Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.
A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries to an extracranial or intracranial blood vessel that supplies the brain. This includes the CAROTID ARTERIES; VERTEBRAL ARTERIES; MENINGEAL ARTERIES; CEREBRAL ARTERIES; veins, and venous sinuses.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)

Optimization of magnesium therapy after severe diffuse axonal brain injury in rats. (1/4075)

A number of studies have demonstrated that magnesium salts given after traumatic brain injury improve subsequent neurologic outcome. However, given that these earlier studies have used a number of different salts, dosages, and routes of administration, follow-up studies of the neuroprotective properties of magnesium are complicated, with comparisons to the earlier literature virtually impossible. The present study has therefore characterized the dose-response characteristics of the most commonly used sulfate and chloride salts of magnesium in a severe model of diffuse traumatic axonal injury in rats. Both magnesium salts improved neurologic outcome in rats when administered as a bolus at 30 min after injury. The i.v. and i.m. optima of each salt was 250 micromol/kg and 750 micromol/kg, respectively. The identical concentrations required for improved neurologic outcome suggest that improvement in outcome was dependent on the magnesium cation and not the associated anion. Subsequent magnetic resonance studies demonstrated that the administered magnesium penetrated the blood-brain barrier after injury and resulted in an increased brain intracellular free magnesium concentration and associated bioenergetic state as reflected in the cytosolic phosphorylation potential. Both of these metabolic parameters positively correlated with resultant neurologic outcome measured daily in the same animals immediately before the magnetic resonance determinations.  (+info)

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (2/4075)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

One year outcome in mild to moderate head injury: the predictive value of acute injury characteristics related to complaints and return to work. (3/4075)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic value of characteristics of acute injury and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) for long term outcome in patients with mild to moderate head injury in terms of complaints and return to work. METHODS: Patients with a Glasgow coma score (GCS) on admission of 9-14 were included. Post-traumatic amnesia was assessed prospectively. Follow up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome was determined by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 1 year after injury and compared with a more detailed outcome scale (DOS) comprising cognitive and neurobehavioural aspects. RESULTS: Sixty seven patients were included, mean age 33.2 (SD 14.7) years and mean PTA 7.8 (SD 7.3) days. One year after injury, 73% of patients had resumed previous work although most (84%) still reported complaints. The most frequent complaints were headache (32%), irritability (34%), forgetfulness and poor concentration (42%), and fatigue (45%). According to the GOS good recovery (82%) or moderate disability (18%) was seen. Application of the DOS showed more cognitive (40%) and behavioural problems (48%), interfering with return to work. Correlation between the GOS and DOS was high (r=0.87, p<0.01). Outcome correlated with duration of PTA (r=-0.46) but not significantly with GCS on admission (r=0.19). In multiple regression analysis, PTA and the number of complaints 3 months after injury explained 49% of variance on outcome as assessed with the GOS, and 60% with the DOS. CONCLUSIONS: In mild to moderate head injury outcome is determined by duration of PTA and not by GCS on admission. Most patients return to work despite having complaints. The application of a more detailed outcome scale will increase accuracy in predicting outcome in this category of patients with head injury.  (+info)

Parkinson's syndrome after closed head injury: a single case report. (4/4075)

A 36 year old man, who sustained a skull fracture in 1984, was unconscious for 24 hours, and developed signs of Parkinson's syndrome 6 weeks after the injury. When assessed in 1995, neuroimaging disclosed a cerebral infarction due to trauma involving the left caudate and lenticular nucleus. Parkinson's syndrome was predominantly right sided, slowly progressive, and unresponsive to levodopa therapy. Reaction time tests showed slowness of movement initiation and execution with both hands, particularly the right. Recording of movement related cortical potentials suggested bilateral deficits in movement preparation. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed no evidence of major deficits on tests assessing executive function or working memory, with the exception of selective impairments on the Stroop and on a test of self ordered random number sequences. There was evidence of abulia. The results are discussed in relation to previous literature on basal ganglia lesions and the effects of damage to different points of the frontostriatal circuits.  (+info)

Cerebral blood flow in the monkey after focal cryogenic injury. (5/4075)

A focal cryogenic lesion was made in the left superior frontal gyrus of the anesthetized macaque brain. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by the hydrogen clearance technique before and during the 4 hours following trauma. Local CBF in tissue adjacent to the lesion increased in the first half hour after the lesion was made and then decreased during the ensuing 3 1/2 hours. Local CBF in the contralateral superior frontal gyrus, as well as total CBF and oxygen consumption, were unchanged by cryogenic trauma. The spread of vasogenic edema into uninjured tissue probably accounts for the observed decrease in local CBF. This experimental model may assist in discovering therapy to alter favorably the spatial and temporal profile of pathologic CBF changes in tissue surrounding an acute lesion of the brain.  (+info)

An intrathecal bolus of cyclosporin A before injury preserves mitochondrial integrity and attenuates axonal disruption in traumatic brain injury. (6/4075)

Traumatic brain injury evokes multiple axonal pathologies that contribute to the ultimate disconnection of injured axons. In severe traumatic brain injury, the axolemma is perturbed focally, presumably allowing for the influx of Ca2+ and initiation of Ca2+ -sensitive, proaxotomy processes. Mitochondria in foci of axolemmal failure may act as Ca2+ sinks that sequester Ca2+ to preserve low cytoplasmic calcium concentrations. This Ca2+ load within mitochondria, however, may cause colloid osmotic swelling and loss of function by a Ca2+ -induced opening of the permeability transition pore. Local failure of mitochondria, in turn, can decrease production of high-energy phosphates necessary to maintain membrane pumps and restore ionic balance in foci of axolemmal permeability change. The authors evaluated the ability of the permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) to prevent mitochondrial swelling in injured axonal segments demonstrating altered axolemmal permeability after impact acceleration injury in rat. At the electron microscopic level, statistically fewer abnormal mitochondria were seen in traumatically injured axons from CsA-pretreated injured animals. Further, this mitochondrial protection translated into axonal protection in a second group of injured rats, whose brains were reacted with antibodies against amyloid precursor protein, a known marker of injured axons. Pretreatment with CsA significantly reduced the number of axons undergoing delayed axotomy, as evidenced by a decrease in the density of amyloid precursor protein-immunoreactive axons. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that CsA protects both mitochondria and the related axonal shaft, suggesting that this agent may be of therapeutic use in traumatic brain injury.  (+info)

Evaluating methods for estimating premorbid intellectual ability in closed head injury. (7/4075)

OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the utility of three measures of premorbid intellectual functioning in closed head injury, the National adult reading test (NART), the Cambridge contextual reading test (CCRT), and the spot the word test (STW). METHODS: In the first experiment, a group of 25 patients with closed head injury were compared with 50 healthy controls and 20 orthopaedic trauma controls. In the second experiment, the strength of correlation between the premorbid measures and current intellectual level were assessed in 114 healthy adults. RESULTS: The head injured group performed significantly more poorly than both control groups on measures of current intellectual ability. However, no significant differences emerged between the groups on any of the premorbid measures. In the large control sample, both the NART and the CCRT accounted for about 50% of the variance in current verbal intelligence. However, by contrast, the STW only accounted for 29% of the variability in verbal intelligence. Adding demographic variables to the prediction of current intellectual level increased the amount of variance explained to 60% for the NART, 62% for the CCRT, but only 41% for the STW. CONCLUSION: The results provide supportive evidence for the use of the CCRT and NART in estimating premorbid intellectual functioning in patients who have sustained closed head injuries, but suggest caution when employing the STW.  (+info)

Frozen in time: life in the face of chronic care cutbacks. (8/4075)

Kathy Cook won the $750 first prize in CMAJ's 7th Annual Amy Chouinard Memorial Essay Contest. The deadline for entries to the contest, which is designed to stimulate interest in medical writing among journalism students, is June 1. Entries should be forwarded to the news and features editor. In her winning essay, Cook explores the frustrations and quality-of-life issues that arise in a chronic care institution that is trying to operate in the midst of serious funding cuts.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mu opioid agonist and antagonist on neurological outcome following traumatic brain injury in the rat. AU - Lyeth, Bruce G. AU - Jiang, J. Y.. AU - Gong, Q. Z.. AU - Hamm, R. J.. AU - Young, H. F.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - We examined the effects of an exogenous mu opioid agonist and antagonist on systemic physiology and neurological outcome following TBI in the rat. Experiment I: [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.1 nMol or 0.3 nMol in 5μl) (n = 10) or artificial CSF (n = 10) was administered 5 min prior to fluid-percussion brain injury (2.1 atmospheres). Motor performance was assessed on days 1-5 after TBI. The mu receptor agonist, DAMGO significantly reduced both beam-walking latency and body weight loss after injury (p , 0.05). DAMGO-treated rats (n = 5) did not differ from CSF-treated rats (n = 5) on either systemic arterial blood pressure or heart rate responses to injury. Experiment II: Beta-funaltrexamine (β-FNA) (20.0 nMol in 5.0 μl) (n = 10) ...
Title:18FDG-PET/CT in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: The Relative Hypermetabolism of Vermis Cerebelli as a Medium and Long Term Predictor of Outcome. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Andrea Lupi, Giannettore Bertagnoni, Anna Borghero, Alessandro Picelli, Vincenzo Cuccurullo and Pierluigi Zanco. Affiliation:Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale S. Bortolo - Via M. Rodolfi, 36100 Vicenza - ITALY.. Keywords:Brain trauma, imaging, prognosis, vermis cerebelli.. Abstract:Purpose: Both, the constant presence of apparent hypermetabolism of the vermis cerebelli compared to the cerebellar hemispheres in traumatic brain injury, and the presence of a good relationship between the intensity of this sign and the severity of the clinical conditions have been addressed in previous studies. Aim of the present paper is to evaluate the possible correlation between the intensity of the finding and the medium and long term outcome in a group of patients. Materials and Methods: A group of 105 patients consecutively ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), along with Rep Bill Pascrell (D-NJ) and Sen Robert Menendez (D-NJ), recently announced that CDC will form an expert panel to establish national guidelines for pediatric traumatic brain injury and concussion. This initiative was a major component of the Concussion Treatment and Care Tools (ConTACT) Act, legislation that was not passed into law but was supported by APTA in past congressional sessions. This announcement marks a positive step forward by the federal government through a united commitment by Congress and the Department of Health and Human Services to address the important issue of concussion management. The expert panel will define the need, scope, and expectations of federal guidelines for pediatric mild traumatic brain injury, including those for student athletes. The national guidelines will take into account advice from experts across the country, laying the foundation for all 50 states to implement a standard and protect young ...
The Brain Trauma Foundation is presenting a free webinar on Assessment & Prognosis in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury on Wednesday, April 25, 2012, 12-1 Eastern Time. This webinar is open to all. Survivors of severe traumatic brain injury face a wide range of possible prognoses, from nearly complete recovery to permanent unconsciousness. The ability to predict prognosis at an early point is limited, but the time until return of consciousness (e.g., command following) and orientation (e.g., duration of post-traumatic amnesia) are useful predictors in the early days and weeks. More specialized assessment techniques exist of those with persistent disorders of...
1 Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Jaw-Opening Oromandibular Dystonia Karen Gisotti DO 1, Scott Fuchs DO 1, Gilbert Siu DO PhD 1, Sooja Cho MD 2, C.R. Sridhara MD 1,2 1 Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 2 MossRehab, Elkins Park, PA ABSTRACT Setting: Tertiary care rehabilitation center and electrodiagnostic laboratory Patient: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury. Case: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury due to a motor vehicle collision who sustained a right subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury along with right orbital and mandible fractures and remained minimally responsive at admission. She had upper motor neuron syndrome, severe spasticity, and hyperreflexia with minimal voluntary control. The patient also presented with severe jaw-closing impairment, which affected her oral hygiene, swallowing mobility, and speech presentation. Electrodiagnostic studies ...
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About: Predicting Seizures In The Acute Stage Of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Blog by a compassionate yet aggressive San Francisco Injury Attorney.
Content for ASHAs Practice Portal is developed through a comprehensive process that includes multiple rounds of subject matter expert input and review. ASHA extends its gratitude to the following subject matter experts who were involved in the development of the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury page. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities Following Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Hammond, Flora M.. AU - Corrigan, John D.. AU - Ketchum, Jessica M.. AU - Malec, James F.. AU - Dams-OConnor, Kristen. AU - Hart, Tessa. AU - Novack, Thomas A.. AU - Bogner, Jennifer. AU - Dahdah, Marie N.. AU - Whiteneck, Gale G.. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. N2 - Objective: To examine the prevalence of selected medical and psychiatric comorbidities that existed prior to or up to 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring acute rehabilitation. Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: Six TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) centers. Participants: In total, 404 participants in the TBIMS National Database who experienced TBI 10 years prior. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Self-reported medical and psychiatric comorbidities and the onset time of each endorsed comorbidity. Results: At 10 years postinjury, the most common comorbidities developing postinjury, in order, ...
Aggression is a prevalent symptom after paediatric TBI and can significantly impede rehabilitation. Awareness of these predictors can aid in early identification of children at risk in order to help appropriately design rehabilitation programmes.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of the dopamine D2 receptor T allele on response latency after mild traumatic brain injury. AU - McAllister, Thomas W.. AU - Rhodes, C. Harker. AU - Flashman, Laura A.. AU - McDonald, Brenna C.. AU - Belloni, Dorothy. AU - Saykin, Andrew J.. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - Objective: The authors tested the hypothesis that the dopamine D2 receptor T allele (formerly described as the A1 allele) would be associated with poorer performance on memory and attention tasks following mild traumatic brain injury. Method: Thirty-nine patients with mild traumatic brain injury and 27 comparison subjects were genotyped. All subjects completed memory and attention tests, including the California Verbal Learning Test recognition task and the Continuous Performance Test. Results: In both groups the T allele was associated with poorer performance on the California Verbal Learning Test recognition task. There was also a significant diagnosis-by-allele interaction on measures of response ...
What is a brain injury? Brain injury can be defined as a type of head injury that is caused by rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head during which the brain bounces off the inside of the skull. Brain injury can also be caused by a car accident, gunshot wound, or other external factor. What are the different types of brain injuries? There are many different types of brain injuries with varying levels of severity. The different types of brain injuries are: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Acquired Brain Injury, Open Brain Injury, and Closed Brain Injury. An Anoxic brain injury occurs when the oxygen supply is somehow cut off, and can cause serious and irreversible damage if it\s interrupted for even just a few minutes. What are the most common causes of brain injury? Some of the most common causes of brain injury include car accidents, motorcycle accidents, slip-and-fall accidents, gunshots, stabbings, and pedestrian accidents. This also varies according to an age group, as young children ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased adenosine in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. T2 - Association with severity of injury and excitotoxicity. AU - Robertson, Courtney. AU - Bell, M. J.. AU - Kochanek, P. M.. AU - Adelson, P. D.. AU - Ruppel, R. A.. AU - Carcillo, J. A.. AU - Wisniewski, S. R.. AU - Mi, Z.. AU - Janesko, K. L.. AU - Clark, R. S B. AU - Marion, D. W.. AU - Graham, S. H.. AU - Jackson, E. K.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objectives: To measure adenosine concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants and children after severe traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the contribution of patient age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Outcome Score, and time after injury to cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentrations. To evaluate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid adenosine and glutamate concentrations in this population. Design: Prospective survey. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit in a university-based ...
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The Traumatic Brain Injury Model System (TBIMS) program was created and funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) in 1987 to demonstrate the benefits of a coordinated system of neurotrauma and rehabilitation care and conduct innovative research on all aspects of care for those who sustain traumatic brain injuries. Each Center systematically collects important data about each individual who meets criteria for inclusion in the TBI National Database and sends this information to the TBI National Data Center at KMRREC. The Centers are currently located at 16 sites throughout the United States that provide comprehensive systems of brain injury care to individuals who sustain a traumatic brain injury, from acute care through community re-entry. The mission of the TBIMS is to improve the lives of persons who experience traumatic brain injury, their families and communities by creating and disseminating new knowledge about the course, treatment and outcomes relating to
From the age of five through adulthood, trauma is the leading cause of death, and many traumatic injuries involve brain injury. Fortunately, the majority of traumatic brain injuries are mild, but nevertheless, some children will experience a severe traumatic brain injury.
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Each year in the USA, over 2.4 million people experience mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can induce long-term neurological deficits. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is notably susceptible to damage following TBI, as hilar mossy cell changes in particular may contribute to post-TBI dysfunction. Moreover, microglial activation after TBI may play a role in hippocampal circuit and/or synaptic remodeling; however, the potential effects of chronic microglial changes are currently unknown. The objective of the current study was to assess neuropathological and neuroinflammatory changes in subregions of the dentate gyrus at acute to chronic time points following mild TBI using an established model of closed-head rotational acceleration induced TBI in pigs. This study utilized archival tissue of pigs which were subjected to sham conditions or rapid head rotation in the coronal plane to generate mild TBI. A quantitative assessment of neuropathological changes in the hippocampus was performed via
The current study investigated the extent to which neuropsychological and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) parallels that of moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) recovery. A longitudinal design was employed to compare the neuropsychological and functional status of individuals with complicated MTBI and moderate TBI at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-year postinjury. The complicated MTBI group was comprised of 102 participants, each with an intracranial brain lesion documented via neuroimaging and a highest Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score in the Emergency Department between 13 and 15. The moderate TBI group was comprised of 127 participants, each with a highest GCS score in the Emergency Department between 9 and 12. The outcome measures of interest included the Functional Independence Measure, Disability Rating Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire, Logical Memory Test I and II, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test (A and B),
17, 10-13. Haarbauer-Krupa, J. (2012b). Taking care of children after traumatic brain injury. Perspectives on School-Based Issues, 13, 79-86. Halstead, M. E., McAvoy, K., Devore, C. D., Carl, R., Lee, M., Logan, K., . . . LaBella, C. R. (2013). Returning to learning following a concussion. Pediatrics, 132, 948-957. Hickey, E. M., & Saunders, J. N. (2010). Group intervention for adolescents with chronic acquired brain injury: The future zone. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 20, 111-119. Hotz, G., Castelblanco, A., Lara, I., Weiss, A., Duncan, R., & Kuluz, J. (2006). Snoezelen: A controlled multi-sensory stimulation therapy for children recovering from severe brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 879-888. Hotz, G., Quintero, A., Crittenden, R., Baker, L., Goldstein, D., & Nedd, K. (2014). A countywide program to manage concussions in high school sports. The Sport Journal. Retrieved from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ACUTE GLUCOCORTICOID DEFICIENCY AND DIABETES INSIPIDUS ARE COMMON FOLLOWING ACUTE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AND PREDICT MORTALITY. AU - Hannon, M. AU - Crowley, R. AU - Behan, L. AU - OSullivan, E. AU - OBrien, M. AU - Sherlock, M. AU - Rawluk, D. AU - ODwyer, R. AU - Tormey, William. AU - Thompson, C. PY - 2013/5. Y1 - 2013/5. U2 - 10.1210/jc.2013-1555. DO - 10.1210/jc.2013-1555. M3 - Article. VL - 20. SP - 1555. JO - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. JF - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. SN - 0021-972X. ER - ...
CC Grand Rounds: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Novel Biomarkers and Implications for Therapy
The acute phase management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and polytrauma represents a major challenge. Guidelines for the care of these complex patients are lacking, and worldwide variability in clinical practice has been documented in recent studies. Consequently, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) decided to organize an international consensus conference regarding the monitoring and management of severe adult TBI polytrauma patients during the first 24 hours after injury. A modified Delphi approach was adopted, with an agreement cut-off of 70%. Forty experts in this field (emergency surgeons, neurosurgeons, and intensivists) participated in the online consensus process. Sixteen recommendations were generated, with the aim of promoting rational care in this difficult setting.
Recovery from a mTBI can vary, however generally speaking, the severity of the mTBI will have a direct impact on the likelihood of a positive recovery. Dr Shores states, Concussion and uncomplicated mTBI generally lead to full recovery, however repeat concussions and complicated or more severe injuries can lead to long term functional impairment. Dr Shores advises caution and care when evaluating an injury, as there are dangers in both over-estimating and under-estimating brain injury severity, particularly based on duration of PTA. Duration of PTA provides a guideline to the severity of brain impairment and has been shown to be a useful outcome predictor of cognitive-behavioural-social dysfunction, with longer duration of PTA predicting a worse outcome. A careful scrutiny of the results of existing measures is necessary in determining severity of the injury. In contrast to mTBI, Moderate to Very Severe traumatic brain injuries are expected to have more permanent neurocognitive disorder than ...
Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), primary brain injury occurs during the initial insult, and results from displacement of the physical structures of the brain. Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes. Secondary injury, which is not caused by mechanical damage, can result from the primary injury or be independent of it. The fact that people sometimes deteriorate after brain injury was originally taken to mean that secondary injury was occurring. It is not well understood how much of a contribution primary and secondary injuries respectively have to the clinical manifestations of TBI. Primary and secondary injuries occur in insults other than TBI as well, such as spinal cord injury and stroke. In TBI, primary injuries result immediately from the initial trauma. Primary injury occurs at the moment of trauma and includes contusion, damage to blood ...
Brain injury can occur in different ways. Trauma is often involved, such as a sports injury, fall or motor vehicle accident. Brain injury can also occur without trauma, for example, the result of a stroke or infection.. Medical care is the first step in treatment to stabilize and promote the brains healing. For long-term treatment planning, rehabilitation plays an important role. With a long track record of experienced, specialized brain injury rehabilitation, HealthSouth has restored hope and encouraged maximum outcomes for many patients and their families.. Brain injury rehabilitation focuses on: ...
Posted by Nigel on August 1, 2016 in Health , 0 comments. The brain is perhaps the most important organ in the human body. This is why it is located at the top portion of our head. The brain is the control center of all human activities such as thinking, judgment, and emotional reactions. For this reason, brain injuries can have a huge impact on the life of an individual. Such injuries will usually require intensive and long term care.. In general, the effect of a brain injury is partially dependent on its location. The more areas that are affected, the more severe the injury will be. Traumatic brain injuries for instance usually affect multiple areas of the brain. Let us now take a look at how brain injuries can affect functioning.. Physical Effects People who suffer from traumatic brain injury can regain their ability to walk and use their hands within 6 - 12 months after injury. In most instances, the individual can resume work and drive their cars. However, long term physical effects of TBI ...
Brain injury or damage is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injury can be caused by a variety of internal and external factors. A common category is traumatic brain injury that occurs after head damage from an outside source. Mild traumatic brain injury may cause temporary dysfunction of brain cells. More serious traumatic brain injury can result in more extensive physical damage to the brain that can lead to long-term complications or death. Loss of brain function can also be caused by stroke, a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain, which deprives brain tissue of oxygen and food and causes consequent brain cell death.. Feinstein Institute researchers are studying different aspects of brain injury. They are developing smart catheters, the next generation of monitoring devices that will allow clinicians to continuously measure functional parameters in the injured brain during surgery. They are studying recovery from central nervous system injury, like spinal cord ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI, physical trauma to the brain) can cause a variety of complications, health effects that are not TBI themselves but that result from it. The risk of complications increases with the severity of the trauma; however even mild traumatic brain injury can result in disabilities that interfere with social interactions, employment, and everyday living. TBI can cause a variety of problems including physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral complications. Symptoms that may occur after a concussion - a minor form of traumatic brain injury - are referred to as post-concussion syndrome. Generally, there are six abnormal states of consciousness that can result from a TBI: Stupor is a state of partial or near complete unconsciousness in which the patient is lethargic, immobile, and has a reduced response to stimuli. Coma is a state in which the patient is totally unconscious and cannot be aroused even with strong stimuli. Persistent vegetative state is a condition in which ...
Patients who are hospitalized and who have suffered mild TBI (loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia; Glasgow Coma Score 13-15; admitted within 24 hours of injury; able to read, speak, and understand English) who do not have pre-injury dementia or significant cognitive impairment will undergo computerized neuropsychologic testing using a previously validated tool that has been effective in sports-related mild TBI. Sequential testing will be performed during recovery and patients who report disabling symptoms and/or functional impairment will be compared to patients who recover uneventfully. Goal is to identify those parameters that predict early who may suffer long term sequelae or functional impairment and therefore benefit from early cognitive rehabilitation. Secondary goals are to establish objective parameters for functional recovery after mild TBI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuroimaging in Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Mu, Weiya. AU - Catenaccio, Eva. AU - Lipton, Michael L.. PY - 2016/3/28. Y1 - 2016/3/28. N2 - OBJECTIVE:: To summarize imaging findings in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. DESIGN:: Our structured review of the literature yielded 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), 18 diffusion tensor imaging, 9 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 3 positron emission tomography, 4 magnetoencephalography, 2 electroencephalography, and 1 single-positron emission computerized tomography studies. RESULTS:: Four of the 5 sMRI studies reported decreased cortical thickness and decreased thalamus and amygdala volume. Diffusion tensor imaging studies showed abnormal diffusion within white matter tracts commonly associated with traumatic brain injury, including the corpus callosum (8 of the 18) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (8 of the 18). Resting-state fMRI studies reported a variety of functional network ...
New Book - Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Symptom Validity Assessment and Malingering - Editors: Dominic A. Carone and Shane S. Bush Publication Date: 8/2012448pp SoftcoverISBN-13: 9780826109156. Price: $75.00 USDThis authoritative volume is the first book specifically devoted to symptom validity assessment with individuals having a known or suspected history of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). It brings together leading experts in MTBI, symptom ... International Brain Injury Association - IBIA International Brain Injury Association - IBIA
Study evaluates associations between fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions with long-term functional outcome and survival in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and moderate hemostatic laboratory abnormalities. Data examined included patient demographics, several initial injury severity metrics, daily laboratory values, Glasgow Outcome Score- Extended (GOSE) scores, Functional Status Examination (FSE) scores, and survival to 6 months. Correlations were evaluated between these variables and transfusion of FFP, platelets, packed red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, recombinant factor VIIa, and albumin. Analyses showed significant correlations between poor outcome scores and FFP, platelet, or packed RBC transfusion; the volume of FFP or packed RBCs transfused also correlated with poor outcome. Several measures of initial injury and laboratory abnormalities also correlated with poor outcome. Patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and highest recorded serum sodium ...
Cerebral contusion, Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. Like bruises in other tissues, cerebral contusion can be associated with multiple microhemorrhages, small blood vessel leaks into brain tissue. Contusion occurs in 20-30% of severe head injuries. A cerebral laceration is a similar injury except that, according to their respective definitions, the pia-arachnoid membranes are torn over the site of injury in laceration and are not torn in contusion. The injury can cause a decline in mental function in the long term and in the emergency setting may result in brain herniation, a life-threatening condition in which parts of the brain are squeezed past parts of the skull. Thus treatment aims to prevent dangerous rises in intracranial pressure, the pressure within the skull. ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is said to be one of the signature injuries of the conflict in Iraq, and accounts for a larger proportion of troop casualties than it has in previous wars fought by the United States. According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, the U. S. military formally diagnosed 2,121 cases…
Traumatic brain injury patients frequently undergo tracheal intubation. We aimed to assess current intubation practice in Europe and identify variation in practice. We analysed data from patients with traumatic brain injury included in the prospective cohort study collaborative European neurotrauma effectiveness research in traumatic brain injury (CENTER-TBI) in 45 centres in 16 European countries. We included patients who were transported to hospital by emergency medical services. We used mixed-effects multinomial regression to quantify the effects on pre-hospital or in-hospital tracheal intubation of the following: patient characteristics; injury characteristics; centre; and trauma system characteristics. A total of 3843 patients were included. Of these, 1322 (34%) had their tracheas intubated; 839 (22%) pre-hospital and 483 (13%) in-hospital. The fit of the model with only patient characteristics predicting intubation was good (Nagelkerke R2 64%). The probability of tracheal intubation ...
Over the last couple years, traumatic brain injuries have become an increasingly common topic of discussion. The NFL player class-action lawsuit in Pennsylvania court may be one of the biggest inspirations for this conversation. Whatever the case, this talk has placed a particular importance on expanding medical research to better understand and treat this disabling injury.. Brain injuries frequently limit a persons motor skills and cognitive function. As such, many tasks that were simple before the injury can become nearly impossible afterward. In the wake of an accident that causes brain damage, injury victims may need to seek the assistance of Social Security disability insurance. Although these individuals may wish to continue working, the demands of maintaining full-time employment may just be too much.. According to estimates, traumatic brain injury will be the third highest cause of death and disability in the world by 2020. As this disability emerges as a more prominent medical issue, ...
Objectives. Voluntarily stopping an on-going motor response has been shown to engage a specific prefrontal-basal-ganglia (PBG) neural network. However, it is not known whether the PBG network is also crucial for other types of response inhibition such as suppressing an urge to act (i.e., habitual impulse), a common impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objectives of this protocol are: 1) to determine whether the PBG network is engaged in suppressing habitual impulses and, 2) to determine the extent to which the (PBG) neural network can account for the deficiency in response inhibition after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). The proposed studies will involve performance of simple behavioral tasks, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). tDCS will be applied separately from fMRI scans. TMS will be applied separately or concurrently during fMRI ...
BACKGROUND: Serum albumin level is correlated with outcome in various clinical situations. Albumin has multiple physiologic properties that could be beneficial in brain injury. The Lund therapy for elevated intracranial pressure uses albumin as part of its protocol and demonstrates favorable outcome. We sought to find out if albumin is associated with outcome after traumatic brain injury to justify conducting a randomized trial. METHODS: A retrospective study of traumatic brain injury patients was conducted. Characteristics known to influence outcome were included in a multiple logistic regression model to analyze predictors of poor outcome at 6 months.. RESULTS: Data were available for 138 patients. The majority of patients (65%) had a severe injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score ,9). Seventy percent of patients had a favorable outcome. Albumin levels decrease considerably from normal values in the first few days after injury irrespective of outcome. Albumin remained ,25 g/L for a longer period of ...
One of the most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury to the head that can affect brain functioning. However, traumatic brain injury involves more than getting hit on the head; it also means that the brain temporarily stops working in its usual way. A service member with a traumatic brain injury might become dazed, or see stars, or have trouble remembering what happened before or after the injury, or even become unconscious for a few seconds to half an hour ...
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A traumatic brain injury is caused by a bump or blow to the head or an injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. Often the injury seems harmless at first and the person notices they arent thinking or performing like they used to. Traumatic brain injuries can range from a mild concussion, brief change in mental status or consciousness to a severe extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia. Veterans are at high risk for traumatic brain injury and blast-related concussions. These types of injuries account for more than 65 percent of combat injuries, and of these vets, 60 percent have symptoms of traumatic brain injury.. ...
Prof. Sean Keogh, a retrieval physician, professor of paramedic science at the University of the Sunshine Coast, and CEO at Australian Air Medical in Queensland, suggested that TBI patients should be flown at sea level pressure to avoid an increase in ICP: Intracranial air is not an absolute contraindication to flying, and there is little evidence that it has ever caused a temporary or permanent neurological decline during air transport, but computer modelling suggests it may increase ICP as cabin pressure decreases. It seems sensible to fly all of these patients in a sea level cabin if possible. Arizona, US-based Angel MedFlight also subscribes to this view, as Kimberly Halloran, vice-president of business development explained: Altitude can increase ICP, which can be detrimental for patients with brain injuries. To reduce this risk, [we] might fly at a lower altitude than a standard flight, adjust interior cabin pressure, or administer medication to reduce ICP. ...
Original Research: Full open access research for Subacute Intranasal Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Promotes Neuroplasticity and Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats by Yuling Meng, Michael Chopp, Yanlu Zhang, Zhongwu Liu, Aaron An, Asim Mahmood, and Ye Xiong in PLOS ONE. Published online September 3 2014 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106238. [divider]Open Access Neuroscience Abstract[/divider]. Subacute Intranasal Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Promotes Neuroplasticity and Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. To date, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for TBI. Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the effective drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. In addition to its thrombolytic effect, tPA is also involved in neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. However, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Working memory in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. T2 - Functional MR imaging analysis. AU - Chen, Chi-Jen. AU - Wu, Chih-Hsiung. AU - Liao, Yen Peng. AU - Hsu, Hui Ling. AU - Tseng, Ying-Chi. AU - Liu, Ho Ling. AU - Chiu, Wen-Ta. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - Purpose: To analyze brain activation patterns in response to tests of working memory after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Materials and Methods: Research ethics committee approval and patient written informed consent were obtained. Brain activation patterns in response to n-back working memory tasks (n = 1, 2, 3) were assessed with functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 20 patients with MTBI within 1 month after their injury and in 18 healthy control subjects. In n-back working memory tasks, participants monitored a series of number stimuli and were to indicate when the presented number was the same as that presented n back previously. Nine (45%) MTBI patients underwent follow-up functional MR ...
Primary objective : During childhood, the central nervous system is in a state of rapid development which can be interrupted by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed to describe if and how TBI during childhood influences health and life situation, 5-8 years later.. Research design : A case-control retrospective design was employed for the assessment of 61 adolescents and young adults with a mild, moderate or severe TBI and 229 matched controls from a normative group (16-24 years).. Methods and procedures : SF-36 (Short Form 36 health survey) and a self-reported questionnaire measuring life situation were distributed to youths suffering TBI 5-8 years ago. Forty-five youths (74%) completed the questionnaires.. Main outcomes and results : Participants with a TBI stated lower self-estimated health compared with the normative group.. Remaining self-reported symptoms were physical and cognitive. Negative effects of TBI influencing school results, leisure activities and thoughts about future ...
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. This study was conducted to report the presentation, management, outcomes and prognostic indicators in a large series of patients from a tertiary care centre in a developing country. It is a review of prospectively collected data of paediatric patients with TBI admitted at our centre between July 2010 and December 2013. A total of 291 patients with a mean age of 7.2±5.0 years were dichotomised into survivors and non-survivors, and variables were compared between the two groups. The mean post-resuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score was 11.6±3.9, mean Marshall Score was 2.26±0.95 and the mean revised trauma score at presentation was 10.58±1.7. Younger age, lower GCS score after resuscitation, lower revised trauma score, absent cisterns on imaging, associated subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and a lower Marshall score were associated with higher
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence and treatment of headaches in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury. AU - Patil, Vijaya K.. AU - St. Andre, Justin R.. AU - Crisan, Elena. AU - Smith, Bridget M.. AU - Evans, Charlesnika T.. AU - Steiner, Monica L.. AU - Pape, Theresa L.. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Objectives. - To report the prevalence and characteristics of headaches in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to describe most common treatment strategies after neurological evaluation. Methods. - We conducted a retrospective cohort study. The setting was a United States Veterans Healthcare Administration Polytrauma Network Site. The study participants consisted of 246 veterans with confirmed diagnosis of mild TBI. The main outcome measures were: Self-reported head pain occurring 30 days prior to initial mild TBI screening; headache severity measured by the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory; headache characteristics; and treatment prescribed by neurologists. Results. - The ...
Traumatic brain injuries are caused by physical bombardment of the head with an object. Reported causes of these injuries include violent collisions, accidents and hobbies such as sports which may involve accidental knocking of the head.. One of the main causes of the traumatic brain injury is accidents caused by motor vehicles. Motor vehicle accidents result in sudden motions and impacts that can lead to the head being knocked resulting to brain injuries. During an accident, a persons head can be stricken, suddenly jerked, or penetrated by a foreign object (Brain 1).. If such effects pass to the brain, then a traumatic brain injury may occur. The injury may be mild or severe depending on the degree of injury caused to the brain. Mild injuries may be temporary with inflicted short time unconsciousness while a severe traumatic brain injury causes prolonged and more extreme effects to the injured person. Motor vehicle accidents cause a large percent of total traumatic brain injuries ...
Background: Optimal management of increased intra-cranial pressure following severe traumatic brain injury comprises a combination of sequential medical and surgical interventions. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a cautiously recommended surgical option that has been shown to reduce intracranial pressure. Considerable variability in the timing and frequency of using DC across neurosurgical centres reflects, in part, the lack of clarity regarding long-term outcomes. The majority of previous work reporting outcomes among individuals who have received DC following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has focused predominantly on gross physical outcomes, to the relative exclusion of more subtle functional, social and psychological factors. Aim: This paper reviews the methodological aspects of previous studies that have reported outcomes following DC and provides recommendations to guide the future assessment of recovery to enable meaningful conclusions to be drawn from the literature describing outcomes ...
Looking for online definition of Traumatic brain injuries in the Medical Dictionary? Traumatic brain injuries explanation free. What is Traumatic brain injuries? Meaning of Traumatic brain injuries medical term. What does Traumatic brain injuries mean?
In the state of Delaware, roughly eight people are treated in emergency rooms for traumatic brain injury every day, and it is estimated that more than 50,000 people die as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in America annually. According to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA), 5.3 million Americans are currently living with conditions resulting from TBI, such as neuropsychological impairments or other disabilities that affect work life, family life, and social activity. Acquired brain injury, open head injury, closed head injury, or traumatic brain injury may occur as soon as the head hits a hard surface or is impacted by an object. Brain injury can be caused by everything from a skull fracture to penetration of the skull. Additionally, acquired brain injury occurs when the brain has been deprived of oxygen for an extended period of time. In some cases, traumatic brain injury is detected well after the accident or impact occurs, and swelling and bleeding into and around the ...
Abstract Background: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) remain as an important public health problem in most developed and developing countries and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence pattern of the burden of severe TBIs among young children in Qatar and to suggest practical prevention policies that can be implemented in Qatar. Methods: The study was conducted among children aged 14 years or less at the Children Rehabilitation Unit, Paediatric Department, Hamad General Hospital. Severity of TBI was assessed by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Results: This study based on 65 children suffering from severe traumatic brain injury from January 2002 to December 2008, 12 of them died within the first month of admission in paediatric intensive care unit. The predominant gender was male (73.8 %), non-Qatari form 50.8%. In our study predominant mechanisms of injury were road traffic accident (84.6%), then falls (10.8%), other causes like
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral Hypoxia in Severely Brain-Injured Patients Is Associated with Admission Glasgow Coma Scale Score, Computed Tomographic Severity, Cerebral Perfusion Pressure, and Survival. AU - Dunham, C. Michael. AU - Ransom, Kenneth J.. AU - Flowers, Laurie L.. AU - Siegal, Joel D.. AU - Kohli, Chander M.. AU - Valadka, Alex B.. AU - Moore, Frederick A.. AU - Cohn, Stephen M.. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of cerebral hypoxia with admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, brain computed tomographic (CT) severity, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and survival in patients with severe brain injury. Methods: CPP and noninvasive transcranial oximetry (Stco2) were recorded hourly for 6 days in patients with a GCS score ≤ 8 (3,722 observations). CT score was derived from midline shift (0/1) plus abnormal cisterns (0/1) plus subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (0/1) (range, 0-3). Results: Brain CT results were as follows: ...
Samir H Haddad and Yaseen M Arabi. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2012, 20:12. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical and socio-economic problem, and is the leading cause of death in children and young adults. The critical care management of severe TBI in adults is largely derived from the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury that have been published by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The main objectives are prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain insults, preservation of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and optimization of cerebral oxygenation. In this review, the critical care management of severe TBI will be discussed with focus on monitoring, avoidance and minimization of secondary brain insults, and optimization of cerebral oxygenation and CPP.. Read full article. « Back to Special Reports ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In the United States alone, 500,000 people suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually, making TBI a leading cause of death and disability. With improved accident scene and emergency care, mortality rates have declined, with 2-4 million people surviving TBI. Patients and patient families chiefly complain about post-concussive syndrome, involving alterations in cognition, aggression, emotional stability, disinhibition, and personality. In fact, post-concussive syndrome resembles the symptoms of amygdala resection or degeneration. In light of these post-injury deficits, the proposed project initiates experimentation focused on whether a subset of symptoms that define post-concussion syndrome are mediated by damage to the amygdala in a clinically relevant lateral fluid percussion model of brain injury in the mouse. The central hypothesis is: experimental TBI damages the amygdala bilaterally. Three aims test the hypothesis: (1) to demonstrate amygdala-dependent ...
Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (sTBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. At the Department of Neurosurgery Umeå University Hospital subjects with sTBI are treated with an intracranial pressure (ICP) guided therapy based on physiological principles, aiming to optimise the microcirculation of the brain so avoiding secondary brain injuries. The investigations in this thesis are unique in the sense that all patients with sTBI were treated according to the guidelines of an ICP targeted therapy based on the Lund concept.. As the treatment is based on normalisation of the ICP, the accuracy and reliability of the measuring device is of outmost importance. Therefore the accuracy, drift, and complications related to the measuring device was prospectively studied (n=128). The drift was 0,9 ± 0,2 mmHg during a mean of 7,2 ± 0,4 days and the accuracy high. No clinical significant complications were noted.. In 1997 uni- or bilateral decompressive hemi-craniectomy (DC) was introduced into the ...
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-c …
The CDC defines a traumatic brain injury as a disruption of normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury. A traumatic brain injury is considered a type of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) which is an injury to the brain that is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative, and one that has occurred after birth. There are 3 broad classifications of TBI: mild, moderate, and severe, with such designations roughly matching the symptom severity associated with each. Even a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), however, can be significant and produce life-long challenges.. When brain damage occurs before birth, it is referred to as an InBorn brain injury which can include brain damage caused by decreased oxygen (hypoxia) during delivery and/or decreased blood flow (ischemia) to a babys brain. These events are often associated with medical error and can cause hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and cerebral palsy (CP). We see this, for ...
Early and sudden menopause can put a woman at greater risk of dementia. Studies suggest traumatic brain injury can have the same effect. Now researchers are investigating possible links between the two that could lead to preventative treatments.. David Stock, a post-doctoral researcher at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, is trying to find out if traumatic brain injury affects the timing of menopause and, if so, how.. Previous research shows that women who suffer brain injury often have disrupted menstrual cycles, including long periods of time without menstruating. Stock wants to know if brain injury might also trigger early menopause.. During menopause, a womans estrogen levels decline. Thats important because brain regions linked to forming new memories, such as the hippocampus, are chock full of receptors for estrogen. In fact, the hormone is one of the keys to the hippocampus functioning and this part of the brain is often the first to be targeted by dementia.. Men, on the other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic failure in the maintenance of long-term potentiation following fluid percussion injury in the rat. AU - Sanders, Matthew J.. AU - Sick, Thomas J.. AU - Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.. AU - Dietrich, W. Dalton. AU - Green, Edward J.. PY - 2000/4/7. Y1 - 2000/4/7. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can produce chronic cognitive learning/memory deficits that are thought to be mediated, in part, by impaired hippocampal function. Experimentally induced TBI is associated with deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation, or LTP) at acute post-injury intervals but plasticity has not been examined at long- term survival periods. The present study was conducted to assess the temporal profile of LTP after injury and to evaluate the effects of injury severity on plasticity. Separate groups of rats were subjected to mild (1.1-1.4 atm), moderate (1.8-2.1 atm), or severe (2.2-2.7 atm) fluid percussion (FP) injury (or sham surgery) and processed for hippocampal ...
FRY, Jessica D.; GREENOP, Kirston e SCHUTTE, Enid. The effects of fatigue and the post-concussion syndrome on executive functioning in traumatic brain injury and healthy comparisons. Health SA Gesondheid (Online) [online]. 2010, vol.15, n.1, pp.1-8. ISSN 2071-9736.. In this study, behavioural manifestations of compromised executive control, including perseveration and reduced inductive reasoning, on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were investigated. Performance was affected by fatigue in both a head-injured and matched population, which has implications for health care professionals involved in rehabilitation and assessment. A fatigue condition was manipulated for 15 moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) individuals through the course of a three-hour neuropsychological testing session. A comparison sample of 15 participants in a group of no history of TBI was fatigued through the same approach. All fatigued participants (with and without TBI) displayed trends towards increased ...
Free Consultation - Call (415) 292-4100 - The Zinn Law Firm helps victims and their families receive compensation for their injuries in Brain Injury and Head Injury cases. Traumatic Brain Injury Results - San Francisco Brain Injury Lawyer
Any personal injury case regarding a traumatic brain injury can be severe and emotional for all involved. It is important to contact an experienced brain injuries lawyer who has handled brain injury cases before. Hiring a brain injury lawyer can help retain a reasonable settlement, which can be difficult if you try to do this yourself.. During this challenging time, the only thing you should have to worry about is recovering from your injuries and living a healthy life. Our network of personal injury lawyers representing New York fight aggressively to ensure the responsible party is held accountable and that you receive the compensation you deserve.. Hill & Moin LLCs clients know that we will help you determine from your medical records and other evidence if you have suffered a traumatic brain injury resulting from someone elses wrongdoing. Our New York lawyers take immediate action and fight aggressively to ensure you receive compensation. We treat all our clients like family and will take ...
Br J Neurosurg. 2015 Nov 26:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]. Alavi SA(1), Tan CL(1), Menon DK(2), Simpson HL(3), Hutchinson PJ(1).. Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may develop pituitary dysfunction ...
Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4(+)T/CD8(+)T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than ...
Phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) is an FDA approved α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist that is currently used to treat symptoms of pheochromocytoma. However, it has not been studied as a neuroprotective agent for traumatic brain injury (TBI). While screening neuroprotective candidates, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death in rat hippocampal slice cultures following exposure to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Using this system, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death over a broad dose range (0.1 µM-1 mM) and provided efficacy when delivered up to 16 h post-OGD. We further tested phenoxybenzamine in the rat lateral fluid percussion model of TBI. When administered 8 h after TBI, phenoxybenzamine improved neurological severity scoring and foot fault assessments. At 25 days post injury, phenoxybenzamine treated TBI animals also showed a significant improvement in both learning and memory compared to saline treated controls. We further examined gene expression changes within the
Ali, J. I., Viczko, J., & Smart, C. M. (2020). Efficacy of neurofeedback interventions for cognitive rehabilitation following brain injury: Systematic review and recommendations for future research. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 26(1), 31-46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617719001061 Álvarez, X. A., Sampedro, C., Figueroa, J., Tellado, I., González, A., García-Fantini, M., ... Moessler, H. (2008). Reductions in qEEG slowing over 1 year and after treatment with Cerebrolysin in patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna), 115(5), 683-692. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-008-0024-9 Arciniegas, D. B. (2011). Clinical electrophysiologic assessments and mild traumatic brain injury: State-of-the-science and implications for clinical practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 82(1), 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.03.004 Azouvi, P., Vallat-Azouvi, C., Joseph, P.-A., Meulemans, T., Bertola, C., Le ...
Faculty members in the College of Health Professions have partnered with the Center for Excellence in Disabilities (CED) at West Virginia University to offer a local support group for those with traumatic brain injuries.. The support group held its first meeting Jan. 28 and continued with another Feb. 25 at the main branch of the Cabell County Library. Dr. Carrie Childers, group organizer and professor in the colleges Department of Communication Disorders, said the Brain Injury Group (BIG) was created to provide support, education and information about services for individuals with brain injuries and the people associated with them.. Future meetings are scheduled for Wednesday, March 25, and Wednesday, April 29.. According to a study conducted by the West Virginia University Injury Control Research Center, there are 22,000 new traumatic brain injury cases each year in West Virginia, Childers said. In addition, there have been 1.3 to 3.8 million sports-and-recreation-related traumatic brain ...
Purpose: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) is a signature injury of modern warfare. Unlike impact injuries, which are focal, blast-induced MTBI damage is diffuse, affecting multiple portions of the brain via impaired axonal connectivity, impairing operations involving memory, impulse control and prediction/planning (executive function.). Current MTBI testing uses highly subjective self-reporting and questionnaires. It is estimated that up to 25% of brain-injured veterans are not properly diagnosed, and may not receive treatment. Previously, we presented a saccade-based test that effectively detected decreased performance in MTBI. Here we present results for these same subjects on smooth pursuit tasks designed to evaluate executive function deficits, and compare their diagnostic value to saccadic testing.. Methods: We compared 11 controls with no history of closed-head injury, and 11 MTBI subjects involved in at least one close-proximity explosion. Subjects were excluded if they were taking ...
article{f476d972-e2ea-40d9-834f-c3cd9805e8a7, abstract = {,p,Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as key contributors to the secondary injury process after TBI. Here, pretreatment with the nitrone radical scavengers (alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) or its sulfonated analogue sodium 2-sulfophenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (S-PBN) were used as tools to study the effects of ROS on rCBF and glucose metabolism after moderate (2.4-2.6 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats. S-PBN has a half-life in plasma of 9 min and does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In contrast, PBN has a half-life of 3 h and readily penetrates the BBB. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism was estimated by using (99m)Tc-HMPAO and [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography, respectively, at 42 min (n = 37) and 12 h (n = 34) after the ...
Working in the Boston area for thirty-three years, our Massachusetts brain injury attorney has handled hundreds of traumatic brain injury cases. Many of these cases have involved brain injuries that were difficult to detect.. As an assistant professor in rehabilitation medicine at a local well-reputed university, he is extremely familiar with and comfortable with discussing medical issues with his clients. He was the Co-Chairperson of the North American Brain injury Society (NABIS) and has served as the Medical Legal Editor for the Journal of Trauma Rehabilitation for twelve years. He also has written several articles on head injuries. In addition, he has served on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the Massachusetts Brain injury Association. Our attorney in Massachusetts has recently been selected for inclusion in New England Super Lawyers magazine featuring the top 5% of attorneys in New England. He has also been designated a Massachusetts Super Lawyer for 2005, 2006, 2007, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fractal dimension brain morphometry. T2 - a novel approach to quantify white matter in traumatic brain injury. AU - Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran. AU - Das, Abhijit. AU - Zhang, Luduan. AU - Hillary, Frank Gerard. AU - Wylie, Glenn R.. AU - Yue, Guang H.. PY - 2019/8/15. Y1 - 2019/8/15. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements. Anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained using a 3 T MRI scanner ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic performance of computerized tomography scoring systems in civilian penetrating traumatic brain injury. T2 - an observational study. AU - Lindfors, Matias. AU - Lindblad, Caroline. AU - Nelson, David W.. AU - Bellander, Bo-Michael. AU - Siironen, Jari. AU - Raj, Rahul. AU - Thelin, Eric P.. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. KW - Traumatic brain injury. KW - Penetrating traumatic brain injury. KW - Computerized tomography. KW - Prognosis. KW - Outcome prediction. KW - CRANIOCEREBRAL GUNSHOT WOUNDS. KW - HEAD-INJURY. KW - CLASSIFICATION. KW - MORTALITY. KW - PREDICTORS. KW - MANAGEMENT. KW - SURVIVAL. KW - MARSHALL. KW - 3112 Neurosciences. KW - 3124 Neurology and psychiatry. KW - 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology. U2 - 10.1007/s00701-019-04074-1. DO - 10.1007/s00701-019-04074-1. M3 - Article. VL - 161. SP - 2467. EP - 2478. JO - Acta Neurochirurgica. JF - Acta Neurochirurgica. SN - 0001-6268. IS - 12. ER - ...
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In cases of chronic mTBI, accurate diagnosis can be challenging due to the overlapping symptoms this condition shares with PTSD. Furthermore, mTBIs are heterogeneous and not easily observed using conventional neuroimaging tools, despite the fact that diffuse axonal injuries are the most common injury. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to diffuse axonal injuries and is thus more likely to detect mTBIs, especially when analyses account for the inter-individual variability of these injuries. Using a subject-specific approach, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormalities between groups with a history of mTBI (n = 35), comorbid mTBI and PTSD (mTBI + PTSD; n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 37). We compared all three groups on the number of abnormal FA clusters derived from subject-specific injury profiles (i.e., individual z-score maps) along a common white matter skeleton. The mTBI + PTSD
A brain injury, also referred to as head injury or traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurs when the head is struck or hit by some external force. A brain injury most often results when there is a blow to the head in a car accident or fall. The blow need not be that hard; a minor concussion could have serious long term consequences if it damages vital brain neurons.. When the skull is seriously hit, the brain may twist within the skull. The rotation and disruption of the brain inside the skull will sever or shear the brains long connecting nerve fibers. This damage can be microscopic and difficult to measure. In cases involving mild brain injury, the effects may not be long term, but more severe brain injury can result in permanent disability, unconsciousness, and coma.. The long term effects of traumatic brain injury include cognitive deficits and reduction in physical and psychological skills. The physical deficits can include walking, balance and coordination, fine-motor skills, and strength. ...
Alert: Gov Using Traumatic Brain Injury to Criminalize Soldiers | Prepper Podcast Radio Network via Alert: Gov Using Traumatic Brain Injury to Criminalize Soldiers | Prepper Podcast Radio Network. via Alert: Gov Using Traumatic Brain Injury to Criminalize Soldiers | Prepper Podcast Radio Network.
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Oxidative stress plays a significant role in brain damage and melatonin exhibits both direct and indirect antioxidant effects. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate serum melatonin levels in children with severe TBI in comparison to critically ill children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for conditions other than TBI. Methods: Twenty-four children were evaluated, equally divided into severe TBI and no-TBI. Blood samples for serum melatonin analysis were collected at 22:00, 01:00, 03:00, 05:00, 08:00, and 12:00. Results: Mean serum melatonin peaks in children of the TBI group were higher compared to the values of no-TBI critically ill children (495 ± 102 vs. 294 ± 119 pg/mL, p = 0.0002). Furthermore, the difference was even more significant in comparison to values reported in literature for healthy age-matched children (495 ± 102 vs. 197 ± 71 pg/mL, p | 0.0001). Conclusion:
Oxidative stress, part of the secondary injury cascade of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), has been shown to have devastating effects on the functionality and conformation of essential proteins in the brain. Carbonylated proteins have been modified with the addition of excess oxygen, in turn, promoting loss of protein function. Gamma-glutamyl cysteinyl ethyl ester (GCEE) is an antioxidant precursor used in the production pathway of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant responsible for reducing reactive species. Antioxidants are free radical scavengers that can reduce reactive species through conjugation. This research is aimed at identifying proteins that are adversely affected by oxidative stress in association with moderate traumatic brain injuries. The major focus of the study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the amounts of carbonylated proteins in injured animals that have been treated with a glutathione mimetic versus those that did not receive treatment. Through these
OBJECTIVE In this study we compared the effects of early tracheostomy (ET) versus late tracheostomy on traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related outcomes and prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on 152 TBI patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≤8, admitted to Rajaee Hospital between March 1, 2014 and August 23, 2015, were collected. Rajaee Hospital is the main referral trauma center in southern Iran and is affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Patients who had tracheostomy before or at the sixth day of their admission were considered as ET, and those who had tracheostomy after the sixth day of admission were considered as late tracheostomy. RESULTS Patients with ET had a significantly lower hospital stay (46.4 vs. 38.6 days; P = 0.048) and intensive care unit stay (34.9 vs. 26.7 days; P = 0.003). Mortality rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P | 0.99). Although not statistically significant, favorable outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale |4) were higher
Over the past three decades there has been considerable interest in the use of decompressive craniectomy in the management of neurological emergencies. An increasing number of observational cohort studies have described use of the procedure, most commonly following severe traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke and more recently in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial infection and in certain inflammatory conditions. Many of these studies have demonstrated that surgical decompression can lower the intracranial pressure in the context of medically intractable intracranial hypertension and many investigators have emphasized the life saving nature of the surgical procedure. However, surgical intervention will not reverse the effects of the pathological condition that precipitated the clinical deterioration and for many years, the concern has been that many survivors will be left with severe disability and dependency. An outcome that patients and their families may find to be
OBJECTIVE: Accurate and consistent outcome assessment is essential to randomized clinical trials. We aimed to explore observer variation in the assessment of outcome in a recently completed trial of dexanabinol in head injury and to consider steps to reduce such variation. METHODS: Eight hundred sixty-one patients with severe traumatic brain injury who were admitted to 86 centers were included in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase III trial. Outcome was assessed at 3 and 6 months postinjury using the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale; standardized assessment was facilitated by the use of a structured interview. Before initiation of trial centers, outcome ratings were obtained for sample cases to establish initial levels of agreement. Training sessions in outcome assessment were held, and problems in assigning outcome were investigated. During the trial, a process of central review was established to monitor performance. Interobserver variation was analyzed using the κ statistic. RESULTS: ...
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and/or concussions can negatively affect memory, judgment, reflexes, speech, balance, coordination, and sleep patterns, particularly when more than one injury has been sustained. Additionally, repetitive brain trauma increases the risk for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicide and can lead to impulse control problems, aggressiveness, behavior and personality disturbances, and progressive cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimers disease. Both active duty service members and athletes involved in physical contact sports are at an increased risk for suffering from mTBI and may be at increased for functional decline, neurodegenerative dementia, and possible death from repetitive mTBI. Diagnosing mTBI is difficult because it does not have a standardized definition, those with mTBI often do not seek treatment for some time following the injury, an mTBI diagnosis is based on the ...
Being obese or overweight presents a health risk in the years following rehabilitation for TBI, according to the new research, led by Laura E. Dreer, PhD, of The University of Alabama at Birmingham. The findings highlight the need for a proactive approach to managing weight and related health conditions in long-term TBI survivors.. High Body Weight Linked to Health Problems after Acute Rehabilitation for TBI. The study included 7,287 adults with TBI who had undergone inpatient acute rehabilitation. Inpatient rehabilitation consists of intensive therapy, provided by a team of specialists, designed to improve physical and mental functioning. Care was provided by rehabilitation centers participating in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program, sponsored by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research.. Click here to read more.. ...
Listen to Concussions: The Many Faces of TBIs, Concussions and Brain Injury on Spotify. A journey from impact to recovery: A discovery on aiding the brain through the recovery process and the stories of courageous survivors and their families. In this community, youll discover encouraging stories and personal interviews from other brain injury survivors and get helpful tips and real life solutions to help you through your recovery process. Hear how others have journeyed and found strength to persevere through their brain injury recovery. Whether you have suffered a brain injury or are one of Gods angels and a caretaker, this podcast will assist you along the way.
Background: Clinical outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) depends on both primary and secondary brain injuries. Neuroinflammation is an important secondary mechanism, which occurs by releasing interleukins (ILs). Increased levels of ILs may affect clinical outcome following TBI. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the serum levels of interleukins 6, 8 and 10 and clinical outcome in patients with severe TBI 6 months after injury. Patients and Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study, 44 patients with GCS ≤ 8 (Glasgow coma scale) and age ≥ 14 years were included. Their blood samples were collected at first 6 hours after injury. Clinical outcome was determined based on GOS (Glasgow Outcome Scale) at 6 months after head injury. Serum levels of interleukins 6, 8 and 10 were measured using the ELISA method. Spearmans rho, independent T-Test, and Mann-Whitney Test were used for data analysis. Results: Comparing the serum levels of ...
The brain is probably the most important organ in the human body. It is highly complex, is made up of many parts, and performs many functions. The brain is unique and highly sensitive to its environment. Our brain controls our ability to walk, talk, and balance. It coordinates and regulates our body systems, such as circulation and respiration breathing. It allows us to understand and retain information, make decisions, and feel emotions.. When a persons brain is injured, it may not process or serve all of these functions as it did before the injury. All brain injuries are potentially serious injuries. Even if you believe you only have a mild concussion, you should seek treatment.. There are two basic types of brain injuries:. A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force. These can be non-penetrating (or closed) or penetrating (open.) According to the CDC, traumatic brain injury is caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head; or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...
The full video of the forum can be viewed on Facebook or on C-Span.. I personally have had the opportunity to come in contact with people who are in their teens and having neurological issues. Young people who played high school ball…Individuals who never even got to the NFL.. So The issue, while we focus on the NFL, is more widespread than anyone knows. Carson now devotes much of his time to raising awareness of TBI. He has said he would not allow his 8-year-old grandson to play football.. After the forum, Carson acknowledged his disappointment that head trauma in football, like so much in Washington these days, has become a partisan issue. Rep. Frank Pallone, a New Jersey Democrat who organized the forum along with Rep. John Conyers of Michigan, said Republicans had no interest in convening a formal hearing on the subject. And several members denounced President Donald Trump for his recent suggestion that the NFL is less enjoyable since the league began taking steps to address player ...
Methods 58 patients with TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score 3-13) were examined with MRI at a median of 7 days, 3 months and 12 months post injury. TAI lesions were evaluated blinded and categorised into three stages based on location: hemispheres, corpus callosum and brainstem. Lesions in T2* weighted gradient echo (GRE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were counted and FLAIR lesion volumes were estimated. Inter-rater reliability score was calculated. Outcome was assessed 12 months post injury using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended.. ...
This article summarized findings of current preclinical studies that implemented hydrogen administration, either in the gas or liquid form, as treatment application for neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI), surgically induced brain injury (SBI), stroke, and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain insult (HI). Most reviewed studies demonstrated neuroprotective effects of hydrogen administration. Even though anti-oxidative potentials have been reported in several studies, further neuroprotective mechanisms of hydrogen therapy remain to be elucidated. Hydrogen may serve as an adjunct treatment for neurological disorders.
Review article Urban RJ, et al. Brain Inj. 2005. Show full citation Abstract PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To review evidence that there exists a substantial sub-population of patients with endocrine disorders as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to underscore the importance of screening patients with TBI considered most at risk for hypopituitarism with the…
1: Iverson GL, Atkins JE, Zafonte R, Berkner PD. Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Nov 6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25375785. 2: Fann JR, Bombardier CH, Vannoy S, Dyer J, Ludman E, Dikmen S, Marshall K, Barber J, Temkin N. Telephone and In-Person Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Major Depression after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Nov 6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25072405. 3: Defrin R, Riabinin M, Feingold Y, Schreiber S, Pick CG. Deficient Pain Modulatory Systems in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain and Chronic Post-Traumatic Headache: Implications for its Mechanism. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Nov 6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25068510. 4: Prichep LS, Naunheim R, Bazarian J, Mould WA, Hanley D. Identification of Hematomas in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using an Index of Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print] ...
Brain and spinal cord injury[edit]. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[86] Spinal injuries occur in two ... Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis, and sub-chondral ... Autologous stem cell based treatments for tendon injury, ligament injury, and osteoarthritis in dogs have been available to ...
Traumatic Brain Injuries[edit]. A traumatic brain injury is defined as a blunt non-missile penetrating or missile injury to the ... This drawing compares a normal neuron to one undergoing chromatolysis after axonal injury. Regeneration after axonal injury may ... Associated injuries and pathologies[edit]. Although many times axotomy occurs due to intended surgical treatment, it is also ... Upon injury of a peripheral axon, the entire neuron immediately reacts in order to regenerate the axon.[3] This reaction ...
Traumatic brain injury[edit]. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), abnormalities have been shown in the PCC. Often, head ... doi:10.1093/brain/awt162. PMC 3891440. PMID 23869106.. *^ a b c d e Pearson, John M.; Heilbronner, Sarah R.; Barack, David L.; ... "Brain. 137 (1): 12-32. doi:10.1093/brain/awt162. ISSN 0006-8950. PMC 3891440. PMID 23869106.. ... injuries produce widespread axonal injury that disconnect brain regions and lead to cognitive impairment. This is also related ...
Role in cell replacement after brain injury[edit]. In their review, Romanko et al. characterized the impact of acute brain ... Mechanical brain injury also induces cell migration and proliferation, as was observed in rodents, and it may also increase ... The SVZ also appears to be involved in the generation of astrocytes following a brain injury.[7] ... While it has yet to have been studied in-depth in the human brain, the SVZ function in the rodent brain has been, to a certain ...
Traumatic brain injury[edit]. Preliminary research indicates that iron deposits due to hemorrhaging, following traumatic brain ... DeKosky S. T.; Ikonomovic M. D.; Gandy S. (2010). "Traumatic Brain Injury -- Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects". New ... NFTs are most commonly seen associated with repetitive mild TBI as opposed to one instance of severe traumatic brain injury.[5] ... and cognitive deficits induced by repetitive mild brain injury in a transgenic tauopathy mouse model. [Article]". Journal of ...
Acquired brain injuries[edit]. An acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part ... social or independent functioning and can result from either traumatic brain injury or nontraumatic injury such as stroke, ... People with a brain injury may have difficulty controlling, coordinating and communicating their thoughts and actions. They may ... However, the intellectual abilities of a person with a brain injury are likely to be interfered with by the resulting thought ...
Traumatic brain injury[edit]. The majority of findings about memory have been the result of studies that lesioned specific ... Prog Brain Res. Progress in Brain Research. 169. pp. 81-95. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00005-2. ISBN 9780444531643. . PMID ... doi:10.1093/brain/aws101. hdl:2434/211210. PMID 22561640.. *^ Langraf, S.; Steingen, J.; Eppert, Y.; Neidermeyer, U.; Elke, U ... more serious problems with memory occur due to traumatic brain injury or neurodegenerative disease. ...
Two other patients with non-anoxic, multifocal brain injuries demonstrated several isolated brain regions with higher metabolic ... after a non-traumatic brain injury or one year after a traumatic injury. Today, doctors and neuroscientists prefer to call the ... Brain Injury. 21 (1): 101-103. doi:10.1080/02699050601151761. PMID 17364525.. *. Canavero S, et al. (2009). "Recovery of ... who sustained catastrophic anoxic brain injury in the 1989 Hillsborough disaster.[3] An application to the Court of Protection ...
Sensitivity to subtle sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury". Brain Injury. 21 (1): 69-80. doi:10.1080/02699050601149088. ... Evidence is consistent with the view that Gf is more affected by brain injury.[7][8] ... Geary, D. C. (2005). The origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American ... This decline may be related to local atrophy of the brain in the right cerebellum.[26] Other researchers have suggested that a ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) or post-traumatic amnesia[edit]. Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as post-traumatic ... Evidence from a penetrating paranasal brain injury, Brain, 113(6), 1695-1706. doi:10.1093/brain/113.6.1695 ... doi:10.1093/brain/121.10.1951 *^ a b c d e f g h i Squire, L. R., & Alvarez, P. (1995). Retrograde amnesia and memory ... Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a state of confusion that occurs immediately following a traumatic brain injury in which the ...
Brain injury medicine. *Clinical neurophysiology. *Endovascular neuroradiology. *Epilepsy. * Headache medicine. *Neurocritical ...
"Brain Injury Medicine". American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Retrieved 2017-08-20.. ... Hausman K (6 December 2013). "Brain Injury Medicine Gains Subspecialty Status". Psychiatric News. 48 (23): 10. doi:10.1176/appi ... a brain scan might be used to rule out other medical illnesses, but at this time relying on brain scans alone cannot accurately ... "Neuroimaging and Mental Illness: A Window Into the Brain". National Institute of Mental Health. U.S. Department of Health and ...
... brain injuries". Health. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. p. C4. Retrieved 23 June 2018 - via Newspapers.com ( ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI). *Psychosis. *Dementia. Family dynamics[edit]. In the dysfunctional family the child learns to ...
Special education coverage was extended to the categories of autism and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In 1997 IDEA was ... multiple disabilities and traumatic brain injury. Depending on the students' individual needs, they may be included, ... Drug abuse, weapons possession, or inflicting serious bodily injury (e.g., by assaulting a staff person, student, or visitor to ... such as pushing a buzzer when they want attention or using a brain implant if they are unable to move their hands, some ...
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). *Virtual Patient Record. *VistA Imaging System. *VistAWeb. *Visual Impairment Service Team (VIST) ...
"Hysteria following brain injury". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 55 (11): 1046-53. doi:10.1136/jnnp.55.11.1046. PMC 1015291 ... During the 18th century, there was a move from the idea of hysteria being caused by the uterus to it being caused by the brain ... A number of such studies have been performed, including some which suggest that the blood-flow in patients' brains may be ... EEG brain biofeedback need further trials. Psychoanalytic treatment may possibly be helpful.[25] However, most studies ...
"Concussion injuries to the brain". Comprehensive Ophthalmology (fourth ed.). New Age International (P): 311. Hutchinson's pupil ... These can be due to concussion injury to the brain and is associated with subdural haemorrhage and unconsciousness. The ... In Stage 1, the parasympathetic fibers on the side of injury are irritated, leading to constriction of pupil on that side. In ... stage 2, the parasympathetic fibers on the side of injury are paralysed, leading to dilatation of pupil. The fibers on the ...
Injuries and treatment[edit]. Injuries to the brain can be life-threatening. Normally the skull protects the brain from damage ... Like the skulls of other vertebrates, it protects the brain from injury.[3] ... because there is no space for the brain to expand; this can result in significant brain damage or death unless an urgent ... It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: ...
People with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can display impulsive, aggressive and dangerous actions. A study in the Brain Injury ... "Effectiveness of a group anger management programme after severe traumatic brain injury". Brain Injury. 24 (3): 517-524. doi: ...
Youse, K.; Cienkowski, K.; Coelho, C. (2004). "Auditory-visual speech perception in an adult with aphasia". Brain Injury. 18 (8 ... Therefore, there is a McGurk effect exhibited in people with damage to the right hemisphere of the brain but the effect is not ... Speech is perceived by all of the senses working together (seeing, touching, and listening to a face move). The brain is often ... In people with lesions to the left hemisphere of the brain, visual features often play a critical role in speech and language ...
... mood and global quality of life in persons with spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury". Spinal Cord. 36 (4): 252-261. ... Individuals with traumatic brain injuries demonstrate greater psychological well-being and perceived quality of life if ... In a study assessing perceived quality of life in individuals with traumatic brain injury, findings indicated that the level of ... Brain Injury. 18: 119-129. doi:10.1080/0269905031000149515. Perkins,, D.; Raines, J.; Tschopp, M.; Warner, T. (2009). "Gainful ...
It is particularly helpful in assessing aggressive behaviors in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBIs). The scores of the ... version of the Overt Aggression Scale in the measurement and assessment of aggressive behaviours following brain injury". Brain ... injury. 11 (7): 503-23. doi:10.1080/bij.11.7.503.523. PMID 9210987. Yudofsky, SC; Silver, JM; Jackson, W; Endicott, J; Williams ...
"Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury: A review of diagnostic criteria". Brain Injury. 25 (10): 925- ... injury of the spinal cord, and many other forms of brain injury can cause onset of PSH. Even more obscure diseases such as ... In patients surviving traumatic brain injury, the occurrence of these episodes is one in every three. PSH can also be ... Traumatic brain injury, hypoxia, stroke, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (although further associations are being explored), ...
The most common reason for this profound change in personality is the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children, whose brain areas ... which can be caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) that means there are specific brain areas of patients, which have been ... A 6 month follow-up". Brain Injury. 14. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) "The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and ... Specifically, the symptoms of organic personality disorder can also be caused by traumatic brain injuries in orbitofrontal ...
"Quality of life after traumatic brain injury: The clinical use of the QOLIBRI, a novel disease-specific instrument". Brain ... Changes in personality are common in cases of traumatic brain injury involving the frontal lobes, the most famous example of ... Declines from premorbid levels of intelligence and other cognitive functions are observed in stroke, traumatic brain injury, ... "Personality and functional outcome following traumatic brain injury". Rehabilitation Psychology. 51 (3): 257-264. doi:10.1037/ ...
"What about theory of mind after severe brain injury?". Brain Injury. Taylor & Francis. 20 (1): 83-91. doi:10.1080/ ... Brain lesion studies show that there are differences seen in the laterality of brain that account for mind-blindness. It is ... Brain. Oxford University Press. 127 (4): 914-928. doi:10.1093/brain/awh108. PMID 14998913. Frith, Uta; Frith, C.D (October 2001 ... Patients that experienced frontal lobe injuries due to severe head trauma showed signs of mind blindness, as a result of a lost ...
"Mild traumatic brain injury induces prolonged visual processing deficits in children" (PDF). Brain Injury. 22 (9): 657-68. doi: ... "Mild traumatic brain injury induces prolonged visual processing deficits in children" (PDF). Brain Injury. 22 (9): 657-68. doi: ... autistics and those suffering from mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). Using the immersive virtual reality technologies of the ... and also those individuals suffering from mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). Professor Faubert's recent research has covered ...
Sensitivity to subtle sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury". Brain Injury. 21 (1): 69-80. doi:10.1080/02699050601149088. ... Evidence is consistent with the view that Gf is more affected by brain injury. Impaired performance on some tasks measuring ... This decline may be related to local atrophy of the brain in the right cerebellum. Other researchers have suggested that a lack ... According to David Geary, Gf and Gc can be traced to two separate brain systems. Fluid intelligence involves both the ...
suggests even lower impact energy thresholds for remote neural injury to the brain. In analysis of experiments of dogs shot in ... Courtney, A; Courtney, M (2007). "Links between traumatic brain injury and ballistic pressure waves originating in the thoracic ... In such meticulously selected cases brain tissue was examined histologically; samples were taken from brain hemispheres, basal ... Brain Injury. 21 (7): 657-662. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Courtney M, Courtney A: Review of criticisms of ...
Progress in Brain Research. Volume 122. pp. 393-412. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)62153-6. ISBN 9780444500496. . PMID 10737073.. ... "have occurred when faith healing was elected instead of medical care for serious injuries or illnesses".[78] A 2001 double- ...
Thus, a thrown hand axe would not usually have penetrated deeply enough to cause very serious injuries. Nevertheless, it could ... and brains. Upper Paleolithic cultures appear to have had significant knowledge about plants and herbs and may have, albeit ... allowing them to shrink the size of the gastrointestinal tract relative to body mass and to increase the brain mass instead.[ ...
Donkin JJ, Turner RJ, Hassan I, Vink R (2007). "Substance P in traumatic brain injury". Progress in Brain Research. 161: 97-109 ... Substance P and the NK1 receptor are widely distributed in the brain and are found in brain regions that are specific to ... Yip J, Chahl LA (Apr 2001). "Localization of NK1 and NK3 receptors in guinea-pig brain". Regulatory Peptides. 98 (1-2): 55-62. ... It is found in the brain and spinal cord and is associated with inflammatory processes and pain. ...
Severe liver injury can result from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated levels of bilirubin, hepatomegaly and fluid ... The injury of the mucosal lining of the mouth and throat is a common regimen-related toxicity following ablative HSCT regimens ... The bone marrow can be ablated (destroyed) with dose-levels that cause minimal injury to other tissues. In allogeneic ... There is now a greater appreciation of the generalized cellular injury and obstruction in hepatic vein sinuses, and hepatic VOD ...
The focal form is typically associated with injury, and is divided into two subtypes: *Primary hyperalgesia describes pain ... February 2003). "Cytokine-induced sickness behavior". Brain Behav. 17 (Suppl 1): S112-8. doi:10.1016/S0889-1591(02)00077-6. ... in rats after spinal nerve injury and inflammation". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 510 (3): 223-8. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.01.033. PMID ... tactile pain associated with nerve injury". Eur. J. Neurosci. 23 (4): 995-1004. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.04623.x. PMID ...
Physical medicine and rehabilitation (or physiatry) is concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or ... A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord. Some related clinical ... Sports medicine deals with the treatment and prevention and rehabilitation of sports/exercise injuries such as muscle spasms, ... Urgent care focuses on delivery of unscheduled, walk-in care outside of the hospital emergency department for injuries and ...
... and the brains of fish fire neurons in the same way human brains do when experiencing pain.[12][13] James D. Rose of the ... the live release of sport fish also require the use of artificial lures and barbless hooks to minimise the chance of injury to ... "different species can use different brain structures and systems to handle the same functions."[13] The position that Rose ... Rose argues that since the fish brain is rather different from ours, fish are not conscious, whence reactions similar to human ...
... brain damage and dental devastation. Cobb's injuries cost him a shot at WBA heavyweight champion Mike Weaver.[8] ... In the ensuing fight outside the bar in the street, Cobb's arm was broken and Dexter was hospitalized with several injuries; ...
diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, alleviation of or compensation for an injury or handicap, ... including deep-brain stimulators, can incorporate the ability to transmit vital health information from a patient's body to ... unreasonable risk of illness or injury and require premarket approval.[18][15][18] Examples of Class III devices include ... and may not present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury.[17] Examples of Class I devices include elastic bandages, ...
GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national ... Secondary brain tumorsEdit. Secondary tumors of the brain are metastatic and have invaded the brain from cancers originating in ... A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.[2] There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous ... "Brain Tumour Facts 2011" (PDF). Brain Tumour Alliance Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2014. Retrieved ...
Face: Weaponized brain stem. Capable of emitting a highly destructive energy blast from face. Due to the nature of his mutation ... The composition of his body means he is resistant to injury.. *Bob: Blue skinned, can create miniature duplicates from his ...
2004). 1992-2001 Census of fatal occupational injuries (CFOI) Revised data. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of ... found that reactions to psychological stressors include increased activity in the brain axes which play an important role in ... Kidd, P., Scharf, T., & Veazie, M. (1996). Linking stress and injury in the farming environment: A secondary analysis. Health ... Psychological factors are an important factor in occupational accidents that can lead to injury and death of employees. An ...
The extent of Hayden's injuries was described as polytrauma including a traumatic brain injury that resulted in severe cerebral ... On May 17, 2017, Hayden was hit by a driver while riding his bicycle in Italy.[1] He suffered a traumatic brain injury and died ... "Hayden injury to benefit Gibernau?". crash.net. August 30, 2004.. *^ "Hayden: Collarbone pretty solid". crash.net. September 15 ... "MOTOGP: WRIST INJURY FORCES HAYDEN OUT OF MUGELLO RACE". foxsports.com. May 31, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2014.. ...
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. ... Recently, EPFL's CNBI project has succeeded in making wheelchairs that can be controlled by brain impulses.[17][18] ... Unlike wheelchairs they are only suitable for below knee injuries to a single leg. The user rests the injured leg on the ... The use of reclining wheelchairs is particularly common among people with spinal cord injuries such as quadriplegia.[10] ...
Brain size was previously considered a major indicator of the intelligence of an animal. Since most of the brain is used for ... Mass strandings have been triggered by sonar activity, resulting in injury or death.[104][105][106][107] ... Comparison of a particular animal's brain size with the expected brain size based on such allometric analysis provides an ... in comparison to the average human brain which averages 1,450 cubic centimetres (88 in3) in mature males.[63] The brain to body ...
Traumatic injuries on the other hand, form scars that will not allow new scales to form and disrupt the process of ecdysis.[94] ... Reptiles are generally considered less intelligent than mammals and birds.[32] The size of their brain relative to their body ... The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are ... and protect their brains against damage by struggling prey). Skinks (family Scincidae) also have evolved a bony secondary ...
Considering the importance of genital sensitivity in helping transsexual individuals to avoid unnecessary harm or injuries to ... determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring) is discrepant with the surgical reassignment previously imposed.[6][7][8] Milton ...
... a discoordination between the bladder and external urethral sphincter as a result of brain or spinal cord injury ... Urination after injury. Occasionally, if a male's penis is damaged or removed, or a female's genitals/urinary tract is damaged ... Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ... Spinal cord injury. During spinal shock, the bladder is flaccid and unresponsive. It becomes overfilled, and urine dribbles ...
... the two signature injuries are posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). These two signature ... Neurological impairments following a brain injury can be in the form of apraxia - loss to perform purposeful movements, ... "Music interventions for acquired brain injury". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD006787. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... Rhythmic stimuli has been found to help balance training for those with a brain injury.[33] ...
"Injury. 41 (4): 329-334. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2009.08.007.. *^ Ringleb, Stacie I.; Dhakal, Ajaya; Anderson, Claude D.; Bawab, ... Many different knee injuries can happen. Three percent of knee injuries are acute traumatic patellar dislocations.[25] Because ... as injury to these structures may occur during the injury or during the reduction process.[3] Subsequent imaging studies are ... "Acromioclavicular injury , Radiology Reference Article , Radiopaedia.org". radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 2018-02-21.. ...
"Researchers One Step Closer to Building Synthetic Brain". Daily Tech. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April ... causing personal injury or damage to property. Such investigations are key to understanding, for example, the causes of various ...
This information can be processed by the brain as proprioception. The responses of muscle spindles to changes in length also ... After stroke or spinal cord injury in humans, spastic hypertonia (spastic paralysis) often develops, whereby the stretch reflex ...
Cortical blindness results from injuries to the occipital lobe of the brain that prevent the brain from correctly receiving or ... Eye injuries, most often occurring in people under 30, are the leading cause of monocular blindness (vision loss in one eye) ... Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... This is due to the fact the object needs to be approached and carefully felt until a rough idea can be constructed in the brain ...
... relieved spasm in MS patients and helped paraplegics in the spinal injuries ward of her hospital.[20] She continued to study ... publishing several articles about cannabis-induced euphoria and the effects of cannabis on the brain with co-author David J. ... Ames studied the effects of cannabis on the brain and published several articles on the subject. Seeing the therapeutic ... leading to Biko's death from his injuries on 12 September. According to Bentar & Bentar 2012, "there were clear ethical ...
The brain-to-body size ratio of psittacines and corvines is comparable to that of higher primates.[73] Instead of using the ... causing serious injury.[84] For this reason, parrot rescue groups estimate that most parrots are surrendered and rehomed ... Iwaniuk, A. N.; Nelson, J. E. (2003). "Developmental differences are correlated with relative brain size in birds: a ...
"Wrack My Brain", a 1981 US top 40 hit written and produced by Harrison,[290] and guitar overdubs to two tracks on Vertical Man ... puncturing a lung and causing head injuries before Olivia Harrison incapacitated the assailant by striking him repeatedly with ... it was reported that he was being treated for a brain tumour at a clinic in Switzerland.[196] While in Switzerland, Starr ... radiotherapy at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City for non-small cell lung cancer that had spread to his brain. ...
... one of whom who received brain injuries and left her in need of a legal guardian, after the 1986 model in which they were ... By 1995, Ford had paid $113 million to settle 334 injury and wrongful death lawsuits. A class-action settlement with owners of ...
Another psychiatric injury claim was brought to the House of Lords, White v Chief Constable of the South Yorkshire Police [1999 ... Popper said this was because the victims were either dead, or brain dead, by 3:15 pm. The decision angered the families, many ... As of 2019, he was still alive, but has been confined to a wheelchair as a result of his injuries. [69][70] ... Psychiatric injury and other litigation. Various negligence cases were brought against the police by spectators who had been at ...
... these brain-damaged patients coldly came up with "end-justifies-the-means" answers, leading Damasio to conclude that the point ... Sculpture depicting the Jain concept of ahimsa (non-injury). The fundamental principles of Jainism revolve around the concept ... another brain circuit was selectively activated: the subgenual cortex/septal region. These structures are intimately related to ... One brain region, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex/basal forebrain, contributes to learning altruistic behavior, ...
"National Museum of Health and Medicine (NMHM): Traumatic Brain Injury". Medicalmuseum.mil. Retrieved 2019-06-19.. ... Brain Awareness Week[44]. Location and hours[edit]. The museum is located at 2500 Linden Lane in Silver Spring, Maryland, one ... Balter, Michael, "Rare photos show that Einstein's brain has unusual features", The Washington Post, 27 November 2012, p. E6. ... "National Museum of Health and Medicine (NMHM): Brain Awareness Week at NMHM". Medicalmuseum.mil. Retrieved 2019-06-19.. ...
Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury. In traumatic brain ... It occurs after a variety of brain injury including subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, and traumatic brain injury and involves ... The primary injury leads to the secondary injury. Secondary injury is an indirect result of the injury. It results from ... Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes. Secondary injury, which is not caused ...
Physiological effects of mild traumatic brain injury include loss of consciousness,... ... traumatic brain injury may have a number of physiological and psychological symptoms. ... A: Brain injury in the womb causes about 70 percent of cerebal palsy cases, while another 20 percent come from brain injury ... What are some common symptoms of a traumatic brain injury?. A: Possible symptoms of a mild traumatic brain injury include ...
... and many traumatic injuries involve brain injury. Fortunately, the majority of traumatic brain injuries are mild, but ... some children will experience a severe traumatic brain injury. ... Severe traumatic brain injury is a brain injury so bad that it ... and many traumatic injuries involve brain injury. Fortunately, the majority of traumatic brain injuries are mild, but ... These steps are taken because the primary risk of a traumatic brain injury is that the brain will not receive enough oxygenated ...
... Tweet. Share. Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called acquired brain injury occurs ... Brain Injury Rehabilitation *Drug Rehabilitation Facility *Drug Rehabilitation for Teens *Drug Rehabilitation Program *Knee ... Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation *Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation *Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation Center *Rehabilitation ... Goal of a Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation program The purpose of rehabilitation programs is to reduce disabilities while ...
More than one million children experience brain injuries each year. When a child sustains a traumatic brain injury, there are ... Children with Traumatic Brain Injury provides parents with the support and practical information they need. ... Written by a team of medical and rehabilitation specialists Children With Traumatic Brain Injury is essential reading for ... Click the button below to add the Children with Traumatic Brain Injury to your wish list. ...
... testing the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2007 Dec;63(6): ... Visit the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury CenterExternal. for more information about TBI in the military for service members ... Thurman D, Alverson C, Dunn K, Guerrero J, Sniezek J. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: a public health perspective ... Masel, B. E., & DeWitt, D. S. (2010). Traumatic brain injury: a disease process, not an event. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(8), ...
There are many ways to help reduce the risk of a concussion or other serious brain injury both on and off the sports field, ... Wearing a helmet is a must to help reduce the risk of a serious brain injury or skull fracture. However, helmets are not ... Bicycle helmets reduce the risk of head and brain injuries in the event of a crash. All bicyclists, regardless of age, can help ... HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention. @font-face{font-family:Roboto;font-style:normal;font-weight:400;src:url ...
Learn more about these brain injuries from Shepherd Center. ... Anoxic and Hypoxic brain injuries occur when the brain is ... Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injury. What are Anoxic or Hypoxic Brain Injuries?. Unlike traumatic brain injuries, in which brain ... Programs Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program Learn About Brain Injury Types of Brain Injuries Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injuries ... Brain Injury Rehabilitation ProgramShow/Hide Submenu*Learn About Brain InjuryShow/Hide Submenu*Types of Brain InjuriesShow/Hide ...
Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to ... Many studies have tried to confirm a link between brain injury and later dementia, but they have had mixed results, the authors ... Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to ... damaging brain cells, leading to chemical changes in the brain, or both. The mildest form of TBI is a concussion. ...
Jim Malec, Mayo Clinic TBI Researcher in Rochester, Minn., and a member of Brain Injury Task Force, American Congress of Rehab ... The Posts blind use of the term mental retardation just branded with a hated stigma the wounded warriors with brain injury ... We have an acute rehabilitation service, which historically has included a certified traumatic brain injury program (both in ... Ronald Glasser: Originally shell shock was thought to be due to trauma to the brain ... even though a significant number of ...
... mild traumatic brain injuries. The reason this is such a problem is that soldiers are suffering injuries primarily from blasts ... The Guardian reports that officials fear that up to 20,000 UK soldiers have undiagnosed brain injuries. And the DoD says that ... "mild traumatic brain injuries." The reason this is such a problem is that soldiers are suffering injuries primarily from blasts ... The Guardian reports that officials fear that up to 20,000 UK soldiers have undiagnosed brain injuries. And the DoD says that ...
Researchers say a biomarker may be able to identify which children will have more trouble recovering from a serious brain ... Read More: Brain scan can tell PTSD apart from traumatic brain injury » ... "Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of disability in children, but it is very difficult to predict long-term outcome and ... that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the number one cause of disability and death among children and adolescents in the United ...
... watch a movie and talk with family thanks to a brain pacemaker that may change the way such patients are treated, U.S. ... A man with severe brain injuries who spent six years in a near-vegetative state can now chew his food, ... An undated X-Ray image of a patient with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) leads implanted. A man with severe brain injuries who ... A man with severe brain injuries who spent six years in a near-vegetative state can now chew his food, watch a movie and talk ...
No systematic review conclusions or evidence-based guideline recommendations pertaining to this topic and within the scope of practice of speech-language pathology or audiology were identified. Future literature searches may yield pertinent systematic review conclusions or evidence-based guideline recommendations.. Why isnt there evidence? Read about our process. What does this mean for me ...
http://www.doe.virginia.gov/special_ed/disabilities/traumatic_brain_injury/brain_injury_schools.pdf ... Mobile Aps for Brain Injury. http://www.brainline.org/content/2013/12/life-changing-iphone-and-ipad-apps-for-people-with-brain. ... Returning to School after Brain Injury (MSKTC). http://www.msktc.org/tbi/factsheets/Returning-To-School-After-Traumatic-Brain- ... BrainSTEPS (Strategies Teaching Educators, Parents, and Students) Brain Injury School Re-Entry Consulting Program ...
Traumatic Brain Injury in children can cause symptoms ranging from headaches to loss of coordination. Read on to learn how ... What are Brain Injuries?. Some children acquire damage to their brains over the course of childhood due to a car accident, ... The term Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is used to describe a sudden trauma to the head, such as when the head violently hits an ... When an injury is more severe, vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, an inability to awaken from sleep, dilation of one ...
A blow to the head will impart rotational velocity to the brain and, depending on its magnitude, will produce effects ranging ... Shear injuries of the brain Can Med Assoc J. 1967 Mar 11;96(10):577-82. ... A blow to the head will impart rotational velocity to the brain and, depending on its magnitude, will produce effects ranging ... patients with head injury that was not complicated by significant hemorrhage or superficial laceration of the brain had coma or ...
... "mild traumatic brain injuries." The reason this is such a problem is that soldiers are suffering injuries primarily from blasts ... The Guardian reports that officials fear that up to 20,000 UK soldiers have undiagnosed brain injuries. And the DoD says that ... so even if they get checked over, minor bruising and blood clots in the brain may go undetected. This can cause symptoms long ...
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Brain Injury. A high school football player died after going into cardiac arrest as a result of a brain injury *Susanna Heller ... A brain injury is causing some football players to burst into tears for no apparent reason. *Tanya Lewis ... More US diplomats have fallen ill in China with brain injuries like those linked to mysterious sonic attacks in Cuba. *Kevin ... Trump suggested the NFL is being ruined now that its addressing brain injuries - heres what collisions do to players. *Kevin ...
The National Football League hid information that linked football-related head injuries to permanent brain damage, according to ... home/ neurology center/ neurology a-z list/ ex-players sue nfl over brain injuries article ... The National Football League hid information that linked football-related head injuries to permanent brain damage, according to ... which is a progressive degenerative disease caused by concussions and other brain injuries, he said. ...
Bazarian of the University of Rochester Medical Center said the nature of the interaction between traumatic brain injury and ... Brain injuries so subtle theyre detected only by a very sensitive scan may predispose combat soldiers to post-traumatic stress ... Brain injuries so subtle theyre detected only by a very sensitive scan may predispose combat soldiers to post-traumatic stress ... The severity of veterans PTSD symptoms correlated with the amount of axonal injury seen on the brain scans, the study said. ...
... and compared that tissue with brain tissue from 15 healthy controls. They found the TBI patients had higher levels of abnormal ... the researchers analyzed the brain tissue of 15 patients who had survived a year or more after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) ... The researchers also found that in mice, this type of abnormal tau spread from the site of the brain injury to other brain ... the researchers analyzed the brain tissue of 15 patients who had survived a year or more after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) ...
Academics have carried out a detailed analysis of the 700 head injuries suffered by characters in the Asterix comic books, in a ... By "screening" all 34 books, the authors found 704 cases of head or brain injury, all but six suffered by men. ... Asterix comics contain 700 traumatic brain injuries, say academics. Academics have carried out a detailed analysis of the 700 ... However the paper notes: "No case of death or a permanent neurological deficit following traumatic brain injury has been found ...
Brain Injuries: Treatment and Recovery of Francesco Bertolotti of Modena (Italy) * Bob Woodruffs Traumatic Brain Injury ... They conclude that amateur boxing is thus a potentially dangerous sport, because of the risk of acute traumatic brain injury ( ... Thats because researchers have found evidence of traumatic brain injury in a group of amateur boxers in the Netherlands, ... A new study shows that amateur boxers experience traumatic brain injury, despite the use of protective headgear. ...
Learn about the types of injuries, as well as possible treatments and outcomes. ... Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) can be mild, moderate, or severe. ... Brain Injury Association of America, About Brain Injury. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Traumatic Brain Injury ... Traumatic brain injuries are serious. They cause damage that can be permanent. In some cases, a traumatic brain injury can lead ...
Childhood or adolescent brain injury A pediatric traumatic brain injury is defined as a traumatic insult or blow to the head, ... In The essential brain injury guide (5th ed., pp. 286-317). McLean: Brain Injury Association of America.Google Scholar ... Penetrating (Open) Head Injuries. Penetrating head injuries involve an object penetrating the skull and entering into brain ... Deficits typically reflect localization of brain injury. While an injury from the object can cause localizing effects, along ...
An Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain that has occurred after birth, which results in any combination of ... Brain Injury Alliance of ConnecticutAmerican Academy Certification Brain Injury Specialists211 for informationDepartment of ... Brain Injury ServicesAn Integration of Community Services for DMHAS Consumers with Brain InjuryDefinition of Acquired Brain ... CERTIFIED BRAIN INJURY SPECIALISTSThe ABI Services has Community Integration Specialists (CIS) stationed across the DMHAS Local ...
is to provide children and adult survivors of brain injuries and their families with individualized, community-based services ... The mission of Brain Injury Services, Inc. is to provide children and adult survivors of brain injuries and their families with ... The mission of Brain Injury Services, Inc. ...
... law firm of Anesi Ozmon to speak with an experienced lawyer about recovering compensation for a brain injury. ... We are dedicated to aggressively seeking justice on behalf of brain injury victims. Depending on the severity of the injury, ... We are dedicated to aggressively seeking justice on behalf of brain injury victims. Depending on the severity of the injury, ... We are dedicated to aggressively seeking justice on behalf of brain injury victims. Depending on the severity of the injury, ...
PRWEB) August 2, 2010 -- National Accident Helpline has chosen the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust (BIRT) as its company ... Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust BIRT is a leading European provider in specialist brain injury rehabilitation, supporting ... help the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust to continue providing vital services to those who suffer an acquired brain injury ... In 2009 BIRT helped 518 adults with acquired brain injury.. BIRT is a division of The Disabilities Trust and the means by which ...
... military set up a bank to collect brain tissue samples to better understand battlefield brain injury. But a law that prevents ... Military Policy Impedes Research On Traumatic Brain Injuries. Military Policy Impedes Research On Traumatic Brain Injuries. ... Military Policy Impedes Research On Traumatic Brain Injuries The U.S. military set up a bank to collect brain tissue samples to ... The U.S. military set up a bank to collect brain tissue samples to better understand battlefield brain injury. But a law that ...
Differing Injuries, Differing Needs. Employers considering hiring people with TBI need to understand that the severity of ... "We like to think we have a higher level of sensitivity," she added, especially to people with disabilities such as TBI-brain ... in-demand workplace skills who need certain accommodations are people-including military veterans-with traumatic brain injury ( ... injuries ranges widely, Loy said. "There may be visual impairment or mobility impairment. There could be memory deficit or ...
... may help explain why some soldiers suffer long-term problems after such injuries. Brain injuries caused by blasts from ... The injuries, which dont show up with standard imaging techniques, ... A sophisticated imaging technique has revealed signs of brain injury in soldiers injured in explosions. ... a method thats better at showing long-term brain injury.. Brain injuries caused by blasts from improvised explosive devices, ...
... perhaps allowing for rapid diagnosis of stroke or sports head injuries ... The ultrasound technology used to image fetuses is being adapted to visualise the brain, ... Ultrasound scanning could be used to diagnose stroke victims faster, and may even one day be used to check the head injuries of ... The brain can now be imaged using sound waves. Tatiana Kuznetsova/Alamy ...
  • Nanowerk News ) Of the more than 1.5 million people who suffer a traumatic brain injury each year in the United States, as many as 75 percent sustain a concussion, a brain injury that is classified as mild yet can lead to long-term or permanent impairments and disabilities. (nanowerk.com)
  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries: Evaluation and Care The most common head injury in athletics is concussion. (fliphtml5.com)
  • For example, researchers are finding that even a mild traumatic brain injury such as a concussion can have long term effects. (bottarolaw.com)
  • When a person takes a blow to the head hard enough to hit the brain against the skull, they've officially received a traumatic brain injury. (wbez.org)
  • It is not uncommon for severe traumatic brain injury patients to require inpatient rehabilitation before going home. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • While severe traumatic brain injury can certainly lead to permanent disability, with time and rehabilitation, many patients make remarkable recoveries. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma care, specialized rehabilitation, lifelong disease management, and individualized services and supports in order to live healthy, independent, and satisfying lives. (k-state.edu)
  • Mu, W, Catenaccio, E & Lipton, ML 2016, ' Neuroimaging in Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury ', Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation . (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: To examine the prevalence of selected medical and psychiatric comorbidities that existed prior to or up to 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring acute rehabilitation. (elsevier.com)
  • The principal investigator on the grant is David X. Cifu, M.D., professor and chair of the VCU School of Medicine's Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and senior traumatic brain injury specialist for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (vcu.edu)
  • More attention needs to be devoted to brain injury rehabilitation and to the community reintegration of persons with brain injury. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • The severity of injury is sometimes determined by the period of time it takes for a patient to regain consciousness following his or her injury. (wordpress.com)
  • These injuries have various levels of severity and affect each victim differently. (lockslaw.com)
  • The expertise of neurologists and neurophysiologists is needed to determine the severity of these injuries. (understandingyourrights.com)
  • Extreme headaches, vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures, the inability to awaken from sleep, slurred speech, weakness or numbness and dilation of one or both pupils are all possible symptoms of severe traumatic brain injury, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (reference.com)
  • The work will be done within the existing framework of Mission Connect, a consortium established by the TIRR Foundation in 1997 to facilitate collaborative research to improve outcomes for patients with brain and spinal cord injuries and neurological disorders. (nanowerk.com)
  • To report the prevalence and characteristics of headaches in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to describe most common treatment strategies after neurological evaluation. (northwestern.edu)
  • Half of those who die from TBI do so within the first two hours of injury, it is now known, however, that all neurological damage does not occur at the moment of impact (primary injury) but rather evolves over the ensuing minutes, hours or days. (wordpress.com)
  • The Fort Campbell bomb specialists will be tracked during their upcoming Afghanistan deployment for concussions and head injuries to look for effects on brain functions. (sdbif.org)
  • A majority of brain traumas are concussions or other forms of mild injuries. (lockslaw.com)
  • Not only is it possible the intense forces from a vehicle collision produce major head trauma, but there is a higher likelihood the accident will lead to concussions, minor brain injuries and the long-term effects that accompany them. (understandingyourrights.com)
  • Virginia Commonwealth University has been awarded a $50 million federal grant to oversee a national research consortium of universities, hospitals and clinics that will study the long-term impacts of mild traumatic brain injuries or concussions on service members and veterans. (vcu.edu)
  • The Long-term Impact of Military-relevant Brain Injury Consortium (LIMBIC) will study the ongoing health impacts of combat concussions, such as those from blasts, bullets and hand-to-hand fighting as well as vehicle accidents, sports injuries and falls. (vcu.edu)
  • What are the symptoms of traumatic brain injury? (reference.com)
  • According to the Mayo Clinic, traumatic brain injury may have a number of physiological and psychological symptoms. (reference.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that moderate to severe traumatic brain injury may produce more dangerous symptoms, including death. (reference.com)
  • Symptoms of severe traumatic brain injury include attention and memory problems, damaged motor functions, sensory problems, impaired speech, severe emotional issues or personality changes. (reference.com)
  • Possible symptoms of a mild traumatic brain injury include headache, loss of consciousness and feeling dazed, and possible symptoms of a moderate to severe. (reference.com)
  • If someone has sustained a TBI, they may experience any of the following symptoms within a few hours or even days of the injury and should see a physician. (ksl.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of a traumatic brain injury can be either subtle or obvious. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • Neurologists say that the Pentagon's figures are based on the number of recorded penetrative head wounds, and exclude the closed head wounds also caused by IEDs, which are much more difficult to diagnose, and which may far outnumber the other types of brain injuries. (wordpress.com)
  • they are easy to diagnose, because the shrapnel fragments leave entry wounds, and can be treated in a standard way: foreign bodies are removed from the brain, and the patient is given a type of drug called a calcium channel blocker, such as Amlodipine or Nifedipine, to prevent further damage to injured neurons. (wordpress.com)
  • Penetrating wounds from gunshots, shrapnel or other objects can damage the brain, too. (amicuslegalgroup.com)
  • In TBI, primary injuries result immediately from the initial trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary injury occurs at the moment of trauma and includes contusion, damage to blood vessels, and axonal shearing, in which the axons of neurons are stretched and torn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike in most forms of trauma a large percentage of the people killed by brain trauma do not die right away but rather days to weeks after the event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischemia is one of the leading causes of secondary brain damage after head trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar mechanisms are involved in secondary injury after ischemia, trauma, and injuries resulting when a person does not get enough oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since primary injury occurs at the moment of trauma and is over so rapidly, little can be done to interfere with it other than prevention of the trauma itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the age of five through adulthood, trauma is the leading cause of death, and many traumatic injuries involve brain injury. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Severe traumatic brain injury is a brain injury so bad that it causes the individual to have a low level of brain function immediately following the trauma. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe head injury that occurs when normal brain function is disrupted or destroyed by a violent or sudden trauma. (lockslaw.com)
  • Most of the TBI veterans in our study group were exposed to blast injury and findings indicate that the nature of head trauma may be contributing to headaches. (northwestern.edu)
  • The Centers for Disease Control estimates that at least 5.3 million Americans currently have long-term or lifelong need for assistance as a result of suffering from brain trauma. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • Brain trauma not only impacts the brain injury survivor, it impacts family and social relationships as well. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • Improving outcomes and life following brain trauma must be a prime public health concern of our society. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • We are a select group of attorneys committed to providing competent legal representation to victims of brain trauma caused by acts of negligence and medical malpractice. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • It is also imperative to maintain the neck and back straight to minimize the risk of further injury to the spinal column that may have been suffered during the trauma. (wordpress.com)
  • At the same time, cognitive rest, or brain rest, is used to allow for natural brain healing to occur. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Soldiers from the Army's 52nd Ordnance Group based at Fort Campbell have undergone hours of exhaustive cognitive testing in the military's first-of-its-kind study of mild traumatic brain injury. (sdbif.org)
  • Brain injuries frequently limit a person's motor skills and cognitive function. (dugan-associates.com)
  • By targeting this specific brain signal, the scientists believe they will be able to reduce the effects of traumatic brain injury on cognitive abilities. (dugan-associates.com)
  • Severe and traumatic brain injuries are capable of permanently disabling the sufferer, leaving them at the mercy of this injury for the rest of their life, in some cases severely impairing movement or cognitive ability. (understandingyourrights.com)
  • The physical, cognitive and emotional affects of brain damage can last a lifetime. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • In traumatic brain injury (TBI), primary brain injury occurs during the initial insult, and results from displacement of the physical structures of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs in the hours and days following the primary injury and plays a large role in the brain damage and death that results from TBI. (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs after a variety of brain injury including subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, and traumatic brain injury and involves metabolic cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since secondary injury occurs over time, it can be prevented in part by taking measures to prevent complications such as hypoxia (oxygen deficiency). (wikipedia.org)
  • Closed traumatic brain injury occurs when an object forcefully causes the brain to be jarred within the skull. (reference.com)
  • Penetrating traumatic brain injury occurs when an object breaks through the skull, directly colliding with the brain and injuring it. (reference.com)
  • Return to sports or other "high risk" activity may put one at risk of a rare but often fatal disorder called "Second Impact Syndrome" where a second head injury occurs while recovering from an initial head injury. (ksl.com)
  • A common category is traumatic brain injury that occurs after head damage from an outside source. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • In fact, an actual blow to the head may not be necessary, since a shearing or rotational injury to the brain may occur from the violent whipping of the head that occurs in auto accidents, falls, and sports-related injuries. (lockslaw.com)
  • They also isolated a specific signaling mechanism that leads to a significant share of damage after an injury occurs. (dugan-associates.com)
  • A consortium of physicians and scientists in the Houston region is now undertaking a research initiative to improve diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and develop innovative treatment strategies. (nanowerk.com)
  • A role for the tau protein in the pathogenesis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the consequences of repeated mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) has received recent attention because of the evidence from high profile autopsy cases and the increased amount of significant health consequences of repetitive mTBI. (arvojournals.org)
  • Overall, the degenerative changes in the optic nerves after r-mTBI in hTau mice at 12 months post injury were milder compared to changes observed at a similar age (8 months) in wild type mice and, despite the localized myelin loss in some nerves, the overall level of cellularity was not different from naive mice or between the groups. (arvojournals.org)
  • If intracranial pressure gets too high, it can lead to deadly brain herniation, in which parts of the brain are squeezed past structures in the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may require the surgeon to remove a portion of skull to give the brain more room to swell. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • These fragments can cause damage to the brain if they penetrate the skull. (wordpress.com)
  • This surgical procedure, which involves the removal of a part of the skull, allows continued swelling while preventing the swollen region of the brain from coming into contact with the skull, which would otherwise cause more damage. (wordpress.com)
  • The blast wave from the explosion had fractured his skull, injured his left eye, and burst his left eardrum ( a ruptured tympanic membrane is the most frequent blast-related injury, because the parts of the body most vulnerable to changes in air pressure are those in which there is an interface between air and fluid, such as the lungs, bowels and inner ear). (wordpress.com)
  • If physical pressure is not continuing in the brain such as may be caused by a hemorrhage inside the skull, more conservative treatment will most likely be required. (lockslaw.com)
  • Regardless of direct contact with the head, medical evidence has shown that your brain can still become bruised from an impact inside of your skull due to impact at high speeds. (understandingyourrights.com)
  • This most sophisticated human organ can sustain damage from a hard blow to the head that causes the brain to crash against the unyielding interior of the skull. (amicuslegalgroup.com)
  • Ultimately, the goal is to assess and stabilize the airway and circulation, maintain sufficient blood and oxygen supply to the brain, stop intracranial bleeding and prevent an increase in pressure within the skull. (wordpress.com)
  • Primary and secondary injuries occur in instances other than a TBI, such as spinal cord injury and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • An effort led by Drs. Doug DeWitt and Donald Prough of the Moody Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Injury/Mission Connect at UTMB is a pivotal component of the Department of Defense project, leading the field with a new blast injury model that simulates the exposure to improvised explosive devices. (nanowerk.com)
  • They are studying recovery from central nervous system injury, like spinal cord injury, and working on robotic devices to help retrain affected limbs in people who suffered stroke. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • This too is placed within the ventricle and then allows the cerebral spinal fluid to drain in the ventricles to shrink stores normal functions of brain cells. (wordpress.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 1.4 million Americans suffer brain injuries each year. (lockslaw.com)
  • Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reveals that about 1.7 million Americans suffer severe brain injuries every year, and it labels traumatic brain injury a contributing factor in more than 30% of the deaths that result from accidents in the U.S. The CDC reports that more than a quarter of a million people a year need to be hospitalized because of brain injuries. (amicuslegalgroup.com)
  • In its most severe forms, brain injury can cause coma or death and will often cause serious loss of function in those that survive. (lockslaw.com)
  • Secondary injury, which is not caused by mechanical damage, can result from the primary injury or be independent of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is often a result of secondary injury, which can damage neurons that were unharmed in the primary injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imbalances in some neurotransmitters can lead to excitotoxicity, damage to brain cells that results from overactivation of biochemical receptors for excitatory neurotransmitters (those that increase the likelihood that a neuron will fire). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other factors in secondary damage are breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, edema, ischemia and hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, secondary injury presents opportunities for researchers to find drug therapies to limit or prevent the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • These steps are taken because the primary risk of a traumatic brain injury is that the brain will not receive enough oxygenated blood, which could lead to further brain damage. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • For more information about the active research geared toward preventing damage following injury and maximizing recovery, click here. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Brain injury or damage is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • More serious traumatic brain injury can result in more extensive physical damage to the brain that can lead to long-term complications or death. (feinsteininstitute.org)
  • While aneurysms and strokes are caused by abnormalities in the complex chemo-mechanical interactions between cerebral blood flow and the vasculature, TBI can damage vasculature and brain cells not only locally but also non-locally through the functional network established among neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • In the wake of an accident that causes brain damage, injury victims may need to seek the assistance of Social Security disability insurance . (dugan-associates.com)
  • The Mayo Clinic warns that "serious traumatic brain injury can result in bruising, torn tissues, bleeding and other physical damage. (amicuslegalgroup.com)
  • 52,000 persons who sustain brain damage will die. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • Brain damage in children will affect their ability to learn, their social integration, maturation and their ability to lead independent lives. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • Our brain injury attorneys are committed to protecting and safeguarding the rights of victims of brain damage. (braininjuryacademy.org)
  • The blood brain barrier and meninges may be damaged in the primary injury, and neurons may die. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain is using a lot of energy to heal, and if you stress the brain so that it runs out of energy, it's actually going to cause death of neurons," said Dr. David Twillie, director of Fort Campbell's Traumatic Brain Injury Center. (sdbif.org)
  • Suffering a direct blow to the head isn't the only danger as injuries from acceleration or deceleration can cause brain injuries from the shock due to sudden changes in speed. (understandingyourrights.com)
  • Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since a variety of processes occur in secondary injury, any treatments that are developed to halt or mitigate it will need to address more than one of these mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traumatic brain injuries are most common among 16 to 25 year olds and occur more often in men than women. (ksl.com)
  • A buildup of fluid can also occur within the ventricle of the brain. (wordpress.com)
  • Another factor in secondary injury is loss of cerebral autoregulation, the ability of the brain's blood vessels to regulate cerebral blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traumatic brain injury is caused by a sudden forceful blow to the head. (reference.com)
  • The leading cause of traumatic brain injury among both adolescents and adults is motor vehicle accidents , though a TBI may be caused by any blow to the head or penetrating injury. (lockslaw.com)
  • If you have suffered an injury that involved a blow to the head, it's wise to have family and friends watching closely for any changes in your emotional or mental state. (understandingyourrights.com)
  • Almost half of patients with mild to moderate head injuries may develop delirium in the first 4 days after TBI. (dovepress.com)
  • Brain injuries are generally classified into three categories: mild, moderate, or severe. (lockslaw.com)
  • Moderate brain injury victims experience longer periods of unconsciousness or memory loss and generally have more serious long term effects of their injury, including memory loss, fatigue, impairment of physical function, loss of hearing, taste or smell and other deficits. (lockslaw.com)
  • Conclusions: People with moderate-severe TBI experience other medical and mental health comorbidities during the long-Term course of recovery and life after injury. (elsevier.com)
  • This grant is a huge boost to research in traumatic brain injury and will allow investigators to work together through Mission Connect, she said. (nanowerk.com)
  • An estimated 5.3 million Americans - a little more than 2 percent of the US population - currently live with disabilities resulting from traumatic brain injury. (k-state.edu)
  • this is a soft silicone tube that is passed into the brain ventricle and used to monitor pressure, and lower pressure, by draining cerebrospinal fluid. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging in acute traumatic brain injury : identification of novel biomarkers and implications for therapy [electronic resource] / Ramon Diaz-Arrista, Lawrence L. Latour. (nih.gov)
  • Increasing research activities on diagnosis management, coupled with new pipeline of drugs are propelling the global traumatic brain injuries treatment market growth. (meridianmarketconsultants.com)
  • The fact that people sometimes deteriorate after brain injury was originally taken to mean that secondary injury was occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary injury leads to the secondary injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary injury is an indirect result of the injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary injury can result from complications of the injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other secondary injury include hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide levels in the blood), acidosis (excessively acidic blood), meningitis, and brain abscess. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, alterations in the release of neurotransmitters (the chemicals used by brain cells to communicate) can cause secondary injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus efforts to reduce disability and death from TBI are thought to be best aimed at secondary injury, because the primary injury is thought to be irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, management focuses on stabilizing and preventing a secondary injury. (wordpress.com)
  • But more severe injuries can have devastating consequences, causing changes in an individual's ability to think, to remember, and to use reasoning capabilities. (amicuslegalgroup.com)
  • Thus some tissues may experience more force and be more injured in the primary injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Department of Defense Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury Research Program of the Office of Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs recently awarded the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium a grant totaling approximately $35 million to support the five-year research program. (nanowerk.com)
  • The plan called for research on post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. (vcu.edu)