about 1.7 million Americans suffer severe brain injuries every year, and it labels traumatic brain injury a contributing factor in more than 30% of the deaths that result from accidents in the U.S. The CDC reports that more than a quarter of a million people a year need to be hospitalized because of brain injuries. Sadly, about 52,000 people will die from those injures.. Thanks to medical shows on television, most Americans have heard the term "mild concussion." Indeed, brain injuries can be mild, resulting in a brief period of unconsciousness or other temporary change in mental status. But more severe injuries can have devastating consequences, causing changes in an individuals ability to think, to remember, and to use reasoning capabilities. Further, traumatic ...
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The overall aim of the research presented here was to expand the knowledge on metabolic course and nutritional outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and to analyze the use and accuracy of different methods of assessment.. Study I, a systematic review of 30 articles demonstrated consistent data on increased metabolic rate, of catabolism and of upper gastrointestinal intolerance in the majority of the patients during early post injury period. Data also indicated a tendency of less morbidity and mortality in early fed patients.. Study II, a retrospective survey, based on medical records of 64 patients from three regions in Sweden, showed that the majority of patients regained their independence in eating within six months post injury. However, energy intake was set at a low level and 68 % of the patients developed malnutrition with 10 to 29 % loss of initial body mass during the first and second month post injury.. Study III, a questionnaire based study addressed to 74 care units ...
Brain injuries can be very traumatic. If you have experienced one, there are two crucial steps to take. First, you must make sure that you are being treated for your injury by a medical professional. Secondly, it\s very important to consult with a qualified brain injury attorney in order to determine whether or not you have a case against the person who was responsible for your injury.. If you include skull and facial fractures in the statistics, a total of approximately two million head injuries occur every year in the United States. One and a half million of them are nonfatal traumatic brain injuries which do not require hospitalization, while 300,000 brain injuries are severe enough for hospitalization, and 99,000 of those result in a long lasting disability. Every year, 56,000 people die because of a traumatic brain injury, and this figure accounts for 34% of all injury deaths in the United States. Traumatic brain injuries affect males at twice the rate they affect females, with a higher ...
mild traumatic brain injury treatment market- global mild traumatic brain injury treatment market industry size, growth trend, application potential, forecast, competitive analysis
Traumatic Brain Injury, Read about Traumatic Brain Injury symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Traumatic Brain Injury articles about how to live with Traumatic Brain Injury, and more.
Anxiety and Mood Disorders following Traumatic Brain Injury: Clinical Assessment and Psychotherapy von Rudi Coetzer und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
A consortium of physicians and scientists in the Houston region is now undertaking a research initiative to improve diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and develop innovative treatment strategies.
The annual incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the United States is over 2.5 million, with approximately 3-5 million people living with chronic sequelae. Compared with moderate-severe TBI, the long-term effects of mild TBI (mTBI) are less understood but important to address, particularly for contact sport athletes and military personnel who have high mTBI exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioural and neuropathological phenotypes induced by the Closed-Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration (CHIMERA) model of mTBI in both wild-type (WT) and APP/PS1 mice up to 8 months post-injury. Male WT and APP/PS1 littermates were randomized to sham or repetitive mild TBI (rmTBI; 2 × 0.5 J impacts 24 h apart) groups at 5.7 months of age. Animals were assessed up to 8 months post-injury for acute neurological deficits using the loss of righting reflex (LRR) and Neurological Severity Score (NSS) tasks, and chronic behavioural changes using the passive avoidance (PA),
Serious brain injury may require surgical intervention to relieve pressure from bleeding in the brain which can be recognized by a CT Scan obtained in the emergency room. If physical pressure is not continuing in the brain such as may be caused by a hemorrhage inside the skull, more conservative treatment will most likely be required. Regardless of whether surgery is necessary or not, many brain injury patients suffer long-term disabilities, ranging from difficulties with communication, memory, sensory processing, motor function and cognition, to behavioral and mental health deficits. What disabilities a patient suffers and how severe the symptoms are depends on a multitude of variables, such as age, the type and severity of TBI suffered, and the general health of the injured person.. The economic cost of a traumatic brain injury can be staggering. For this reason, its imperative that brain injury victims or their families retain experienced, effective representation. At the Locks Law Firm, our ...
Alan H. Weintraub, M.D., has been Medical Director of the Brain Injury Program at Craig Hospital since 1986. Dr. Weintraub also served as Medical Director for the Rocky Mountain Regional Brain Injury System, a federally designated Model System of Care with extensive clinical research and dissemination activities. Dr. Weintraub has served as Medical Director of a post acute residential brain injury program and long term subacute brain injury program during his tenure in practice. He also is an assistant professor at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and an active consultant to the Colorado Division of Workers Compensation Medical Treatment Guidelines TBI Task Force. He is board certified in PM&R and is fellowship trained in neurotrauma, brain injury and spinal cord injury. Dr. Weintraub has special interests in pharmacological management of adults with brain injury, spasticity, sports-related concussion and the long term consequences of brain injury. He is actively involved in ...
It is clear that even mild forms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have lasting cognitive effects; however, the specific cellular changes responsible for the functional deficits remain poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that not all neurons respond in the same way and that changes to neuronal architecture may be subtype specific. The current study aimed to characterize the response of interneurons to TBI. To model TBI in vitro, the neurites of primary cortical neurons were transected at 15 days in vitro. In response, calretinin+ interneurons underwent significant neurite remodeling around the injury site. By examining the response of pyramidal neurons, GAD67-GFP+ interneurons, and calretinin+ interneurons to the injury, we found that this response was specific to the calretinin+ cells. To determine whether calretinin+ interneurons respond in this way to a clinically relevant in vivo model of mild diffuse and focal injury, we subjected mice to the lateral fluid percussion injury model. We
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms in the evolution of secondary damage after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. T2 - Lessons learned from the bedside. AU - Kochanek, Patrick M.. AU - Clark, Robert S.B.. AU - Ruppel, Randall A.. AU - Adelson, P. David. AU - Bell, Michael J.. AU - Whalen, Michael J.. AU - Robertson, Courtney. AU - Satchell, Margaret A.. AU - Seidberg, Neal A.. AU - Marion, Donald W.. AU - Jenkins, Larry W.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - Child abuse. KW - Excitotoxicity. KW - Head injury. KW - Inflammation. KW - Ischemia. KW - Pediatrics. KW - Shaken baby syndrome. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0002552581&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0002552581&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. AN - SCOPUS:0002552581. VL - 1. SP - 4. EP - 19. JO - Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. JF - Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. SN - 1529-7535. IS - 1. ER - ...
Acute TBI Treatment By: Helen Rousso Acute treatment of a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) initiates several metabolic processes that can aggravate the injury. Therefore, management focuses on stabilizing and preventing a secondary injury. Ultimately, the goal is to assess and stabilize the airway and circulation, maintain sufficient blood and oxygen supply to the brain, stop…
The optimum cerebral perfusion pressure after severe traumatic brain injury remains to be controversial. In the Lund concept a relatively low cerebral perfusion pressure is preferred, and administration of catecholamines is avoided due to potential catecholamine-mediated cerebral vasoconstriction and other side effects. In contrast, the CPP concept of Rosner recommends elevation of cerebral perfusion pressure, if needed by intravenous administration of catecholamines. Based on this, in an experimental model of traumatic brain injury of the rat (Controlled Cortical Impact Injury) the optimum range of cerebral perfusion pressure after traumatic brain contusion and the effects of catecholamines on posttraumatic cerebral perfusion and development of secondary brain injury were investigated. The most significant results can be summarized as follows: In the acute phase after brain contusion the range of cerebral perfusion pressure that does not affect the development of posttraumatic contusion volume ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Modeling Traumatic Brain Injuries, Aneurysms, and Strokes. AU - Drapaca, Corina. AU - Sivaloganathan, Siv. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Traumatic brain injuries (TBI), aneurysms and strokes are among the clinical conditions with the highest rates of fatality or long-term disability. To ameliorate these somber statistics, it is of paramount importance to understand how mechanical insults to the head, cause brain injuries and what the characteristic signatures of the onsets of aneurysms and strokes might be. While aneurysms and strokes are caused by abnormalities in the complex chemo-mechanical interactions between cerebral blood flow and the vasculature, TBI can damage vasculature and brain cells not only locally but also non-locally through the functional network established among neurons. In this chapter, we review some of the mathematical models of these conditions that have appeared in the literature.. AB - Traumatic brain injuries (TBI), aneurysms and strokes are among ...
In 1989, Jack Sisson suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI) which changed his life for good. The TBI blog examines recent news and research findings on this often poorly-understood subject.
Emotive, Cognitive and Motor Rehabilitation Post Severe Traumatic Brain Injury A New Convergent Approach Grigore Burdea, Bryan Rabin, Aurélien Chaperon Tele-Rehabilitation Institute Rutgers University
Glasgow Coma Scale Score A Frequent method used to Assess the severity of a Traumatic brain injury is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score.) The GCS score ranges from 3 to 15. Its founded on the individuals best verbal response, ability to follow orders, and eye opening. A rating of 3 means that a individual doesnt have any eye opening, isnt creating a noises or speaking, and isnt responding even to annoyance (and so isnt following orders). This reflects an extremely severe TBI. Someone with a rating of 15 has their eyes open, is after orders, and is speaking (even to the extent of being oriented). By definition of a GCS score of 8 or under reflects a serious TBI, a score of 9-12 a moderate TBI, along with a score of 13-15 a moderate TBI. The very first GCS score is usually done in the roadside from the EMTs. In several cases, moderately to seriously injured men and women are intubated (a tube is put down the throat and to the air passage to the lungs) in the scene of the harm to guarantee ...
The Traumatic Brain Injury Model System (TBIMS) program was created and funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) in 1987 to demonstrate the benefits of a coordinated system of neurotrauma and rehabilitation care and conduct innovative research on all aspects of care for those who sustain traumatic brain injuries. Each Center systematically collects important data about each individual who meets criteria for inclusion in the TBI National Database and sends this information to the TBI National Data Center at KMRREC. The Centers are currently located at 16 sites throughout the United States that provide comprehensive systems of brain injury care to individuals who sustain a traumatic brain injury, from acute care through community re-entry. The mission of the TBIMS is to improve the lives of persons who experience traumatic brain injury, their families and communities by creating and disseminating new knowledge about the course, treatment and outcomes relating to
Evidence-based analgosedation in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (pTBI) management is lacking, and improved pharmacological understanding is needed. This starts with increased knowledge of factors controlling the pharmacokinetics (PK) of unbound drug at the target site (brain) and related drug effect(s). This prospective, descriptive study tested a pediatric physiology-based pharmacokinetic software model by comparing actual plasma and brain extracellular fluid (brainECF) morphine concentrations with predicted concentration-time profiles in severe pTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS], ≤8). Plasma and brainECF samples were obtained after legal guardian written consent and were collected from 8 pTBI patients (75% male; median age, 96 months [34.0-155.5]; median weight, 24 kg [14.5-55.0]) with a need for intracranial pressure monitoring (GCS, ≤8) and receiving continuous morphine infusion (10-40 μg/kg/h). BrainECF samples were obtained by microdialysis. BrainECF samples were taken ...
More than one million children experience brain injuries each year. When a child sustains a traumatic brain injury, there are often immediate medical and therapeutic needs as well as long-term effects on behavioral, cognitive, and physical skills. Children with Traumatic Brain Injury provides parents with the support and practical information they need. Children with Traumatic Brain Injury covers:. ...
Using a form of low-impulse electrical stimulation to the brain, documented by neuroimaging, researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS) and collaborators elsewhere, report significantly improved neural function in participants with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI).. Their findings are published online in this issue of the journal Brain Injury .. TBI is a leading cause of sustained physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioral problems in both the civilian population (primarily due to motor vehicle accidents, sports, falls and assaults) and among military personnel (blast injuries). In the majority of cases, injury is deemed mild (75 percent of civilians, 89 percent of military), and typically resolves in days.. But in a significant percentage of cases, mild TBI and related post-concussive symptoms persist for months, even years, resulting in chronic, long-term cognitive and/or behavioral impairment.. Much about ...
Increasing evidence suggests that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a key mediator of the inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, we showed that intracerebroventricular administration of an IL-1 beta-neutralizing antibody was neuroprotective following TBI in mice. In the present study, an anti-IL-1 beta antibody or control antibody was administered intraperitoneally following controlled cortical injury (CCI) TBI or sham injury in 105 mice and we extended our histological, immunological and behavioral analysis. First, we demonstrated that the treatment antibody reached target brain regions of brain-injured animals in high concentrations (, 11 nm) remaining up to 8 days post-TBI. At 48 h post-injury, the anti-IL-1b treatment attenuated the TBI-induced hemispheric edema (P , 0.05) but not the memory deficits evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM). Neutralization of IL-1 beta did not influence the TBI-induced increases (P , 0.05) in the gene expression of the ...
The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) provides disability compensation to veterans with a service-connected injury, and to receive disability compensation from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), a veteran must submit a claim or have a claim submitted on his or her behalf. Evaluation of the Disability Determination Process for Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans reviews the process by which the VA assesses impairments resulting from traumatic brain injury for purposes of awarding disability compensation. This report also provides recommendations for legislative or administrative action for improving the adjudication of veteransâ (TM) claims seeking entitlement to compensation for all impairments arising from a traumatic brain injury.. Author: National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine, Author: Health and Medicine Division, Author: Board on Health Care Services, Author: Committee on the Review of the Department of Veterans Affairs Examinations for Traumatic Brain ...
According to the Mayo Clinic, traumatic brain injury may have a number of physiological and psychological symptoms. Physiological effects of mild traumatic brain injury include loss of consciousness,...
Traumatic brain injury occurs when an external mechanical force causes brain dysfunction. Traumatic brain injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head or body. An object penetrating the skull, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull, also can cause traumatic brain injury. Mild traumatic brain injury may cause temporary dysfunction of brain cells. More serious traumatic brain injury can result in bruising, torn tissues, bleeding and other physical damage to the brain that can result in long-term complications or death. ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called acquired brain injury occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain. The consequences of TBI can severely and permanently change a persons life, resulting in family disruption, loss of income and earning potential, and considerable expense over a lifetime.. ...
Inflammatory response plays an important role in the progression of ALI. Activation of A2AR is widely considered to be an antiinflammatory event in nonneurogenic ALI, as A2AR inhibits BMDC activation and inflammatory cytokine release. Consistent with this perspective, our findings in an oleic acid-induced ALI model show that global A2AR KO and selective inactivation of BMDC A2AR accelerate lung inflammatory damage. In contrast, in the severe TBI-induced ALI mouse model, selective inactivation of BMDC A2AR significantly attenuated lung damage and expression of inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1β. This result provides strong evidence that BMDC A2AR activation has opposite effects on nonneurogenic ALI and the neurogenic ALI induced by severe TBI.. Our previous study in mouse models of moderate TBI and in isolated microglia demonstrated that high concentrations of glutamate in the environment can switch the antiinflammatory effect of A2AR activation to a proinflammatory effect (Dai et al., 2010b). ...
Free Online Library: Accommodation in mild traumatic brain injury.(Report) by Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development; Health, general Brain Injuries Brain injuries Medical research Medicine, Experimental
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has gained media attention over the effects of repetitive head injuries on brain development and health in both athletes and trauma patients. Approximately 75% of the 1.7 million brain injuries in the United States are classified as concussions or mTBI annually. This figure reflects the sharp increase in mTBIs incidence from 521.0 reported injuries to 823.7 per 100,000 people from 2001 to 2010. The mechanism of injury is largely attributed to local head trauma from biomechanical forces. Currently, there is a large focus on a young, athletic population with injuries from contact sports, although the majority of mTBIs occur after traumatic falls and motor vehicle crashes.. As a result of the trauma, current evidence suggests that there is a rapid hyperglycolosis in the neural tissue followed by a prolonged period of hypoglycolysis, altered permeability of the blood brain barrier, increased inflammation, and a rise in interleukin levels. Symptoms arising from ...
... , often referred to as TBI, is most often an acute event similar to other injuries. That is where the similarity between traumatic brain injury and other injuries ends. Traumatic brain injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head that causes the brain to collide with the inside of the skull. An object penetrating the skull, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull, can also cause TBI.
Injury to the neurovasculature is a feature of brain injury and must be addressed to maximize opportunity for improvement. Cerebrovascular dysfunction, manifested by reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), is a key factor that worsens outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI), most notably under conditions of hypotension. We report here that a new class of antioxidants, poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG-HCCs), which are nontoxic carbon particles, rapidly restore CBF in a mild TBI/hypotension/resuscitation rat model when administered during resuscitation--a clinically relevant time point. Along with restoration of CBF, there is a concomitant normalization of superoxide and nitric oxide levels. Given the role of poor CBF in determining outcome, this finding is of major importance for improving patient health under clinically relevant conditions during resuscitative care, and it has direct implications for the current TBI/hypotension war-fighter victims in the ...
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Project: Genetic impact on traumatic brain injury; towards novel treatment using patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells.. Elham Rostami aims to develop new and individualized pharmaceutical treatments for patients with brain injuries. Traumatic brain injuries are the most common cause of death and disability among young people. By using Uppsalas brain injury registry and biobank with detailed data, Elham Rostami hopes to better understand what determines how these patients will manage in the future. Variations in the BDNF gene have been shown to affect recovery. BDNF is a protein that naturally occurs in the brain and has an important function when new cells are created. However, its influence can also result in cell death. Elham Rostami wants to test a substance that imitates BDNF, along with a new pharmaceutical that reduces the risk of cell death. Among other things, these studies will be conducted on stem cells generated by patients with brain injuries and an important genetic ...
Shepherd Center specializes in brain injury rehabilitation and treatment for patients with traumatic and non-traumatic brain injuries, strokes and tumors.
ANN ARBOR, Mich. - A University of Michigan researcher has received a two-year, $600,000 grant to plan a randomized controlled study of progesterone to treat traumatic brain injuries in children.. A multi-center study on the use of progesterone for traumatic brain injury in adults is currently underway in the Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials Network but it excludes children.. Previous single-center human studies have shown promising results in adults. It is also important to research the hormones effect on the pediatric population for both safety and efficacy, says Rachel Stanley, M.D., M.H.S.A., assistant professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics in the Department of Emergency Medicine. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death from trauma, and of death in children. Despite the frequency of TBI (more than 1 million annual cases), its impact on the health of children, and decades of research on the topic, no effective treatment exists for children with TBI. "Many ...
SUMMARY: Neuroimaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of patients with traumatic brain injury, with NCCT as the first-line of imaging for patients with traumatic brain injury and MR imaging being recommended in specific settings. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, including MR imaging DTI, blood oxygen level\Ndependent fMRI, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, PET/SPECT, and magnetoencephalography, are of particular interest in identifying further injury in patients with traumatic brain injury when conventional NCCT and MR imaging findings are normal, as well as for prognostication in patients with persistent symptoms. These advanced neuroimaging techniques are currently under investigation in an attempt to optimize them and substantiate their clinical relevance in individual patients. However, the data currently available confine their use to the research arena for group comparisons, and there remains insufficient evidence at the time of this writing to conclude that these advanced ...
Traumatic Brain Injury: Eric Edmundson\s Story - Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago via Traumatic Brain Injury: Eric Edmundson\s Story - Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. via Traumatic Brain Injury: Eric Edmundson\s Story - Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago.
Traumatic brain injury refers to a the change in brain function due to an event after birth. While acquired brain injuries can be caused by a number of factors, traumatic brain injuries are specifically caused by an accident, fall, or blunt force to the head . Brain injury can effect a person
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Traumatic axonal injury is a primary brain abnormality in head trauma and is characterized by reduction of fractional anisotropy (FA) on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Our hypothesis was that patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have widespread brain white matter regions of reduced FA involving a variety of fiber bundles and show fiber disruption on fiber tracking in a minority of these regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. Twenty-one patients with mild TBI were investigated (men:women, 12:9; mean age +/- SD, 32 +/- 9 years). In a voxel-based comparison with 11 control subjects (men:women, 8:3; mean age, 37 +/- 9 years) using z score analysis, patient regions with abnormally reduced FA were defined in brain white matter. MR imaging, DTI, and fiber tracking characteristics of these regions were described and analyzed using Pearson correlation, linear regression analysis, or the chi(2) test when appropriate.
Drugs in combined doses that could help treat traumatic brain injury have been discovered by researchers at SUNY Downstate Medical Centre
Possible symptoms of a mild traumatic brain injury include headache, loss of consciousness and feeling dazed, and possible symptoms of a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury include convulsions,...
Background Brain injuries are a significant cause of death and permanent disability. It is recognised that the magnitude of the injury is not defined at the moment of the injury, but rather develops in the hours and days that follow. Treatment in the hours following brain injury is aimed at the maintenance of adequate brain blood flow and the prevention of brain swelling. The Lund concept differs from conventional treatment strategies in emphasising the pressures inside small blood vessels in the brain.. Study characteristics We searched the medical literature in order to find randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (studies where people are randomly assigned to a treatment or non-treatment group) that compared the Lund concept versus other treatments. We included people with severe traumatic brain injury, irrespective of their gender, age or race. The latest search was 5 November 2013.. Key results We found no studies comparing the Lund concept versus other treatments. There is no evidence from ...
MICHAEL F. EASLEY GOVERNOR BRAIN INJURY AWARENESS MONTH 2007 BY THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA A PROCLAMATION WHEREAS, brain injury is a serious, national public health epidemic affecting at least 5.3 million Americans; and WHEREAS, every 21 seconds, someone in the United States will sustain a traumatic brain injury, which equals more than 4,000 people daily; and WHEREAS, 60 to 62 percent of the troops injured in Iraq and AfgllaJlistan sustained some degree of brain injury needing care and treatment; and WHEREAS, Fort Bragg and Fayetteville house one of the nations Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Centers, which provides multi-site clinical care, clinical research and education centers for brain injury supp01ted by the Department of Defense; and WHEREAS, in the State of North Carolina more than 5,000 citizens were hospitalized for traumatic brain injury in 2004, a11d the average cost per day of hospital ca~·e was over $4,500; and WHEREAS, prevention is the only known cure; and ...
Brain Injury News and Information Blog Focusing On Cutting Edge Developments in Traumatic Brain Injury, Head Injury, Coma and Concussion Treatment, Rehabilitation, Prevention, Advocacy. Sponsored by Nationally Recognized and Honored Brain Injury Lawyers Dedicated to Providing Victims of Brain Injury, Their Spouses and Family, Neuopsychologists, Physicians, Brain Injury Rehabilitation Professionals With the Latest News, Information and Views about Brain Injury And Its Prevention
A severe TBI is a term used when a person experiences an extended period of unconsciousness (coma) or amnesia following trauma. A severe TBI may lead to a wide range of short- or long-term changes in brain function (attention, memory, etc), motor function (coordination, balance, etc.), sensory function (hearing, vision, and touch), and emotional state (depression, anxiety, aggression, impulse control, etc.) There are two types of severe traumatic brain injury ...
We are studying a number of TBI models including 1) Ellis Model of Mechanical Cell Injury: cortical neurons and astrocytes are cultured atop a silastic membrane. A mechanical strain is applied to those cells (akin to human TBI) creating a mild, moderate or severe injury. There is an injury dependent physiological response of cultured cells to injury including sodium and calcium influx which leads to cellular pathology and subsequent cell death. 2) Cortical Contusion Injury (CCI): CCI is a model of focal TBI. A small craniotomy is made and an impactor is driven into the cortex. Both depth and rate of impact are controlled to create a range of severities. Outcome measures including cell death and cognitive performance correlate with injury severity. 3) Fluid Percussion Injury (FPI): FPI is a model of diffuse TBI. A small craniotomy is made and fluid pulse is driven into the cortex. Adjusting the force of the injected fluid allows for a range of injury severities. Outcome measures including cell ...
Multimodal cerebral monitoring was utilized to examine the relationship between pathological changes in microdialysis parameters and the occurrence of spreading depolarizations (SD) in brain-injured patients. SD are a relatively newly discovered phen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Annually, 150 to 200/1,000,000 people become disabled as a result of brain trauma. Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event following TBI of all severities but whether axon degeneration is a driver of TBI remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of TBI have not been defined and there is no efficacious treatment for TBI. Despite this significant societal impact, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms that actively drive axon degeneration in any context and particularly following TBI. Although severe brain injury may cause immediate disruption of axons (primary axotomy), it is now recognized that the most frequent form of traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is mediated by a cascade of events that ultimately result in secondary axonal disconnection (secondary axotomy) within hours to days. Proposed mechanisms include immediate post-traumatic cytoskeletal destabilization as a direct result of
Matthew Littles inspirational journey through recovery included his love of climbing. Watch his story to hear his inspiring words about how the sport he loved helped him through his brain injury rehabilitation.. ...
Suffering a catastrophic injury is something that most people try to avoid by practicing safety in everything they do. There ... Brain Injury
The Brain Injury Alliance of Connecticut does not support, endorse, or recommend particular methods, treatments, or programs for people with brain injury. Our goal is to inform the public. We believe every individual affected by brain injury has the right to know what current information is available regarding brain injury. Inclusion of an article on this page does not imply endorsement by the Brain Injury Alliance of Connecticut. We know that learning about brain injury information in the news is important to you. We have begun posting all news articles on our Facebook page, as this allows us to get the information out more quickly. Please like us on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/BrainInjuryAllianceCT/ to see our Brain Injury in the News posts. ...
Usually following a TBI (Traumatic brain injury) consciousness is altered either temporarily or permanently. In the United States the are an estimated 600,000 TBIs per year, responsible for 40% of deaths occurring as a result of acute injuries. The brain is located within the skull, a rigid bone structure with no elastic properties and thus, unable to expand. Swelling of the brain as a result of injury will produce increased intracranial pressure preventing adequate blood flow. Decreased blood flow will result in the brain being unable to obtain oxygen and nutrients necessary for function. In general TBI are classified as closed or penetrating injuries. Examples of closed injuries include motor vehicle accidents, the most common cause of traumatic brain injury. Falls are the second cause of closed injuries, specially in people over 70 years old. Closed injuries also occur as the result of assaults and contact sports. Penetrating injuries are usually the result of gunshot wounds by the use of ...
According to the CDC, children and youth are among those most likely to sustain a brain injury, with 511,000 American children under age 14 sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. In fact, acquired brain injury is currently the leading cause of death and disability among children and young adults in the United States.. While the types of events that lead to brain injury may sometimes by beyond our control, brain injury prevention can impact the rate of occurrence and the after-effects. As such, BIAC offers several school programs tailored specifically for students of all ages - preschool through high school. Programs can be customized, and, where noted, are also suitable for parents, teachers, coaches and professionals. BIAC offers free brain injury prevention presentations, but asks that groups, schools and organizations requesting trainings and presentations provide a donation to cover travel expenses from the BIAC office in Windsor. A minimum donation of $50 is requested for ...
... (TBI), a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain. A person with a mild TBI may remain conscious or may experience a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes. Other symptoms of mild TBI include headache, confusion, lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking. A person with a moderate or severe TBI may show these same symptoms, but may also have a headache that gets worse or does not go away, repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one or
Before reading any further think about the causes of brain injury you are aware of. See how you go matching up with the list below. Any surprises? Any questions?. Often there are many more causes than people realise. Think about the ages and stages of life, and what types of brain injury might be common to that stage?. Understanding a bit about the brain can help identify what the possible causes might be.. Understanding the causes can help you understand what kind of damage might result.. Both will help you better work with the person you are supporting.. When it comes to brain injury, a little knowledge can go a long way in helping you support a person with brain injury.. The main causes of brain injury can vary between countries. I remember discussing brain injury with a person who was working in the Pacific Islands, she reported brain injury from coconuts falling from trees was not uncommon, for me living in an Australian city it was unheard of.. In Cambodia a study was undertaken to ...
Brain injuries are very different from other types of injuries because medical care is often ongoing, and brain damage is very difficult to assess, monitor, and predict. We will need to use several types of experts to evaluate the extent of the brain injury, focusing on factors like memory, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. Once we have a good idea of how you were affected by your brain injury, we can estimate future medical expenses and decide on a fair compensation amount.. How will you prove my brain injury resulted from anothers negligence?. Our brain injury lawyers have worked with many families to find them justice after a catastrophic injury turned their lives upside down. Each case is unique, but the goal in all of them is to get you fair compensation to care for your brain injured loved one.. Proving negligence in a brain injury case can be a long and challenging process. Our accident investigators and field experts will gather all the pertinent details about the accident ...
Dizziness and vertigo are common symptoms following traumatic brain injury. Although these symptoms can resolve within a ... Traumatic Brain Injury
The present article by Wortzel et al.1 delineates well the current controversies in the forensic applications of cerebral SPECT in MTBI. Moreover, their conclusions about SPECT just as easily apply to the use of PET neuroimaging or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the forensic analysis of mild traumatic brain injury. While SPECT and PET have general sensitivity in the detection of cerebral blood flow or metabolic changes following MTBI, they lack significant discriminate specificity in their ability to delineate MTBI and clinically to correlate functional neuroimaging lesions with neuroanatomical or neuropsychological data. At the present time, the reliability of SPECT and PET, when applied forensically to MTBI or TBI cases, will not meet all Daubert criteria. This is particularly true in cases of MTBI as these have their own lack of diagnostic precision. As Wortzel et al.1 point out, even with the noted limitations, cerebral SPECT and PET probably meet the Daubert criterion as to ...
Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation Professionals for Case Managers Case Managers are faced with making decisions about rehabilitation for their clients with brain injuries
A systematic review of the effect of early onset cognitive rehabilitation on acquired brain injury patients from a neural perspective.
Background: Optimal management of increased intra-cranial pressure following severe traumatic brain injury comprises a combination of sequential medical and surgical interventions. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a cautiously recommended surgical option that has been shown to reduce intracranial pressure. Considerable variability in the timing and frequency of using DC across neurosurgical centres reflects, in part, the lack of clarity regarding long-term outcomes. The majority of previous work reporting outcomes among individuals who have received DC following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has focused predominantly on gross physical outcomes, to the relative exclusion of more subtle functional, social and psychological factors. Aim: This paper reviews the methodological aspects of previous studies that have reported outcomes following DC and provides recommendations to guide the future assessment of recovery to enable meaningful conclusions to be drawn from the literature describing outcomes ...
Posttraumatic seizures develop in up to 20% of children following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children ages 6-17 years with one or more risk factors for the development of posttraumatic epilepsy, including presence of intracranial hemorrhage, depressed skull fracture, penetrating injury, or occurrence of posttraumatic seizure were recruited into this phase II study. Treatment subjects received levetiracetam 55 mg/kg/day, b.i.d., for 30 days, starting within 8 h postinjury. The recruitment goal was 20 treated patients. Twenty patients who presented within 8-24 h post-TBI and otherwise met eligibility criteria were recruited for observation. Follow-up was for 2 years. Forty-five patients screened within 8 h of head injury met eligibility criteria and 20 were recruited into the treatment arm. The most common risk factor present for pediatric inclusion following TBI was an immediate seizure. Medication compliance was 95%. No patients died; 19 of 20 treatment patients were retained and one ...
Although we live in a society where people freely discuss toilet paper, hemorrhoids, and all sorts of quite personal issues, without bashfulness or hesitation, the problem of sexual dysfunction following lightning strike, electric shock, or traumatic brain injury is so hush hush that not even the treating physicians inquire about possible sexual dysfunction in their usual history-taking from the patient. It is well known and well recognized, in all of the literature and research, that sexual dysfunction can be the result of chronic pain, medications, injury to the brain, psychological injury, depression, and a whole host of common problems that those surviving electric shock, lightning strike, or traumatic brain injury may have, yet it seems to be a well-kept secret and people are left to deal with problems related to sexual dysfunction on their own.. In a society where sexuality seems so important in our humor, television commercials, politics, and sometimes the very core of our culture, it ...
Read "The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-RF in Treatment-Seeking Veterans with History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
New Orleans, LA - Dr. Paul Harch, LSUHSC Clinical Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, is the principal investigator of a pilot study to determine the effectiveness of one or two courses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in treating chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) and TBI with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study grew out of previous experience in treating TBI with hyperbaric oxygen therapy with improvement in symptoms and function.. Thirty participants will be recruited - half will have traumatic brain injury and half will have both traumatic brain injury and post traumatic stress disorder. The participants will undergo oral, written, and computers tests, as well as an MRI (if the participant has not had one since injury) and SPECT brain imaging. Participants will have 40 hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatments and can request up to 40 more if not improved to his/her satisfaction.. Certain conditions preclude participation including pregnancy and increased risk for rare HBOT ...
Blast-induced tinnitus, along with associated auditory impairment and traumatic brain injury, is a primary concern facing military service members. To search for treatment, we investigated the therapeutic effects of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, given its vasodilatory effects and evidence suggesting its beneficial effects on noise-induced hearing loss. Rats were subjected to three consecutive blast exposures at 22 psi and were monitored for tinnitus using a gap-detection acoustic startle reflex paradigm. Hearing thresholds and detection were tested using auditory brainstem responses and prepulse inhibition, respectively. Blasted rats were either treated with sildenafil or tap water following blast exposure, while age-matched sham control rats were treated with sildenafil and no blast exposure. Our results showed that sildenafil did not effectively prevent acute tinnitus onset and hearing impairment. Instead, sildenafil significantly suppressed high-frequency tinnitus from 3 to 6 weeks
Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and ...
A 15-year-old adolescent was admitted to the emergency department after a car accident because of severe traumatic brain injury. Upon arrival, he was sedated and intubated because of a Glasgow Coma Scale score below 8. He had isocoria with reactive pupils. An occipital puncture wound (diameter 2 cm) was profusely bleeding. His blood pressure was 85/45 mm Hg. Laboratory values identified a haemoglobin level of 4.6 mmol/l. A CT scan of the brain demonstrated a comminuted-depressed fracture of the parietal bone in the midline with a rupture of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and secondary thrombosis (figure 1). After prompt resuscitation including packed blood cells, a large biparietal decompressive craniectomy was performed centred at the skull fracture anticipating on intracranial hypertension due to venous oedema or infarction. The sinus haemorrhage was initially packed with haemostatic material and manually compressed with cottonoids and spatula until the roof of the sinus was reconstructed ...
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The Role of Microglial Inflammasome Activation in Pyroptotic Cell Death Following Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury - PubMedThe Role of Microglial Inflammasome Activation in Pyroptotic Cell Death Following Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury - PubMed

... results provide evidence for inflammasome activation in microglia and infiltrating leukocytes after penetrating traumatic brain ... Lethality of firearm-related injuries in the United States population. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(3):258-266. - PubMed ... In a recent study, we used a rodent model of penetrating traumatic brain injury known as penetrating ballistic-like brain ... The pathological role of NLRs and AIM2 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in damaged blood-brain barrier after traumatic brain ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30736791/

Can you make boxing safe?Can you make boxing safe?

... more brain scans? Or would you have expected to see more deaths in boxing (at this stage) and dont see the need to implement ... Smaller gloves....deal more with facial cuts and fractures and broken hands than brain injuries. ... Brain scans is a big one, the more I think about it. The whole problem is the rattling of the brain inside the cranial cavity. ... My efforts would be in weight control and brain scans. Yes.... due to the nature of the sport, brain scans are absolutely ...
more infohttps://www.saddoboxing.com/boxingforum/showthread.php?t=90447&s=f6e77da8bc9f4e0c3db299e537953a44&p=1532038

Can you make boxing safe?Can you make boxing safe?

... more brain scans? Or would you have expected to see more deaths in boxing (at this stage) and dont see the need to implement ... Smaller gloves....deal more with facial cuts and fractures and broken hands than brain injuries. ... Brain scans is a big one, the more I think about it. The whole problem is the rattling of the brain inside the cranial cavity. ... My efforts would be in weight control and brain scans. Yes.... due to the nature of the sport, brain scans are absolutely ...
more infohttps://www.saddoboxing.com/boxingforum/showthread.php?t=90447&s=23d702042907371125805be881b1bef9&p=1532012

Cooperative multicentre study on posttraumatic epilepsy<...Cooperative multicentre study on posttraumatic epilepsy<...

In: Brain and Nerve, Vol. 49, No. 8, 12.09.1997, p. 723-727.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... During the follow-up period, 14 patients (2.2%) developed PTEs, which had only been observed in patients with brain parenchymal ... During the follow-up period, 14 patients (2.2%) developed PTEs, which had only been observed in patients with brain parenchymal ... During the follow-up period, 14 patients (2.2%) developed PTEs, which had only been observed in patients with brain parenchymal ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/cooperative-multicentre-study-on-posttraumatic-epilepsy

Birth Injuries :: Jackson, Mississippi Birth Injury Lawyer Paul SnowBirth Injuries :: Jackson, Mississippi Birth Injury Lawyer Paul Snow

Paul Snow helps victims and their families receive compensation for their injuries in Birth Injury and Medical Malpractice ... The most catastrophic birth injuries are those caused by deprivation of oxygen or blood flow to the brain. Total lack of oxygen ... Birth Injuries. Some of the most traumatic injuries are those that occur to a newborn infant. When giving birth, there are many ... Birth injuries occur before, during or immediately after an infant is born. Birth injuries can be caused by mistakes made by ...
more infohttps://www.accidentattys.com/birth-injuries.html

Birth Injury Liability - Bankruptcy Attorneys DirectBirth Injury Liability - Bankruptcy Attorneys Direct

Some of the most common birth injuries that the birth injury attorneys from name of firm see include:. · Brain damage from lack ... Many birth injuries require extensive - and often lifelong - medical treatment for the child, as well as ongoing physical, ... This is one of the most common causes of birth injuries since these instruments are used during 160 out of every 1,000 births. ... Some of the most frequent avoidable actions (or lack of) that cause tragic birth injuries are: · Failure to administer the ...
more infohttps://bankruptcyattorneysdirect.com/birth-injury-liability/

Birth Injury Lawyers, Cerebral Palsy Medical Malpractice: Massachusetts Lawyer ViewsBirth Injury Lawyers, Cerebral Palsy Medical Malpractice: Massachusetts Lawyer Views

An infants skull is very soft and its brain tissue is easily injured if the baby could suffer brain damage from lack of oxygen ... Birth injuries may also arise from complications during pregnancy. The mother may have taken a medication that contributes to ... Auto Accidents , Defective Products , Construction Site Accidents , Head and Brain Injury , Birth Injury , Toxic Torts ... Needless injuries frequently occur during childbirth and while in the hospital. Medical evidence now shows that Cerebral Palsy ...
more infohttp://www.lawyerviews.com/personalinjury/pages/cerebralpalsy.html

TBI: Get the Facts  | Concussion | Traumatic Brain Injury | CDC Injury CenterTBI: Get the Facts | Concussion | Traumatic Brain Injury | CDC Injury Center

These consisted of TBI alone or TBI in combination with other injuries. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the United States. From 2006 to 2014, the number of ... A TBI is caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head that disrupts the normal function of the brain. Not all blows or jolts to ... Report to Congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: steps to prevent a serious public health problem. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/get_the_facts.html

More evidence traumatic brain injuries raise later dementia risk | ReutersMore evidence traumatic brain injuries raise later dementia risk | Reuters

Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to ... damaging brain cells, leading to chemical changes in the brain, or both. The mildest form of TBI is a concussion. ... "Hopefully the potential impact of head injuries with respect to long term outcomes will be a little more in the spotlight as a ... TBI usually happens when a sudden bump, blow or jolt to the head causes the brain to bounce around inside the skull, ...
more infohttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-dementia-brain-injury/more-evidence-traumatic-brain-injuries-raise-later-dementia-risk-idUSKBN1FK3B3

Learn about Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain InjuriesLearn about Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injuries

Learn more about these brain injuries from Shepherd Center. ... Anoxic and Hypoxic brain injuries occur when the brain is ... Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injury. What are Anoxic or Hypoxic Brain Injuries?. Unlike traumatic brain injuries, in which brain ... Learn About Brain InjuryShow/Hide Submenu*Types of Brain InjuriesShow/Hide Submenu*Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injuries ... Hypoxic brain injuries are brain injuries that form due to a restriction on the oxygen being supplied to the brain. The ...
more infohttps://www.shepherd.org/patient-programs/brain-injury/about/types-of-brain-injury/anoxic-hypoxic-brain-injury

BRAIN INJURIES.BRAIN INJURIES.

... mild traumatic brain injuries. The reason this is such a problem is that soldiers are suffering injuries primarily from blasts ... The Guardian reports that officials fear that up to 20,000 UK soldiers have undiagnosed brain injuries. And the DoD says that ... "mild traumatic brain injuries." The reason this is such a problem is that soldiers are suffering injuries primarily from blasts ... The Guardian reports that officials fear that up to 20,000 UK soldiers have undiagnosed brain injuries. And the DoD says that ...
more infohttps://prospect.org/article/brain-injuries

Brain InjuriesBrain Injuries

Traumatic Brain Injury in children can cause symptoms ranging from headaches to loss of coordination. Read on to learn how ... What are Brain Injuries?. Some children acquire damage to their brains over the course of childhood due to a car accident, ... The term Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is used to describe a sudden trauma to the head, such as when the head violently hits an ... object or an object breaks the skull and enters brain tissue. Symptoms of a TBI can range from mild to severe and can include ...
more infohttps://www.childrens.com/specialties-services/specialty-centers-and-programs/autism-and-developmental-disabilities/conditions-and-treatments/brain-injuries

Outlook: Iraqs Invisible Brain InjuriesOutlook: Iraq's Invisible Brain Injuries

Ronald Glasser: Originally shell shock was thought to be due to trauma to the brain ... even though a significant number of ... Jim Malec, Mayo Clinic TBI Researcher in Rochester, Minn., and a member of Brain Injury Task Force, American Congress of Rehab ... The Posts blind use of the term mental retardation just branded with a hated stigma the wounded warriors with brain injury ... We have an acute rehabilitation service, which historically has included a certified traumatic brain injury program (both in ...
more infohttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2007/04/06/DI2007040601488.html

Children Traumatic Brain InjuriesChildren Traumatic Brain Injuries

Researchers say a biomarker may be able to identify which children will have more trouble recovering from a serious brain ... Brain damage is caused by trauma to the brain, such as during a car accident or a stroke, and can be long-lasting. The severity ... Helping Children Recover From Traumatic Brain Injuries. Written by Ana Sandoiu. on March 15, 2017 ... Read More: Brain scan can tell PTSD apart from traumatic brain injury » ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/health-news/helping-children-recover-from-traumatic-brain-injuries

brain injuriesbrain injuries

After a cluster of mysterious white dots showed up on my brain scan, doctors urged me to retire ...
more infohttps://torontolife.com/tag/brain-injuries/

Children with Brain Injuries - Google BooksChildren with Brain Injuries - Google Books

Injuries.html?id=snsjAQAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareChildren with Brain Injuries. ... impairment Initiated Injuries in Children level of consciousness Mayo Clinic MILD BRAIN INJURY mild TBI mild traumatic brain ... brain stem Catastrophic Injury cerebellum children with brain Childrens Specialty Healthcare CLCP client Closed head injuries ... Minnesota Institute Legal Education, 2003 - Brain. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Children_with_Brain_Injuries. ...
more infohttps://books.google.com/books/about/Children_with_brain_injuries.html?id=snsjAQAAMAAJ&hl=en

Brain Injuries | Deccan ChronicleBrain Injuries | Deccan Chronicle

Treating brain injuries in kids with antibiotics ups cognitive problems. Those under age four, who experience brain trauma, can ... Brain injuries like Schumachers can destroy lives: study. A TBI is a blow to the head that leads to a skull fracture. ... Studies find that animal-assisted therapy improves social behaviour in patients with brain injuries. ... It has been long-understood that brain injuries may negatively impact quality-of-life. ...
more infohttps://www.deccanchronicle.com/content/tags/brain-injuries

Traumatic Brain Injuries Meetups in Pittsburgh

- MeetupTraumatic Brain Injuries Meetups in Pittsburgh - Meetup

Pennsylvania about Traumatic Brain Injuries and meet people in your local community who share your interests. ... Traumatic Brain Injuries Meetups in Pittsburgh Heres a look at some Traumatic Brain Injuries Meetups happening near Pittsburgh ...
more infohttps://www.meetup.com/topics/traumatic-brain-injuries/us/pa/pittsburgh/

Brain Injuries Fatal to Boxer - The Washington PostBrain Injuries Fatal to Boxer - The Washington Post

1 of injuries received in a South Carolina fight Dec. 22.. (The New York State Athletic Commission announced yesterday that ... He was the third U.S. boxer to die from bout-related injuries since Nov. 28. ...
more infohttps://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/sports/1980/01/19/brain-injuries-fatal-to-boxer/ec728dd6-2f35-48b6-b0fe-13049a389faf/

Device wakes man with severe brain injuries | ReutersDevice wakes man with severe brain injuries | Reuters

... watch a movie and talk with family thanks to a brain pacemaker that may change the way such patients are treated, U.S. ... A man with severe brain injuries who spent six years in a near-vegetative state can now chew his food, ... An undated X-Ray image of a patient with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) leads implanted. A man with severe brain injuries who ... A man with severe brain injuries who spent six years in a near-vegetative state can now chew his food, watch a movie and talk ...
more infohttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-brain-stimulation/device-wakes-man-with-severe-brain-injuries-idUSN0135742320070801?feedType=RSS

Light assists in monitoring brain injuriesLight assists in monitoring brain injuries

... 29 August 2013 Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering Polish ...
more infohttps://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=133977&CultureCode=en

Reducing Traumatic Brain Injuries in Youth Sports - RWJFReducing Traumatic Brain Injuries in Youth Sports - RWJF

In an effort to reduce youth sports traumatic brain injuries (TBI), 44 states and Washington, D.C. have passed youth sports TBI ... A young athlete who suffers a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and resumes play too soon may be at greater risk of second-impact ... about the role of youth sports leagues to help prevent injuries.. ...
more infohttps://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2013/05/reducing-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-youth-sports.html

Anoxic Brain InjuriesAnoxic Brain Injuries

Hypoxic injuries are caused by a significant lack of oxygen being supplied to the brain; anoxic injuries are caused by a total ... When oxygen supply is interrupted, anoxic brain injuries occur. They are part of the acquired brain injury classification and ... Most Frequent Causes of Anoxic Brain Injuries. With anemic and ischemic anoxia, the resulting profound thinking, emotional and ... What the brain does with up to 90 percent of its energy is to send messages or electrochemical impulses and to maintain the ...
more infohttp://www.articleinsider.com/health-and-fitness/disabilities/anoxic-brain-injuries

Network helps those with brain injuriesNetwork helps those with brain injuries

The eighth regional CIRCLE of the Brain Injury Association of Colorado is scheduled to open in Durango on Thursday. The group ... Information about support services and resources for people with brain injuries also is available from the Brain Injury ... Brain injuries affect people differently, Mehesey said. Athletes, for example, receive a concussion and seem to recover without ... The group works to link people whove had traumatic brain injuries with the support they need, CIRCLE network coordinator Annie ...
more infohttps://durangoherald.com/articles/966-network-helps-those-with-brain-injuries

New Scan Helps Detect Brain InjuriesNew Scan Helps Detect Brain Injuries

A new scan test developed by scientists can help diagnose a brain disease that has been associated with repeated head trauma in ... Parkinsons Disease Radioisotope Scan Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Brain Brain Facts Ataxia Language Areas in The Brain ... Quiz on Brain. The human brain is exquisitely intrinsic and is the seat of all emotions. If you are curious about what makes ... Brain Tumor. Up to date information about brain tumor, the most common solid tumor in children and the third leading cause of ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/news/new-scan-helps-detect-brain-injuries-113453-1.htm
  • Some children acquire damage to their brains over the course of childhood due to a car accident, severe fall, or other serious event. (childrens.com)
  • THURSDAY, June 7 (HealthDay News) -- The National Football League hid information that linked football-related head injuries to permanent brain damage, according to a massive lawsuit filed in federal court Thursday by lawyers for former players and their families, the Associated Press reported. (medicinenet.com)
  • An accumulation of abnormal tau proteins can cause brain cell damage and memory problems, the scientists explained. (webmd.com)
  • Sometimes broken bones cut into your brain and cause bleeding or other damage. (familydoctor.org)
  • While an injury from the object can cause localizing effects, along the path of penetration, additional damage can occur from the object fragmenting into parts. (springer.com)
  • PERL: We're looking at the section of the brain - this is the surface of the brain - but here, this is all damage. (npr.org)
  • In a sense, we learn more from the way the brain is attempting to heal areas than we do from the actual damage itself. (npr.org)
  • We like to think we have a higher level of sensitivity," she added, especially to people with disabilities such as TBI-brain damage that is suffered as a result of war, stroke or accident. (shrm.org)
  • When Faden injured the brains of sedated mice, the microparticles spread well beyond the site of damage. (newscientist.com)
  • Damage to an area near the center of the brain, several inches behind the eyes, transforms the way people make moral judgments in life-or-death situations, scientists are reporting. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Headaches and pain can also occur as a result of a brain injury either directly from the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Head injury is a broader category that may involve damage to other structures such as the scalp and skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, a variety of events in the minutes to days following the injury may result in secondary injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain function is temporarily or permanently impaired and structural damage may or may not be detectable with current technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have to do more research, obviously, but I think down the line it will change the way we are treating or even looking at people with severe brain injury. (reuters.com)
  • Severe brain injury can happen to anyone and can have far reaching effects, not just on the individual but on their family too. (prweb.com)
  • Those odds were still significantly higher, however, for people with a history of TBI even 30 years after the injury when compared to people who had never experienced TBI, the study team reports in PLoS ONE. (reuters.com)
  • His awakening may change the way doctors think about people with severe brain injuries, who are largely unresponsive but still have some level of consciousness. (reuters.com)
  • However, many people with mild TBI remain conscious after the injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • BIRT helps people regain the skills lost as a result of brain injury, whether caused by road accident, assault, stroke or illness. (prweb.com)
  • Sam Porteous, chief executive of National Accident Helpline, said: "In the past three years more than 500 people and their families have approached us seeking access to justice after brain injuries or accidents. (prweb.com)
  • NAH is the UK's leading free advisory service for people who have suffered an injury as a result of an accident and who are looking to claim compensation. (prweb.com)
  • BIRT is a leading European provider in specialist brain injury rehabilitation, supporting people to regain lost skills and independence and rebuild their lives following acquired brain injury, caused typically by road accident, assault, stroke or disease. (prweb.com)
  • To really understand blast injuries, Perl needs to look at the brains of people killed at war. (npr.org)
  • Employers considering hiring people with TBI need to understand that the severity of injuries ranges widely, Loy said. (shrm.org)
  • In a new study, people with this rare injury expressed increased willingness to kill or harm another person if doing so would save others' lives. (scienceblogs.com)
  • the results cannot predict how people with or without brain injuries will act in real life-or-death situations. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Brain-injured people commonly experience issues with memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antidepressants must be used with caution in brain injury people due to the potential for undesired effects because of the already altered brain chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • They will manage your blood pressure, check the pressure inside your skull, and make sure that there is enough blood and oxygen getting to your brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hopefully the potential impact of head injuries with respect to long term outcomes will be a little more in the spotlight as a result of the study," coauthor Peter Nordstrom of the department of community medicine and rehabilitation at Umea University told Reuters Health by email. (reuters.com)
  • Don't allow children to start sports too young and prevent them from getting cumulative injuries," Stein told Reuters health in a telephone interview. (reuters.com)
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - A man with severe brain injuries who spent six years in a near-vegetative state can now chew his food, watch a movie and talk with family thanks to a brain pacemaker that may change the way such patients are treated, U.S. researchers said on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • The 38-year-old man is the first person in a minimally conscious state to be treated with deep-brain stimulation, a treatment that uses a pacemaker and two electrodes to send impulses into a part of the brain regulating consciousness. (reuters.com)
  • Rezai and a team of specialists from the JFK Johnson Rehabilitation Institute-Center for Head Injuries in Edison, New Jersey, and the Weill Cornell Medical College in New York detailed the patient's progress in the journal Nature. (reuters.com)
  • This is accomplished through clinical supervision with the ABI Community Services Clinical Supervisor, monthly CIS leadership meetings, and on-going training specific to Acquired Brain Injury treatment and rehabilitation. (ct.gov)
  • BIRT is a division of The Disabilities Trust and the means by which it delivers its brain injury rehabilitation services. (prweb.com)
  • Researchers say a biomarker may be able to identify which children will have more trouble recovering from a serious brain injury. (healthline.com)
  • Researchers examined the patients' brain by using a special type of imaging device called a diffusion-weighted MRI. (healthline.com)
  • The researchers found that a few months after the injury, half of the children with TBI had slow transfer time while half had a normal transfer time - that is, within the same range as the healthy control group. (healthline.com)
  • Researchers think the electrical stimulation may be enhancing the brain circuits that are still capable of functioning. (reuters.com)
  • The researchers also found that in mice, this type of abnormal tau spread from the site of the brain injury to other brain regions. (webmd.com)
  • The mission of Brain Injury Services, Inc. is to provide children and adult survivors of brain injuries and their families with individualized, community-based services through comprehensive case management, education and advocacy. (idealist.org)
  • They account for nearly 10% of all childhood brain injuries. (springer.com)
  • Anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries often cause an initial loss of consciousness, which can be short-term or long-term depending on severity and length of oxygen deprivation. (shepherd.org)
  • Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications, emergency surgery or surgery years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trying to injure or put another athlete at risk for injury. (cdc.gov)
  • The public should react with caution to this study and press for more research," said Donald Stein, director of the Brain Research Lab in the emergency medicine department at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, who wasn't involved in the study. (reuters.com)
  • One of the best ways to learn more is to study the brains of troops killed in action. (npr.org)
  • The article goes on to describe how this study is consistent with other results showing that a capacity for moral thinking is hardwired into the brain. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The team focused on this aspect of brain activity because previous studies had shown that both children and adults who had TBI exhibit slower transfer times immediately after the injury. (healthline.com)
  • Individuals who experience more severe TBI are more likely to have lasting effects from the injury. (cdc.gov)
  • Due to the changes in the brain as well as the issues associated with the change in physical and mental capacity, depression and low self-esteem are common side effects that can be treated with psychological help. (wikipedia.org)