Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.
A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries to an extracranial or intracranial blood vessel that supplies the brain. This includes the CAROTID ARTERIES; VERTEBRAL ARTERIES; MENINGEAL ARTERIES; CEREBRAL ARTERIES; veins, and venous sinuses.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)

Optimization of magnesium therapy after severe diffuse axonal brain injury in rats. (1/4075)

A number of studies have demonstrated that magnesium salts given after traumatic brain injury improve subsequent neurologic outcome. However, given that these earlier studies have used a number of different salts, dosages, and routes of administration, follow-up studies of the neuroprotective properties of magnesium are complicated, with comparisons to the earlier literature virtually impossible. The present study has therefore characterized the dose-response characteristics of the most commonly used sulfate and chloride salts of magnesium in a severe model of diffuse traumatic axonal injury in rats. Both magnesium salts improved neurologic outcome in rats when administered as a bolus at 30 min after injury. The i.v. and i.m. optima of each salt was 250 micromol/kg and 750 micromol/kg, respectively. The identical concentrations required for improved neurologic outcome suggest that improvement in outcome was dependent on the magnesium cation and not the associated anion. Subsequent magnetic resonance studies demonstrated that the administered magnesium penetrated the blood-brain barrier after injury and resulted in an increased brain intracellular free magnesium concentration and associated bioenergetic state as reflected in the cytosolic phosphorylation potential. Both of these metabolic parameters positively correlated with resultant neurologic outcome measured daily in the same animals immediately before the magnetic resonance determinations.  (+info)

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (2/4075)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

One year outcome in mild to moderate head injury: the predictive value of acute injury characteristics related to complaints and return to work. (3/4075)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic value of characteristics of acute injury and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) for long term outcome in patients with mild to moderate head injury in terms of complaints and return to work. METHODS: Patients with a Glasgow coma score (GCS) on admission of 9-14 were included. Post-traumatic amnesia was assessed prospectively. Follow up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome was determined by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 1 year after injury and compared with a more detailed outcome scale (DOS) comprising cognitive and neurobehavioural aspects. RESULTS: Sixty seven patients were included, mean age 33.2 (SD 14.7) years and mean PTA 7.8 (SD 7.3) days. One year after injury, 73% of patients had resumed previous work although most (84%) still reported complaints. The most frequent complaints were headache (32%), irritability (34%), forgetfulness and poor concentration (42%), and fatigue (45%). According to the GOS good recovery (82%) or moderate disability (18%) was seen. Application of the DOS showed more cognitive (40%) and behavioural problems (48%), interfering with return to work. Correlation between the GOS and DOS was high (r=0.87, p<0.01). Outcome correlated with duration of PTA (r=-0.46) but not significantly with GCS on admission (r=0.19). In multiple regression analysis, PTA and the number of complaints 3 months after injury explained 49% of variance on outcome as assessed with the GOS, and 60% with the DOS. CONCLUSIONS: In mild to moderate head injury outcome is determined by duration of PTA and not by GCS on admission. Most patients return to work despite having complaints. The application of a more detailed outcome scale will increase accuracy in predicting outcome in this category of patients with head injury.  (+info)

Parkinson's syndrome after closed head injury: a single case report. (4/4075)

A 36 year old man, who sustained a skull fracture in 1984, was unconscious for 24 hours, and developed signs of Parkinson's syndrome 6 weeks after the injury. When assessed in 1995, neuroimaging disclosed a cerebral infarction due to trauma involving the left caudate and lenticular nucleus. Parkinson's syndrome was predominantly right sided, slowly progressive, and unresponsive to levodopa therapy. Reaction time tests showed slowness of movement initiation and execution with both hands, particularly the right. Recording of movement related cortical potentials suggested bilateral deficits in movement preparation. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed no evidence of major deficits on tests assessing executive function or working memory, with the exception of selective impairments on the Stroop and on a test of self ordered random number sequences. There was evidence of abulia. The results are discussed in relation to previous literature on basal ganglia lesions and the effects of damage to different points of the frontostriatal circuits.  (+info)

Cerebral blood flow in the monkey after focal cryogenic injury. (5/4075)

A focal cryogenic lesion was made in the left superior frontal gyrus of the anesthetized macaque brain. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by the hydrogen clearance technique before and during the 4 hours following trauma. Local CBF in tissue adjacent to the lesion increased in the first half hour after the lesion was made and then decreased during the ensuing 3 1/2 hours. Local CBF in the contralateral superior frontal gyrus, as well as total CBF and oxygen consumption, were unchanged by cryogenic trauma. The spread of vasogenic edema into uninjured tissue probably accounts for the observed decrease in local CBF. This experimental model may assist in discovering therapy to alter favorably the spatial and temporal profile of pathologic CBF changes in tissue surrounding an acute lesion of the brain.  (+info)

An intrathecal bolus of cyclosporin A before injury preserves mitochondrial integrity and attenuates axonal disruption in traumatic brain injury. (6/4075)

Traumatic brain injury evokes multiple axonal pathologies that contribute to the ultimate disconnection of injured axons. In severe traumatic brain injury, the axolemma is perturbed focally, presumably allowing for the influx of Ca2+ and initiation of Ca2+ -sensitive, proaxotomy processes. Mitochondria in foci of axolemmal failure may act as Ca2+ sinks that sequester Ca2+ to preserve low cytoplasmic calcium concentrations. This Ca2+ load within mitochondria, however, may cause colloid osmotic swelling and loss of function by a Ca2+ -induced opening of the permeability transition pore. Local failure of mitochondria, in turn, can decrease production of high-energy phosphates necessary to maintain membrane pumps and restore ionic balance in foci of axolemmal permeability change. The authors evaluated the ability of the permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) to prevent mitochondrial swelling in injured axonal segments demonstrating altered axolemmal permeability after impact acceleration injury in rat. At the electron microscopic level, statistically fewer abnormal mitochondria were seen in traumatically injured axons from CsA-pretreated injured animals. Further, this mitochondrial protection translated into axonal protection in a second group of injured rats, whose brains were reacted with antibodies against amyloid precursor protein, a known marker of injured axons. Pretreatment with CsA significantly reduced the number of axons undergoing delayed axotomy, as evidenced by a decrease in the density of amyloid precursor protein-immunoreactive axons. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that CsA protects both mitochondria and the related axonal shaft, suggesting that this agent may be of therapeutic use in traumatic brain injury.  (+info)

Evaluating methods for estimating premorbid intellectual ability in closed head injury. (7/4075)

OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the utility of three measures of premorbid intellectual functioning in closed head injury, the National adult reading test (NART), the Cambridge contextual reading test (CCRT), and the spot the word test (STW). METHODS: In the first experiment, a group of 25 patients with closed head injury were compared with 50 healthy controls and 20 orthopaedic trauma controls. In the second experiment, the strength of correlation between the premorbid measures and current intellectual level were assessed in 114 healthy adults. RESULTS: The head injured group performed significantly more poorly than both control groups on measures of current intellectual ability. However, no significant differences emerged between the groups on any of the premorbid measures. In the large control sample, both the NART and the CCRT accounted for about 50% of the variance in current verbal intelligence. However, by contrast, the STW only accounted for 29% of the variability in verbal intelligence. Adding demographic variables to the prediction of current intellectual level increased the amount of variance explained to 60% for the NART, 62% for the CCRT, but only 41% for the STW. CONCLUSION: The results provide supportive evidence for the use of the CCRT and NART in estimating premorbid intellectual functioning in patients who have sustained closed head injuries, but suggest caution when employing the STW.  (+info)

Frozen in time: life in the face of chronic care cutbacks. (8/4075)

Kathy Cook won the $750 first prize in CMAJ's 7th Annual Amy Chouinard Memorial Essay Contest. The deadline for entries to the contest, which is designed to stimulate interest in medical writing among journalism students, is June 1. Entries should be forwarded to the news and features editor. In her winning essay, Cook explores the frustrations and quality-of-life issues that arise in a chronic care institution that is trying to operate in the midst of serious funding cuts.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mu opioid agonist and antagonist on neurological outcome following traumatic brain injury in the rat. AU - Lyeth, Bruce G. AU - Jiang, J. Y.. AU - Gong, Q. Z.. AU - Hamm, R. J.. AU - Young, H. F.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - We examined the effects of an exogenous mu opioid agonist and antagonist on systemic physiology and neurological outcome following TBI in the rat. Experiment I: [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.1 nMol or 0.3 nMol in 5μl) (n = 10) or artificial CSF (n = 10) was administered 5 min prior to fluid-percussion brain injury (2.1 atmospheres). Motor performance was assessed on days 1-5 after TBI. The mu receptor agonist, DAMGO significantly reduced both beam-walking latency and body weight loss after injury (p , 0.05). DAMGO-treated rats (n = 5) did not differ from CSF-treated rats (n = 5) on either systemic arterial blood pressure or heart rate responses to injury. Experiment II: Beta-funaltrexamine (β-FNA) (20.0 nMol in 5.0 μl) (n = 10) ...
Our goal in this paper was to use the 2006-2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database to describe trends of annual patient number, patient demographics and hospital characteristics of pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs); and to use the same database to estimate the available sample sizes for various clinical trials of pediatric TBI cases. National estimates of patient demographics and hospital characteristics were calculated for pediatric TBI. Simulation analyses assessed the potential number of pediatric TBI cases from randomly selected hospitals for inclusion in future clinical trials under different scenarios. Between 2006 and 2013, the NEDS database estimated that of the 215,204,932 children who visited the ED, 6,089,930 (2.83%) had a TBI diagnosis. During the study period in the US EDs, pediatric TBI patients increased by 34.1%. Simulation analyses suggest that hospital EDs with annual TBI ED visits >1000, Levels I and II Trauma
Some of these symptoms are harder to see in young children than adults, so it is important to watch the young child who may have had a traumatic brain injury to notice changes in behavior that he or she cannot otherwise express verbally. Along with the above symptoms, mild traumatic brain injury also presents with such emotional, mood or behavior changes as depression, confusion, problems remembering, trouble concentrating or problems thinking in general. The mild symptoms of traumatic brain injury may also occur in people with more severe brain injury as well. People with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury may have a stubborn headache that does not get better, repetitive nausea and vomiting, and dialated pupils. The person with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury may have trouble in many areas of thinking such as slurred speech, the inability to find words, and muscle problems that slurr speech. They may not be able to process launguage or pay attention, or may be slow to be able ...
In January 2020, Dr. Kochanek presented at the International Workshop on Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury that was held in Bergamo and Brescia Italy. The symposium was focused around the publication of 2019 Guidelines for the Medical management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and was attended by a large international audience. He gave lectures on Biomarkers in Pediatric TBI as Outcome Predictors, along with several presentations and panels addressing various aspects of the new guidelines, and a presentation on the future of pediatric TBI. It was an outstanding conference. A photo of the leadership and speakers of the Conference is provided.. ...
Title:18FDG-PET/CT in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: The Relative Hypermetabolism of Vermis Cerebelli as a Medium and Long Term Predictor of Outcome. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Andrea Lupi, Giannettore Bertagnoni, Anna Borghero, Alessandro Picelli, Vincenzo Cuccurullo and Pierluigi Zanco. Affiliation:Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale S. Bortolo - Via M. Rodolfi, 36100 Vicenza - ITALY.. Keywords:Brain trauma, imaging, prognosis, vermis cerebelli.. Abstract:Purpose: Both, the constant presence of apparent hypermetabolism of the vermis cerebelli compared to the cerebellar hemispheres in traumatic brain injury, and the presence of a good relationship between the intensity of this sign and the severity of the clinical conditions have been addressed in previous studies. Aim of the present paper is to evaluate the possible correlation between the intensity of the finding and the medium and long term outcome in a group of patients. Materials and Methods: A group of 105 patients consecutively ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), along with Rep Bill Pascrell (D-NJ) and Sen Robert Menendez (D-NJ), recently announced that CDC will form an expert panel to establish national guidelines for pediatric traumatic brain injury and concussion. This initiative was a major component of the Concussion Treatment and Care Tools (ConTACT) Act, legislation that was not passed into law but was supported by APTA in past congressional sessions. This announcement marks a positive step forward by the federal government through a united commitment by Congress and the Department of Health and Human Services to address the important issue of concussion management. The expert panel will define the need, scope, and expectations of federal guidelines for pediatric mild traumatic brain injury, including those for student athletes. The national guidelines will take into account advice from experts across the country, laying the foundation for all 50 states to implement a standard and protect young ...
The Brain Trauma Foundation is presenting a free webinar on Assessment & Prognosis in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury on Wednesday, April 25, 2012, 12-1 Eastern Time. This webinar is open to all. Survivors of severe traumatic brain injury face a wide range of possible prognoses, from nearly complete recovery to permanent unconsciousness. The ability to predict prognosis at an early point is limited, but the time until return of consciousness (e.g., command following) and orientation (e.g., duration of post-traumatic amnesia) are useful predictors in the early days and weeks. More specialized assessment techniques exist of those with persistent disorders of...
1 Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Jaw-Opening Oromandibular Dystonia Karen Gisotti DO 1, Scott Fuchs DO 1, Gilbert Siu DO PhD 1, Sooja Cho MD 2, C.R. Sridhara MD 1,2 1 Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 2 MossRehab, Elkins Park, PA ABSTRACT Setting: Tertiary care rehabilitation center and electrodiagnostic laboratory Patient: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury. Case: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury due to a motor vehicle collision who sustained a right subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury along with right orbital and mandible fractures and remained minimally responsive at admission. She had upper motor neuron syndrome, severe spasticity, and hyperreflexia with minimal voluntary control. The patient also presented with severe jaw-closing impairment, which affected her oral hygiene, swallowing mobility, and speech presentation. Electrodiagnostic studies ...
Roozenbeek B, Maas AI, Menon DK. Changing patterns in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. Nature Reviews Neurology. 2013;9(4):231. Bodien YG, McCrea M, Dikmen S, Temkin N, Boase K, Joan M, et al. Optimizing outcome assessment in multicenter TBI trials: Perspectives from TRACK TBI and the TBI Endpoints Development Initiative. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. 2018;33(3):147. Andelic N, Anke A, Skandsen T, Sigurdardottir S, Sandhaug M, Ader T, et al. Incidence of hospital-admitted severe traumatic brain injury and in-hospital fatality in Norway: a national cohort study. Neuroepidemiology. 2012;38(4):259-67. Andriessen TM, Horn J, Franschman G, van der Naalt J, Haitsma I, Jacobs B, et al. Epidemiology, severity classification, and outcome of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a prospective multicenter study. Journal of neurotrauma. 2011;28(10):2019-31. Von Elm E, Osterwalder JJ, Graber C, Schoettker P, Stocker R, Zangger P, et al. Severe traumatic brain injury in ...
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About: Predicting Seizures In The Acute Stage Of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Blog by a compassionate yet aggressive San Francisco Injury Attorney.
Content for ASHAs Practice Portal is developed through a comprehensive process that includes multiple rounds of subject matter expert input and review. ASHA extends its gratitude to the following subject matter experts who were involved in the development of the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury page. ...
Doylestown, PA, November 3, 2020, ZEXPRWIRE - Leading Bucks County injury law firm, Cordisco & Saile, recently announced their new initiative on handling traumatic brain injury cases for residents of Bucks County and beyond. The new focus puts into consideration the fact that traumatic brain injuries, whether minor or serious, have lifetime consequences and costs as other serious diseases. According to reports by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 2.8 million people in the United States suffer from traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) every year. TBI has been proven to be a major cause of disability and death in the US. The CDC further notes that despite the fact that most TBI injuries may not seem to be life-threatening at first, the injuries can potentially lead to temporary or permanent impairment of brain function over time and leave the victim in a state of debilitation. Traumatic brain injuries or brain damage is often called the invisible injury says managing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities Following Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Hammond, Flora M.. AU - Corrigan, John D.. AU - Ketchum, Jessica M.. AU - Malec, James F.. AU - Dams-OConnor, Kristen. AU - Hart, Tessa. AU - Novack, Thomas A.. AU - Bogner, Jennifer. AU - Dahdah, Marie N.. AU - Whiteneck, Gale G.. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. N2 - Objective: To examine the prevalence of selected medical and psychiatric comorbidities that existed prior to or up to 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring acute rehabilitation. Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: Six TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) centers. Participants: In total, 404 participants in the TBIMS National Database who experienced TBI 10 years prior. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Self-reported medical and psychiatric comorbidities and the onset time of each endorsed comorbidity. Results: At 10 years postinjury, the most common comorbidities developing postinjury, in order, ...
Aggression is a prevalent symptom after paediatric TBI and can significantly impede rehabilitation. Awareness of these predictors can aid in early identification of children at risk in order to help appropriately design rehabilitation programmes.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment with Vitamin B3 Improves Functional Recovery and Reduces GFAP Expression following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. AU - Hoane, Michael R.. AU - Akstulewicz, Stacy L.. AU - Toppen, James. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Previous studies have shown that administration of vitamin B3 (B3) in animal models of ischemia significantly reduced the size of infarction and improved functional recovery. The present study evaluated the effect of administration of B3 on recovery of function following traumatic brain injury (TBI), incorporating the bilateral medial frontal cortex contusion injury model. Groups of rats were assigned to B3 (500 mg/kg) or saline (1.0 ml/kg) treatment conditions and received contusion injuries or sham surgeries. Drug treatment was administered 15 min and 24 h following injury. Rats were examined on a variety of tests to measure sensorimotor performance (bilateral tactile adhesive removal), skilled forelimb use (staircase test), and cognitive ability ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of the dopamine D2 receptor T allele on response latency after mild traumatic brain injury. AU - McAllister, Thomas W.. AU - Rhodes, C. Harker. AU - Flashman, Laura A.. AU - McDonald, Brenna C.. AU - Belloni, Dorothy. AU - Saykin, Andrew J.. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - Objective: The authors tested the hypothesis that the dopamine D2 receptor T allele (formerly described as the A1 allele) would be associated with poorer performance on memory and attention tasks following mild traumatic brain injury. Method: Thirty-nine patients with mild traumatic brain injury and 27 comparison subjects were genotyped. All subjects completed memory and attention tests, including the California Verbal Learning Test recognition task and the Continuous Performance Test. Results: In both groups the T allele was associated with poorer performance on the California Verbal Learning Test recognition task. There was also a significant diagnosis-by-allele interaction on measures of response ...
What is a brain injury? Brain injury can be defined as a type of head injury that is caused by rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head during which the brain bounces off the inside of the skull. Brain injury can also be caused by a car accident, gunshot wound, or other external factor. What are the different types of brain injuries? There are many different types of brain injuries with varying levels of severity. The different types of brain injuries are: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Acquired Brain Injury, Open Brain Injury, and Closed Brain Injury. An Anoxic brain injury occurs when the oxygen supply is somehow cut off, and can cause serious and irreversible damage if it\s interrupted for even just a few minutes. What are the most common causes of brain injury? Some of the most common causes of brain injury include car accidents, motorcycle accidents, slip-and-fall accidents, gunshots, stabbings, and pedestrian accidents. This also varies according to an age group, as young children ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased adenosine in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. T2 - Association with severity of injury and excitotoxicity. AU - Robertson, Courtney. AU - Bell, M. J.. AU - Kochanek, P. M.. AU - Adelson, P. D.. AU - Ruppel, R. A.. AU - Carcillo, J. A.. AU - Wisniewski, S. R.. AU - Mi, Z.. AU - Janesko, K. L.. AU - Clark, R. S B. AU - Marion, D. W.. AU - Graham, S. H.. AU - Jackson, E. K.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objectives: To measure adenosine concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants and children after severe traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the contribution of patient age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Outcome Score, and time after injury to cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentrations. To evaluate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid adenosine and glutamate concentrations in this population. Design: Prospective survey. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit in a university-based ...
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The Traumatic Brain Injury Model System (TBIMS) program was created and funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) in 1987 to demonstrate the benefits of a coordinated system of neurotrauma and rehabilitation care and conduct innovative research on all aspects of care for those who sustain traumatic brain injuries. Each Center systematically collects important data about each individual who meets criteria for inclusion in the TBI National Database and sends this information to the TBI National Data Center at KMRREC. The Centers are currently located at 16 sites throughout the United States that provide comprehensive systems of brain injury care to individuals who sustain a traumatic brain injury, from acute care through community re-entry. The mission of the TBIMS is to improve the lives of persons who experience traumatic brain injury, their families and communities by creating and disseminating new knowledge about the course, treatment and outcomes relating to
From the age of five through adulthood, trauma is the leading cause of death, and many traumatic injuries involve brain injury. Fortunately, the majority of traumatic brain injuries are mild, but nevertheless, some children will experience a severe traumatic brain injury.
What Is a Traumatic Brain Injury? Are There Different Categories or Classifications?. A traumatic brain injury (TBI), sometimes called an acquired brain injury, is an injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. A traumatic brain injury occurs when a sudden external force strikes the head or causes rapid movement with sudden deceleration. A TBI will obviously result from a penetrating injury to the brain, or when mechanical forces interact with the brain as a result of an explosion or blast. A TBI can be the product of a whiplash that causes the brain to move within the vault of the skull, followed by sudden deceleration of the head when the motion stops. A whiplash injury can cause damage to blood vessels, gray matter of the brain that makes up the cerebral cortex, and the white matter connections that permit the brain to function like complex electrical circuits.. A traumatic brain injury is distinguished from congenital brain damage (that occurs during gestation) and is ...
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Each year in the USA, over 2.4 million people experience mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can induce long-term neurological deficits. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is notably susceptible to damage following TBI, as hilar mossy cell changes in particular may contribute to post-TBI dysfunction. Moreover, microglial activation after TBI may play a role in hippocampal circuit and/or synaptic remodeling; however, the potential effects of chronic microglial changes are currently unknown. The objective of the current study was to assess neuropathological and neuroinflammatory changes in subregions of the dentate gyrus at acute to chronic time points following mild TBI using an established model of closed-head rotational acceleration induced TBI in pigs. This study utilized archival tissue of pigs which were subjected to sham conditions or rapid head rotation in the coronal plane to generate mild TBI. A quantitative assessment of neuropathological changes in the hippocampus was performed via
The current study investigated the extent to which neuropsychological and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) parallels that of moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) recovery. A longitudinal design was employed to compare the neuropsychological and functional status of individuals with complicated MTBI and moderate TBI at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-year postinjury. The complicated MTBI group was comprised of 102 participants, each with an intracranial brain lesion documented via neuroimaging and a highest Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score in the Emergency Department between 13 and 15. The moderate TBI group was comprised of 127 participants, each with a highest GCS score in the Emergency Department between 9 and 12. The outcome measures of interest included the Functional Independence Measure, Disability Rating Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire, Logical Memory Test I and II, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test (A and B),
Bethlehem, PA, November 3, 2020, ZEXPRWIRE - Cordisco & Saile LLC, personal injury lawyers in the Lehigh Valley have taken a new initiative to proving traumatic brain injury cases in Pennsylvania. The new focus is meant to help residents of Lehigh County and Northampton County overcome the legal challenges involved in seeking compensation in brain injury cases.. In a recent radio interview, John F. Cordisco, Esq., a founding partner at Cordisco & Saile, described Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as a serious and debilitating head injury that often results from automobile, trucking, and motorbike accidents as well as from slips, falls, and trips. The problem is that TBI, which is often called the invisible injury is not easy to identify and prove in court. Personal injury claims with severe head injuries and severe brain damage involve skull fractures, coma, and brain bleeds. However, mild brain injuries, which have serious long-term consequences, are not always given the same attention as severe ...
Bethlehem, PA, November 3, 2020, ZEXPRWIRE - Cordisco & Saile LLC, personal injury lawyers in the Lehigh Valley have taken a new initiative to proving traumatic brain injury cases in Pennsylvania. The new focus is meant to help residents of Lehigh County and Northampton County overcome the legal challenges involved in seeking compensation in brain injury cases.. In a recent radio interview, John F. Cordisco, Esq., a founding partner at Cordisco & Saile, described Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as a serious and debilitating head injury that often results from automobile, trucking, and motorbike accidents as well as from slips, falls, and trips. The problem is that TBI, which is often called the invisible injury is not easy to identify and prove in court. Personal injury claims with severe head injuries and severe brain damage involve skull fractures, coma, and brain bleeds. However, mild brain injuries, which have serious long-term consequences, are not always given the same attention as severe ...
17, 10-13. Haarbauer-Krupa, J. (2012b). Taking care of children after traumatic brain injury. Perspectives on School-Based Issues, 13, 79-86. Halstead, M. E., McAvoy, K., Devore, C. D., Carl, R., Lee, M., Logan, K., . . . LaBella, C. R. (2013). Returning to learning following a concussion. Pediatrics, 132, 948-957. Hickey, E. M., & Saunders, J. N. (2010). Group intervention for adolescents with chronic acquired brain injury: The future zone. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 20, 111-119. Hotz, G., Castelblanco, A., Lara, I., Weiss, A., Duncan, R., & Kuluz, J. (2006). Snoezelen: A controlled multi-sensory stimulation therapy for children recovering from severe brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 879-888. Hotz, G., Quintero, A., Crittenden, R., Baker, L., Goldstein, D., & Nedd, K. (2014). A countywide program to manage concussions in high school sports. The Sport Journal. Retrieved from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ACUTE GLUCOCORTICOID DEFICIENCY AND DIABETES INSIPIDUS ARE COMMON FOLLOWING ACUTE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AND PREDICT MORTALITY. AU - Hannon, M. AU - Crowley, R. AU - Behan, L. AU - OSullivan, E. AU - OBrien, M. AU - Sherlock, M. AU - Rawluk, D. AU - ODwyer, R. AU - Tormey, William. AU - Thompson, C. PY - 2013/5. Y1 - 2013/5. U2 - 10.1210/jc.2013-1555. DO - 10.1210/jc.2013-1555. M3 - Article. VL - 20. SP - 1555. JO - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. JF - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. SN - 0021-972X. ER - ...
CC Grand Rounds: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Novel Biomarkers and Implications for Therapy
The acute phase management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and polytrauma represents a major challenge. Guidelines for the care of these complex patients are lacking, and worldwide variability in clinical practice has been documented in recent studies. Consequently, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) decided to organize an international consensus conference regarding the monitoring and management of severe adult TBI polytrauma patients during the first 24 hours after injury. A modified Delphi approach was adopted, with an agreement cut-off of 70%. Forty experts in this field (emergency surgeons, neurosurgeons, and intensivists) participated in the online consensus process. Sixteen recommendations were generated, with the aim of promoting rational care in this difficult setting.
Recovery from a mTBI can vary, however generally speaking, the severity of the mTBI will have a direct impact on the likelihood of a positive recovery. Dr Shores states, Concussion and uncomplicated mTBI generally lead to full recovery, however repeat concussions and complicated or more severe injuries can lead to long term functional impairment. Dr Shores advises caution and care when evaluating an injury, as there are dangers in both over-estimating and under-estimating brain injury severity, particularly based on duration of PTA. Duration of PTA provides a guideline to the severity of brain impairment and has been shown to be a useful outcome predictor of cognitive-behavioural-social dysfunction, with longer duration of PTA predicting a worse outcome. A careful scrutiny of the results of existing measures is necessary in determining severity of the injury. In contrast to mTBI, Moderate to Very Severe traumatic brain injuries are expected to have more permanent neurocognitive disorder than ...
Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), primary brain injury occurs during the initial insult, and results from displacement of the physical structures of the brain. Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes. Secondary injury, which is not caused by mechanical damage, can result from the primary injury or be independent of it. The fact that people sometimes deteriorate after brain injury was originally taken to mean that secondary injury was occurring. It is not well understood how much of a contribution primary and secondary injuries respectively have to the clinical manifestations of TBI. Primary and secondary injuries occur in insults other than TBI as well, such as spinal cord injury and stroke. In TBI, primary injuries result immediately from the initial trauma. Primary injury occurs at the moment of trauma and includes contusion, damage to blood ...
Brain injury can occur in different ways. Trauma is often involved, such as a sports injury, fall or motor vehicle accident. Brain injury can also occur without trauma, for example, the result of a stroke or infection.. Medical care is the first step in treatment to stabilize and promote the brains healing. For long-term treatment planning, rehabilitation plays an important role. With a long track record of experienced, specialized brain injury rehabilitation, HealthSouth has restored hope and encouraged maximum outcomes for many patients and their families.. Brain injury rehabilitation focuses on: ...
Posted by Nigel on August 1, 2016 in Health , 0 comments. The brain is perhaps the most important organ in the human body. This is why it is located at the top portion of our head. The brain is the control center of all human activities such as thinking, judgment, and emotional reactions. For this reason, brain injuries can have a huge impact on the life of an individual. Such injuries will usually require intensive and long term care.. In general, the effect of a brain injury is partially dependent on its location. The more areas that are affected, the more severe the injury will be. Traumatic brain injuries for instance usually affect multiple areas of the brain. Let us now take a look at how brain injuries can affect functioning.. Physical Effects People who suffer from traumatic brain injury can regain their ability to walk and use their hands within 6 - 12 months after injury. In most instances, the individual can resume work and drive their cars. However, long term physical effects of TBI ...
Brain injury or damage is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injury can be caused by a variety of internal and external factors. A common category is traumatic brain injury that occurs after head damage from an outside source. Mild traumatic brain injury may cause temporary dysfunction of brain cells. More serious traumatic brain injury can result in more extensive physical damage to the brain that can lead to long-term complications or death. Loss of brain function can also be caused by stroke, a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain, which deprives brain tissue of oxygen and food and causes consequent brain cell death.. Feinstein Institute researchers are studying different aspects of brain injury. They are developing smart catheters, the next generation of monitoring devices that will allow clinicians to continuously measure functional parameters in the injured brain during surgery. They are studying recovery from central nervous system injury, like spinal cord ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI, physical trauma to the brain) can cause a variety of complications, health effects that are not TBI themselves but that result from it. The risk of complications increases with the severity of the trauma; however even mild traumatic brain injury can result in disabilities that interfere with social interactions, employment, and everyday living. TBI can cause a variety of problems including physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral complications. Symptoms that may occur after a concussion - a minor form of traumatic brain injury - are referred to as post-concussion syndrome. Generally, there are six abnormal states of consciousness that can result from a TBI: Stupor is a state of partial or near complete unconsciousness in which the patient is lethargic, immobile, and has a reduced response to stimuli. Coma is a state in which the patient is totally unconscious and cannot be aroused even with strong stimuli. Persistent vegetative state is a condition in which ...
Patients who are hospitalized and who have suffered mild TBI (loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia; Glasgow Coma Score 13-15; admitted within 24 hours of injury; able to read, speak, and understand English) who do not have pre-injury dementia or significant cognitive impairment will undergo computerized neuropsychologic testing using a previously validated tool that has been effective in sports-related mild TBI. Sequential testing will be performed during recovery and patients who report disabling symptoms and/or functional impairment will be compared to patients who recover uneventfully. Goal is to identify those parameters that predict early who may suffer long term sequelae or functional impairment and therefore benefit from early cognitive rehabilitation. Secondary goals are to establish objective parameters for functional recovery after mild TBI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The p53 inactivators pifithrin-μ and pifithrin-α mitigate TBI-induced neuronal damage through regulation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, autophagy and mitophagy. AU - Yang, Ling Yu. AU - Greig, Nigel H.. AU - Tweedie, David. AU - Jung, Yoo Jin. AU - Chiang, Yung Hsiao. AU - Hoffer, Barry J.. AU - Miller, Jonathan P.. AU - Chang, Ke Hui. AU - Wang, Jia Yi. PY - 2020/2. Y1 - 2020/2. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. We investigated whether inhibition of p53 using pifithrin (PFT)-α or PFT-μ provides neuroprotective effects via p53 transcriptional dependent or -independent mechanisms, respectively. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI followed by the administration of PFTα or PFT-μ (2 mg/kg, i.v.) at 5 h after TBI. Brain contusion volume, as well as sensory and motor functions were evaluated at 24 h after TBI. TBI-induced impairments were mitigated by both PFT-α and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuroimaging in Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Mu, Weiya. AU - Catenaccio, Eva. AU - Lipton, Michael L.. PY - 2016/3/28. Y1 - 2016/3/28. N2 - OBJECTIVE:: To summarize imaging findings in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. DESIGN:: Our structured review of the literature yielded 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), 18 diffusion tensor imaging, 9 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 3 positron emission tomography, 4 magnetoencephalography, 2 electroencephalography, and 1 single-positron emission computerized tomography studies. RESULTS:: Four of the 5 sMRI studies reported decreased cortical thickness and decreased thalamus and amygdala volume. Diffusion tensor imaging studies showed abnormal diffusion within white matter tracts commonly associated with traumatic brain injury, including the corpus callosum (8 of the 18) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (8 of the 18). Resting-state fMRI studies reported a variety of functional network ...
New Book - Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Symptom Validity Assessment and Malingering - Editors: Dominic A. Carone and Shane S. Bush Publication Date: 8/2012448pp SoftcoverISBN-13: 9780826109156. Price: $75.00 USDThis authoritative volume is the first book specifically devoted to symptom validity assessment with individuals having a known or suspected history of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). It brings together leading experts in MTBI, symptom ... International Brain Injury Association - IBIA International Brain Injury Association - IBIA
Researchers have developed a predictive tool to help determine the outcome for older patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI).. The tool developed by the team of investigators at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, N.C., accounts for variables such as age and severity of brain injury to help physicians and hospital staff calculate a patients likelihood of survival and returning to independence after hospital discharge and to work with family members using those results.. They researchers reported their findings in a study published online as an article in press on the website of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons in advance of print publication.. Although TBI is the leading cause of leading cause of death for people age 45 and younger in the United States, but, as people live longer, this type of injury is becoming more prevalent in those 75 and older. Treatment and recovery of the elderly population is even more challenging for physicians and ...
Study evaluates associations between fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions with long-term functional outcome and survival in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and moderate hemostatic laboratory abnormalities. Data examined included patient demographics, several initial injury severity metrics, daily laboratory values, Glasgow Outcome Score- Extended (GOSE) scores, Functional Status Examination (FSE) scores, and survival to 6 months. Correlations were evaluated between these variables and transfusion of FFP, platelets, packed red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, recombinant factor VIIa, and albumin. Analyses showed significant correlations between poor outcome scores and FFP, platelet, or packed RBC transfusion; the volume of FFP or packed RBCs transfused also correlated with poor outcome. Several measures of initial injury and laboratory abnormalities also correlated with poor outcome. Patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and highest recorded serum sodium ...
Cerebral contusion, Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. Like bruises in other tissues, cerebral contusion can be associated with multiple microhemorrhages, small blood vessel leaks into brain tissue. Contusion occurs in 20-30% of severe head injuries. A cerebral laceration is a similar injury except that, according to their respective definitions, the pia-arachnoid membranes are torn over the site of injury in laceration and are not torn in contusion. The injury can cause a decline in mental function in the long term and in the emergency setting may result in brain herniation, a life-threatening condition in which parts of the brain are squeezed past parts of the skull. Thus treatment aims to prevent dangerous rises in intracranial pressure, the pressure within the skull. ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is said to be one of the signature injuries of the conflict in Iraq, and accounts for a larger proportion of troop casualties than it has in previous wars fought by the United States. According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, the U. S. military formally diagnosed 2,121 cases…
Traumatic brain injury patients frequently undergo tracheal intubation. We aimed to assess current intubation practice in Europe and identify variation in practice. We analysed data from patients with traumatic brain injury included in the prospective cohort study collaborative European neurotrauma effectiveness research in traumatic brain injury (CENTER-TBI) in 45 centres in 16 European countries. We included patients who were transported to hospital by emergency medical services. We used mixed-effects multinomial regression to quantify the effects on pre-hospital or in-hospital tracheal intubation of the following: patient characteristics; injury characteristics; centre; and trauma system characteristics. A total of 3843 patients were included. Of these, 1322 (34%) had their tracheas intubated; 839 (22%) pre-hospital and 483 (13%) in-hospital. The fit of the model with only patient characteristics predicting intubation was good (Nagelkerke R2 64%). The probability of tracheal intubation ...
Problem Statement/Question: Severe pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based guidelines leave gaps in how to best implement and deliver standardized care on the local hospital level. Background/Project Intent (Aim Statement): We aim to improve clinical outcomes for severe TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8) with standardization of care according to updated evidence-based guidelines. We will target early guideline adherence (initial 72 hours of PICU admission) with a focus on 1) targeted temperature management (TTM40mmHg). Methods (include PDSA cycles): The Childrens Mercy Hospital Pediatric ICU Severe TBI Guidelines were updated after the 3rd edition of the Brain Trauma Foundation Pediatric Severe TBI Guidelines. The first PDSA cycle consisted of educational curriculum including multidisciplinary lectures, bedside algorithms and bedside audits for real-time education and process improvement. The second PDSA cycle focused on
Over the last couple years, traumatic brain injuries have become an increasingly common topic of discussion. The NFL player class-action lawsuit in Pennsylvania court may be one of the biggest inspirations for this conversation. Whatever the case, this talk has placed a particular importance on expanding medical research to better understand and treat this disabling injury.. Brain injuries frequently limit a persons motor skills and cognitive function. As such, many tasks that were simple before the injury can become nearly impossible afterward. In the wake of an accident that causes brain damage, injury victims may need to seek the assistance of Social Security disability insurance. Although these individuals may wish to continue working, the demands of maintaining full-time employment may just be too much.. According to estimates, traumatic brain injury will be the third highest cause of death and disability in the world by 2020. As this disability emerges as a more prominent medical issue, ...
Traumatic brain injuries are caused by physical bombardment of the head with an object. Reported causes of these injuries include violent collisions, accidents and hobbies such as sports which may involve accidental knocking of the head.. One of the main causes of the traumatic brain injury is accidents caused by motor vehicles. Motor vehicle accidents result in sudden motions and impacts that can lead to the head being knocked resulting to brain injuries. During an accident, a persons head can be stricken, suddenly jerked, or penetrated by a foreign object (Brain 1).. If such effects pass to the brain, then a traumatic brain injury may occur. The injury may be mild or severe depending on the degree of injury caused to the brain. Mild injuries may be temporary with inflicted short time unconsciousness while a severe traumatic brain injury causes prolonged and more extreme effects to the injured person. Motor vehicle accidents cause a large percent of total traumatic brain injuries ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of tetrahydroaminoacridine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on cognitive performance following experimental brain injury. AU - Pike, Brian R.. AU - Hamm, Robert J.. AU - Temple, Meredith D.. AU - Buck, Deanna L.. AU - Lyeth, Bruce G. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - An emerging literature exists in support of deficits in cholinergic neurotransmission days to weeks following experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, novel cholinomimetic therapeutics have been demonstrated to improve cognitive outcome following TBI in rats. We examined the effects of repeated postinjury administration of a cholinesterase inhibitor, tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA), on cognitive performance following experimental TBI. Rats were either injured at a moderate level of central fluid percussion TBI (2.1 ± 0.1 atm) or were surgically prepared but not delivered a fluid pulse (sham injury). Beginning 24 h after TBI or sham injury, rats were injected (IP) daily for 15 days with an equal volume (1.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury. T2 - Insights from shock-wave research. AU - Nakagawa, Atsuhiro. AU - Manley, Geoffrey T.. AU - Gean, Alisa D.. AU - Ohtani, Kiyonobu. AU - Armonda, Rocco. AU - Tsukamoto, Akira. AU - Yamamoto, Hiroaki. AU - Takayama, Kazuyoshi. AU - Tominaga, Teiji. PY - 2011/6/1. Y1 - 2011/6/1. N2 - Traumatic brain injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four phases: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. These phases of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct and can be modeled in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The primary bTBI injury phase represents the response of brain tissue to the initial blast wave. Among the four phases of bTBI, there is a remarkable paucity of information about the cause of primary bTBI. On the other hand, 30 years of research on the medical application of shockwaves (SW) has given us insight into the mechanisms of ...
The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is rising, with over 60 million people affected annually across the globe.1 Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, which is readily available, easily administered, can be given in the prehospital phase and has been shown to have a good safety profile in trauma.2 Following the CRASH-2 trial, which showed a significant reduction in deaths from major extracranial bleeding in patients who had TXA administered within 3 hours of injury, CRASH-3 (Effects of tranexamic acid on death, disability, vascular occlusive events and other morbidities in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (CRASH-3): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial) was established as a large international multi-centred randomised placebo-controlled trial which investigated the effect of TXA in patients with an isolated TBI.3. Patients were randomised to either TXA (1 g loading … ...
Background: Optimal management of increased intra-cranial pressure following severe traumatic brain injury comprises a combination of sequential medical and surgical interventions. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a cautiously recommended surgical option that has been shown to reduce intracranial pressure. Considerable variability in the timing and frequency of using DC across neurosurgical centres reflects, in part, the lack of clarity regarding long-term outcomes. The majority of previous work reporting outcomes among individuals who have received DC following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has focused predominantly on gross physical outcomes, to the relative exclusion of more subtle functional, social and psychological factors. Aim: This paper reviews the methodological aspects of previous studies that have reported outcomes following DC and provides recommendations to guide the future assessment of recovery to enable meaningful conclusions to be drawn from the literature describing outcomes ...
Looking for online definition of Traumatic brain injuries in the Medical Dictionary? Traumatic brain injuries explanation free. What is Traumatic brain injuries? Meaning of Traumatic brain injuries medical term. What does Traumatic brain injuries mean?
In the state of Delaware, roughly eight people are treated in emergency rooms for traumatic brain injury every day, and it is estimated that more than 50,000 people die as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in America annually. According to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA), 5.3 million Americans are currently living with conditions resulting from TBI, such as neuropsychological impairments or other disabilities that affect work life, family life, and social activity. Acquired brain injury, open head injury, closed head injury, or traumatic brain injury may occur as soon as the head hits a hard surface or is impacted by an object. Brain injury can be caused by everything from a skull fracture to penetration of the skull. Additionally, acquired brain injury occurs when the brain has been deprived of oxygen for an extended period of time. In some cases, traumatic brain injury is detected well after the accident or impact occurs, and swelling and bleeding into and around the ...
Abstract Background: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) remain as an important public health problem in most developed and developing countries and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence pattern of the burden of severe TBIs among young children in Qatar and to suggest practical prevention policies that can be implemented in Qatar. Methods: The study was conducted among children aged 14 years or less at the Children Rehabilitation Unit, Paediatric Department, Hamad General Hospital. Severity of TBI was assessed by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Results: This study based on 65 children suffering from severe traumatic brain injury from January 2002 to December 2008, 12 of them died within the first month of admission in paediatric intensive care unit. The predominant gender was male (73.8 %), non-Qatari form 50.8%. In our study predominant mechanisms of injury were road traffic accident (84.6%), then falls (10.8%), other causes like
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral Hypoxia in Severely Brain-Injured Patients Is Associated with Admission Glasgow Coma Scale Score, Computed Tomographic Severity, Cerebral Perfusion Pressure, and Survival. AU - Dunham, C. Michael. AU - Ransom, Kenneth J.. AU - Flowers, Laurie L.. AU - Siegal, Joel D.. AU - Kohli, Chander M.. AU - Valadka, Alex B.. AU - Moore, Frederick A.. AU - Cohn, Stephen M.. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of cerebral hypoxia with admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, brain computed tomographic (CT) severity, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and survival in patients with severe brain injury. Methods: CPP and noninvasive transcranial oximetry (Stco2) were recorded hourly for 6 days in patients with a GCS score ≤ 8 (3,722 observations). CT score was derived from midline shift (0/1) plus abnormal cisterns (0/1) plus subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (0/1) (range, 0-3). Results: Brain CT results were as follows: ...
Samir H Haddad and Yaseen M Arabi. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2012, 20:12. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical and socio-economic problem, and is the leading cause of death in children and young adults. The critical care management of severe TBI in adults is largely derived from the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury that have been published by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The main objectives are prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain insults, preservation of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and optimization of cerebral oxygenation. In this review, the critical care management of severe TBI will be discussed with focus on monitoring, avoidance and minimization of secondary brain insults, and optimization of cerebral oxygenation and CPP.. Read full article. « Back to Special Reports ...
Air blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) represent a significant percentage of military personnel injuries observed in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Prevalence of blast-induced TBIs is attributed to several factors, including improved body armor, improved diagnostic techniques, greater awareness, and the increased threat of attack by improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Though the mechanisms of blast-induced TBIs are not fully understood, this is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. The overall goal of the work presented in this report is to explore a possible improvement to the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) liner increasing the protection against blast-induced TBIs. The essential new element is the inclusion of moveable or deformable materials sandwiched within foam to dissipate the blast energy, reduce the peak transmitted pressure, and stretch the blast waveform before it reaches the brain. Filler materials explored in this work include ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In the United States alone, 500,000 people suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually, making TBI a leading cause of death and disability. With improved accident scene and emergency care, mortality rates have declined, with 2-4 million people surviving TBI. Patients and patient families chiefly complain about post-concussive syndrome, involving alterations in cognition, aggression, emotional stability, disinhibition, and personality. In fact, post-concussive syndrome resembles the symptoms of amygdala resection or degeneration. In light of these post-injury deficits, the proposed project initiates experimentation focused on whether a subset of symptoms that define post-concussion syndrome are mediated by damage to the amygdala in a clinically relevant lateral fluid percussion model of brain injury in the mouse. The central hypothesis is: experimental TBI damages the amygdala bilaterally. Three aims test the hypothesis: (1) to demonstrate amygdala-dependent ...
Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (sTBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. At the Department of Neurosurgery Umeå University Hospital subjects with sTBI are treated with an intracranial pressure (ICP) guided therapy based on physiological principles, aiming to optimise the microcirculation of the brain so avoiding secondary brain injuries. The investigations in this thesis are unique in the sense that all patients with sTBI were treated according to the guidelines of an ICP targeted therapy based on the Lund concept.. As the treatment is based on normalisation of the ICP, the accuracy and reliability of the measuring device is of outmost importance. Therefore the accuracy, drift, and complications related to the measuring device was prospectively studied (n=128). The drift was 0,9 ± 0,2 mmHg during a mean of 7,2 ± 0,4 days and the accuracy high. No clinical significant complications were noted.. In 1997 uni- or bilateral decompressive hemi-craniectomy (DC) was introduced into the ...
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-c …
The CDC defines a traumatic brain injury as a disruption of normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury. A traumatic brain injury is considered a type of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) which is an injury to the brain that is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative, and one that has occurred after birth. There are 3 broad classifications of TBI: mild, moderate, and severe, with such designations roughly matching the symptom severity associated with each. Even a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), however, can be significant and produce life-long challenges.. When brain damage occurs before birth, it is referred to as an InBorn brain injury which can include brain damage caused by decreased oxygen (hypoxia) during delivery and/or decreased blood flow (ischemia) to a babys brain. These events are often associated with medical error and can cause hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and cerebral palsy (CP). We see this, for ...
Early and sudden menopause can put a woman at greater risk of dementia. Studies suggest traumatic brain injury can have the same effect. Now researchers are investigating possible links between the two that could lead to preventative treatments.. David Stock, a post-doctoral researcher at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, is trying to find out if traumatic brain injury affects the timing of menopause and, if so, how.. Previous research shows that women who suffer brain injury often have disrupted menstrual cycles, including long periods of time without menstruating. Stock wants to know if brain injury might also trigger early menopause.. During menopause, a womans estrogen levels decline. Thats important because brain regions linked to forming new memories, such as the hippocampus, are chock full of receptors for estrogen. In fact, the hormone is one of the keys to the hippocampus functioning and this part of the brain is often the first to be targeted by dementia.. Men, on the other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic failure in the maintenance of long-term potentiation following fluid percussion injury in the rat. AU - Sanders, Matthew J.. AU - Sick, Thomas J.. AU - Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.. AU - Dietrich, W. Dalton. AU - Green, Edward J.. PY - 2000/4/7. Y1 - 2000/4/7. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can produce chronic cognitive learning/memory deficits that are thought to be mediated, in part, by impaired hippocampal function. Experimentally induced TBI is associated with deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation, or LTP) at acute post-injury intervals but plasticity has not been examined at long- term survival periods. The present study was conducted to assess the temporal profile of LTP after injury and to evaluate the effects of injury severity on plasticity. Separate groups of rats were subjected to mild (1.1-1.4 atm), moderate (1.8-2.1 atm), or severe (2.2-2.7 atm) fluid percussion (FP) injury (or sham surgery) and processed for hippocampal ...
FRY, Jessica D.; GREENOP, Kirston e SCHUTTE, Enid. The effects of fatigue and the post-concussion syndrome on executive functioning in traumatic brain injury and healthy comparisons. Health SA Gesondheid (Online) [online]. 2010, vol.15, n.1, pp.1-8. ISSN 2071-9736.. In this study, behavioural manifestations of compromised executive control, including perseveration and reduced inductive reasoning, on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were investigated. Performance was affected by fatigue in both a head-injured and matched population, which has implications for health care professionals involved in rehabilitation and assessment. A fatigue condition was manipulated for 15 moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) individuals through the course of a three-hour neuropsychological testing session. A comparison sample of 15 participants in a group of no history of TBI was fatigued through the same approach. All fatigued participants (with and without TBI) displayed trends towards increased ...
Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the drugs given at rehabilitation programs to people who suffered Acquired Brain Injury in order to expedite recovery and improve functioning.. A previous study examined the spatially asymmetric allocation of attention in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients demonstrated significantly worse performance with leftward than with rightward cross-hemi field shifts of attention. This is reminiscence of neglect patients. This difference was significantly reduced during and following treatment. Our objective is to investigate whether Amantadine Hydrochloride is effective in improving allocation of spatial attention and improving function in people with Traumatic Brain Injury. ...
Free Consultation - Call (415) 292-4100 - The Zinn Law Firm helps victims and their families receive compensation for their injuries in Brain Injury and Head Injury cases. Traumatic Brain Injury Results - San Francisco Brain Injury Lawyer
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in estimating post-traumatic intra-cranial pressure early after severe traumatic brain injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: The group of 24 patients was analysed for the observation of an early post-traumatic cerebral haemodynamic by middle cerebral artery blood velocity measuring. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The standard method of measuring the mean blood middle cerebral artery velocity by transcranial Doppler ultrasonic device was performed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The increased duration of intra-cranial hypertension correlated to the middle cerebral artery low blood velocity (p = 0.042; r = -0.498) (n = 17) and to elevated pulsatility indices (p = 0.007; r = 0.753) (n = 11) significantly. The increased duration of lowered cerebral perfusion pressure correlated to the middle cerebral artery low blood velocity significantly (p = 0.001; r = -0.619) (n = 24). CONCLUSIONS: The significance of transcranial Doppler ...
Any personal injury case regarding a traumatic brain injury can be severe and emotional for all involved. It is important to contact an experienced brain injuries lawyer who has handled brain injury cases before. Hiring a brain injury lawyer can help retain a reasonable settlement, which can be difficult if you try to do this yourself.. During this challenging time, the only thing you should have to worry about is recovering from your injuries and living a healthy life. Our network of personal injury lawyers representing New York fight aggressively to ensure the responsible party is held accountable and that you receive the compensation you deserve.. Hill & Moin LLCs clients know that we will help you determine from your medical records and other evidence if you have suffered a traumatic brain injury resulting from someone elses wrongdoing. Our New York lawyers take immediate action and fight aggressively to ensure you receive compensation. We treat all our clients like family and will take ...
Br J Neurosurg. 2015 Nov 26:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]. Alavi SA(1), Tan CL(1), Menon DK(2), Simpson HL(3), Hutchinson PJ(1).. Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may develop pituitary dysfunction ...
Vignesh Subbian, assistant professor in BME and SIE, is principal investigator on a new grant of just over $500,000 from the National Science Foundation, or NSF, to help better characterize traumatic brain injuries, or TBIs, and predict their outcomes - and, therefore, treat them more effectively.. With traumatic brain injury as the leading cause of death and disability for individuals under age 44, and an estimated 1.7 million cases occurring in the United States every year, its an area in dire need of better predictive tools and further research.. Using analytical techniques and data gathered from advanced monitoring of brain injury patients, researchers will develop methods to better classify TBI patients and predict what might happen next.. This grant -- funded by the Smart and Connected Health Program, a partnership between multiple federal agencies, including NSF and the National Institutes of Health -- brings together key researchers and clinicians from other institutions, including ...
Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4(+)T/CD8(+)T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than ...
Phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) is an FDA approved α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist that is currently used to treat symptoms of pheochromocytoma. However, it has not been studied as a neuroprotective agent for traumatic brain injury (TBI). While screening neuroprotective candidates, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death in rat hippocampal slice cultures following exposure to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Using this system, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death over a broad dose range (0.1 µM-1 mM) and provided efficacy when delivered up to 16 h post-OGD. We further tested phenoxybenzamine in the rat lateral fluid percussion model of TBI. When administered 8 h after TBI, phenoxybenzamine improved neurological severity scoring and foot fault assessments. At 25 days post injury, phenoxybenzamine treated TBI animals also showed a significant improvement in both learning and memory compared to saline treated controls. We further examined gene expression changes within the
Ali, J. I., Viczko, J., & Smart, C. M. (2020). Efficacy of neurofeedback interventions for cognitive rehabilitation following brain injury: Systematic review and recommendations for future research. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 26(1), 31-46. Álvarez, X. A., Sampedro, C., Figueroa, J., Tellado, I., González, A., García-Fantini, M., ... Moessler, H. (2008). Reductions in qEEG slowing over 1 year and after treatment with Cerebrolysin in patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna), 115(5), 683-692. Arciniegas, D. B. (2011). Clinical electrophysiologic assessments and mild traumatic brain injury: State-of-the-science and implications for clinical practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 82(1), 41-52. Azouvi, P., Vallat-Azouvi, C., Joseph, P.-A., Meulemans, T., Bertola, C., Le ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preliminary results of a prospective randomized trial for treatment of severely brain-injured patients with hyperbaric oxygen. AU - Rockswold, G. L.. AU - Ford, S. E.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - There is considerable evidence that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduces intracranial pressure by causing cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, while simultaneously supplying optimal amounts of oxygen for efficient cerebral aerobic glucose metabolism. The preliminary results of a prospective randomized clinical trial in a carefully defined group of patients with severe brain injuries treated with HBO are suggestive of a beneficial response. The rationale, protocol, and preliminary results of this ongoing study are presented.. AB - There is considerable evidence that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduces intracranial pressure by causing cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, while simultaneously supplying optimal amounts of oxygen for efficient ...
Faculty members in the College of Health Professions have partnered with the Center for Excellence in Disabilities (CED) at West Virginia University to offer a local support group for those with traumatic brain injuries.. The support group held its first meeting Jan. 28 and continued with another Feb. 25 at the main branch of the Cabell County Library. Dr. Carrie Childers, group organizer and professor in the colleges Department of Communication Disorders, said the Brain Injury Group (BIG) was created to provide support, education and information about services for individuals with brain injuries and the people associated with them.. Future meetings are scheduled for Wednesday, March 25, and Wednesday, April 29.. According to a study conducted by the West Virginia University Injury Control Research Center, there are 22,000 new traumatic brain injury cases each year in West Virginia, Childers said. In addition, there have been 1.3 to 3.8 million sports-and-recreation-related traumatic brain ...
Purpose: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) is a signature injury of modern warfare. Unlike impact injuries, which are focal, blast-induced MTBI damage is diffuse, affecting multiple portions of the brain via impaired axonal connectivity, impairing operations involving memory, impulse control and prediction/planning (executive function.). Current MTBI testing uses highly subjective self-reporting and questionnaires. It is estimated that up to 25% of brain-injured veterans are not properly diagnosed, and may not receive treatment. Previously, we presented a saccade-based test that effectively detected decreased performance in MTBI. Here we present results for these same subjects on smooth pursuit tasks designed to evaluate executive function deficits, and compare their diagnostic value to saccadic testing.. Methods: We compared 11 controls with no history of closed-head injury, and 11 MTBI subjects involved in at least one close-proximity explosion. Subjects were excluded if they were taking ...
article{f476d972-e2ea-40d9-834f-c3cd9805e8a7, abstract = {,p,Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as key contributors to the secondary injury process after TBI. Here, pretreatment with the nitrone radical scavengers (alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) or its sulfonated analogue sodium 2-sulfophenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (S-PBN) were used as tools to study the effects of ROS on rCBF and glucose metabolism after moderate (2.4-2.6 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats. S-PBN has a half-life in plasma of 9 min and does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In contrast, PBN has a half-life of 3 h and readily penetrates the BBB. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism was estimated by using (99m)Tc-HMPAO and [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography, respectively, at 42 min (n = 37) and 12 h (n = 34) after the ...
Working in the Boston area for thirty-three years, our Massachusetts brain injury attorney has handled hundreds of traumatic brain injury cases. Many of these cases have involved brain injuries that were difficult to detect.. As an assistant professor in rehabilitation medicine at a local well-reputed university, he is extremely familiar with and comfortable with discussing medical issues with his clients. He was the Co-Chairperson of the North American Brain injury Society (NABIS) and has served as the Medical Legal Editor for the Journal of Trauma Rehabilitation for twelve years. He also has written several articles on head injuries. In addition, he has served on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the Massachusetts Brain injury Association. Our attorney in Massachusetts has recently been selected for inclusion in New England Super Lawyers magazine featuring the top 5% of attorneys in New England. He has also been designated a Massachusetts Super Lawyer for 2005, 2006, 2007, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fractal dimension brain morphometry. T2 - a novel approach to quantify white matter in traumatic brain injury. AU - Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran. AU - Das, Abhijit. AU - Zhang, Luduan. AU - Hillary, Frank Gerard. AU - Wylie, Glenn R.. AU - Yue, Guang H.. PY - 2019/8/15. Y1 - 2019/8/15. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements. Anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained using a 3 T MRI scanner ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic performance of computerized tomography scoring systems in civilian penetrating traumatic brain injury. T2 - an observational study. AU - Lindfors, Matias. AU - Lindblad, Caroline. AU - Nelson, David W.. AU - Bellander, Bo-Michael. AU - Siironen, Jari. AU - Raj, Rahul. AU - Thelin, Eric P.. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. KW - Traumatic brain injury. KW - Penetrating traumatic brain injury. KW - Computerized tomography. KW - Prognosis. KW - Outcome prediction. KW - CRANIOCEREBRAL GUNSHOT WOUNDS. KW - HEAD-INJURY. KW - CLASSIFICATION. KW - MORTALITY. KW - PREDICTORS. KW - MANAGEMENT. KW - SURVIVAL. KW - MARSHALL. KW - 3112 Neurosciences. KW - 3124 Neurology and psychiatry. KW - 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology. U2 - 10.1007/s00701-019-04074-1. DO - 10.1007/s00701-019-04074-1. M3 - Article. VL - 161. SP - 2467. EP - 2478. JO - Acta Neurochirurgica. JF - Acta Neurochirurgica. SN - 0001-6268. IS - 12. ER - ...
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In cases of chronic mTBI, accurate diagnosis can be challenging due to the overlapping symptoms this condition shares with PTSD. Furthermore, mTBIs are heterogeneous and not easily observed using conventional neuroimaging tools, despite the fact that diffuse axonal injuries are the most common injury. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to diffuse axonal injuries and is thus more likely to detect mTBIs, especially when analyses account for the inter-individual variability of these injuries. Using a subject-specific approach, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormalities between groups with a history of mTBI (n = 35), comorbid mTBI and PTSD (mTBI + PTSD; n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 37). We compared all three groups on the number of abnormal FA clusters derived from subject-specific injury profiles (i.e., individual z-score maps) along a common white matter skeleton. The mTBI + PTSD
A brain injury, also referred to as head injury or traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurs when the head is struck or hit by some external force. A brain injury most often results when there is a blow to the head in a car accident or fall. The blow need not be that hard; a minor concussion could have serious long term consequences if it damages vital brain neurons.. When the skull is seriously hit, the brain may twist within the skull. The rotation and disruption of the brain inside the skull will sever or shear the brains long connecting nerve fibers. This damage can be microscopic and difficult to measure. In cases involving mild brain injury, the effects may not be long term, but more severe brain injury can result in permanent disability, unconsciousness, and coma.. The long term effects of traumatic brain injury include cognitive deficits and reduction in physical and psychological skills. The physical deficits can include walking, balance and coordination, fine-motor skills, and strength. ...
Wesana Health (CSE:WESA) (OTCQB:WSNAF) and the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) are teaming up to analyze the effectiveness of MDMA-assisted therapy in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI).. Wesana Health went public in May with a focus on developing psychedelic-assisted medicines and other therapies for victims of traumatic brain injury.. Wesana announced Monday that it has committed an initial $1.5 million to assess the viability of MDMA (also known colloquially as ecstasy or molly) of treating a subset of conditions resulting from TBI and that currently lack a cure or successful treatment, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy.. With the funding, MAPS will create a team to evaluate the scope of unmet need for traumatic brain injury treatment and help to define terms of a desired joint venture between MAPS and Wesana.. The proceeds will be used for legal support in drafting and finalizing a partnership agreement, business development and executive ...
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Oxidative stress, part of the secondary injury cascade of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), has been shown to have devastating effects on the functionality and conformation of essential proteins in the brain. Carbonylated proteins have been modified with the addition of excess oxygen, in turn, promoting loss of protein function. Gamma-glutamyl cysteinyl ethyl ester (GCEE) is an antioxidant precursor used in the production pathway of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant responsible for reducing reactive species. Antioxidants are free radical scavengers that can reduce reactive species through conjugation. This research is aimed at identifying proteins that are adversely affected by oxidative stress in association with moderate traumatic brain injuries. The major focus of the study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the amounts of carbonylated proteins in injured animals that have been treated with a glutathione mimetic versus those that did not receive treatment. Through these
OBJECTIVE In this study we compared the effects of early tracheostomy (ET) versus late tracheostomy on traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related outcomes and prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on 152 TBI patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≤8, admitted to Rajaee Hospital between March 1, 2014 and August 23, 2015, were collected. Rajaee Hospital is the main referral trauma center in southern Iran and is affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Patients who had tracheostomy before or at the sixth day of their admission were considered as ET, and those who had tracheostomy after the sixth day of admission were considered as late tracheostomy. RESULTS Patients with ET had a significantly lower hospital stay (46.4 vs. 38.6 days; P = 0.048) and intensive care unit stay (34.9 vs. 26.7 days; P = 0.003). Mortality rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P | 0.99). Although not statistically significant, favorable outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale |4) were higher
Over the past three decades there has been considerable interest in the use of decompressive craniectomy in the management of neurological emergencies. An increasing number of observational cohort studies have described use of the procedure, most commonly following severe traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke and more recently in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial infection and in certain inflammatory conditions. Many of these studies have demonstrated that surgical decompression can lower the intracranial pressure in the context of medically intractable intracranial hypertension and many investigators have emphasized the life saving nature of the surgical procedure. However, surgical intervention will not reverse the effects of the pathological condition that precipitated the clinical deterioration and for many years, the concern has been that many survivors will be left with severe disability and dependency. An outcome that patients and their families may find to be
OBJECTIVE: Accurate and consistent outcome assessment is essential to randomized clinical trials. We aimed to explore observer variation in the assessment of outcome in a recently completed trial of dexanabinol in head injury and to consider steps to reduce such variation. METHODS: Eight hundred sixty-one patients with severe traumatic brain injury who were admitted to 86 centers were included in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase III trial. Outcome was assessed at 3 and 6 months postinjury using the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale; standardized assessment was facilitated by the use of a structured interview. Before initiation of trial centers, outcome ratings were obtained for sample cases to establish initial levels of agreement. Training sessions in outcome assessment were held, and problems in assigning outcome were investigated. During the trial, a process of central review was established to monitor performance. Interobserver variation was analyzed using the κ statistic. RESULTS: ...
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and/or concussions can negatively affect memory, judgment, reflexes, speech, balance, coordination, and sleep patterns, particularly when more than one injury has been sustained. Additionally, repetitive brain trauma increases the risk for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicide and can lead to impulse control problems, aggressiveness, behavior and personality disturbances, and progressive cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimers disease. Both active duty service members and athletes involved in physical contact sports are at an increased risk for suffering from mTBI and may be at increased for functional decline, neurodegenerative dementia, and possible death from repetitive mTBI. Diagnosing mTBI is difficult because it does not have a standardized definition, those with mTBI often do not seek treatment for some time following the injury, an mTBI diagnosis is based on the ...
Being obese or overweight presents a health risk in the years following rehabilitation for TBI, according to the new research, led by Laura E. Dreer, PhD, of The University of Alabama at Birmingham. The findings highlight the need for a proactive approach to managing weight and related health conditions in long-term TBI survivors.. High Body Weight Linked to Health Problems after Acute Rehabilitation for TBI. The study included 7,287 adults with TBI who had undergone inpatient acute rehabilitation. Inpatient rehabilitation consists of intensive therapy, provided by a team of specialists, designed to improve physical and mental functioning. Care was provided by rehabilitation centers participating in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program, sponsored by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research.. Click here to read more.. ...
Brain and spinal cord injury[edit]. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[86] Spinal injuries occur in two ... Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis, and sub-chondral ... Autologous stem cell based treatments for tendon injury, ligament injury, and osteoarthritis in dogs have been available to ...
Traumatic Brain Injuries[edit]. A traumatic brain injury is defined as a blunt non-missile penetrating or missile injury to the ... This drawing compares a normal neuron to one undergoing chromatolysis after axonal injury. Regeneration after axonal injury may ... Associated injuries and pathologies[edit]. Although many times axotomy occurs due to intended surgical treatment, it is also ... Upon injury of a peripheral axon, the entire neuron immediately reacts in order to regenerate the axon.[3] This reaction ...
Traumatic brain injury[edit]. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), abnormalities have been shown in the PCC. Often, head ... doi:10.1093/brain/awt162. PMC 3891440. PMID 23869106.. *^ a b c d e Pearson, John M.; Heilbronner, Sarah R.; Barack, David L.; ... "Brain. 137 (1): 12-32. doi:10.1093/brain/awt162. ISSN 0006-8950. PMC 3891440. PMID 23869106.. ... injuries produce widespread axonal injury that disconnect brain regions and lead to cognitive impairment. This is also related ...
Role in cell replacement after brain injury[edit]. In their review, Romanko et al. characterized the impact of acute brain ... Mechanical brain injury also induces cell migration and proliferation, as was observed in rodents, and it may also increase ... The SVZ also appears to be involved in the generation of astrocytes following a brain injury.[7] ... While it has yet to have been studied in-depth in the human brain, the SVZ function in the rodent brain has been, to a certain ...
Traumatic brain injury[edit]. Preliminary research indicates that iron deposits due to hemorrhaging, following traumatic brain ... DeKosky S. T.; Ikonomovic M. D.; Gandy S. (2010). "Traumatic Brain Injury -- Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects". New ... NFTs are most commonly seen associated with repetitive mild TBI as opposed to one instance of severe traumatic brain injury.[6] ... and cognitive deficits induced by repetitive mild brain injury in a transgenic tauopathy mouse model. [Article]". Journal of ...
Acquired brain injuries[edit]. An acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part ... social or independent functioning and can result from either traumatic brain injury or nontraumatic injury such as stroke, ... People with a brain injury may have difficulty controlling, coordinating and communicating their thoughts and actions. They may ... However, the intellectual abilities of a person with a brain injury are likely to be interfered with by the resulting thought ...
Traumatic brain injury[edit]. The majority of findings about memory have been the result of studies that lesioned specific ... Prog Brain Res. Progress in Brain Research. 169. pp. 81-95. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00005-2. ISBN 9780444531643. . PMID ... doi:10.1093/brain/aws101. hdl:2434/211210. PMID 22561640.. *^ Langraf, S.; Steingen, J.; Eppert, Y.; Neidermeyer, U.; Elke, U ... more serious problems with memory occur due to traumatic brain injury or neurodegenerative disease. ...
This can include conditions such as spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, strokes, as well as pain or disability due to muscle ... traumatic brain injury, and other debilitating injuries or conditions. In treating these patients, physiatrists lead an ... traumatic brain injury, stroke, orthopedic injuries, cancer, cerebral palsy, burn, pediatric rehab, and other disabling ... In hospital settings, physiatrists commonly treat patients who have had an amputation, spinal cord injury, stroke, ...
Two other patients with non-anoxic, multifocal brain injuries demonstrated several isolated brain regions with higher metabolic ... after a non-traumatic brain injury or one year after a traumatic injury. Today, doctors and neuroscientists prefer to call the ... Brain Injury. 21 (1): 101-103. doi:10.1080/02699050601151761. PMID 17364525.. *. Canavero S, et al. (2009). "Recovery of ... who sustained catastrophic anoxic brain injury in the 1989 Hillsborough disaster.[3] An application to the Court of Protection ...
Sensitivity to subtle sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury". Brain Injury. 21 (1): 69-80. doi:10.1080/02699050601149088. ... Evidence is consistent with the view that Gf is more affected by brain injury.[7][8] ... Geary, D. C. (2005). The origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American ... This decline may be related to local atrophy of the brain in the right cerebellum.[26] Other researchers have suggested that a ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) or post-traumatic amnesia[edit]. Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as post-traumatic ... Evidence from a penetrating paranasal brain injury, Brain, 113(6), 1695-1706. doi:10.1093/brain/113.6.1695 ... doi:10.1093/brain/121.10.1951 *^ a b c d e f g h i Squire, L. R., & Alvarez, P. (1995). Retrograde amnesia and memory ... Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a state of confusion that occurs immediately following a traumatic brain injury in which the ...
Traumatic brain injury: Some research suggests an improvement in memory dysfunction in patients with traumatic brain injury ... particularly in the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain.[18][19] It is noted that the hippocampal formation plays an ...
Brain injury medicine. *Clinical neurophysiology. *Endovascular neuroradiology. *Epilepsy. * Headache medicine. *Neurocritical ...
"Brain Injury Medicine". American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Retrieved 2017-08-20.. ... Hausman K (6 December 2013). "Brain Injury Medicine Gains Subspecialty Status". Psychiatric News. 48 (23): 10. doi:10.1176/appi ... a brain scan might be used to rule out other medical illnesses, but at this time relying on brain scans alone cannot accurately ... "Neuroimaging and Mental Illness: A Window Into the Brain". National Institute of Mental Health. U.S. Department of Health and ...
... expert in traumatic brain injuries; inventor of the Ommaya reservoir, which is used to provide chemotherapy directly to brain ...
"Concussion injuries to the brain". Comprehensive Ophthalmology (fourth ed.). New Age International (P): 311. Hutchinson's pupil ... These can be due to concussion injury to the brain and is associated with subdural haemorrhage and unconsciousness. The ... In Stage 1, the parasympathetic fibers on the side of injury are irritated, leading to constriction of pupil on that side. In ... stage 2, the parasympathetic fibers on the side of injury are paralysed, leading to dilatation of pupil. The fibers on the ...
People with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can display impulsive, aggressive and dangerous actions. A study in the Brain Injury ... "Effectiveness of a group anger management programme after severe traumatic brain injury". Brain Injury. 24 (3): 517-24. doi: ...
Only 14% of brain injury patients in the UK successfully remain at full time work 30 months after their injury, even after the ... Brain Injury. 20 (11): 1119-1129. doi:10.1080/02699050600664335. PMID 17123928. S2CID 26484139. Stace, Sheila (1987). " ... "Predictors of success for state vocational rehabilitation clients with traumatic brain injury". Archives of Physical Medicine ... "Effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: Preliminary evaluation of a UK specialist ...
Brain Injury Kober, Silvia Erika; Schweiger, Daniela; Witte, Matthias; Reichert, Johanna Louise; Grieshofer, Peter; Neuper, ... Klingberg, Torkel (2009). "8. The plasticity of the brain". The overflowing brain: information overload and the limits of ... Lewis, Jordan Gaines (28 January 2014). "Are Brain-Training Games Worth It?". Slate. Colby, Laura (21 May 2014). "Brain ... and victims of stroke and traumatic brain injury. In the February 2009 edition of Science, Klingberg and colleagues, led by F ...
Youse, K.; Cienkowski, K.; Coelho, C. (2004). "Auditory-visual speech perception in an adult with aphasia". Brain Injury. 18 (8 ... Therefore, there is a McGurk effect exhibited in people with damage to the right hemisphere of the brain but the effect is not ... Speech is perceived by all of the senses working together (seeing, touching, and listening to a face move). The brain is often ... In people with lesions to the left hemisphere of the brain, visual features often play a critical role in speech and language ...
Brain Injury. 24 (7-8): 988-94. doi:10.3109/02699052.2010.490512. PMID 20545453. S2CID 9553904. Sakka, Laurent (2020), "Anatomy ... thick mother of the brain', matrix of the brain, and is also referred to by the term "pachymeninx" (plural "pachymeninges"). ... Dura mater is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It is the ... The dura surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. It envelops the arachnoid mater, which is responsible for keeping in the ...
A role for pupillometry in the acute assessment of patients with traumatic brain injuries. Brain Injury. 2018;32(5):675-677. ... traumatic brain injury and edema, tumoral herniation syndromes, and sports or war injuries. Automated pupillometers are used to ... A case report published in Brain Injury presented a patient who was "saved" by the use of NPi as part of his clinical ... Ahmadieh, Tarek (2021). "Automated Pupillometry as a Triage and Assessment Tool in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury" (PDF ...
... mood and global quality of life in persons with spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury". Spinal Cord. 36 (4): 252-261. ... Individuals with traumatic brain injuries demonstrate greater psychological well-being and perceived quality of life if ... In a study assessing perceived quality of life in individuals with traumatic brain injury, findings indicated that the level of ... Brain Injury. 18 (2): 119-129. doi:10.1080/0269905031000149515. PMID 14660225. Perkins, D.; Raines, J.; Tschopp, M.; Warner, T ...
"Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury: A review of diagnostic criteria". Brain Injury. 25 (10): 925- ... injury of the spinal cord, and many other forms of brain injury can cause onset of PSH. Even more obscure diseases such as ... In patients surviving traumatic brain injury, the occurrence of these episodes is one in every three. PSH can also be ... Traumatic brain injury, hypoxia, stroke, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (although further associations are being explored), ...
Peskine, A; Picq, C; Pradat-Diehl, P (Dec 2004). "Cerebral anoxia and disability". Brain Injury. 18 (12): 1243-54. doi:10.1080/ ... "Individual differences in personality traits reflect structural variance in specific brain regions". Brain Research Bulletin. ... In particular, the three-factor model identifies the reticular system and the limbic system in the brain as key components that ... 2006). "Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion". Depression and Anxiety. 23 (3): 133-8. ...
The most common reason for this profound change in personality is the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children, whose brain areas ... which can be caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) that means there are specific brain areas of patients, which have been ... A 6 month follow-up". Brain Injury. 14 (5): 431-439. doi:10.1080/026990500120538. "The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and ... Specifically, the symptoms of organic personality disorder can also be caused by traumatic brain injuries in orbitofrontal ...
"Quality of life after traumatic brain injury: The clinical use of the QOLIBRI, a novel disease-specific instrument". Brain ... Changes in personality are common in cases of traumatic brain injury involving the frontal lobes, the most famous example of ... Declines from premorbid levels of intelligence and other cognitive functions are observed in stroke, traumatic brain injury, ... "Personality and functional outcome following traumatic brain injury". Rehabilitation Psychology. 51 (3): 257-264. doi:10.1037/ ...
As the brain of a child or an adolescent is still developing, there is fear that these injuries may have permanent long term ... Concussions and serious brain injuries were previously considered important if there was an association with loss of ... Nearly half of all injuries in pediatric sports medicine are due to overuse. Such injuries can be attributed to inappropriate ... While the majority of these minor injuries will recover without consequence within 3 to 7 days, it is the repetitive injury ...
"Mild traumatic brain injury induces prolonged visual processing deficits in children" (PDF). Brain Injury. 22 (9): 657-68. doi: ... "Mild traumatic brain injury induces prolonged visual processing deficits in children" (PDF). Brain Injury. 22 (9): 657-68. doi: ... autistics and those suffering from mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). Using the immersive virtual reality technologies of the ... and also those individuals suffering from mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). Professor Faubert's recent research has covered ...
Ma HM, Zafonte RD (February 2020). "Amantadine and memantine: a comprehensive review for acquired brain injury". Brain Injury. ... The time-limited window following a brain injury is characterized by neuroplasticity, or the capacity of neurons in the brain ... In traumatic brain injury patients in the intensive care unit, amantadine has also been shown in various randomized control ... In various studies, amantadine and memantine have been shown to accelerate the rate of recovery from a brain injury. ...
Progress in Brain Research. Volume 122. pp. 393-412. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)62153-6. ISBN 9780444500496. . PMID 10737073.. ... "have occurred when faith healing was elected instead of medical care for serious injuries or illnesses".[78] A 2001 double- ...
Thus, a thrown hand axe would not usually have penetrated deeply enough to cause very serious injuries. Nevertheless, it could ... and brains. Upper Paleolithic cultures appear to have had significant knowledge about plants and herbs and may have, albeit ... allowing them to shrink the size of the gastrointestinal tract relative to body mass and to increase the brain mass instead.[ ...
Donkin JJ, Turner RJ, Hassan I, Vink R (2007). "Substance P in traumatic brain injury". Progress in Brain Research. 161: 97-109 ... Substance P and the NK1 receptor are widely distributed in the brain and are found in brain regions that are specific to ... Yip J, Chahl LA (Apr 2001). "Localization of NK1 and NK3 receptors in guinea-pig brain". Regulatory Peptides. 98 (1-2): 55-62. ... It is found in the brain and spinal cord and is associated with inflammatory processes and pain. ...
Severe liver injury can result from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated levels of bilirubin, hepatomegaly and fluid ... The injury of the mucosal lining of the mouth and throat is a common regimen-related toxicity following ablative HSCT regimens ... The bone marrow can be ablated (destroyed) with dose-levels that cause minimal injury to other tissues. In allogeneic ... There is now a greater appreciation of the generalized cellular injury and obstruction in hepatic vein sinuses, and hepatic VOD ...
The focal form is typically associated with injury, and is divided into two subtypes: *Primary hyperalgesia describes pain ... February 2003). "Cytokine-induced sickness behavior". Brain Behav. 17 (Suppl 1): S112-8. doi:10.1016/S0889-1591(02)00077-6. ... in rats after spinal nerve injury and inflammation". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 510 (3): 223-8. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.01.033. PMID ... tactile pain associated with nerve injury". Eur. J. Neurosci. 23 (4): 995-1004. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.04623.x. PMID ...
Physical medicine and rehabilitation (or physiatry) is concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or ... A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord. Some related clinical ... Sports medicine deals with the treatment and prevention and rehabilitation of sports/exercise injuries such as muscle spasms, ... Urgent care focuses on delivery of unscheduled, walk-in care outside of the hospital emergency department for injuries and ...
November 27 - Phillip Hughes, 25, Australian cricketer, head injury.[100]. *November 27 - P. D. James, 94, English crime ... November 10 - Wayne Goss, 63, Australian politician, Premier of Queensland (1989-1996), brain tumour.[39] ... November 3 - Mariam Fakhr Eddine, 81, Egyptian actress, complications from brain surgery.[12] ...
... and the brains of fish fire neurons in the same way human brains do when experiencing pain.[12][13] James D. Rose of the ... the live release of sport fish also require the use of artificial lures and barbless hooks to minimise the chance of injury to ... "different species can use different brain structures and systems to handle the same functions."[13] The position that Rose ... Rose argues that since the fish brain is rather different from ours, fish are not conscious, whence reactions similar to human ...
... brain damage and dental devastation. Cobb's injuries cost him a shot at WBA heavyweight champion Mike Weaver.[8] ... In the ensuing fight outside the bar in the street, Cobb's arm was broken and Dexter was hospitalized with several injuries; ...
diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, alleviation of or compensation for an injury or handicap, ... including deep-brain stimulators, can incorporate the ability to transmit vital health information from a patient's body to ... unreasonable risk of illness or injury and require premarket approval.[18][15][18] Examples of Class III devices include ... and may not present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury.[17] Examples of Class I devices include elastic bandages, ...
GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national ... Secondary brain tumorsEdit. Secondary tumors of the brain are metastatic and have invaded the brain from cancers originating in ... A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.[2] There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous ... "Brain Tumour Facts 2011" (PDF). Brain Tumour Alliance Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2014. Retrieved ...
Interrupted blood flow to the brain. Convulsions. Sudden, irregular body movements that can be violent. Common. Common. 1 year ... Physical precautionary measures have also been used to protect patients from injury, including the use of a helmet or a ... Researchers believe that this protein helps control the activity of other genes and plays an important role in the brain. The ... RSK2 is highly expressed in the brain, specifically in the neocortex, hippocampus, and Purkinje cells, all of which are ...
Face: Weaponized brain stem. Capable of emitting a highly destructive energy blast from face. Due to the nature of his mutation ... The composition of his body means he is resistant to injury.. *Bob: Blue skinned, can create miniature duplicates from his ...
2004). 1992-2001 Census of fatal occupational injuries (CFOI) Revised data. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of ... found that reactions to psychological stressors include increased activity in the brain axes which play an important role in ... Kidd, P., Scharf, T., & Veazie, M. (1996). Linking stress and injury in the farming environment: A secondary analysis. Health ... Psychological factors are an important factor in occupational accidents that can lead to injury and death of employees. An ...
The extent of Hayden's injuries was described as polytrauma including a traumatic brain injury that resulted in severe cerebral ... On May 17, 2017, Hayden was hit by a driver while riding his bicycle in Italy.[1] He suffered a traumatic brain injury and died ... "Hayden injury to benefit Gibernau?". August 30, 2004.. *^ "Hayden: Collarbone pretty solid". September 15 ... "MOTOGP: WRIST INJURY FORCES HAYDEN OUT OF MUGELLO RACE". May 31, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2014.. ...
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. ... Recently, EPFL's CNBI project has succeeded in making wheelchairs that can be controlled by brain impulses.[17][18] ... Unlike wheelchairs they are only suitable for below knee injuries to a single leg. The user rests the injured leg on the ... The use of reclining wheelchairs is particularly common among people with spinal cord injuries such as quadriplegia.[10] ...
Brain size was previously considered a major indicator of the intelligence of an animal. Since most of the brain is used for ... Mass strandings have been triggered by sonar activity, resulting in injury or death.[104][105][106][107] ... Comparison of a particular animal's brain size with the expected brain size based on such allometric analysis provides an ... in comparison to the average human brain which averages 1,450 cubic centimetres (88 in3) in mature males.[63] The brain to body ...
Traumatic injuries on the other hand, form scars that will not allow new scales to form and disrupt the process of ecdysis.[94] ... Reptiles are generally considered less intelligent than mammals and birds.[32] The size of their brain relative to their body ... The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are ... and protect their brains against damage by struggling prey). Skinks (family Scincidae) also have evolved a bony secondary ...
Considering the importance of genital sensitivity in helping transsexual individuals to avoid unnecessary harm or injuries to ... determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring) is discrepant with the surgical reassignment previously imposed.[6][7][8] Milton ...
... a discoordination between the bladder and external urethral sphincter as a result of brain or spinal cord injury ... Urination after injury. Occasionally, if a male's penis is damaged or removed, or a female's genitals/urinary tract is damaged ... Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ... Spinal cord injury. During spinal shock, the bladder is flaccid and unresponsive. It becomes overfilled, and urine dribbles ...
... the two signature injuries are posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). These two signature ... Neurological impairments following a brain injury can be in the form of apraxia - loss to perform purposeful movements, ... "Music interventions for acquired brain injury". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD006787. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... Rhythmic stimuli has been found to help balance training for those with a brain injury.[33] ...
"Injury. 41 (4): 329-334. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2009.08.007.. *^ Ringleb, Stacie I.; Dhakal, Ajaya; Anderson, Claude D.; Bawab, ... Many different knee injuries can happen. Three percent of knee injuries are acute traumatic patellar dislocations.[25] Because ... as injury to these structures may occur during the injury or during the reduction process.[3] Subsequent imaging studies are ... "Acromioclavicular injury , Radiology Reference Article ,". Retrieved 2018-02-21.. ...
"Researchers One Step Closer to Building Synthetic Brain". Daily Tech. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April ... causing personal injury or damage to property. Such investigations are key to understanding, for example, the causes of various ...
This information can be processed by the brain as proprioception. The responses of muscle spindles to changes in length also ... After stroke or spinal cord injury in humans, spastic hypertonia (spastic paralysis) often develops, whereby the stretch reflex ...
Cortical blindness results from injuries to the occipital lobe of the brain that prevent the brain from correctly receiving or ... Eye injuries, most often occurring in people under 30, are the leading cause of monocular blindness (vision loss in one eye) ... Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... This is due to the fact the object needs to be approached and carefully felt until a rough idea can be constructed in the brain ...
... relieved spasm in MS patients and helped paraplegics in the spinal injuries ward of her hospital.[20] She continued to study ... publishing several articles about cannabis-induced euphoria and the effects of cannabis on the brain with co-author David J. ... Ames studied the effects of cannabis on the brain and published several articles on the subject. Seeing the therapeutic ... leading to Biko's death from his injuries on 12 September. According to Bentar & Bentar 2012, "there were clear ethical ...
The brain-to-body size ratio of psittacines and corvines is comparable to that of higher primates.[73] Instead of using the ... causing serious injury.[84] For this reason, parrot rescue groups estimate that most parrots are surrendered and rehomed ... Iwaniuk, A. N.; Nelson, J. E. (2003). "Developmental differences are correlated with relative brain size in birds: a ...
"Henry VIII's Obesity Following Traumatic Brain Injury". Endocrine. 42 (1): 218-9. doi:10.1007/s12020-011-9581-z. PMID 22169966. ...
"Wrack My Brain", a 1981 US top 40 hit written and produced by Harrison,[290] and guitar overdubs to two tracks on Vertical Man ... puncturing a lung and causing head injuries before Olivia Harrison incapacitated the assailant by striking him repeatedly with ... it was reported that he was being treated for a brain tumour at a clinic in Switzerland.[196] While in Switzerland, Starr ... radiotherapy at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City for non-small cell lung cancer that had spread to his brain. ...
... one of whom who received brain injuries and left her in need of a legal guardian, after the 1986 model in which they were ... By 1995, Ford had paid $113 million to settle 334 injury and wrongful death lawsuits. A class-action settlement with owners of ...
Traumatic brain injury-related deaths by race/ethnicity, sex, intent, and mechanism of injury - United States, 2000-2017. MMWR ... Traumatic brain injury-related deaths from firearm suicide: United States, 2008-2017. AJPH. 2020(0):e1-e3. ... Iaccarino C, Carretta A, Nicolosi F, Morselli C. Epidemiology of severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg Sci. 2018 Oct;62(5 ... Five-year outcomes of persons with (Traumatic Brain Injury) TBI: 22% died, 30% became worse, 22% stayed same, and 26% improved ...
Learn how to recognize and respond to a concussion, be alert for other serious brain injuries, and how to safely return to ... Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control ...
Learn more about these brain injuries from Shepherd Center. ... Anoxic and Hypoxic brain injuries occur when the brain is ... Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injury. What are Anoxic or Hypoxic Brain Injuries?. Unlike traumatic brain injuries, in which brain ... Programs Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program Learn About Brain Injury Types of Brain Injuries Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injuries ... Brain Injury Rehabilitation ProgramShow/Hide Submenu*Learn About Brain InjuryShow/Hide Submenu*Types of Brain InjuriesShow/Hide ...
Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to ... Many studies have tried to confirm a link between brain injury and later dementia, but they have had mixed results, the authors ... Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to ... damaging brain cells, leading to chemical changes in the brain, or both. The mildest form of TBI is a concussion. ...
Jim Malec, Mayo Clinic TBI Researcher in Rochester, Minn., and a member of Brain Injury Task Force, American Congress of Rehab ... The Posts blind use of the term mental retardation just branded with a hated stigma the wounded warriors with brain injury ... We have an acute rehabilitation service, which historically has included a certified traumatic brain injury program (both in ... Ronald Glasser: Originally shell shock was thought to be due to trauma to the brain ... even though a significant number of ...
Researchers say a biomarker may be able to identify which children will have more trouble recovering from a serious brain ... Read More: Brain scan can tell PTSD apart from traumatic brain injury » ... "Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of disability in children, but it is very difficult to predict long-term outcome and ... that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the number one cause of disability and death among children and adolescents in the United ...
No systematic review conclusions or evidence-based guideline recommendations pertaining to this topic and within the scope of practice of speech-language pathology or audiology were identified. Future literature searches may yield pertinent systematic review conclusions or evidence-based guideline recommendations.. Why isnt there evidence? Read about our process. What does this mean for me ... ... Mobile Aps for Brain Injury. ... Returning to School after Brain Injury (MSKTC). ... BrainSTEPS (Strategies Teaching Educators, Parents, and Students) Brain Injury School Re-Entry Consulting Program ...
Traumatic Brain Injury in children can cause symptoms ranging from headaches to loss of coordination. Read on to learn how ... What are Brain Injuries?. Some children acquire damage to their brains over the course of childhood due to a car accident, ... The term Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is used to describe a sudden trauma to the head, such as when the head violently hits an ... When an injury is more severe, vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one ...
A blow to the head will impart rotational velocity to the brain and, depending on its magnitude, will produce effects ranging ... Shear injuries of the brain Can Med Assoc J. 1967 Mar 11;96(10):577-82. ... A blow to the head will impart rotational velocity to the brain and, depending on its magnitude, will produce effects ranging ... patients with head injury that was not complicated by significant hemorrhage or superficial laceration of the brain had coma or ...
... "mild traumatic brain injuries." The reason this is such a problem is that soldiers are suffering injuries primarily from blasts ... The Guardian reports that officials fear that up to 20,000 UK soldiers have undiagnosed brain injuries. And the DoD says that ... so even if they get checked over, minor bruising and blood clots in the brain may go undetected. This can cause symptoms long ...
Our Promise: Welcome to Care2, the worlds largest community for good. Here, youll find over 45 million like-minded people working towards progress, kindness, and lasting impact.. Care2 Stands Against: bigots, bullies, science deniers, misogynists, gun lobbyists, xenophobes, the willfully ignorant, animal abusers, frackers, and other mean people. If you find yourself aligning with any of those folks, you can move along, nothing to see here.. Care2 Stands With: humanitarians, animal lovers, feminists, rabble-rousers, nature-buffs, creatives, the naturally curious, and people who really love to do the right thing ...
Brain Injury. A high school football player died after going into cardiac arrest as a result of a brain injury *Susanna Heller ... A brain injury is causing some football players to burst into tears for no apparent reason. *Tanya Lewis ... More US diplomats have fallen ill in China with brain injuries like those linked to mysterious sonic attacks in Cuba. *Kevin ... Trump suggested the NFL is being ruined now that its addressing brain injuries - heres what collisions do to players. *Kevin ...
The National Football League hid information that linked football-related head injuries to permanent brain damage, according to ... home/ neurology center/ neurology a-z list/ ex-players sue nfl over brain injuries article ... The National Football League hid information that linked football-related head injuries to permanent brain damage, according to ... which is a progressive degenerative disease caused by concussions and other brain injuries, he said. ...
Bazarian of the University of Rochester Medical Center said the nature of the interaction between traumatic brain injury and ... Brain injuries so subtle theyre detected only by a very sensitive scan may predispose combat soldiers to post-traumatic stress ... Brain injuries so subtle theyre detected only by a very sensitive scan may predispose combat soldiers to post-traumatic stress ... The severity of veterans PTSD symptoms correlated with the amount of axonal injury seen on the brain scans, the study said. ...
... and compared that tissue with brain tissue from 15 healthy controls. They found the TBI patients had higher levels of abnormal ... the researchers analyzed the brain tissue of 15 patients who had survived a year or more after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) ... The researchers also found that in mice, this type of abnormal tau spread from the site of the brain injury to other brain ... the researchers analyzed the brain tissue of 15 patients who had survived a year or more after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) ...
Academics have carried out a detailed analysis of the 700 head injuries suffered by characters in the Asterix comic books, in a ... By "screening" all 34 books, the authors found 704 cases of head or brain injury, all but six suffered by men. ... Asterix comics contain 700 traumatic brain injuries, say academics. Academics have carried out a detailed analysis of the 700 ... However the paper notes: "No case of death or a permanent neurological deficit following traumatic brain injury has been found ...
Brain Injuries: Treatment and Recovery of Francesco Bertolotti of Modena (Italy) * Bob Woodruffs Traumatic Brain Injury ... They conclude that amateur boxing is thus a potentially dangerous sport, because of the risk of acute traumatic brain injury ( ... Thats because researchers have found evidence of traumatic brain injury in a group of amateur boxers in the Netherlands, ... A new study shows that amateur boxers experience traumatic brain injury, despite the use of protective headgear. ...
... or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Treatment and outcome depend on how severe. ... Traumatic brain injury or TBI happens when a bump, blow, ... What is traumatic brain injury (TBI)?. Traumatic brain injury ( ... Traumatic Brain Injury (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish * Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Condition ... Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on the Endocrine ...
Learn about the types of injuries, as well as possible treatments and outcomes. ... Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) can be mild, moderate, or severe. ... Brain Injury Association of America, About Brain Injury. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Traumatic Brain Injury ... Traumatic brain injuries are serious. They cause damage that can be permanent. In some cases, a traumatic brain injury can lead ...
Childhood or adolescent brain injury A pediatric traumatic brain injury is defined as a traumatic insult or blow to the head, ... In The essential brain injury guide (5th ed., pp. 286-317). McLean: Brain Injury Association of America.Google Scholar ... Penetrating (Open) Head Injuries. Penetrating head injuries involve an object penetrating the skull and entering into brain ... Deficits typically reflect localization of brain injury. While an injury from the object can cause localizing effects, along ...
An Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain that has occurred after birth, which results in any combination of ... Brain Injury Alliance of ConnecticutAmerican Academy Certification Brain Injury Specialists211 for informationDepartment of ... Brain Injury ServicesAn Integration of Community Services for DMHAS Consumers with Brain InjuryDefinition of Acquired Brain ... CERTIFIED BRAIN INJURY SPECIALISTSThe ABI Services has Community Integration Specialists (CIS) stationed across the DMHAS Local ...
is to provide children and adult survivors of brain injuries and their families with individualized, community-based services ... The mission of Brain Injury Services, Inc. is to provide children and adult survivors of brain injuries and their families with ... The mission of Brain Injury Services, Inc. ...
... law firm of Anesi Ozmon to speak with an experienced lawyer about recovering compensation for a brain injury. ... We are dedicated to aggressively seeking justice on behalf of brain injury victims. Depending on the severity of the injury, ... We are dedicated to aggressively seeking justice on behalf of brain injury victims. Depending on the severity of the injury, ... We are dedicated to aggressively seeking justice on behalf of brain injury victims. Depending on the severity of the injury, ...
PRWEB) August 2, 2010 -- National Accident Helpline has chosen the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust (BIRT) as its company ... Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust BIRT is a leading European provider in specialist brain injury rehabilitation, supporting ... help the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust to continue providing vital services to those who suffer an acquired brain injury ... In 2009 BIRT helped 518 adults with acquired brain injury.. BIRT is a division of The Disabilities Trust and the means by which ...
... military set up a bank to collect brain tissue samples to better understand battlefield brain injury. But a law that prevents ... Military Policy Impedes Research On Traumatic Brain Injuries. Military Policy Impedes Research On Traumatic Brain Injuries. ... Military Policy Impedes Research On Traumatic Brain Injuries The U.S. military set up a bank to collect brain tissue samples to ... The U.S. military set up a bank to collect brain tissue samples to better understand battlefield brain injury. But a law that ...
Differing Injuries, Differing Needs. Employers considering hiring people with TBI need to understand that the severity of ... "We like to think we have a higher level of sensitivity," she added, especially to people with disabilities such as TBI-brain ... in-demand workplace skills who need certain accommodations are people-including military veterans-with traumatic brain injury ( ... injuries ranges widely, Loy said. "There may be visual impairment or mobility impairment. There could be memory deficit or ...
... may help explain why some soldiers suffer long-term problems after such injuries. Brain injuries caused by blasts from ... The injuries, which dont show up with standard imaging techniques, ... A sophisticated imaging technique has revealed signs of brain injury in soldiers injured in explosions. ... a method thats better at showing long-term brain injury.. Brain injuries caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices, ...
... perhaps allowing for rapid diagnosis of stroke or sports head injuries ... The ultrasound technology used to image fetuses is being adapted to visualise the brain, ... Ultrasound scanning could be used to diagnose stroke victims faster, and may even one day be used to check the head injuries of ... The brain can now be imaged using sound waves. Tatiana Kuznetsova/Alamy ...
Head injuries cause immune cells in the brain to shed microscopic particles, which spread inflammation. This may be why head ... Head injuries are increasingly being linked to cognitive problems and degenerative brain disease in later life. Mysterious ... Tiny particles secreted in response to head injury in the brains of mice could help explain how inflammation spreads and ... Experiments in pigs have shown that PEG-TB reduces the degree of inflammation resulting from traumatic brain injuries "It shows ...
  • Among deceased players who have donated their brains, there's hard evidence that they had traumatic encephalopathy , which is a progressive degenerative disease caused by concussions and other brain injuries, he said. (
  • As young athletes start to gear up for fall sports, including football, soccer, cheerleading and wrestling, parents, coaches and teachers should know how to recognize and properly respond to head injuries, particularly concussions. (
  • Scientists studying the effects of concussions are challenged by the fact that not all concussions affect the brain the same way. (
  • The study authors, who hail from the nonprofit Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation , analyzed emergency room records from 2010 to 2013 for traumatic brain injuries, which include concussions, skull fractures, or internal brain damage. (
  • Mild traumatic brain injuries, which doctors also call concussions, do not leave visible scars but can cause lasting mental and physical problems. (
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has become increasingly recognized in children, specifically regarding the need for better monitoring following concussions. (
  • We are using multiple advanced brain imaging techniques, measurement of biomarkers in spinal fluid and brain tissue, and neuropsychological testing to determine these relationships in veterans who have returned from Iraq and Afghanistan, athletes who have experienced sports-related concussions, and others in the community. (
  • First described in boxers who became "punch drunk" in midlife, tau neurofibrillary tangles are increasingly being found in the brains of athletes who have suffered repeated concussions from head trauma. (
  • Other common injuries include falls (which are common in young children and infants), sport injuries, concussions, horseback riding, interpersonal violence (fighting, gun shots, physical hits to the head by person/object,) and war related injuries. (
  • There's now even more evidence that concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries should be taken seriously. (
  • Sports injuries, particularly playing football, and also military injuries are being researched to help prevent the long term consequences of concussions that aren't treated correctly, or even recognized at all. (
  • More U.S. children are being treated for traumatic brain injuries such as concussions from injuries on the playground despite safety improvements in playground equipment. (
  • More U.S. children are needing treatment for traumatic brain injuries such as concussions from injuries on the playground despite safety improvements in playground equipment - a trend Canadian doctors see too. (
  • brains did not show signs of the neurodegenerative disease known as punch-drunk syndrome, which is caused by multiple concussions . (
  • While temporary loss of consciousness due to injury means that a concussion has taken place, most concussions occur without the patient being knocked out. (
  • Use the term 'cognitive impairment,' and have Dr. Glasser talk with Dr. Jim Malec, Mayo Clinic TBI Researcher in Rochester, Minn., and a member of Brain Injury Task Force, American Congress of Rehab Medicine. (
  • Research has shown that TBIs are particularly traumatic for children, as they impact the child's brain development and can cause serious cognitive impairment over time. (
  • The Eisch Lab is a team of neuroscientists leveraging translationally-relevant preclinical models to define how genetic, molecular, cellular, and circuit changes in a key brain region - the hippocampal dentate gyrus - influence normal and abnormal behavior and cognitive function. (
  • The NFL, like the sport of boxing, was aware of the health risks associated with repetitive blows producing sub-concussive and concussive results and the fact that some members of the NFL player population were at significant risk of developing long-term brain damage and cognitive decline as a result," the consolidated lawsuit charges, the news service reported. (
  • The take-home message is that you can have some subtle cognitive impairment with amateur boxing," co-author Barry D. Jordan, MD, director of the Traumatic Brain Injury Program at Burke Hospital in White Plains, N.Y., tells WebMD. (
  • Discussion of developmental plasticity: Factors affecting cognitive outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury. (
  • Barclay Morrison , an associate professor of biomedical engineering at Columbia University, says subtle structural damage to the brain after a blast is tough to detect, but that is what affects cognitive functions like sleep, memory, and planning. (
  • Head injuries are increasingly being linked to cognitive problems and degenerative brain disease in later life. (
  • Traumatic brain injury may affect a person's cognitive abilities, including learning and thinking skills. (
  • When a senior sustains a traumatic brain injury in a fall, direct effects of the injury may result in long-term cognitive changes, reduced ability to function and changes in emotional health. (
  • The children continue with follow-up visits to monitor the impact of the injury on developing cognitive skills. (
  • In an accompanying article , the behavioural, cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms of this "silent injury" are described by the father of an American soldier who sustained TBI during a 24-month tour of duty in Iraq. (
  • Chamelian L, Feinstein A. The effect of major depression on subjective and objective cognitive deficits in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. (
  • CHICAGO , Nov. 29, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Using multiple brain imaging techniques, researchers have found that a disruption of the circuitry in the brain's cognitive-emotional pathways may provide a physical foundation for depression symptoms in some service members who have suffered mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in combat. (
  • Imaging results showed that white matter tracts-the circuits that connect brain regions critical for cognitive and emotional control-were disrupted in the patients with moderate to severe depression symptoms. (
  • We have related the brain structural and functional changes in cognitive-emotional networks to depressive symptoms in mTBI patients. (
  • University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM) researchers have found for the first time that spinal cord injuries (SCI) can cause widespread and sustained brain inflammation that leads to progressive loss of nerve cells, with associated cognitive problems and depression. (
  • Animal studies have shown that traumatic brain injury, even mild repeated injuries, can result in progressive brain tissue damage and cognitive decline, as well as widespread brain inflammation. (
  • We also have identified certain molecular mechanisms responsible for these pathological changes and shown that certain drugs can prevent these injuries, including inflammation, brain cell loss, cognitive decline and depressive-like behaviors after injury. (
  • Even a single concussion appears to cause changes in the structure of the brain that may make cognitive problems and depression a higher likelihood, a new study has found. (
  • Cognitive Impairment Following Traumatic Brain Injury. (
  • Cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) are substantial sources of morbidity for affected individuals, their family members, and society. (
  • In the current study, researchers found that overall, the risk of dementia was increased by about 80 percent during an average 15-year follow-up period after a traumatic brain injury. (
  • Researchers say a biomarker may be able to identify which children will have more trouble recovering from a serious brain injury. (
  • Researchers examined the patients' brain by using a special type of imaging device called a diffusion-weighted MRI. (
  • The researchers found that a few months after the injury, half of the children with TBI had slow transfer time while half had a normal transfer time - that is, within the same range as the healthy control group. (
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - A man with severe brain injuries who spent six years in a near-vegetative state can now chew his food, watch a movie and talk with family thanks to a brain pacemaker that may change the way such patients are treated, U.S. researchers said on Wednesday. (
  • Researchers think the electrical stimulation may be enhancing the brain circuits that are still capable of functioning. (
  • Brain injuries so subtle they're detected only by a very sensitive scan may predispose combat soldiers to post-traumatic stress disorder, U.S. researchers say. (
  • In the study, the researchers analyzed the brain tissue of 15 patients who had survived a year or more after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and compared that tissue with brain tissue from 15 healthy controls. (
  • The researchers also found that in mice, this type of abnormal tau spread from the site of the brain injury to other brain regions. (
  • The researchers, led by Marcel Kamp of the Neurosurgical department at Heinrich-Heine University in Düsseldorf, conclude: "The favourable outcome is astonishing, since outcome of traumatic brain injury in the ancient world is believed to have been worse than today and also since no diagnostic or therapeutic procedures were performed. (
  • That's because researchers have found evidence of traumatic brain injury in a group of amateur boxers in the Netherlands, despite the use of protective headgear. (
  • A study by researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the U.S. military found that damage to the brain can be detected using an advanced form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). (
  • The researchers studied 63 soldiers who were diagnosed with traumatic brain injury after being injured in explosions in Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • In the study, conducted from 2008 to 2009 and published June 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine , the researchers found that 18 of the 63 subjects diagnosed with traumatic brain injury had abnormalities in the white matter in two or more regions of the brain. (
  • Using data from the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the researchers found that the biggest share of brain injuries in the data set were caused by sports, primarily football , with 28% of injuries. (
  • But while this type of injury is well-documented- particularly because of the dangers of football -the researchers wanted to explore the relationship between traumatic brain injury and consumer products. (
  • Researchers at the University of Georgia's Regenerative Bioscience Center have developed Brain Glue, a substance that could one day serve as a treatment for traumatic brain injuries, or TBIs. (
  • ADRC researchers and collaborators work to unravel the relationships between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. (
  • The UW ADRC Neuropathology Core runs a brain bank with the goal of helping researchers to understand the impact of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on active-duty military members and veterans. (
  • Two of the military cases, and a group of mice studied concurrently by researchers, suggest that a single IED exposure could instigate the cluster of abnormal protein in the brain that characterizes the disease, called chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (
  • The same group of researchers at the Boston University School of Medicine who examined Duerson's brain excised thin slivers of brain tissue from four U.S. veterans who died suddenly. (
  • Researchers said they found tau protein in the brains of the five former players. (
  • In Monday's issue of the journal Pediatrics , researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used national injury data from 2001 to 2013 to focus on nonfatal traumatic brain injuries in children aged 14 and younger. (
  • The annual rate of traumatic brain injury emergency department visits increased significantly from 2005 to 2013,' the researchers said. (
  • Researchers have found that young brains are particularly susceptible to brain injuries. (
  • There is phenotypic variability in the microcephaly tied to the Zika virus, with differences in the extent of brain damage and affected brain structures, researchers found. (
  • For instance, some infants had a head size that was consistent with gestational age, potentially because their brains had compensated for atrophy by enlarging the ventricular size, the researchers wrote. (
  • A consortium of researchers from 11 clinics enrolled 184 patients who recently had a traumatic brain injury from a car accident or from blows to the head. (
  • In two separate studies, researchers are using smart helmets and a voice-analyzing app to study the risk of brain injury in our largest group of football players: athletes ages 6 to 18. (
  • In two separate studies, researchers are using smart helmets and a voice-analyzing app to study brain injury risk in young football players. (
  • To understand this puzzling ailment, a team of eight researchers examined the brains of five male United States military veterans who survived IED attacks but later died. (
  • NEW YORK (AP) - Researchers are reporting the first treatment to speed recovery from severe brain injuries caused by falls and car crashes: a cheap flu medicine whose side benefits were discovered by accident decades ago. (
  • It's now commonly used for brain injuries, and the researchers felt it was important to find out "whether we're treating patients with a useful drug, a harmful drug or a useless drug," Whyte said. (
  • Unlike traumatic brain injuries , in which brain damage is induced by direct physical trauma, anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries are brain injuries characterized by a lack of oxygen being provided to the brain. (
  • Would it be helpful for our new brain trauma victims? (
  • The term Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is used to describe a sudden trauma to the head, such as when the head violently hits an object or an object breaks the skull and enters brain tissue. (
  • The study, published online by the Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, found 30 of the veterans suffered at least one mild traumatic brain injury, and seven reported having more than one. (
  • This observation that a single brain trauma is associated with widespread tau deposition in humans and to the formation of a self-propagating form of tau in a relevant animal model provides the first evidence for how a mechanical brain injury might evolve into chronic degenerative brain disease, including CTE," Zanier said in a University of Glasgow news release. (
  • If you have a head injury or other trauma that may have caused a TBI, you need to get medical care as soon as possible. (
  • It jars your brain and causes shock or trauma. (
  • Based on dozens of interviews and access to previously unreleased military studies, documents and e-mails, NPR and ProPublica have found that from the battlefield to the homefront the military's doctors and screening systems routinely miss brain trauma in soldiers. (
  • With the unique ability to take the shape of the void left in the brain after a severe trauma, the Brain Glue will enable a more natural healing environment for stem cells to colonize and regenerate. (
  • It occurs when a sudden trauma damages the brain and disrupts normal brain function. (
  • Mild traumatic brain injuries in low-risk trauma patients. (
  • Diffuse axonal injury in head trauma. (
  • With such promising success in laboratory testing and in our previous clinical trial, we certainly hope to conclude that this national trial - along with standard medical trauma care - works better than standard medical care alone in reducing brain damage caused from a TBI. (
  • The program coordinates with other services, including the Brain Health and Wellness Center , Neurology , Neurosurgery , Neuropsychology and Trauma Services . (
  • The same dementia-like disease found in the brain tissue of several National Football League players has shown up in the brains of four U.S. veterans exposed to improvised explosive devices and other head trauma, according to new research. (
  • A new scan test developed by scientists can help diagnose a brain disease that has been associated with repeated head trauma in atheletes. (
  • What we are seeing in a lot of sports related injuries is that the symptoms don't emerge until years after the trauma," said Dr. Gary Small, a professor of psychiatry and biobehavioural sciences at UCLA and the lead author of the study, published Tuesday in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (
  • Discovering the effects of prior brain trauma earlier opens up possibilities for symptom treatment and prevention," she added. (
  • Athletes who show signs of CTE could then decide if they want to retire early to prevent additional brain trauma. (
  • About 28,500 children a year in Canada need medical treatment as a result of playground injuries ranging from bruises and broken bones to serious head trauma and spinal cord injuries, according to Canadian hospital injury data. (
  • The link between spinal trauma and brain function is now more clear, and we believe that further research in this area will offer the hope of new ways to treat this devastating trauma, and perhaps even reverse its effects on the brain. (
  • With 43 academic departments, centers and institutes and a faculty of more than 3,000 physicians and research scientists plus more than $400 million in extramural funding, the School is regarded as one of the leading biomedical research institutions in the U.S. with top-tier faculty and programs in cancer, brain science, surgery and transplantation, trauma and emergency medicine, vaccine development and human genomics, among other centers of excellence. (
  • Whether it would work in patients with brain injuries not caused by trauma, such as a stroke, isn't known. (
  • Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), or concussion, can be defined as a short-lived loss of brain function due to head trauma that resolves spontaneously. (
  • Brain trauma occurs as a consequence of a sudden acceleration or deceleration within the cranium or by a complex combination of both movement and sudden impact. (
  • Penetrating head injuries involve an object penetrating the skull and entering into brain tissue. (
  • Closed head injuries occur when the brain tissue is. (
  • The U.S. military set up a bank to collect brain tissue samples to better understand battlefield brain injury. (
  • The brains of soldiers who have been exposed to blasts show tissue damage up to a year later. (
  • Damage to this tissue has long been associated with mild traumatic brain injury. (
  • But when bilirubin levels in the blood spike high enough, the toxic byproduct can move out of the blood and into brain tissue. (
  • X-rays, CT scans, and/or MRIs may be performed to determine if the bones of the skull are fractured and if bone fragments have penetrated brain tissue. (
  • The Brain Glue is a hydrogel matrix with a gelatin-like consistency that acts as a scaffolding for transplanted stem cells, which are capable of repairing damaged tissue. (
  • Finally, therapeutic strategies to encourage sprouting of new brain tissue or regeneration of damaged tissue could also hold promise for those living with long-term disability. (
  • Ultimately, we learned that progesterone basically does in brain injuries what it also does during fetal development - protect cells and tissue. (
  • Increasingly, however, research has shown that it doesn't take a knockout or loss of consciousness to result in brain tissue damage. (
  • A closed brain injury is caused by a rapid forward or backward movement and shaking of the brain inside the bony skull that results in bruising and tearing of brain tissue and blood vessels. (
  • It includes an entire series of steps or stages of cellular, chemical, tissue, or blood vessel changes in the brain that contribute to further destruction of brain tissue. (
  • When there is a direct blow to the head, the bruising of the brain and the damage to the internal tissue and blood vessels is due to a mechanism called coup-contrecoup. (
  • Lesions can be extra-axial, (occurring within the skull but outside of the brain) or intra-axial (occurring within the brain tissue). (
  • Some children acquire damage to their brains over the course of childhood due to a car accident, severe fall, or other serious event. (
  • The low-speed coup-contrecoup injury has damage from shifting layers within the brain at the microscopic level. (
  • THURSDAY, June 7 (HealthDay News) -- The National Football League hid information that linked football-related head injuries to permanent brain damage, according to a massive lawsuit filed in federal court Thursday by lawyers for former players and their families, the Associated Press reported. (
  • An accumulation of abnormal tau proteins can cause brain cell damage and memory problems, the scientists explained. (
  • He says it leaves amateur boxers with a question: "Is this sport worth some brain damage to you? (
  • In my studio, I've never had a problem with any of my students -- headache , brain damage , slow in school, or mental problems -- because we work so much on pairing up shots," he says. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a sudden injury that causes damage to the brain. (
  • The symptoms of TBI depend on the type of injury and how serious the brain damage is. (
  • A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is any sudden damage to your head. (
  • Sometimes broken bones cut into your brain and cause bleeding or other damage. (
  • While an injury from the object can cause localizing effects, along the path of penetration, additional damage can occur from the object fragmenting into parts. (
  • PERL: We're looking at the section of the brain - this is the surface of the brain - but here, this is all damage. (
  • In a sense, we learn more from the way the brain is attempting to heal areas than we do from the actual damage itself. (
  • We like to think we have a higher level of sensitivity," she added, especially to people with disabilities such as TBI-brain damage that is suffered as a result of war, stroke or accident. (
  • And although these injuries are linked to long-term psychological and mental problems , medical experts lack the means to detect any resulting physical damage. (
  • When Faden injured the brains of sedated mice, the microparticles spread well beyond the site of damage. (
  • Damage to an area near the center of the brain, several inches behind the eyes, transforms the way people make moral judgments in life-or-death situations, scientists are reporting. (
  • Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. (
  • This opens the door to kernicterus -- and, in turn, brain damage. (
  • Before people knew that high levels of bilirubin could cause brain damage. (
  • In severe cases, babies can receive blood transfusions to get rid of the bilirubin before it has a chance to damage their brains. (
  • So when her bilirubin levels spiked, Lexi began to suffer from brain damage without doctors or her parents knowing. (
  • But the brain damage that Lexi suffered was highly specific to an area known as the globus pallidus, which is crucial in controlling voluntary movements. (
  • Throughout life, most children bump or hit their heads more than once without causing damage to the brain. (
  • These included those with injuries ranging from minor, without loss of consciousness, to major, with severe neurologic damage. (
  • The long-term effect of brain damage is of increasing concern to our military because of the very common brain traumas suffered by our service members in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • Despite decades of research, no treatments yet target the underlying pathophysio-logical cause of progressive brain damage. (
  • Jennett B, Bond M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. (
  • Can exposure to even one blast result in brain damage that persists and progresses? (
  • We found the same changes (the same damage to the brain) in veterans just as we did in athletes," said Dr. Ann McKee, a study co-author and director of the Neuropathology Service for VA New England Healthcare System. (
  • What the mouse study does is ask a very specific question lingering in the field, which is, can exposure to even a single blast result in brain damage that persists and possibly progresses? (
  • That's because of the proliferation of roadside bombs in Iraq and improved body armor that shields troops from lethal wounds but can do nothing about the violent jolts to even helmeted heads that can damage the brain as it bounces off the inside of the skull. (
  • Do spinal cord injuries cause subsequent brain damage? (
  • Baltimore, Md., November 14, 2014--Most research on spinal cord injuries has focused on effects due to spinal cord damage and scientists have neglected the effects on brain function. (
  • It was thought, however, such brain damage only developed after a long professional career. (
  • Microcephaly is not the sole finding, but is a consequence of several brain injuries," they wrote, noting that their analysis offers a "more complete picture of the severe damage and developmental abnormalities caused by Zika infection than has been previously reported. (
  • There was variable damage as well, but overall there was a common pattern of brain atrophy and changes that were associated with disturbances in neuronal migration. (
  • The pattern is different from brain damage caused by car crashes, drug overdoses or collision sports, and may be the never-before-reported signature of blast injuries suffered by soldiers as far back as World War I. (
  • Soldiers have struggled with bomb-induced brain damage since 1914, when German and Allied forces tried to blast one another out of entrenched positions with monthslong bombardments. (
  • Concussion describes a brain injury where, after an injury, there are functional changes that occur in how the brain works but no structural damage can be seen on standard imaging tests like CT scan . (
  • With concussion, function may be interrupted while there is no structural damage to the brain. (
  • The purpose of the physical examination is to look for abnormalities that would point to bleeding in the brain or to a neck injury and spinal cord damage. (
  • The damage can be focal (confined to one area of the brain) or diffuse (happens in more than one area of the brain). (
  • What causes bruising and internal damage to the brain? (
  • Head injury is a broader category that may involve damage to other structures such as the scalp and skull. (
  • In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, a variety of events following the injury may result in further injury. (
  • Traumatic brain injury is defined as damage to the brain resulting from external mechanical force, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, impact, blast waves, or penetration by a projectile. (
  • Brain function is temporarily or permanently impaired and structural damage may or may not be detectable with current technology. (
  • This journal covers all topics of research and clinical practice, pertaining to brain damage in adult and pediatric populations. (
  • Upon regaining consciousness, the effects and symptoms are often similar to that of a traumatic brain injury, depending on severity of the injury. (
  • While the severity of the injury certainly plays a role in this, there is still a lot of uncertainty - you frequently have two patients with similar injuries who have different recoveries. (
  • Treatment for TBI depends on the type, location, and severity of the injury. (
  • Depending on the severity of the injury, the victim may no longer be able to work. (
  • They assess the severity of the injury by checking eye responses, verbal responses, motor responses, and mobile ability. (
  • The duration of loss of consciousness can also affect the severity of the injury, which may be ranked as either mild, moderate, or severe. (
  • A: Activities that can be difficult depend on the nature and severity of the injury, the stage of recovery, and how well they have been supported. (
  • And the DoD says that up to 20 percent of American soldiers may suffer from "mild traumatic brain injuries. (
  • An estimated 10 to 20 percent of all deployed troops have experienced mild traumatic brain injuries as a result of such blasts. (
  • Hundreds of thousands of American troops have suffered some form of traumatic brain injury from the shockwave of explosions in Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • Brain injuries caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices, rocket-propellant grenades, or land mines in Iraq and Afghanistan are a major concern for the U.S. military. (
  • Concerned that the most talked-about injury of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars is being overlooked, the Hospital for Special Care in New Britain has started offering free screenings to veterans for symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury. (
  • The military medical system is failing to diagnose brain injuries in troops who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • Building 805 was supposed to house a clinic for traumatic brain injury, often called the signature wound of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • Previously, NPR and ProPublica reported that the military has failed to diagnose brain injuries in troops who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • The Guardian reports that the Ministry of Defence has just started a major study into traumatic brain injury (TBI) in British troops returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have actually helped U.S. surgeons advance their techniques in treating traumatic brain injuries, Mayer said. (
  • Doc-tors and reha-bil-i-ta-tion spe-cial-ists have learned a great deal from the treat-ment of trau-mat-ic brain injuries in com-bat vet-er-ans of Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • The goal of the project, still in its early stages, is to treat some of the more than 280,000 troops who have suffered brain injuries since 2000, including in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. (
  • The brains of some Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans who survived blasts from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and died later of other causes show a distinctive honeycomb pattern of broken and swollen nerve fibers throughout critical brain regions, including those that control executive function. (
  • We can link these connectivity changes in the brain to poor top-down emotional processing and greater maladaptive rumination, or worrying, in symptomatic depressed soldiers after mTBI,' said Ping-Hong Yeh , Ph.D., scientist and physicist at the National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Md. (
  • According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, 352,619 service members worldwide have been diagnosed with TBI since 2000, the majority of these cases being mTBI. (
  • Dr. Lip-ton pio-neered the use of MRI tech-nol-o-gy to detect mild trau-mat-ic brain injuries (mTBI) from con-cus-sions. (
  • TBI can be classified based on severity (ranging from mild traumatic brain injury [mTBI/concussion] to severe traumatic brain injury), mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). (
  • A full recovery from severe anoxic or hypoxic brain injury is rare, but many patients with mild anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries are capable of making a full or partial recovery. (
  • They scanned the patients' brain two to five months after the injury and then again 12 months later. (
  • Additionally, they examined the patients' brain using an electroencephalogram as they were completing a pattern-matching task that focused on the time it takes for their brain to transfer information from one hemisphere to another. (
  • Experts believe about 100,000 to 300,000 patients with traumatic brain injury may be in a minimally conscious state. (
  • Judging from the results, we are very encouraged about the potential of this technology to improve the function of these brain-injured patients," he said. (
  • Thirty-seven patients with head injury that was not complicated by significant hemorrhage or superficial laceration of the brain had coma or severe dementia, spastic quadriparesis, incontinence and autonomic dysfunction. (
  • The new findings, reported July 31 in the journal Brain , suggest that blocking the spread of abnormal tau proteins after brain injury may reduce patients' risk of long-term brain problems. (
  • Emory's traumatic brain injury (TBI) program is an acute rehabilitation program specifically geared toward comprehensive treatment and care for patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. (
  • Patients treated by physicians of the TBI program typically have brain injuries sustained from an auto accident, fall, sports-related or other injury, or assault. (
  • Here's an analogy I use with patients to describe what happens during a concussion: Your brain is like jello in the skull. (
  • This book is a practical, comprehensive guide to the treatment of patients (both adults and children) with such injuries, from the time of initial contact through to the rehabilitation center. (
  • The study, called ProTECT III (Progesterone for Traumatic brain injury - Experimental Clinical Treatment), will enroll 1,140 patients over five years at 17 medical centers in 15 states. (
  • In an earlier pilot clinical trial, says Wright, "We found evidence that progesterone is not only safe for use in patients suffering from traumatic brain injuries. (
  • we found signs that progesterone improved functional outcomes and reduced disability in patients with moderate brain injury. (
  • Under special rules the Food and Drug Administration created for ProTECT III, called "Exception from Informed Consent," patients may get the progesterone hormone without consent of next-of-kin, in large part because success of the drug is highly dependent on being administered to the patient as quickly as possible after sustaining a brain injury. (
  • About 80% of patients with traumatic brain injuries receive treatment and are released from an emergency department. (
  • Brain injury is the signature of modern warfare, and surgeons faced with a plethora of patients from missiles, blasts and explosions have developed a better understanding of how to help the brain heal. (
  • They have found that 85% of brain injury patients recover within 3 months. (
  • Patients with trau-mat-ic brain injuries are not ben-e-fit-ing from recent advances in cog-ni-tive neu-ro-science research - and they should be, sci-en-tists report in a spe-cial issue of Cur-rent Opin-ion in Behav-ioral Sci-ences. (
  • Daily doses of a drug used to treat Parkinson's disease significantly improved function in severely brain-injured people thought to be beyond the reach of treatment, scientists reported on Wednesday, providing the first rigorous evidence to date that any therapy reliably helps such patients. (
  • divided the patients into two groups, carefully matched for the severity of their injuries. (
  • The study, which used magnetic resonance imaging to compare healthy subjects' brains with those of patients a year after a mild traumatic brain injury, indicated that those with such injuries had shrinkage in brain regions that are key to memory, executive function and mood regulation. (
  • With no proven remedies to rely on, doctors have used a variety of medicines approved for other ailments in the hopes that they would help brain injury patients. (
  • The study didn't include those with penetrating head injuries, like the gunshot wound former Rep. Gabrielle Giffords suffered, but Giacino said the drug should have similar effects in those patients. (
  • Most patients are unaware that they have sustained a concussion and may not connect their symptoms with a head injury. (
  • Occur when oxygen-carrying blood cannot reach the brain, resulting in oxygen deprivation. (
  • They also can occur when an object, like a bullet or piece of skull, pierces your brain. (
  • Secondary injuries can also occur including cerebral infection, swelling, bleeding, and increased intracranial pressure. (
  • Studies have shown head injuries are more likely to occur in the spring and summer months and on weekends, when children are most active outdoors. (
  • Finding treatments for those injuries that do occur will depend on better understanding the complex cellular events triggered by a brain injury. (
  • Head and brain injuries can occur at any age. (
  • As you can see the brain is well protected, however, traumatic brain injuries continue to occur. (
  • The Defense Department has a group of specialist that are looking at brain injury, even though 84% of these injuries to troops do not occur while they are on deployment, but at home. (
  • But little research has examined whether these problems occur after spinal cord injuries," said UM SOM anesthesiology professor and noted neurobiologist Alan Faden, MD, who led the study. (
  • These protections allow it to withstand many of the minor injuries that occur in day-to-day life. (
  • Support from National Accident Helpline will help the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust to continue providing vital services to those who suffer an acquired brain injury and their families. (
  • The injuries, which don't show up with standard imaging techniques, may help explain why some soldiers suffer long-term problems after such injuries. (
  • Nonfatal traumatic brain injuries account for one in 10 emergency department visits, and annually nearly 700,000 children and teens suffer from them. (
  • But TBI must continue to be studied so that effective treatments can be found for the approximately 230,000 people each year who suffer head injuries that require hospitalization. (
  • Depending on what area of the brain is injured, people with brain injuries may suffer from poor short-term memory and difficulty with organization, concentration, and judgment. (
  • Each year, an estimated 1.7 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury. (
  • One of the best ways to learn more is to study the brains of troops killed in action. (
  • But emerging research shows that traumatic brain injuries may have long-term effects on troops of all ages. (
  • Since 2009, the Pentagon has required troops suspected of having head injuries to rest immediately after blast exposure, a crucial period when brains can often heal themselves, doctors say. (
  • The official figures on TBI in American troops are based only on cases involving a penetrative head wound, and evidence published earlier this year in the Journal of Neurosurgery suggests that the high pressure shock waves generated by improvised explosive devices can cause "invisible" closed head injuries which may go undiagnosed for many years. (
  • As a result, more troops are surviving injuries suffered in Iraq than in previous wars, but more troops are surviving with permanent injuries. (
  • It is absolutely inexcusable that lawmakers would slash funding during a time of war for a research center that is earning its keep by addressing the exact types of injuries our troops are suffering," said Jim Mueller of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. (
  • There is a huge amount of research taking place at this time to try to prevent head injuries for our troops, football players, lacrosse players, skiers and motorcycle enthusiasts, to name just a few. (
  • The Department of Veterans Affairs estimates it will spend $4.2 billion to care for former troops with brain injuries between fiscal 2013 and 2022. (
  • Since amantadine is so commonly used, he said U.S. troops with severe brain injuries in Iraq or Afghanistan probably get it, or should get it now. (
  • Together, the two criteria may be able to capture most brain injuries and skull fractures occurring in automotive or any other impact environment. (
  • Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to six-fold, according to a large Swedish study that followed millions of people age 50 or older for decades. (
  • Many studies have tried to confirm a link between brain injury and later dementia, but they have had mixed results, the authors note. (
  • During the first year after a mild head injury, the risk of developing dementia was 3.52 times higher than for people who had no TBI. (
  • In the future he hopes that scientists will learn whether there are different types of dementia that arise from a TBI, or if the injury causes a unique type of dementia. (
  • WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A single traumatic brain injury can raise a person's risk of dementia , a new study suggests. (
  • Tiny particles secreted in response to head injury in the brains of mice could help explain how inflammation spreads and ultimately boosts the risk of developing dementia. (
  • The effect of these particles in driving inflammation even in animals without traumatic brain injury is convincing," says Marie-Ève Tremblay of Laval University in Québec, Canada, who last year discovered unusual microglia that could be linked with dementia. (
  • Certain types of traumatic brain injury may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's or another form of dementia years after the injury takes place. (
  • He searches for the consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI), in order to confirm a possible link to later dementia in the aging population and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in football players. (
  • The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or DARPA, is focused on wounded veterans, although some research may benefit others such as seniors with dementia or athletes with brain injuries, said Geoff Ling, a physician and deputy director of DARPA's Defense Sciences office. (
  • Such changes represent the basic pathology of all head injury. (
  • This is a closed head injury. (
  • Contact a doctor if someone you know has a head injury and acts strange. (
  • Pediatric head injury. (
  • The children's orientation and amnesia test: Relationship to severity of acute head injury and to recovery of memory. (
  • Age and recovery from head injury in children: Developmental issues. (
  • Neurobehavioral recovery from head injury (pp. 279-291). (
  • Epidemiology of pediatric closed head injury: Incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors. (
  • Long term psychosocial outcomes after mild head injury in early childhood. (
  • Comparison of the Westmead PTA Scale and the Glasgow Coma Scale of predictors of neuropsychological outcome following extremely severe blunt head injury. (
  • Closed-head injury. (
  • The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. (
  • But how do you know when to seek medical treatment for a head injury? (
  • Keep in mind, "head injury" and "brain injury" are not necessarily the same thing - not every head injury will impact the brain. (
  • He was then permitted to return to Iraq, at his own request, where he had a second, potentially devastating head injury. (
  • One of the worst fears parents have is getting a call from school, from a coach, from highway patrol, or even witnessing themselves that their child suffered a head injury. (
  • Of the 14.3 million children studied, 32% underwent CT (computed tomography) scans of the brain if being evaluated for a head injury. (
  • These signs and symptoms may take 24-48 hours after a head injury to present. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability and mortality. (
  • Cerebral involvement in head injury. (
  • what's known as a closed-head injury -- or from a bullet or shrapnel that penetrates the brain. (
  • Parents may be more aware of the need to get medical attention if a child has a head injury. (
  • A common myth is that unless you've suffered complete loss of consciousness, you didn't have a concussion or significant head injury, but this simply isn't true, Engle says. (
  • A 15-year-old girl with him was treated for a broken arm and head injury. (
  • Studies of football players find that most of those affected were not aware that they had sustained a head injury . (
  • Being knocked out (loss of consciousness) or having a seizure after a head injury are not common and may be very dramatic, but these two symptoms do not predict the severity of the concussion. (
  • What causes a head injury? (
  • There are many causes of head injury in children and adults. (
  • However, the terms head injury and brain injury are often used interchangeably. (
  • Mechanism-related classification divides TBI into closed and penetrating head injury. (
  • A penetrating, or open, head injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and breaches the dura mater, the outermost membrane surrounding the brain. (
  • Chapters are organized by molecular aspects and neuroprotective strategies by disease, including ischemic injury, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (
  • The finding comes as the family of the late football star Junior Seau filed a suit Wednesday against the National Football League (NFL), claiming the linebacker's suicide last year was the result of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a degenerative brain disease the family contends he obtained from the violent hits to the head he sustained while playing football. (
  • Moore conducted a similar study at the Walter Reed Army Hospital in 2009 , using DTI to study the brains of injured U.S. military personnel, on average about 80 days after a blast event. (
  • Reasons for the brain injury included traffic accidents as well as falls from skateboards or bikes. (
  • Sam Porteous, chief executive of National Accident Helpline, said: "In the past three years more than 500 people and their families have approached us seeking access to justice after brain injuries or accidents. (
  • But for accidents or injuries that result in a significant impact to the head, adults should be ready to recognize the most common physical signs of a concussion. (
  • The tool could be useful in diagnosing brain injury from accidents or conditions caused by diseases. (
  • While more protective headgear during sports and child safety seats in cars has resulted in a decrease in the numbers of severe head injuries on playing fields and in motor vehicle accidents, head injuries in children continue to be a concern, not only in frequency, but in how to manage them. (
  • Brain injury" refers to any brain injury sustained after birth, including traumatic types of injuries (like falls, car accidents, gun shot wounds, etc. (
  • In Tennessee, the three leading causes of TBI are falls, motor vehicle accidents and homicide or violent injuries. (
  • In the brains of people killed in car accidents, the swellings are large and bulb-shaped. (
  • Closed brain injuries are usually caused by car accidents, falls, and increasingly, in sports. (
  • The most common injuries are from motor vehicle accidents (where the person is either riding in the car or is struck as a pedestrian), violence, falls, or as a result of shaking a child (as seen in cases of child abuse). (
  • The 38-year-old man is the first person in a minimally conscious state to be treated with deep-brain stimulation, a treatment that uses a pacemaker and two electrodes to send impulses into a part of the brain regulating consciousness. (
  • An undated X-Ray image of a patient with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) leads implanted. (
  • Lexi, 7, headed into an operating room at Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center for deep brain stimulation , a form of brain surgery that is currently not allowed on children younger than 7 in the United States. (
  • Will Deep Brain Stimulation Offer Hope? (
  • Lexi may very well represent the first case in which a deep brain stimulation procedure is being used to treat someone with kernicterus, brain experts said. (
  • Medtronic already sells implants used in deep brain stimulation treatment to reduce some symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other neurological conditions. (
  • Understanding the mechanism linking an acute mechanical event to a progressive, degenerative brain disease would help the development of new therapies. (
  • Data from the Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy at Boston University suggests that multiple traumatic brain injuries during one's youth may be linked to degenerative brain disease later in life. (
  • Experiments in pigs have shown that PEG-TB reduces the degree of inflammation resulting from traumatic brain injuries "It shows that in principle, the concept of neutralising them could be effective," says Faden. (
  • Those odds were still significantly higher, however, for people with a history of TBI even 30 years after the injury when compared to people who had never experienced TBI, the study team reports in PLoS ONE. (
  • His awakening may change the way doctors think about people with severe brain injuries, who are largely unresponsive but still have some level of consciousness. (
  • We have to do more research, obviously, but I think down the line it will change the way we are treating or even looking at people with severe brain injury. (
  • However, many people with mild TBI remain conscious after the injury. (
  • BIRT helps people regain the skills lost as a result of brain injury, whether caused by road accident, assault, stroke or illness. (
  • NAH is the UK's leading free advisory service for people who have suffered an injury as a result of an accident and who are looking to claim compensation. (
  • BIRT is a leading European provider in specialist brain injury rehabilitation, supporting people to regain lost skills and independence and rebuild their lives following acquired brain injury, caused typically by road accident, assault, stroke or disease. (
  • To really understand blast injuries, Perl needs to look at the brains of people killed at war. (
  • Some of the people with in-demand workplace skills who need certain accommodations are people-including military veterans-with traumatic brain injury (TBI). (
  • Employers considering hiring people with TBI need to understand that the severity of injuries ranges widely, Loy said. (
  • Mysterious particles a micrometre in diameter have previously been found in the spinal fluid of people with traumatic brain injury, but their function has remained unknown. (
  • In a new study, people with this rare injury expressed increased willingness to kill or harm another person if doing so would save others' lives. (
  • the results cannot predict how people with or without brain injuries will act in real life-or-death situations. (
  • People have heard about brain injury but they really don't think about until it happens to them, which at that point it is all they or anyone they know can talk about. (
  • Crowdfunding can provide a way for people in this situation to effectively raise money to help pay for the costs associated with the treatment or recovery from treatment of brain injuries. (
  • Every day, 153 people in the U.S. die from injuries that include TBI, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, even early in life, may increase the risk for Alzheimer's in some people. (
  • 1 . What would you like people to know about brain injury? (
  • 6 . Do you have any advice or suggestions for other people and their families who are dealing with a brain injury? (
  • In Tennessee, about 7,500 people a year are admitted to the hospital for traumatic brain injury. (
  • An estimated 80 to 90 percent of people have had some form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). (
  • My focus] was … the neuroreparative aspects of brain injury and spinal cord injury, as well as the more humanistic side of understanding people, the stories of what make us who we are and the mindset of healing, and how very [important] that is to recovery. (
  • DARPA's envisioned brain probe may one day help such people as Thomas Green III, who said he was driving a five-ton truck in Iraq in 2004 when it hit a roadside bomb, then flipped 10 times. (
  • For example, the brain implant might enable people to recall how to drive cars, tie their shoes and perhaps eventually operate machinery or fly planes, he said. (
  • And there's no reason to doubt that this therapy would also be effective in people with less severe brain injuries" than in the study. (
  • their injuries were recent, and in the first year after a traumatic brain injury most people recover some function, even if they do not always regain full awareness later on, scientists say. (
  • brains to those of 24 people who died of a range of causes, including motor vehicle crashes, opiate overdoses and heart attacks . (
  • But about 52,000 people with brain injuries die each year and 275,000 are hospitalized, many with persistent, debilitating injuries, according to government figures. (
  • Aphasia can happen to people who have endured serious brain injuries or strokes . (
  • I think the problem is that as soon as people learn that I have a brain injury, many don't believe that I can do what I say I can do. (
  • Hopefully the potential impact of head injuries with respect to long term outcomes will be a little more in the spotlight as a result of the study," coauthor Peter Nordstrom of the department of community medicine and rehabilitation at Umea University told Reuters Health by email. (
  • I am a PhD in Psychology and Social Work who practices at a nonprofit medical center near Ann Arbor, Mich. We have an acute rehabilitation service, which historically has included a certified traumatic brain injury program (both in patient acute hospital based and outpatient). (
  • Rezai and a team of specialists from the JFK Johnson Rehabilitation Institute-Center for Head Injuries in Edison, New Jersey, and the Weill Cornell Medical College in New York detailed the patient's progress in the journal Nature. (
  • Overall, I would say the study fits nicely into the growing body of literature that says amateur sports can be dangerous," says David Burke, MD, director of the Inpatient Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital in Boston. (
  • This is accomplished through clinical supervision with the ABI Community Services Clinical Supervisor, monthly CIS leadership meetings, and on-going training specific to Acquired Brain Injury treatment and rehabilitation. (
  • BIRT is a division of The Disabilities Trust and the means by which it delivers its brain injury rehabilitation services. (
  • Evidence on social cognition rehabilitation following brain injury is sparse. (
  • We consider recent developments made in the rehabilitation of executive function and social cognition following adult acquired brain injury (ABI). (
  • Deep venous thrombosis: incidence on admission to a brain injury rehabilitation program. (
  • Members of the inpatient rehabilitation team participate in community outreach opportunities to educate children, adolescents and their families about signs and symptoms of concussion / mild traumatic brain injury. (
  • Cincinnati Children's has been accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF) for our inpatient rehabilitation and pediatric specialty care programs since 1997, for our brain injury program since 2015, and for our cancer and pain programs since 2018. (
  • Nick Reed, co-director of the concussion centre at Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital in Toronto, speculates those are times of the year when children are becoming familiar with playground equipment and injuries may be more likely. (
  • But the progress was meaningful, experts said, and, if replicated, would give rehabilitation doctors something they have never had: a standard treatment for injuries that are not at all standard or predictable in the ways they affect the brain. (
  • The long-term or permanent results of brain injury may need post-injury and possibly lifelong rehabilitation. (
  • The severity of veterans' PTSD symptoms correlated with the amount of axonal injury seen on the brain scans, the study said. (
  • Hospital President and CEO John Votto said the screening program grew out of concerns that some returning veterans 'may be suffering potential long-term effects from mild traumatic brain injury and not even know it. (
  • A study by the University of Oklahoma this year, for instance, found that a majority of veterans treated at a traumatic brain injury clinic continued having headaches, dizziness and poor coordination eight years after their injuries. (
  • WASHINGTON, Aug. 29, 2006 -- The head of biggest combat veterans groups lambasted congressional action that cut in half federal funding for the research and treatment of brain injuries caused by explosions, which one neurology expert has called the signature injury of the war in Iraq. (
  • The Bush administration has requested $7 million in funding for the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center as it has done for the last several years, but in the past, Congress has given the center another $7 million, for a total of $14 million. (
  • In addition to treating combat veterans, the centers also treat other government employees, including State Department officials who have suffered traumatic brain injuries in the line of their official duties. (
  • George Zitnay, a Charlottesville brain injury expert who is a co-founder of the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, told ABC News earlier this year that traumatic brain injury is the "signature injury of the war on terrorism. (
  • According to the Department of Defense, more than 6,000 veterans have had severe brain injuries since 2000 and would potentially benefit from this therapy. (
  • Vassilis Koliatsos, M.D., professor of pathology, neurology, and psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, recently published a study in Acta Neuropathologica Communications that found survivable blasts may cause hidden brain injuries that play a role in the psychological and social problems some veterans face after coming home. (
  • This is the first time the tools of modern pathology have been used to look at a 100-year-old problem: the lingering effect of blasts on the brain,' says Koliatsos, senior author of the study that used molecular probes to reveal details in the brains of veterans who died months or years after an IED blast. (
  • In the brains of four of the five veterans who survived wartime blast injuries, the axonal bulbs were medium-sized and usually arrayed in a honeycomb pattern near blood vessels. (
  • Their presence suggests the veterans who overdosed had pre-existing brain injuries. (
  • Traumatic brain injury results from an impact to the head that disrupts normal brain function. (
  • - This 3D medical animation shows and explains the mechanism for mild traumatic brain injury, which includes concussion injuries. (
  • However, the APOE e4 allele seems to be implicated in poorer outcomes - I wouldn't be surprised if the same is true for blast injuries (properly identified as 'concussion injuries', and ranging from mild to instantaneously fatal). (
  • A blow to the head will impart rotational velocity to the brain and, depending on its magnitude, will produce effects ranging from concussion to profound neurological dysfunction. (
  • However the paper notes: "No case of death or a permanent neurological deficit following traumatic brain injury has been found. (
  • Neurological deficits and posttraumatic epilepsy are often subsequent to penetrating head injuries. (
  • They gave the players neurological tests and brain scans to look for before-and-after changes. (
  • They conclude that amateur boxing is thus a potentially dangerous sport, because of the risk of acute traumatic brain injury (ATBI). (
  • A: Professionals in emergency services diagnose a TBI in the acute state at the time of injury. (
  • A pediatric traumatic brain injury is defined as a traumatic insult or blow to the head, occurring in childhood, which is sufficient to cause an altered state of consciousness. (
  • Epidemiology and outcome of pediatric traumatic brain injury. (
  • Backhaus S. (2017) Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. (
  • Despite many educational efforts, the 32% rate of CT scans for pediatric head injuries did not decline during the nine-year study period. (
  • See Pediatric Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the signs and symptoms of TBI, determine the type and severity of injury, and initiate appropriate treatment. (
  • Most of these injuries are mild and heal on their own, but even mild TBI can have lingering effects that can become chronic unless you address them. (
  • Yaffe said the study is part of an ongoing effort by the Department of Defense and the VA to understand more about the impact of blast injuries from vets who have served in Afghanistan and Iraq. (
  • In some cases, a traumatic brain injury can lead to coma or death. (
  • The severity of a brain injury can range from a mild concussion to a severe injury that results in coma or even death. (
  • DAI usually causes coma and injury to many different parts of the brain. (
  • Mac Donald, who conducted the study with principal investigator David Brody, an assistant professor of neurology at Washington University, says the study is a first step in determining the pathology of traumatic brain injury, and in being able to diagnose the injury. (
  • A new study in the journal Neurology finds that even mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) - characterized by loss of consciousness for 30 minutes or less - can increase the risk of Parkinson's disease by 56 percent. (
  • Dr. Dan Engle, board-certified in adult psychology and neurology, and who completed psychiatric fellowships in child, adolescent and forensic psychiatry, has written an indispensable guide to recovering from traumatic brain injury (TBI), " The Concussion Repair Manual: A Practical Guide to Recovering From Traumatic Brain Injuries . (
  • He features cases where sound therapy has been used with success for children with autism, light therapy to treat brain injuries and exercise to lessen the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. (
  • However, in the largest ever study on the link between TBI and brain disease, Dr. Paul Crane and team found that TBI with loss of consciousness raises the risk for later life Parkinson's disease. (
  • Doctors have long experimented with the Parkinson's drug - amantadine hydrochloride - as well as many others to treat severe brain injuries, with mixed and uncertain results. (
  • Deficits typically reflect localization of brain injury. (
  • The medical tool can detect subtle deficits caused by a brain injury. (
  • The findings suggest new treatments for those with attentional deficits following a brain injury or during the progression of a neurodegenerative disease. (
  • A recent study by the RAND Corporation estimated that close to one in five deployed service members - or about 320,000 nationwide - may have experienced a traumatic brain injury. (
  • What are the treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI)? (
  • There are still no treatments for traumatic brain injury, though Barclay Morrison offers cause for hope. (
  • Anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries often cause an initial loss of consciousness, which can be short-term or long-term depending on severity and length of oxygen deprivation. (
  • Learn how to recognize and respond to a concussion, be alert for other serious brain injuries, and how to safely return to school and sports. (
  • The new approach is described in the journal ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering and a recently awarded abstract from the International Brain Injury Association. (
  • Steven Stice, director of the Regenerative Bioscience Center, is working with Karumbaiah on a licensed technology for commercialization of the new Brain Glue, which was recently named best abstract at a meeting of the International Brain Injury Association. (
  • The International Brain Injury Association was founded by George A. Zitnay, PhD and Martin B. Foil, Jr. following an international meeting on brain injury held at Oxford University in April of 1993. (
  • Furthermore, it is the official journal of the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA). (
  • The public should react with caution to this study and press for more research," said Donald Stein, director of the Brain Research Lab in the emergency medicine department at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, who wasn't involved in the study. (
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. -- NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell made opening remarks at a medical conference Tuesday, seeking further research and developments to combat brain injuries. (
  • Brain Injury Research in Ireland: Advancing our knowledge, growing our community. (
  • IBIA was established to encourage international exchange of information, to support research, to provide training especially in developing countries and to advocate for brain injury. (
  • This newsletter includes abstracts dealing with spinal cord injury or brain injury research, clinical treatment and/or controversies, interviews, and information regarding meetings that have international appeal. (
  • His recent research leverages the Adult Changes in Thinking Study, a collaboration between the Allen Brain Institute, Group Health Research Institute, and UW Medicine. (
  • The suggestion made by the research is that a common thread binds those exposed to traumatic brain injury, whether it occurs on the football field or in the war theater. (
  • It is the holy grail of CTE research to be able to identify those who are suffering from the syndrome early, while they're still alive," said study author Dr. Julian Bailes, director of the Brain Injury Research Institute. (
  • The research, published recently in two articles, one in of the Journal of Neuroscience , the other in Cell Cycle , highlights the close links between spinal cord injury and loss of brain function, and suggests potential treatment to prevent such changes. (
  • Before that happens, however, the Legislature should review some of the reams of recent research on concussive sports injuries. (
  • There may be a link between energy drink consumption by teenagers and traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggests new research published in the journal _PLOS ONE. (
  • The memory project is part of President Obama's BRAIN initiative, which funds research into treatments for common brain disorders such as Alzheimer's and brain injury. (
  • New research from Canada has found that roughly 1 in 5 adolescents has probably suffered a traumatic brain injury--a figure that suggests severe concussion among children and adolescents may be far more common than has been estimated. (
  • He is director of clinical research at the government's Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, which works with the military and government scientists on brain injury research. (
  • In neuropsychology research literature, in general the term "traumatic brain injury" is used to refer to non-penetrating traumatic brain injuries. (
  • Even if you don't lose consciousness and your symptoms clear up quickly, a brain injury still may have occurred. (
  • Tina Davis shares details of her spinal cord injury after a gunshot wound, and her journey to becoming a spin class teacher in Shepherd Center's Beyond Therapy program. (
  • Ischemic and Traumatic Brain and Spinal Cord Injuries: Mechanisms and Potential Therapies presents readers with comprehensive and cutting-edge information on molecular mechanisms, including the signal transduction processes associated with neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in ischemic, spinal cord, severe and mild brain injuries. (
  • CTE derives some of its notoriety from cases like that of Dave Duerson, a former Chicago Bear who shot himself in the chest in 2011 and was found to have dense clusters of tau protein permeating his brain and spinal cord. (
  • By creating a highly purified population of astrocytes and proving both their therapeutic benefits and safety, the team hopes these cells could be used to restore brain function for conditions ranging from Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy to traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy and even spinal cord injury. (
  • This is an important and significant advancement in our understanding of the overall effects of spinal cord injuries," said UM SOM Dean E. Albert Reece, MD, PhD, MBA. (
  • What is diffuse axonal injury (DAI)? (
  • Diffuse axonal injury is the shearing (tearing) of the brain's long connecting nerve fibers (axons) that happens when the brain is injured as it shifts and rotates inside the bony skull. (
  • Traumatic brain injury-related deaths from firearm suicide: United States, 2008-2017. (
  • A sophisticated imaging technique has revealed signs of brain injury in soldiers injured in explosions. (
  • The abnormalities were also consistent with computer simulations of the likely effect of explosions on the brain. (
  • Two explosions there left him with traumatic brain injury. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the number one cause of disability and death among children and adolescents in the United States. (
  • The mission of the Brain Injury Association of Vermont is to create a better future for Vermonters with brain injury and their families through prevention, education, advocacy and support. (
  • Our findings help set priorities for [traumatic brain injury] prevention programs and provide direction for the development of tailored strategies to focus on the products and activities in which age groups engage and those that pose risks," the authors write. (
  • Every year traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes 50,000 deaths and 80,000 cases of long-term disability in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • During March, in recognition of Brain Injury Awareness Month, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is spreading the word and raising awareness about traumatic brain injury (TBI) prevention, recognition, and response. (
  • A moderate or severe TBI is caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or by a penetrating injury (such as from a gunshot ) to the head. (
  • Those aged 75 and older have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury-related hospitalization and death due to falls. (
  • Moderate traumatic brain injury causes unconsciousness lasting more than 30 minutes. (
  • Symptoms of moderate traumatic brain injury are similar to those of mild traumatic brain injury but more serious and longer-lasting. (
  • Doctors classify traumatic brain injury as mild, moderate or severe, depending on whether the injury causes unconsciousness, how long unconsciousness lasts and the severity of symptoms. (
  • During the first part of the surgery, which took place today, doctors inserted a probe deep into Lexi's brain while the girl was kept in a semiconscious state. (
  • Other conditions treated by doctors of the brain injury program include brain tumors, hypoxia, infections of the brain, or weakened vessels in the brain. (
  • Doctors believe the 22-year-old former U.S. army specialist is suffering from traumatic brain injury following an explosion. (
  • Yet brain-injured soldiers at Fort Bliss have had to wait weeks and sometimes months just to get appointments with doctors, medical records show. (
  • A large portion of children with mild head injuries are seen by their primary care doctors, avoiding unnecessary visits to emergency rooms. (
  • The new report, appearing in The New England Journal of Medicine , gives doctors a solid basis to address such injuries, if not yet a predictable outcome. (
  • Many doctors began using amantadine for brain injuries years ago, but until now there's never been a big study to show that it works. (
  • We used the water diffusion patterns along these tracks to infer changes that represent axonal injury," says Mac Donald. (
  • In brains that had been exposed to blasts, we see microglial cells right next to these unusual axonal abnormalities,' Koliatsos says. (
  • Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of disability in children, but it is very difficult to predict long-term outcome and which kids might need more aggressive treatment," she said. (
  • Treatment from the traumatic brain injury program usually follows patient stabilization in the emergency room. (
  • Through Crowdfunding you could raise money for treatment and to pay expenses following treatment for brain injuries. (
  • The treatment of brain injuries, and indeed the care needed for someone who has suffered a brain injury can often be very expensive. (
  • Even when traumatic brain injury is diagnosed in soldiers, many find they have to fight to get adequate treatment. (
  • Victor Medina, a decorated combat veteran who fought to receive treatment at Fort Bliss after suffering a brain injury during a roadside blast in Iraq last June. (
  • At Fort Bliss, we found that even soldiers who are diagnosed with such injuries often do not receive the treatment they need. (
  • Brain injury-related heterotopic bone formation: treatment strategy and results. (
  • The city of Atlanta will serve as the national epicenter for a groundbreaking National Institutes of Health-sponsored trial for the treatment of traumatic brain injuries using the hormone progesterone. (
  • My work first started when I began to notice evidence that women tended to respond to treatment and recover better than men after suffering from brain injury and stroke," Stein says. (
  • Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications, emergency surgery or surgery years later. (