Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Stroke, Lacunar: Stroke caused by lacunar infarction or other small vessel diseases of the brain. It features hemiparesis (see PARESIS), hemisensory, or hemisensory motor loss.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.JapanThrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Shock, Cardiogenic: Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Mice, Inbred C57BLNatriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction: Laceration or tearing of cardiac tissues appearing after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.

Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute lacunar syndromes. A clinical-radiological correlation study. (1/678)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical-radiological correlation studies in lacunar syndromes have been handicapped by the low sensitivity of CT and standard MRI for acute small-vessel infarction and their difficulty in differentiating between acute and chronic lesions. METHODS: We prospectively studied 43 patients presenting with a classic lacunar syndrome using diffusion-weighted MRI, a technique with a high sensitivity and specificity for acute small-vessel infarction. RESULTS: All patients were scanned within 6 days of stroke onset. An acute infarction was identified in all patients. Pure motor stroke was associated with lesions in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), pons, corona radiata, and medial medulla; ataxic hemipareses with lesions in the PLIC, corona radiata, pons, and insular cortex; sensorimotor stroke with lesions in the PLIC and lateral medulla; dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome with lesions in the PLIC and caudate nucleus; and pure sensory stroke with a lesion in the thalamus. Supratentorial lesions extended into neighboring anatomic structures in 48% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lacunar syndromes can be caused by lesions in a variety of locations, and specific locations can cause a variety of lacunar syndromes. Extension of lesions into neighboring structures in patients with lacunar syndromes appears to be more frequent than previously described in studies using CT and standard MRI.  (+info)

Neonatal focal temporal lobe or atrial wall haemorrhagic infarction. (2/678)

AIMS: To describe two variants of infarction within the temporal lobe, associated with local matrix bleeding and mild to moderate intraventricular haemorrhage. METHODS: The files of 10 neonates, extracted from a sonographic study of 560 very low birthweight infants conducted between 1993 and 1997, were retrospectively examined. RESULTS: Seven lesions were located in the middle to posterior area of the temporal lobe, three others faced the atrium. All except two of those with a temporal site were VLBW infants with hyaline membrane disease. Except for one fatal case, intraventricular bleeding was mild to moderate. Computed tomograms or magnetic resonance imaging were used to illustrate the haemorrhagic nature of three lesions. Survivors of this so far undescribed entity who were followed up for more than 18 months did not have a uniform type of cerebral palsy but some scored in the low normal range on the Bayley Mental Development Index. One girl developed temporal lobe epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: This pattern of injury seems to be one of venous infarction associated with temporal or para-atrial matrix haemorrhage. The temporal site fits the picture of venous infarction within the area drained by the inferior ventricular vein. A less constant lateral atrial vein, either draining into the basal or internal cerebral vein, is probably involved in the para-atrial lesion. Sonography may be the only practical tool currently available for detection in life.  (+info)

Primary somatosensory cortex activation is not altered in patients with ventroposterior thalamic lesions: a PET study. (3/678)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We know remarkably little about the mechanisms underlying cortical activation. Such mechanisms might be better understood by studying the effect of well-localized lesions on the cortical activations in simple paradigms. METHODS: We used H(2)(15)O and positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during hand vibration in 7 patients with unilateral thalamic lesion involving the ventroposterior (VP) somatosensory thalamic relay nuclei. We compared the results with those obtained in 6 patients with thalamic lesions sparing the VP nuclei and 6 healthy controls. RESULTS: The patients with VP lesions had a selective hypoperfusion at rest in the ipsilesional primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1). This hypoperfusion was significantly correlated with the degree of contralateral somatosensory deficit. This abnormality may reflect the deafferentation of SM1 from its somatosensory thalamic input. Despite this deafferentation, the ipsilesional SM1 was normally activated by the vibration of the hypoesthetic hand. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that a lesion of the somatosensory thalamic relay nuclei alters the rCBF at rest in SM1 but not its activation by hand vibration indicates that the mechanism of cortical activation is complex, even in the case of simple sensory stimulation. In addition, a dissociation may occur between obvious neurological deficits and apparently normal activation patterns, which suggests that activation studies should be interpreted cautiously in patients with focal brain lesions.  (+info)

High-resolution EEG in poststroke hemiparesis can identify ipsilateral generators during motor tasks. (4/678)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multimodal neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) scanning or functional MRI can detect and display functional reorganization of the brain's motor control in poststroke hemiplegia. We undertook a study to determine whether the new modality of 128-electrode high-resolution EEG, coregistered with MRI, could detect changes in cortical motor control in patients after hemiplegic stroke. METHODS: We recorded movement-related cortical potentials with left and right finger movements in 10 patients with varying degrees of recovery after hemiplegic stroke. All patients were male, and time since stroke varied from 6 to 144 months. All patients were right-handed. There was also a comparison group of 20 normal control subjects. RESULTS: Five of 8 patients with left hemiparesis had evidence of ipsilateral motor control of finger movements. There were only 2 cases of right hemiparesis; in addition, 1 patient had a posteriorly displaced motor potential originating behind a large left frontal infarct (rim). CONCLUSIONS: Reorganization of motor control takes place after stroke and may involve the ipsilateral or contralateral cortex, depending on the site and size of the brain lesion and theoretically, the somatotopic organization of the residual pyramidal tracts. Our results are in good agreement with PET and functional MRI studies in the current literature. High-resolution EEG coregistered with MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of displaying cortical motor reorganization.  (+info)

Experimental model of small deep infarcts involving the hypothalamus in rats: changes in body temperature and postural reflex. (5/678)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intraluminal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in rats has been reported to cause hyperthermia assumed to be caused by hypothalamic damage. To clarify the effects of hypothalamic ischemia on body temperature and to obtain a model simulating lacunar infarction, we attempted to produce small infarcts in deep structures (including the hypothalamus). METHODS: A surgical suture was advanced to occlude the origin of the hypothalamic (HTA) and/or anterior choroidal arteries (AChA) without compromise of the anterior or middle cerebral artery origins. After treatment, rectal temperature and postural reflex were examined repeatedly for 3 days under nonanesthetic conditions. The AChA and HTA and their link with small deep infarction were then confirmed by TTC, hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL stains and by microsurgical dissection after colored silicone perfusion into the cerebral arteries. RESULTS: Advancement of the suture near to but not occluding the MCA origin (0.5 to 1.9 mm proximal) produced small, deep, nonneocortical strokes in 25 of 36 animals without producing MCA ischemic changes. These infarctions mainly affected the hypothalamus in 13 animals (HTA area: infarct volume 6+/-1 mm(3)) and involved both the internal capsule and hypothalamus in 12 animals (HTA+AChA area infarct volume 48+/-10 mm(3)). Rats with HTA infarction alone exhibited persistent hyperthermia for 72 hours; some also had transient mild postural abnormality. The AChA+HTA infarct group showed a transient elevation of body temperature for 24 hours and definitive postural abnormality. In the remaining 11 animals, the suture was inadvertently advanced across the MCA origin, producing a large infarct that affected both the neocortex (MCA territory) and nonneocortical structures (volume 381+/-30 mm(3), n=11). The MCA infarct group displayed a transient hyperthermia and severe postural abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: When properly positioned, the intraluminal suture method permits selective AChA and/or HTA obstruction without inducing MCA territory ischemia. This model confirms that selective hypothalamic infarction produces significant and sustained temperature regulation abnormalities. The model also may be useful in investigating the pathophysiology of small, deep, end-vessel infarction.  (+info)

The association between the Val34Leu polymorphism in the factor XIII gene and brain infarction. (6/678)

Factor XIII catalyzes the formation of covalent bounds between fibrin monomers, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot and increasing its resistance to fibrinolysis. The frequency of a frequent Val34Leu polymorphism in the FXIII A-subunit gene has been shown to be lower in patients with myocardial infarction or venous thrombosis than in controls, whereas it was higher in patients with hemorrhagic stroke than in controls. Our aim was to study the relation between brain infarction (BI) and the FXIII Val34Leu polymorphism in 456 patients consecutively recruited with a BI confirmed by MRI, and 456 matched controls. The distribution of genotypes was different in cases (63. 2% Val/Val; 30.9% Val/Leu; 5.9% Leu/Leu) compared with controls (49. 8% Val/Val; 42.8% Val/Leu; 7.4% Leu/Leu; P <.001). Carrying the Leu allele was associated with an OR of 0.58 (95% CI = 0.44-0.75). A similar association was observed in cases and controls free of previous cardiovascular or cerebrovascular history (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.36-0.73). No heterogeneity of this association was observed after stratification on the main BI subtypes. Adjustment for traditional vascular risk factors did not modify these findings. In addition, the effect of smoking was modified by the polymorphism (P =.05); the effect of smoking was weaker among Leu carriers than among noncarriers. In conclusion, there was a negative association of the FXIII Val34Leu polymorphism with BI, thus suggesting a protective effect of the Leu allele against thrombotic cerebral artery occlusion. In addition, our results suggest that among Leu carriers, the protective effect of the polymorphism outweighed the effect of smoking. (Blood. 2000;95:586-591)  (+info)

Stroke incidence and case fatality in Shiga, Japan 1989-1993. (7/678)

BACKGROUND: This paper describes incidence rates and case-fatality for sub-types of stroke using data collected in Takashima, Shiga, Japan, from 1989 to 1993 and compares these with similar registers in other parts of Japan. METHODS: Registered patients included all residents of the county who experienced a first-ever stroke. Stroke was defined as sudden onset of neurological symptoms which continued for a minimum of 24 hours or led to death. Almost all such patients are hospitalized in this country. Early case fatality was defined as patients who died within 28 days of stroke onset. Diagnosis of stroke type was based on clinical symptoms as well as computed tomography (CT) scans. RESULTS: Age-adjusted incidence rates for stroke per 100,000 population aged 35 years and older were 268.7 for men and 167.5 for women. The age-specific incidence rate of both cerebral infarction and cerebral haemorrhage increased with advancing age. The occurrence of cerebral infarction in men was twice as high as in women. The 28-day case fatality for all sub-types of stroke was 16.1% in men and 15.8% in women. Case fatality for cerebral infarction, cerebral haemorrhage, and subarachnoid haemorrhage was 10.7%, 22.4% and 28.6% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Takashima County has a moderately high stroke incidence rate and case fatality compared with other similar studies in Japan. The incidence rate of cerebral infarction in men is twice that in women, while other sub-types of stroke showed smaller differences. In order to decrease the incidence of stroke in Japan, greater efforts at primary prevention will be necessary, in particular, it is important to prevent cerebral infarction in men.  (+info)

Knowing no fear. (8/678)

People with brain injuries involving the amygdala are often poor at recognizing facial expressions of fear, but the extent to which this impairment compromises other signals of the emotion of fear has not been clearly established. We investigated N.M., a person with bilateral amygdala damage and a left thalamic lesion, who was impaired at recognizing fear from facial expressions. N.M. showed an equivalent deficit affecting fear recognition from body postures and emotional sounds. His deficit of fear recognition was not linked to evidence of any problem in recognizing anger (a common feature in other reports), but for his everyday experience of emotion N.M. reported reduced anger and fear compared with neurologically normal controls. These findings show a specific deficit compromising the recognition of the emotion of fear from a wide range of social signals, and suggest a possible relationship of this type of impairment with alterations of emotional experience.  (+info)

Hypertension plays a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Treating hypertension has been associated with reduction in the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), ramipril, showed a 32 % in relative risk of reduction in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial. Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), losartan, also showed a 25 % in relative risk of reduction in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE).. Elderly people, especially hypertensive patients, with silent brain infarction have an increased risk of stroke and cognitive decline. However, no reports are seen on comparison of the effects of ARBs and ACEIs on progression of silent brain infarction and cognitive decline in patients with essential hypertension in the elderly.. The researchers therefore longitudinally evaluate silent brain infarction using magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive decline by Mini-Mental State ...
Hypertension plays a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Treating hypertension has been associated with reduction in the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), ramipril, showed a 32 % in relative risk of reduction in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial. Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), losartan, also showed a 25 % in relative risk of reduction in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE).. Elderly people, especially hypertensive patients, with silent brain infarction have an increased risk of stroke and cognitive decline. However, no reports are seen on comparison of the effects of ARBs and ACEIs on progression of silent brain infarction and cognitive decline in patients with essential hypertension in the elderly.. The researchers therefore longitudinally evaluate silent brain infarction using magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive decline by Mini-Mental State ...
Objective: To explore genetic and lifestyle risk factors of MRI-defined brain infarcts (BI) in large population-based cohorts. Methods: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined associations of vascular risk factors and their genetic risk scores (GRS) with MRI-defined BI and a subset of BI, namely, small subcortical BI (SSBI), in 18 population-based cohorts (n = 20,949) from 5 ethnicities (3,726 with BI, 2,021 with SSBI). Top loci were followed up in 7 population-based cohorts (n = 6,862; 1,483 with BI, 630 with SBBI), and we tested associations with related phenotypes including ischemic stroke and pathologically defined BI. Results: The mean prevalence was 17.7% for BI and 10.5% for SSBI, steeply rising after age 65. Two loci showed genome-wide significant association with BI: FBN2, p = 1.77 × 10-8; and LINC00539/ZDHHC20, p = 5.82 × 10-9. Both have been associated with blood pressure (BP)-related phenotypes, but did not replicate in the smaller follow-up
To better understand why this finding is important, you need to know the players. Subclinical cerebrovascular disease is defined as the presence of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities. Research has shown that individuals with greater white matter hyperintensity volume and evidence of subclinical infarcts are at greater risk of experiencing an ischemic stroke (especially cryptogenic stroke) or dying. (2). An ischemic stroke, also known as a cerebral infarction, is caused by a blockage in a blood vessel in the brain. Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke. Of the more than 795,000 people in the United States who have a stroke every year, about 87 percent of them are ischemic stroke.(3) Silent brain infarcts are strokes that are void of clinically overt stroke-like symptoms. However, they are associated with subtle cognitive and physical deficits that often are not noticed. According to a study reported in Stroke, about 20 percent of stroke-free older adults have ...
Silent brain infarction is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with mood changes and cognitive disruption. Microsphere embolism (ME) rodent models recapitulate both the diffuse ischemic infarcts and the delayed subtle behavioral disturbances characteristic to silent infarction (SI). Previously, we have shown that ME leads to increased hippocampal inflammation, weakening of the blood brain barrier, and the infiltration of peripherally circulating inflammatory cells in rats. Given long-term increases in inflammatory activity following SI, the current study tests the efficacy of anti-inflammatory versus anti-depressant treatment strategies to reduce the inflammatory and behavioral sequelae of injury. Adult rats were administered either chronic meloxicam (preferential COX-2 inhibitor) or fluoxetine (SSRI) beginning five days prior to ME surgeries. After a two week recovery, animals were tested for anxiety-like behaviors in the open field paradigm and the hippocampus was ...
1. Moran C, Phan TG, Srikanth VK. Cerebral small vessel disease: A review of clinical, radiological, and histopathological phenotypes. International Journal of Stroke. 2012;7:36-46 2. Pantoni L. Cerebral small vessel disease: From pathogenesis and clinical characteristics to therapeutic challenges. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:689-701 3. Xiong YY, Mok V. Age-related white matter changes. Journal of Aging Research. 2011;2011:1-13 4. Xiong Y, Mok V, Wong A, Chen X, Chu WC, Fan Y, Soo Y, Wong KS. The age-related white matter changes scale correlates with cognitive impairment. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:1451-1456 5. Debette S, Markus HS. The clinical importance of white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bmj. 2010;341:c3666 6. de Groot JC, de Leeuw FE, Oudkerk M, Hofman A, Jolles J, Breteler MM. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction: The rotterdam scan study. Neurology. 2001;56:1539-1545 7. Chowdhury MH, Nagai A, Bokura ...
This study took advantage of the prospective accumulation of data in 493 patients who had clinical and radiologic evidence suggesting that their hemispheric ischemic events were of lacunar type. Caution must be exercised in making comparisons between the current observations and other reports in the literature. First, patients in the nonlacunar "control" group in this study had overt evidence of large-artery disease and did not consist of the usual normal subjects with whom lacunar syndromes have been compared previously. Second, no patients were accepted into the current study who failed to fulfill the clinical criteria for lacunar syndromes. Unlike other reports appearing in the literature, patients with radiologic findings alone were not considered to have lacunar strokes. Lastly, the definition of a lacunar stroke is an evolving process. There is uncertainty with regard to considering lacunar strokes that involve clinically one body area alone. In the current study these patients were ...
Study Highlights: Older migraine sufferers may be more likely to have silent brain injury. Ischemic silent brain infarctions are symptomless brain injuries and are a risk factor for future strokes. Researchers suggest people who have both migraines and vascular risk factors pay close attention to lifestyle factors that can reduce their chance of stroke.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal cerebral ischemia disrupts MRI-defined cortical microstructure through disturbances in neuronal arborization. AU - Dean, Justin M.. AU - McClendon, Evelyn. AU - Hansen, Kelly. AU - Azimi-Zonooz, Aryan. AU - Chen, Kevin. AU - Riddle, Art. AU - Gong, Xi. AU - Sharifnia, Elica. AU - Hagen, Matthew. AU - Ahmad, Tahir. AU - Leigland, Lindsey A.. AU - Hohimer, A. Roger. AU - Kroenke, Christopher D.. AU - Back, Stephen A.. PY - 2013/1/16. Y1 - 2013/1/16. N2 - Children who survive preterm birth exhibit persistent unexplained disturbances in cerebral cortical growth with associated cognitive and learning disabilities. The mechanisms underlying these deficits remain elusive. We used ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate in a preterm large-animal model that cerebral ischemia impairs cortical growth and the normal maturational decline in cortical fractional anisotropy (FA). Analysis of pyramidal neurons revealed that cortical deficits were associated with ...
Retinal, Brain, Brain Imaging, Confidence Interval, Fractal, Gender, Lacunar Infarct, Lacunar Stroke, Odds Ratio, Patients, Risk, Risk Factors, Stroke
Splenic infarcts are an uncommon but well established cause of abdominal pain. In younger patients, haematological causes tend to be more common and in older patients thrombo-embolism is the predominant cause.
Obkective: Fibrinogen levels and fibrinogen clot structure have been implicated in pathogenesis of vascular disease. We examined fibrinogen levels and variation in fibrinogen genes (fibrinogen γ (FGG), α (FGA) and β (FGB)), associated with fibrin clot structure and fibrinogen levels, in relation to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Methods and Results This study was performed in the Rotterdam Scan Study, a population-based study among 1077 elderly with cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma fibrinogen levels and haplotypes were determined. We examined the association of fibrinogen levels and haplotypes with silent brain infarcts and white matter lesions by means of logistic regression models. We constructed seven haplotypes (frequency ,0.01) that describe the total common variation in the FGG and FGA genes. Haplotype 2 (G-A-T-A-G-T-G) was associated with presence of silent brain infarcts when compared to the most frequent haplotype (G-G-T-G-G-T-A) (odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% CI ...
Lacunar stroke or lacunar infarct (LACI) is the most common type of stroke, and results from the occlusion of small penetrating arteries that provide blood to the brains deep structures. Patients who present with symptoms of a lacunar stroke, but who have not yet had diagnostic imaging performed, may be described as suffering from lacunar stroke syndrome (LACS). Much of the current knowledge of lacunar strokes comes from C. Miller Fishers cadaver dissections of post-mortem stroke patients. He observed "lacunae" (empty spaces) in the deep brain structures after occlusion of 200-800 μm penetrating arteries and connected them with five classic syndromes. These syndromes are still noted today, though lacunar infarcts are diagnosed based on clinical judgment and radiologic imaging. Each of the 5 classical lacunar syndromes has a relatively distinct symptom complex. Symptoms may occur suddenly, progressively, or in a fluctuating (e.g., the capsular warning syndrome) manner. Occasionally, cortical ...
Background: Cerebral small vessel disease is related to widespread endothelial dysfunction, and suspected hypoperfusion at the level of the microcirculation. Lacunar infarcts are a major manifestation of small vessel disease, and result in significant long-term neurological morbidity and mortality. Congenital hypoplastic variants of the vessels of the Circle of Willis may result in impairment of collateral channels at the time of ischemia.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that lateralization of first-ever lacunar infarcts is related to relative hypoperfusion of the ipsilateral hemisphere due to asymmetric hypoplasia of the vessels of the Circle of Willis and inadequate side-to-side collateral circulation.. Methods: We analyzed 40 consecutive patients that presented to a stroke center with a first-ever supratentorial lacunar infarct. All patients were able to undergo intracranial vascular imaging. Patients with significant large-vessel disease (even if asymptomatic) were excluded. A neuroradiologist, ...
We found in a population-based sample of nondemented elderly people that higher CRP levels were associated with presence and progression of periventricular and subcortical white matter lesions. These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors or carotid atherosclerosis. People with higher CRP levels tended to have more prevalent and incident lacunar infarcts than those with lower CRP levels; however, these associations were nonsignificant.. Some methodological issues need to be discussed. First, nonparticipation both at baseline and at follow-up was associated with older age.10 Participants with repeated MRI scans had lower CRP levels, fewer white matter lesions, and fewer silent brain infarcts at baseline than those without follow-up scans. This selective attrition has most likely reduced the power to find an association with risk of incident lacunar infarcts.. The cross-sectional association between CRP levels and white matter lesions, however, was not different for all ...
Braun H, Schreiber S. Microbleeds in cerebral small vessel disease. Lancet Neurol. 2013 Aug;12(8):735-6.. Mencl S, Garz C, Niklass S, Braun H, Göb E, Homola G, Heinze HJ, Reymann KG, Kleinschnitz C, Schreiber S. Early microvascular dysfunction in cerebral small vessel disease is not detectable on 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: a longitudinal study in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Exp Transl Stroke Med. 2013 Jun 25;5:8.. Bueche CZ, Garz C, Kropf S, Bittner D, Li W, Goertler M, Heinze HJ, Reymann K, Braun H, Schreiber S. NAC changes the course of cerebral small vessel disease in SHRSP and reveals new insights for the meaning of stases - a randomized controlled study. Exp Transl Stroke Med. 2013 Apr 15;5:5. Schreiber S, Bueche CZ, Garz C, Braun H. Blood brain barrier breakdown as the starting point of cerebral small vessel disease? - New insights from a rat model. Exp Transl Stroke Med. 2013 Mar 14;5(1):4. Braun H, Bueche CZ, Garz C, Oldag A, Heinze HJ, Goertler M, Reymann ...
We also identified a tendency for patients with lacunar strokes not to get screened for AF even though the detection rate of AF is similar between lacunar and non-lacunar strokes. The relationship of lacunar strokes with AF is the subject of an ongoing debate in literature. However, the main focus of stroke management should be the identification of modifiable risk factors even when the mechanism of a particular stroke uncertain. As the most recent guidelines (ESC 2016) do not differentiate between ischaemic stroke subtypes when considering anticoagulation in patients with AF, then perhaps an equal effort should be made to identify AF in patients with lacunar and non-lacunar strokes ...
In this study, we considered that patients with multiple recent subcortical (lacunar) infarcts seen on DWI would be likely to have a proximal embolic source, but were able to find a definite embolic source in only one patient. Thus, embolic mechanisms would not be a likely explanation for the occurrence of multiple acute lacunar infarcts in most of our patients. This is consistent with previous clinical and epidemiological studies (summarised by Mead et al7) which found that, while some lacunar strokes might be attributed to cardiac or artery-to-artery emboli, the majority (,80%) occurred in the absence of a definite embolic source.5,7,12 Few of our patients gave any history of previous stroke or TIA, and it was generally a long time before the current presentation, indicating that most of the acute as well as the old small subcortical lesions were asymptomatic.. Four of the 10 patients were not classified clinically as having a lacunar syndrome (two posterior circulation and two partial ...
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Stroke and dementia are common and debilitating health issues worldwide. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) underlies a large proportion of these cases. However, the cause of SVD is unknown. Research into the causes and pathophysiological mechanisms of SVD is hampered by the fact that small vessels themselves are difficult to visualise in people. The wide range of clinical
Here, we demonstrated that endothelial dysfunction is an early precipitant of disease development in a rat model of SVD and a sample of humans with sporadic SVD. We identified a deletion in Atp11b and loss of ATP11B protein that cause endothelial dysfunction, with abnormalities of the BBB TJs, increased EC proliferation, and reduction in eNOS and NO. This dysfunction led to secretion of factors, including HSP90α, which blocked the maturation of OPCs into myelinating oligodendrocytes, consistent with the impairment of myelination and inherent vulnerability of white matter to damage seen in adult humans with SVD (42). We also demonstrated therapeutic reversal of endothelial dysfunction and associated reduction in white matter vulnerability. The early reduction of the BBB TJ markers but lack of tracer leakage (along with the brain slice culture experiments) showed that leakage of substances through the BBB is not important for initial SVD pathology in our model. However, it is highly likely that ...
About small vessel disease: Small vessel disease (acronym: SVD), a group of vascular disorders resulting from the pathological impairment of the small blood vessels of the brain, is strongly linked to causing some forms of dementia and stroke. These diseases have a huge social and economic impact. SVD is a global problem, but a treatment is yet to be discovered.
Question - Have CVA infarct, left MCA distribution. CT scan shows polysinusitis, lacunar infarct. What does it mean?. Ask a Doctor about Posterior cerebral artery, Ask a Cardiologist
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Hi have any of you been told you have Small Vessel Disease or MS after an MRI my latest MRI shows I may have SVD or MS I dont think it is MS to be honest, but lately my dizziness and memory and...
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I have been experiencing various progressive symptoms suggesting a brainstem lesion over the last six months. MRI study of the head was done a few days ago and were reported by the radiologist to show...
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It highlights the key findings that can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans, including those related to normal brain aging and common diseases such as brain infarcts, fractures of the skull as well as fractures and tumors of the vertebral column. It offers insights into brain MRI and CT scans, enabling readers to interpret the key findings ...
缺乏維生素B12 和 小間隙腦中風後之疲倦和憂鬱的關聯 (以上標題清楚。以下請自檢查,各專有名次翻譯、順序)小間隙腦中風 (Lacunar stroke) 之定義:急性的中風。症狀 ... ...
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Title:Basal Ganglia Enlarged Perivascular Spaces are Linked to Cognitive Function in Patients with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Marjolein Huijts, Annelien Duits, Julie Staals, Abraham A Kroon, Peter W de Leeuw and Robert J van Oostenbrugge. Affiliation:Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht , The Netherlands.. Keywords:Cerebral small vessel disease, cognition, enlarged perivascular spaces, hypertension, lacunar stroke, white matter lesions.. Abstract:Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are a feature of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and have been related to cSVD severity. A higher number of EPVS were related to decreased cognition in healthy elderly, but this has never been investigated in patients at high risk of cSVD. We included 189 patients with a high risk of cSVD (hypertensive patients and lacunar stroke patients). Patients underwent brain MRI and extensive neuropsychological assessment. EPVS ...
© Cambridge University Press 2014. Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is thought to be an important disease mechanism in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). It has been hypothesized that acute ischemia in the territory of the perforating artery results in lacunar stroke, while chronic ischemia occurring in the distal territories of the perforating arteries results in changes to cerebral white-matter, known as leukoaraiosis. The spatial pattern of leukoaraiosis, with changes first occurring in the brain regions furthest from the origin of the perforating arteries, would be consistent with disease occurring due to hypoperfusion. This has led to the suggestion that cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced in SVD, and many studies have been performed to investigate this issue. In addition, cerebral arteriopathy underlying SVD may also impair the ability of small cerebral vessels to vasodilate, leading to problems maintaining perfusion in response to drops in blood pressure and perfusion pressure. Impairments of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Juvenile-onset multiple brain infarcts localized in the posterior circulation. T2 - A case report. AU - Maruyama, Kenji. AU - Oya, Yasushi. AU - Shigeto, Hiroshi. AU - Ogawa, Masafumi. AU - Kawai, Mitsuru. PY - 2002/3/14. Y1 - 2002/3/14. N2 - We report a 37-year-old male patient with multiple brain infarcts due to arterial lesions localized in the posterior circulation, who developed a paramedian pontine infarct on the left side. He had been treated as schizophrenia for 20 years. A cranial CT performed one year before showed old small infarcts in the territories of the bilateral thalamo-perforating and left thalamo-geniculate arteries and the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The vertebral and basilar arteries were small in diameter on MRI and MR angiography (MRA). Cerebral angiography revealed a narrow smooth basilar artery. In addition, the P 2 segments of the bilateral posterior cerebral arteries were markedly narrow with irregular walls. Carotid arteriograms were ...
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common group of neurological conditions that confer a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In most cases, CSVD is only recognized in its advanced stages once its symptomatic sequelae develop. However, its significance in asymptomatic healthy populations remains poorly defined. In population-based studies of presumed healthy elderly individuals, CSVD neuroimaging markers including white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, cortical superficial siderosis, and cerebral microinfarcts are frequently detected. While the presence of these imaging markers may reflect unique mechanisms at play, there are likely shared pathways underlying CSVD. Herein, we aim to assess the etiology and significance of these individual biomarkers by focusing in asymptomatic populations at an epidemiological level. By primarily examining population-based studies, we explore the risk factors that are involved in the ...
Scans of sufficient quality for data analysis were available in 29 cases and 35 controls. NAA was significantly reduced in patients compared with controls (lower by 7.27%, P = 0.004). However, when lesion load within each individual voxel (mean 22% in SVD vs 5% in controls, P , 0.001) was added as a covariate, these differences were no longer significant, suggesting that the metabolite differences arose primarily from differences in lesioned tissue. In patients with SVD, there was no correlation between cognitive scores and any brain metabolite. No lactate, an indicator of anaerobic metabolism, was detected. ...
Neuroscience research articles are provided.. What is neuroscience? Neuroscience is the scientific study of nervous systems. Neuroscience can involve research from many branches of science including those involving neurology, brain science, neurobiology, psychology, computer science, artificial intelligence, statistics, prosthetics, neuroimaging, engineering, medicine, physics, mathematics, pharmacology, electrophysiology, biology, robotics and technology. ...
Results A total of 23 ACMIs were found in 16 of the 783 patients (2.0%). Patients with ACMIs did not differ in vascular risk or cognitive profile, but were more often diagnosed with vascular dementia (odds ratio [OR] 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-18.9, p = 0.014). ACMI presence was associated with lower levels of β-amyloid (p , 0.004) and with vascular imaging markers (lacunar infarcts: OR 3.5, CI 1.3-9.6, p = 0.015; nonlacunar infarcts: OR 4.1, CI 1.4-12.5, p = 0.012; severe white matter hyperintensities: OR 4.8, CI 1.7-13.8, p = 0.004; microbleeds: OR 18.9, CI 2.5-144.0, p = 0.0001). After a median follow-up of 2.1 years, the risk of poor clinical outcome (composite of marked cognitive decline, major vascular event, death, and institutionalization) was increased among patients with ACMIs (hazard ratio 3.0; 1.4-6.0, p = 0.005). ...
Common cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) abnormalities are a common neuroradiological finding, especially in the elderly. They are associated with a wide cli
To the Editor: Descriptions of the natural history of brain infarction and evaluation of therapeutic interventions rely on definitions of the degree of handicap and neurologic deficit of the patients. The Barthel index is the best known of the functional evaluation systems since it is the easiest to perform. The index describes basically the degree of independence from nursing care or other medical help. The maximum score of 100 reflects a high degree of independence, but not freedom from symptoms, since handicaps related to speech impediments are not included in the evaluation. At the lower end of the scale, improvement in the patients condition is not reflected in a higher score. Therefore, the Barthel index is not suitable for an evaluation of subtle therapeutic effects despite a close correlation with the neurologic score up to the level of relative autonomy at a score of approximately 60 points.
Hey all, please keep in your thoughts my father. Last evening my dad has some sort of a brain infarction or anniorism (not sure how to spell it). We thought it was a stroke. I had to call 911 and he had to be taken to the hospital..he was totally incoherent and confused.. He is doing much better today and is acting like himself but they found some sort of oddity in his brain and are still trying to figure out what it is..understandably. He has to have a biopsy among a lot of other things...it is really scary but Im SOO grateful that he was at home when it happened and not somewhere on the road. Since he had a temporary form of amnesia, I hate to think of what couldve happened......... I will keep in touch on how he is doing but in the meantime.......please keep him in your thoughts and prayers. HUGS. ...
Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis. These monogenic disorders are often characterized by early-age stroke, but also by migraine, mood disturbances, vascular dementia and often gait disturbances. Some also present with extra-cerebral manifestations such as microangiopathy of the eyes and ...
Triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio is a marker of small/dense low-density lipoprotein particles, which are closely associated with various metabolic and vascular diseases. However, the role of TG/HDL cholesterol ratio in cerebrovascular diseases has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and the presence of silent brain infarct (SBI) in a neurologically healthy population. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive participants in health check-ups between January 2006 and December 2013. SBI was defined as an asymptomatic, well-defined lesion with a diameter of ≥3 mm on T1- or T2-weighted images. TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was calculated after dividing absolute TG levels by absolute HDL cholesterol levels. Of 3172 healthy participants, 263 (8.3%) had SBI lesions. In multivariate analysis, TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was independently associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]
Triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio is a marker of small/dense low-density lipoprotein particles, which are closely associated with various metabolic and vascular diseases. However, the role of TG/HDL cholesterol ratio in cerebrovascular diseases has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and the presence of silent brain infarct (SBI) in a neurologically healthy population. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive participants in health check-ups between January 2006 and December 2013. SBI was defined as an asymptomatic, well-defined lesion with a diameter of ≥3 mm on T1- or T2-weighted images. TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was calculated after dividing absolute TG levels by absolute HDL cholesterol levels. Of 3172 healthy participants, 263 (8.3%) had SBI lesions. In multivariate analysis, TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was independently associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]
The relation of orthostatic blood pressure decrease, or increase, with occurrence of ischemic stroke subtypes has not been examined. We investigated the association of orthostatic blood pressure change (within 2 minutes after supine to standing) obtained at baseline (1987 to 1989) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study with incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes through 2007. Among 12 817 black and white individuals without a history of stroke at baseline, 680 ischemic strokes (153 lacunar, 383 nonlacunar thrombotic, and 144 cardioembolic strokes) occurred during a median follow-up of 18.7 years. There was a U-shaped association between orthostatic systolic blood pressure change and lacunar stroke incidence (quadratic P=0.004). In contrast, orthostatic systolic blood pressure decrease of 20 mm Hg or more was associated with increased occurrence of nonlacunar thrombotic and cardioembolic strokes independent of sitting systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, diabetes, ...
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that common variants in the collagen genes COL4A1/COL4A2 are associated with sporadic forms of cerebral small vessel disease. METHODS: We conducted meta-analyses of existing genotype data among individuals of European ancestry to determine associations of 1,070 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COL4A1/COL4A2 genomic region with the following: intracerebral hemorrhage and its subtypes (deep, lobar) (1,545 cases, 1,485 controls); ischemic stroke and its subtypes (cardioembolic, large vessel disease, lacunar) (12,389 cases, 62,004 controls); and white matter hyperintensities (2,733 individuals with ischemic stroke and 9,361 from population-based cohorts with brain MRI data). We calculated a statistical significance threshold that accounted for multiple testing and linkage disequilibrium between SNPs (p | 0.000084). RESULTS: Three intronic SNPs in COL4A2 were significantly associated with deep intracerebral hemorrhage (lead SNP odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95%
TY - JOUR. T1 - Common variation in COL4A1/COL4A2 is associated with sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. AU - METASTROKE Consortium. AU - CHARGE WMH Group. AU - ISGC ICH GWAS Study Collaboration. AU - WMH in Ischemic Stroke GWAS Study Collaboration. AU - International Stroke Genetics Consortium. AU - Rannikmäe, Kristiina. AU - Davies, Gail. AU - Thomson, Pippa A.. AU - Bevan, Steve. AU - Devan, William J.. AU - Falcone, Guido J.. AU - Traylor, Matthew. AU - Anderson, Christopher D.. AU - Battey, Thomas W.K.. AU - Radmanesh, Farid. AU - Deka, Ranjan. AU - Woo, Jessica G.. AU - Martin, Lisa J.. AU - Jimenez-Conde, Jordi. AU - Selim, Magdy. AU - Brown, Devin L.. AU - Silliman, Scott L.. AU - Kidwell, Chelsea S.. AU - Montaner, Joan. AU - Langefeld, Carl D.. AU - Slowik, Agnieszka. AU - Hansen, Björn M.. AU - Lindgren, Arne G.. AU - Meschia, James F.. AU - Fornage, Myriam. AU - Bis, Joshua C.. AU - Debette, Stéphanie. AU - Ikram, Mohammad A.. AU - Longstreth, Will T.. AU - Schmidt, ...
Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the strokes severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreasing incidence of lacunar vs other types of cerebral infarction in a Japanese population. AU - Kubo, M.. AU - Kiyohara, Y.. AU - Ninomiya, T.. AU - Tanizaki, Y.. AU - Yonemoto, K.. AU - Doi, Y.. AU - Hata, J.. AU - Oishi, Y.. AU - Shikata, K.. AU - Iida, M.. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: There is scant information on secular trends in the incidence and survival of ischemic stroke subtypes. METHODS: The authors established three cohorts of Hisayama residents age ≥40 years in 1961 (1,618 subjects), 1974 (2,038 subjects), and 1988 (2,637 subjects). They followed up with each cohort for 12 years, comparing the incidence and survival rate of ischemic stroke subtypes. Morphologic examinations by autopsy or brain imaging was performed on most of the ischemic stroke cases in all cohorts. RESULTS: The age-standardized incidence of lacunar infarction significantly declined by 59% for men and by 28% for women from the first to the second cohort. It continued to ...
The radiology residency program exposes the residents to both the academic and clinical practice of radiology. Although participation in research is not required by the program, it is encouraged.Residents in the program regularly submit abstracts to national meetings or have manuscripts accepted for publication, under the guidance and support of faculty.If a resident has a paper or abstract accepted, then the Department will support that resident to attend the meeting or conference.Sample of Current Resident Research Involvement Publications Benson JC, Payabvash S, Thalken GL, Alonso J, Rykken J, Ott F, McKinney AM. Delineation of microhemorrhage in acute hepatic encephalopathy using susceptibility-weighted imaging. Eur J Radiol. 2016;85(3):629-634.Benson JC, Payabvash S, Mortazavi S, Hoffman B, Oswood M, McKinney AM. Delay-insensitive CT perfusion in acute lacunar stroke: detection capabilities based on infarct location. Am J Neuroradiol. 2016. Published online ahead of print.Payabvash S, Benson JC,
The present study investigates for the first time the relationship of LA volumes and reservoir function with subclinical cerebrovascular disease. We demonstrated that greater LA volumes and smaller LA reservoir function are associated with SBI and WMHV. In addition, we showed that LAVmin is a stronger predictor of silent cerebrovascular lesions than the commonly used LAVmax, and that its significant association with subclinical brain disease persisted after controlling for potential confounders and risk factors.. The mechanisms linking an increase in LA volume with cerebrovascular disease are not completely understood, but it is reasonable to hypothesize that the mechanisms suggested for the relationship between LA size and stroke may, at least in part, apply to silent cerebrovascular disease as well. This is biologically plausible considering that: 1) subjects with subclinical brain lesions are more likely to experience an overt cerebrovascular event; and 2) subclinical and overt ...
Cerebrovascular trauma, also known as blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is a non-penetrating injury to the carotid and/or vertebral artery that may cause stroke in trauma patients. Discover the latest research on cerebrovascular trauma here. ...
Stroke or symptoms of transient brain ischemia have long been viewed as the hallmark expression of cerebrovascular disease. Previous studies conclusively showed that risk factors for stroke are also the most common risk factors for cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease (1, 2), suggesting that these disorders share a common mechanism of vascular injury. Although much attention has focused on silent injury by cerebrovascular disease risk factors to such organ systems as the heart and the kidney, much less attention has been paid to the possible spectrum of brain injury under similar conditions. Fortunately, the advent of neuroimaging, particularly the use of population-based imaging, has heralded an era of rapid growth in studies that examine the relation between cerebrovascular disease risk factors and brain infarction, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. Although previous studies showed that white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) predict future stroke and mortality (3, 4), the study ...
The first aim of this thesis was to critically appraise and improve the classification of small cerebellar infarctions and to visualise arterial cerebellar perfusion territories. Although small cerebellar infarcts are traditionally classified into "watershed" or "border zone" perfusion territories, arterial perfusion territories and the border zones in between them are widely variable among subjects. Also, many infarcts do not fit into such a classification system, which hinders its use in clinical practice [1].. We proposed two answers to these limitations. The first was to omit the traditional classification and to classify small cerebellar infarctions according to anatomical location in the cerebellum instead of arterial perfusion territories [1]. The second and more challenging answer was to develop the first imaging technique to visualise cerebellar perfusion territories in vivo [2]. This way, cerebellar infarction may be directly linked with the responsible diseased artery, for instance, ...
Critique: Brain imaging not required prior to randomization or with followup. Therefore, patients may have had subclinical brain mets (that would have been seen on MRI) in the radiation group and extensive stage group. Applicability of this study to MRI negative extensive stage patients is difficult to interpret. NCCN has PCI with extensive stage with response to chemotherapy and good PS as category 1 ...
This stock medical exhibit depicts a venous centralized catheter that led to formation of venous thrombosis at two locations. The exhibit consists of two illustrations. The first illustration shows the placement of the catheter. The second illustration portrays the formation of the thrombosis and the resulting area of brain infarction.
DEAR DR. DONOHUE: I am a 71-year-old woman. I take medicine for high blood pressure and for cholesterol control. For a long time Ive been havi
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This study sought to examine whether endothelial function is impaired in the large vessels of asymptomatic young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes and whether endothelial dysfunction is related to duration or control of diabetes, small-vessel disease or other vascular risk factors. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The usefulness of fractional anisotropy maps in localization of lacunar infarctions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. AU - Jeong, Hyun Kyung. AU - Lee, Seung Koo. AU - Kim, Dong Ik. AU - Heo, Ji Hoe. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - We aimed in this study to assess the clinical usefulness of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in the evaluation of lacunar infarctions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients (18 men, 10 women; mean age 63 years) who had acute lacunar infarction in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus on diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated in addition to conventional T2 weighted images (T2WI) and trace maps of DWI. Two radiologists reviewed the location of infarcts in combination with and without FA maps. Exact location of infarction was determined by FA maps, i.e. on the white band of internal capsule or outside the internal capsule. Accuracy and inter-observer ...
The study was published in Journal of the American Heart Association. In the Cardiovascular Health Study in the USA, 3,660 people aged 65 and older underwent brain scans to detect so called silent brain infarcts, or small lesions in the brain that can cause loss of thinking skills, dementia and stroke. Scans were performed again five years later on 2,313 of the participants. Research shows that silent brain infarcts, which are only detected by brain scans, are found in about 20% of otherwise healthy elderly people. The study found that those who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood had about 40% lower risk of having small brain infarcts compared to those with low content of these fatty acids in blood. The study also found that people who had high long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in blood also had fewer changes in the white matter in their brains. Previously in this same study population, similar findings were observed when comparing those ...
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with cerebral small vessel disease, but is not well detected using common cognitive screening tests which have been primarily devised for cortical dementias. We developed the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET); a rapid screening measure sensitive to the impaired executive function and processing speed characteristic of small vessel disease (SVD). To assess the BMETs validity for general use, we evaluated it when administered by non-psychologists in a multicentre study and collected control data to derive normative scores. Two-hundred participants with SVD, defined as a clinical lacunar stroke and a corresponding lacunar infarct on MRI, and 303 healthy controls aged between 40-90 years old were recruited. The BMET, as well as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), were performed. Overall, 55 SVD participants underwent repeat testing at 3 months to assess the BMET test-retest reliability. Administering the BMET
article{1efcb56d-fdcb-4628-a18a-906218d7c70d, abstract = {Background and Purpose-A low risk of recurrent stroke and death after lacunar infarction has previously been reported, but follow-up has been limited to less than or equal to5 years. Methods-One hundred eighty patients with pure motor stroke, collected between 1983 and 1986 from a hospital-based stroke registry, were followed up until at least 10 years after the index stroke. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Survival status was determined from the official population registry and compared with survival rates of the Swedish population, matched for age and sex. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify independent prognostic predictors. Results-During follow-up 106 (60%) of the 178 patients died, most commonly as a result of coronary heart disease. During the first 5 years after the stroke, survival rates were similar to those of the general population. Beyond this time the risk of death was increased among ...
Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, non-specific presentation and lack of awareness of the disease frequently lead to significant delay in diagnosis, often with the onset of right heart failure, when prognosis is poor and therapy is of limited effectiveness. The classification of pulmonary hypertension is a clinical one grouping diseases into categories with similar patho-physiological mechanism and therapeutic options. Pulmonary biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis but is hazardous in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Imaging has emerged as an invaluable tool in differentiating the aetiology, assessing disease severity and directing further management. One of the most important roles of imaging is to differentiate diseases resulting from obstruction of the large pulmonary arteries from those secondary to diffuse small vessel disease, as these have very different prognosis and are also treated differently. Small vessel diseases ...
article{f801030f-b1c8-4f04-9f4e-0159e0e77eab, abstract = {,p,S100 protein is a marker for brain damage easily analysed in blood. The serum level immediatly after termination of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is increased and associated to age and the duration of perfusion. A prolonged residual concentration indicates cellular brain damage. The objective of this study was to ascertain if the prognosis of individual patients, with stroke following ECC, could be predicted by the S100 levels. 224 patients with an uneventful outcome constituted a reference population. Blood samples for the analysis of S100 were collected at termination of ECC (TO) and at 5, 15 and 48 hours thereafter. Eight patients with stroke following ECC were analysed. In 4, S100 levels continued to increase after ECC. The volume of brain infarctions were large and in 3 of the patients outcome was fatal. In 4 other patients with small volume brain injury S100 dropped initially, but after 5 hours the elimination slowed down, ...
Brain infarction or stroke is caused by a blood clot blocking a blood vessel in the brain, which leads to interruption of blood flow and shortage of oxygen. Now a research group at Lund University, Sweden, has taken an important step towards a treatment for stroke using stem cells.. The research group shows in a new study, published in the scientific journal Brain, that so-called induced pluripotent stem cells have developed to mature nerve cells at two months after transplantation into the stroke-injured cerebral cortex of rats. These nerve cells have established contact with other important structures in the brain. The transplantation gave rise to improvement of the animals mobility. The results are from studies in animals but the scientists are hopeful.. "The results are promising and represent a very early but important step towards a stem cell-based treatment for stroke in patients. However, it is important to underscore that further experimental studies are necessary to translate these ...
0s, the MRI, PET and spec scan emerged as great research tools demonstrating that the brains of ADHD persons are different. Alan Scentian published pet scan studies in which two groups of people with the use of radioactive glucose used by the brain for energy (scan shows brain activity in color) demonstrated that the frontal lobes of ADHD people are smaller, so we know that there are biological differences ...
The starting dose of Niaspan is 500 mg every night at bedtime. This eMedTV article lists the maximum recommended Niaspan dosage (2000 mg per day), as well as factors that affect Niaspan dosing (for example, the condition youre being treated for).
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The connection between COPD and cerebral small vessel disease was suggested by two earlier studies, but the connection between COPD and cerebral microbleeds, the location of which can help elucidate underlying disease mechanisms, has not been studied," said researchers Lies Lahousse, PhD, of the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Ghent University Hospital in Belgium and Bruno Stricker, PhD, of the Department of Epidemiology at Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. "In the current study, we found, for the first time, that COPD increases the risk of cerebral microbleeds in deep or infratentorial brain regions, not only in a cross-sectional analysis but also in a longitudinal analysis in subjects without microbleeds at baseline.". Microbleeds in deep (deep gray matter of the basal ganglia and thalamus and white matter of the corpus callosum, internal, external, and extreme capsule) or infratentorial (brainstem and cerebellum) locations are suggestive of hypertensive or ...
The diagnosis of stroke remains a clinical one, supported by imaging. Emergency departments and medical admission units need neurological expertise to help accomplish this.33. Diagnostic accuracy in stroke has been increased by improvement in imaging techniques. However, higher resolution brain imaging means that there is a greater risk of finding incidentalomas, not relevant to the presenting complaint.34 It is therefore essential to relate the clinical picture to the radiographic images. For example, a radiographic lacune may create confusion in a stroke mimic unless it is shown that the location of the lacune is clearly anatomically irrelevant to the neurological deficit, or that the lacune is chronic rather than from an acute lacunar infarction. A thorough review of the imaging with a neuroradiologist will help sort the wheat of real findings from the chaff of incidental findings.. It is also important to consider the pretest probability of the patient having cerebrovascular disease. An ...
Spinal cord infarct: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on spinal cord infarct at PatientsLikeMe. 13 patients with spinal cord infarct experience fatigue, pain, anxious mood, depressed mood, and insomnia and use Acetaminophen (Paracetamol), Naproxen Prescription, and Pregabalin to treat their spinal cord infarct and its symptoms.
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Principal Investigator:NINOMIYA YOSHIFUMI, Project Period (FY):2011-04-01 - 2014-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
A small protein that could protect the brain from stroke-induced injury has been discovered by researchers from the University of Queensland and Monash University.
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for stroke. The aim was to explore if stroke patients admitted with lacunar stroke adhere to the international recommendations on physical activity prestroke (≥150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, or ≥75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity, or an equivalent combination). Further, to assess association between prestroke physical activity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, including patients with lacunar stroke according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Data collected included prestroke physical activity using the self-reported Physical Activity Scale. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated as the power output from the Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test and sociodemographic factors including age, sex, education, and CVD risk factors including pre-existing diabetes, history of hypertension, body mass index, and lipids were assessed.. RESULTS: ...
We observed that people diagnosed with periodontal disease had about a 4-fold increased risk of developing lacunar stroke compared with those without periodontitis. If further prospective cohort studies confirm our findings, interventional studies should be performed to assess the potential benefit of periodontal therapy in patients with lacunar stroke and periodontitis," said Dr. Yago Leira, lead author of the European Journal of Neurology study. "Periodontal treatment may also decrease systemic inflammation and, therefore, it may reduce the risk of developing lacunar infarct." ...
Photo for illustration purposes only , Source: Tribune. After his massage session, Zhang took a quick shower and went home but not long after that, he started to feel dizzy and was unable to walk.. He was rushed to the hospital for urgent treatment and the doctors tried their best to keep him alive. Unfortunately, they could not save Zhang as he passed away the next day.. His family was puzzled about the cause of death as Zhang was a healthy young man. When the autopsy report was released, it turns out that the doctor believed his death was caused by the unprofessional massage that caused a brain infarction.. ...
The effects of stroke depend on the location of the blockage. A clot in a large artery to one side of the brain may cause weakness, paralysis, or sensory loss on the opposite side of the body, and possibly loss of speech. If it occurs in an artery supplying the back of the brain, dizziness, memory loss, and gait and swallowing disturbances are common.. Occlusion of a small artery deep in the brain (a lacunar stroke) may have more limited consequences ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Neuroprotective effect of lacosamide on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Read about a study suggesting that analysis of white matter hyperintensity (a measure of the risk of stroke) may serve as a biomarker for SCD children.
Objective The significant impact of stroke on health care results in an unmet need for efficient stroke care in resources limited environments. Practical, inexpensive and easy to obtain predictive EEG parameters have been suggested in anterior circulation syndromes. We investigated whether EEG parameters are of additional predictive value with regard to lesion volume and short-term functional outcome in lacunar (LACS) and posterior circulation (POCS) syndromes of presumed ischemic origin. Methods Sixty (60) patients presenting with LACS or POCS were incrementally included. EEG parameters were correlated with volume of ischemia and functional status. Predictive values for definite stroke and unfavourable outcome were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression modelling. Results The pairwise derived brain symmetry index (pdBSI) emerged as independent predictor for definite stroke in patients presenting with LACS and POCS (odds ratio (OR) 2.69, 95% ...
Children with sickle cell disease suffer impairment of cognitive function (1-3, 8-18). Although some studies report little or no cognitive impairment among patients with no history of clinical stroke (9,16,18), a general consensus exists that patients with clinical stroke do show cognitive impairment (1,8,13,15). We herein confirm that patients with silent infarct have cognitive impairment, compared with patients with normal MR imaging findings (Tables 2 and 5). However, we observed that patients who have completely normal MR imaging findings can still show significant cognitive impairment with respect to normative data (Tables 2 and 5), suggesting that MR imaging is not sensitive to some types of damage that can produce cognitive impairment. The degree of impairment is greater in children with low hematocrit (Table 3), and hematocrit alone is able to explain approximately 23% of the variance in full-scale intelligence quotient (Table 4). Furthermore, abnormal MR imaging and low hematocrit are ...
多発ラクナ脳梗塞を合併した2型糖尿病の勤労者における血清チオバルビタール酸反応物質(TBARS)値の検討 PLASMA LEVELS OF THIOBARBITURIC ACID REACTIVE SUBSTANCES (TBARS) OF THE EMPLOYEE WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS WITH MULTIPLE LACUNAR LESIONS ...
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Question - Suggest treatment for Triple Vessel Disease . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Triple vessel disease, Ask a Cardiologist
Author: Lampe, Leonie et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019-01-01; Keywords: White matter hyperintensities; cerebral small vessel disease; cognitive impairment; brain atrophy; brain aging; Title: Lesion location matters: The relationships between white matter hyperintensities on cognition in the healthy elderly
Lipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement with powerful antioxidant properties. Although LA is neuroprotective in models of stroke, little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which it confers protection during the early stages of ischemia. Here, using a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we demonstrated that administration of LA 30 min prior to stroke, reduces infarct volume in a dose dependent manner. Whole-cell patch clamp Show moreLipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement with powerful antioxidant properties. Although LA is neuroprotective in models of stroke, little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which it confers protection during the early stages of ischemia. Here, using a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we demonstrated that administration of LA 30 min prior to stroke, reduces infarct volume in a dose dependent manner. Whole-cell patch clamp ...
Clinical cases of normothermic extracorporeal circulation (ECC) are increasing, but the possibility of brain damage is not clear. In emergencies, the brain protective effects of mild (33-34 ) hypothermic therapy have been clearly confirmed. Natural Temperature decrease ECC was conducted in this study, hoping to obtain the advantages of both normothermic ECC and brain protection by mild hypothermia. These were 12 cases at high risk of brain damage (10 cases of brain infarction and 2 cases of severe carotid artery stenosis). In all cases, coronary artery bypass grafting operation with natural temperature decrease ECC was performed. The average laryngeal temperature dropped to 33.0 }0.3 . There was no brain infarction or ICU syndrome. Evaluation of post-operative brain condition by the patients themselves and their families was good. The possibility of natural temperature decrease ECC for high risk cases of brain damage was demonstrated ...
Cerebrovascular disease is currently the second most common cause of death after ischemic heart disease. In this article, we mainly focus on the application of permeability imaging in cases of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and cerebral small vessel disease. In this review, we discuss the application of permeability imaging in ischemic stroke from two aspects: 1) for the prediction of hemorrhagic transformation after infarction, and 2) for the evaluation of newborn secondary and tertiary collateral circulations. Quantitative measurements of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption by the Dynamic Contrast Enhance MR (DCE-MR) can reveal the severity of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, and that the technique has the potential to be used for testing the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing tissue damage around the hematoma. Currently, DCE-MR is mostly applied for the assessment of tumors in patients. There is less research focused on the evaluation of mild BBB defects in normal or
Lacunes are caused by occlusion of a single deep penetrating artery that arises directly from the constituents of the Circle of Willis, cerebellar arteries, and basilar artery. The corresponding lesions occur in the deep nuclei of the brain (37% putamen, 14% thalamus, and 10% caudate) as well as the pons (16%) or the posterior limb of the internal capsule (10%). They occur less commonly in the deep cerebral white matter, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the cerebellum. The two proposed mechanisms are microatheroma and lipohyalinosis.[4] At the beginning, lipohyalinosis was thought to be the main small vessel pathology, but microatheroma now is thought to be the most common mechanism of arterial occlusion (or stenosis). Occasionally, atheroma in the parent artery blocks the orifice of the penetrating artery (luminal atheroma), or atheroma involves the origin of the penetrating artery (junctional atheroma). Alternatively, hypoperfusion is believed to be the mechanism when there is ...
Kirsty McAleese, PhD, of Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK, discusses her research into fibrinogen leakage in the white matter of Alzheimers disease and normal aged brains, and the implications of the findings for fibrinogen as a biomarker. Dr McAleese highlights the notable results for extravascular fibrinogen and cerebral small vessel disease pathology. This interview took place at the Alzheimers Research UK (ARUK) Conference 2019, held in Harrogate, UK.
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are defined as small, rounded, or ovoid, homogeneous hypointense lesions on T2*-weighted gradient-echo and other susceptibility-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) s
Renal infarcts are the result of complete and sudden obstruction of major branches of renal arteries and less frequently of renal veins. Emboli originating from ventricular thrombi or from vegetations of heart valves are most frequently involved in causing complete arterial blockage. The patient described exhibited an embolus in an arteria radiata. Besides, arterial occlusion may be due to thrombosis of vessels exhibiting pathological changes of the wall (atherosclerosis, malignant hypertensive disease, polyarteritis, and aneurysm formation due to dysplasia of the renal artery ...
Cerebral infarction causes irreversible damage to the brain. In one study of patients with carotid artery dissection, 60% had ... which can travel through the arteries to the brain and block the blood supply to the brain, resulting in an ischaemic stroke, ... Blood clots, or emboli, originating from the dissection are thought to be the cause of infarction in the majority of cases of ... Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain ...
"Ancrod for the treatment of acute ischemic brain infarction. The Ancrod Stroke Study Investigators". Stroke. 25 (9): 1755-9. ...
When injecting spheres into the cerebral circulation, their size determines the pattern of brain infarction: Macrospheres (300- ... resulting in a cessation of blood flow and subsequent brain infarction in its area of supply. If the suture is removed after a ... "Induction of reproducible brain infarction by photochemically initiated thrombosis". Ann Neurol. 17 (5): 497-504. doi:10.1002/ ... "Induction of reproducible brain infarction by photochemically initiated thrombosis". Annals of Neurology. 17 (5): 497-504. doi: ...
Burke, CJ; Tannenberg, AE (1995). "Prenatal brain damage and placental infarction- an autopsy study". Developmental medicine ... Chipkevitch, E (1994). "Brain tumors and anorexia nervosa syndrome". Brain & development. 16 (3): 175-9. doi:10.1016/0387-7604( ... Tumors: tumors in various regions of the brain have been implicated in the development of abnormal eating patterns. Brain ... "Individual differences in personality traits reflect structural variance in specific brain regions". Brain Research Bulletin. ...
"Heart and vessel pathology underlying brain infarction in 142 stroke patients". Department of Pathology, National ... "Calgary Stroke Program (E.E.S.), Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada; Duke Clinical Research Institute (L. ... Cryptogenic cerebral infarction (CCI)[sunting , sunting sumber]. CCI paling banyak ditemukan dalam penderita patent foramen ... "Cryptogenic cerebral infarction: from classification to concept". SourceCHU de la Cavale Blanche, Service de neurologie; Timsit ...
The cause of death was listed as brain stem infarction. Many of the MotoGP riders wore black armbands or placed small #74's on ...
1997) Brain infarction and the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease. The Nun Study. JAMA 277: 813-7 Snowdon DA, Kemper SJ, ... especially predictive factors in early life and the role of brain infarction. He is the director of the Nun Study, a ... Their focus was to understand how changes in the brain could be linked to Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders ... and post-mortem examination of their brains. The study moved with Snowdon to the University of Kentucky. Many of the procedures ...
Hypertension is an important risk factor for brain infarction and hemorrhage. Approximately 85% of strokes are due to ... traumatic or chemical injury to the brain, and uremic encephalopathy. Hypertensive retinopathy is a condition characterized by ... infarction and the remainder are due to hemorrhage, either intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The incidence ...
... reduce brain infarction and stroke in a rodent model. 10-Epi-PD1 (ent-AT-NPD1: i.e. 10S,17S-Dihydroxy-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z- ... DHA, the main PD1 precursor, is mostly found in tissues such as the retinal synapses, photoreceptors, the lungs and the brain, ...
Mistri died on 27 January 2011 as a result a brain infarction. Her funeral was held on 29 January in Karachi, with over 2000 ...
Major depression is a risk factor and also a consequence of silent brain infarction (SBI). Persons who present with symptoms of ... June 1997). "Silent brain infarction on magnetic resonance imaging and neurological abnormalities in community-dwelling older ... 2001). "Elevated plasma homocysteine levels and risk of silent brain infarction in elderly people". Stroke: A Journal of ... 2009). "Acrolein, IL-6 and CRP as markers of silent brain infarction". Atherosclerosis. 203 (2): 557-62. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... is sometimes seen in individuals with brain infarctions. The damaged side of the brain conveys size information that ... by changes in the brain (such as from traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, migraines, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs), and ... Epileptiform abnormalities including spikes and sharp waves in the medial temporal lobe of the brain can diagnose this ... Dissociative phenomena are linked with micropsia, which may be the result of brain-lateralization disturbance. Micropsia is ...
He died of a brain stem infarction after spending two weeks in a coma. Dome Karasu driver Tojiro Ukiya died in a test run on ...
The causes of Parinaud syndrome include brain tumors (pinealomas), multiple sclerosis and brainstem infarction. Due to the lack ...
Duvernoy, Henri M. (2013). Human Brain Stem Vessels: Including the Pineal Gland and Information on Brain Stem Infarction. ... Tatu, Laurent; Moulin, Thierry; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Duvernoy, Henri (1996-11-01). "Arterial territories of human brain ...
Neuroimaging evidence for cortical or subcortical infarction, subdural hematoma, or other focal brain pathology. Elevated ... Alcohol has a direct effect on brain cells in the front part of the brain, resulting in poor judgment, difficulty making ... Long-time alcohol abuse can often lead to poor nutrition problems causing parts of the brain to be damaged by vitamin ... Diagnosing alcohol-related dementia can be difficult due to the wide range of symptoms and a lack of specific brain pathology. ...
Hemorrhagic stroke - Infarction of the brain due to internal bleeding from Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms. Hypertensive ... Myocardial infarction (a.k.a. heart attack) - A myocardial infarction is the death of a part of the heart which is typically ... The top three causes of ACS are ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 30%), non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI ... CAD can lead to ischemia (angina pectoris) or infarction (myocardial infarction). Treatment of CAD includes angioplasty, ...
Goumah Died suffering from the complications of a Brain Infarction on the 15th of June, 1953. Goumah started recording his ...
April 2001). "Effects of nitric oxide on reactive oxygen species production and infarction size after brain reperfusion injury ...
... development of brain infarction resulting from complications due to hypertensive crisis in patients suffering from hypertension ... and chronic leukemia is comparable to the prognosis for the patient ailing from myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction. ... transmural myocardial infarction and massive thromboembolism of pulmonary artery, caused by phlebemphraxis of lower limbs). For ... ranging from a negligible change for acute myocardial infarction with major complication or comorbidity to nearly nine times ...
In the brain, infarction results in stroke, and in the spinal cord it may result in paralysis. a person's age - there are some ... including arteries to the brain, spinal cord and heart). In the arterial system, bubbles (arterial gas embolism) are far more ... although the symptoms from arterial gas embolism are generally more severe because they often arise from an infarction ( ... dangerous because they block circulation and cause infarction (tissue death, due to local loss of blood flow). ...
One exception to coagulative necrosis is the brain, which undergoes liquefactive necrosis in response to infarction. Robbins ... red cells are lysed so the resulting hemosiderosis is limited and results in a progressively more pale area of infarction with ...
2007). "Functional SNP in an Sp1-binding site of AGTRL1 gene is associated with susceptibility to brain infarction". Hum. Mol. ... Kubo M (2008). "[Genetic risk factors of ischemic stroke identified by a genome-wide association study]". Brain and nerve = ...
The patient was marked with the behavior, and brain imaging noticed the infarctions in the thalamus. In conjunction with the ... Brain 106: 237-255. Shallice, T., Burgess, P. W., Schon, F., and Baxter, D. M. (1989). The origins of utilization behaviour. ... Brain 112: 1587-1598. Eslinger, P. J., Warner, G. C., Grattan, L. M., and Easton, J. D. (1991). "Frontal lobe" utilization ... A coronal section of the brain confirmed an infarct, tissue death due to lack of oxygen, in the left superior frontal gyrus ...
... reveals Dibny was killed by an infarction in her brain. A microscopic scan of Dibny's brain reveals tiny footprints as a clue ... to the infarction's cause. Doctor Mid-Nite and Mister Terrific realize, as does Batman in the course of his own investigation, ...
Cushing Dead; Brain Surgeon, 70. A Pioneer Who Won Fame as Founder of New School of Neuro-Surgery. Discovered Malady Affecting ... was that the basophil adenoma Minnie might have harbored underwent partial infarction, leading to symptom regression.[3] The ...
Fatal Infarction of Brain in Migraine Br Med J 1964; 1 :225 ... Fatal Infarction of.... *Fatal Infarction of Brain in Migraine ... Fatal Infarction of Brain in Migraine. Br Med J 1964; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5377.225 (Published 25 January 1964) ...
CT signs of early cerebral infarction are subtle within the first 6 hours after symptom onset, but important to recognize. The ... CT signs of early cerebral infarction are subtle within the first 6 hours after symptom onset, but important to recognize. The ... Detectability, Prevalence, and Significance of Early CT Signs of Hemispheric Infarction Rüdiger von Kummer, Luigi Bozzao, ... by publishing this series of early CT scans from study patients in order to improve early recognition of ischemic infarction by ...
A new study shows people who suffer from migraine headaches may be at risk for brain lesions and infarctions, which are areas ... Parkinsons Disease Migraine Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Brain Brain Facts Ataxia Language Areas in The Brain Ways to ... Brain Infarctions Found In Patients Suffering From Migraine. by Medindia Content Team on May 28, 2004 at 5:08 PM General Health ... A new study shows people who suffer from migraine headaches may be at risk for brain lesions and infarctions, which are areas ...
... aged from 15-55 with acute ischemic brain infarction verified by computed tomography and/or angiography and/or brain scanning ... Ethanol intoxication preceding brain infarction was 4-7 times as common in men and 6-15 times as common in women as ethanol ... Ethanol intoxication: a risk factor for ischemic brain infarction.. M Hillbom, M Kaste ... Both occasional ethanol intoxication and regular heavy drinking seem to carry an increased risk of ischemic brain infarction. ...
Cerebral Infarction Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2017BriefGlobalDatas clinical trial report, Cerebral Infarction Global ... The number of cerebral infarction (brain infarction) clinical trials conducted globally, has increased by ##% for the period ... Clinical Research in Cerebral Infarction (Brain Infarction) in H1, 2017 *May 2017 ... Cerebral Infarction Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2017. Brief. GlobalDatas clinical trial report, "Cerebral Infarction ...
Brain strokes were more sensitive to inclement weather than myocardial infarctions. This paper provides quantitative estimates ... We studied 2,833 myocardial infarctions and 1,096 brain strokes registered in two Moscow hospitals between 1992 and 2005. Daily ... The influence of meteorological and geomagnetic factors on acute myocardial infarction and brain stroke in Moscow, Russia. ... barometric pressure and geomagnetic activity on hospitalizations with myocardial infarctions and brain strokes. ...
Cerebral Infarction (Brain Infarction) Therapeutics, G7 Countries, Clinical Trials by Phase, 2017*. Cerebral Infarction (Brain ... Cerebral Infarction (Brain Infarction) Therapeutics, E7 Countries, Clinical Trials by Phase, 2017*. Cerebral Infarction (Brain ... Cerebral Infarction (Brain Infarction) Therapeutics, G7 Countries, Clinical Trials by Phase, 2017*. Cerebral Infarction (Brain ... Cerebral Infarction (Brain Infarction) Therapeutics, E7 Countries, Clinical Trials by Phase, 2017*. Cerebral Infarction (Brain ...
2009). Hemostatic Factors and Subclinical Brain Infarction in a Community-Based Sample: The ARIC Study. Cerebrovascular ... Hemostatic Factors and Subclinical Brain Infarction in a Community-Based Sample: The ARIC Study. ...
... revealing an area of cerebral infarction - the result of a stroke. The infarct - brain tissue starved of blood - appears as the ... scan of the brain of woman aged 48 years, ... CT brain scan showing cerebral infarction - stroke. M136/0022 ... Caption: Computed X-ray tomography (CT) scan of the brain of woman aged 48 years, revealing an area of cerebral infarction - ... The infarct - brain tissue starved of blood - appears as the dark rectangular area in centre. In CT, a narrow X-ray beam is ...
We encountered a patient presenting with simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and brainstem infarction caused by a dissecting ... Brain Stem Infarctions / diagnosis, etiology*. Cerebral Angiography. Humans. Intracranial Aneurysm / complications*, diagnosis ... This is a rare case of a vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysm that simultaneously caused both SAH and brain stem infarction. MRI ... MRI demonstrated a small infarction in the left dorsal pons, and an intramural hematoma of the left vertebral artery and lower ...
Contrast-Enhanced Transcranial Color-Coded Sonography in Acute Hemispheric Brain Infarction. Thomas Postert, B. Braun, S. Meves ... Contrast-Enhanced Transcranial Color-Coded Sonography in Acute Hemispheric Brain Infarction. Thomas Postert, B. Braun, S. Meves ... Contrast-Enhanced Transcranial Color-Coded Sonography in Acute Hemispheric Brain Infarction. Thomas Postert, B. Braun, S. Meves ... Twenty-three of 24 patients with symmetrical MCA exhibited lacunar infarctions (n=9), small infarctions of ,1/3 of the MCA ...
Changes that take place in the MR appearance of the brain after fixation are discussed. Gross and microscopic pathology ... MR imaging was performed on 36 formalin-fixed brain specimens. For three of these specimens, in vivo MR studies had also been ... Brain MR: Pathologic Correlation With Gross and Histopathology. 1. Lacunar Infarction and Virchow-Robin Spaces AJR Am J ... MR imaging was performed on 36 formalin-fixed brain specimens. For three of these specimens, in vivo MR studies had also been ...
Clinical trial for Brain stem infarction , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Quadriplegia , Spinal Cord Injury , Muscular ...
Infarction. Cognitive Dysfunction. Brain Infarction. Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Ischemia. Pathologic Processes ... Brain Infarction Hypertension Drug: Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists Drug: Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4 ... Progression of silent brain infarction or white matter lesion on magnetic resonance imaging [ Time Frame: two years ]. ... Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) and ACE Inhibitors (ACEI) on Silent Brain Infarction and Cognitive Decline. This study ...
Progression of silent brain infarction or white matter lesion on magnetic resonance imaging [ Time Frame: two years ] ... Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) and ACE Inhibitors (ACEI) on Silent Brain Infarction and Cognitive Decline. This study ... However, no reports are seen on comparison of the effects of ARBs and ACEIs on progression of silent brain infarction and ... Elderly people, especially hypertensive patients, with silent brain infarction have an increased risk of stroke and cognitive ...
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antagonist Reduces Brain Edema Formation and Venous Infarction. R. Kimura, H. Nakase, R. ... Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antagonist Reduces Brain Edema Formation and Venous Infarction ... Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antagonist Reduces Brain Edema Formation and Venous Infarction ... Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antagonist Reduces Brain Edema Formation and Venous Infarction ...
... possibly reflecting residual left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. ... Increased plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in the early or subacute phase of myocardial infarction are a ... Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations predict survival after acute myocardial infarction J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Jun; ... Conclusions: Increased plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in the early or subacute phase of myocardial infarction ...
MCA infarctions and 9% (2/23) anterior cerebral artery infarctions. By the time the NCCT showed the infarction, 38% (8/21) of ... Evaluating Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Delayed Cerebral Infarction after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. J. ... Evaluating Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Delayed Cerebral Infarction after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage ... Spatiotemporal evolution of blood brain barrier damage and tissue infarction within the first 3h after ischemia onset. ...
Plasma brain natriuretic peptide as an indicator for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition after myocardial infarction. ... Augmented secretion of brain natriuretic peptide in acute myocardial infarction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;180:431-436. ... Increased plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1993;88:82-91. ... Prognostic value of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. ...
Strokes Due to Vertebro-Basilar Disease: Infarction, Vascular Insufficiency and Hemorrhage of the Brain Stem and Cerebellum. ... Strokes Due to Vertebro-Basilar Disease: Infarction, Vascular Insufficiency and Hemorrhage of the Brain Stem and Cerebellum.. ... This provides a firm foundation for subsequent chapters on clinical syndromes resulting from brainstem infarction, hemorrhage, ...
26 patients with either brain stem infarction (19 cases), or cerebellum infarction (7 cases) were treated. Ages ranged from 42- ... p,Electro-Acupuncture for Treatment of Dysequilibrium Due to Cerebellum or Brain Stem Infarction by Zhao Hong,/p,,p, ... 26 patients with either brain stem infarction (19 cases), or cerebellum infarction (7 cases) were treated. Ages ranged from 42- ... Electro-Acupuncture for Treatment of Dysequilibrium Due to Cerebellum or Brain Stem Infarction by Zhao Hong ...
... In: Neuroradiology, Vol. ... Infarctions detected using WB-CTP were significantly larger than those not detected (15.0 vs. 2.2 ml;P = 0.0007);infarct ... The detection of infratentorial infarctions can be improved by assessing WB-CTP as part of the multimodal stroke workup. ... However, it remains a diagnostic challenge, especially small volume infarctions in the brainstem are likely to be missed. ...
Pahwa R, , Lyons KE, , Wilkinson SB, , Simpson RK Jr, , Ondo WG, & Tarsy D, : Long-term evaluation of deep brain stimulation of ... Kitagawa M, , Murata J, , Kikuchi S, , Sawamura Y, , Saito H, & Sasaki H, : Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic area for ... Rehncrona S, , Johnels B, , Widner H, , Tornqvist AL, , Hariz M, & Sydow O: Long-term efficacy of thalamic deep brain ... Skidmore FM, , Rodriguez RL, , Fernandez HH, , Goodman WK, , Foote KD, & Okun MS: Lessons learned in deep brain stimulation for ...
Abstract T MP112: Cerebral Infarction and Brain Arterial Pathology in Hiv: Results From the Brain Arterial Remodeling Study ( ... Abstract T MP112: Cerebral Infarction and Brain Arterial Pathology in Hiv: Results From the Brain Arterial Remodeling Study ( ... Abstract T MP112: Cerebral Infarction and Brain Arterial Pathology in Hiv: Results From the Brain Arterial Remodeling Study ( ... Abstract T MP112: Cerebral Infarction and Brain Arterial Pathology in Hiv: Results From the Brain Arterial Remodeling Study ( ...
Effects of silent brain infarctions in different locations on cognitive function. The effect of silent brain infarctions in ... Advanced periventricular leukoaraiosis, silent brain infarction and microbleeds. Leukoaraiosis and silent brain infarction are ... 41 patients with microbleeds and without silent brain infarctions), SBI (46 patients with silent brain infarctions and without ... The numbers of silent brain infarctions in basal ganglia, thalamus, corona radiata and brain stem were added into the four ...
  • This method makes a selective cortical infarction inducement with high reproducibility in SCID and C.B-17 by direct electrocoagulation and ligation at a middle cerebral artery (MCA) distance part. (clea-japan.com)
  • Thrombolysis was considered but rejected because of the "fusiform aneurysmal" appearance of the left internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery on the initial brain CT scan. (southsudanmedicaljournal.com)
  • Patients with Transient Ischemic attack or brain infarction of unknown cause (no ipsilateral internal carotid artery origin stenosis greater than 70%, no ipsilateral severe intracranial stenosis of an artery supplying the infarcted area, no definite cardiac source of embolism) in the preceding 6 months and atherosclerotic plaques. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When injecting spheres into the cerebral circulation, their size determines the pattern of brain infarction: Macrospheres (300-400 µm) induce infarcts similar to those achieved by occlusion of the proximal MCA , whereas microsphere (~ 50 µm) injection results in distal, diffuse embolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes include: Thrombosis (approximately 40% of cases) Arterial embolism (approximately 40%) arteriosclerosis obliterans Another cause of limb infarction is skeletal muscle infarction as a rare complication of long standing, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has recently been proven to be the only medical intervention which reduces brain damage, and improves an infant's chance of survival and reduced disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Migraine, White Matter Hyperintensities, and Subclinical Brain Infarction in a Diverse Community: The Northern Manhattan Study. (heart.org)
  • Subclinical brain infarction (SBI) and white matter hyperintensity volumes (WMHV) were quantified from the MRI sub-study. (heart.org)
  • Participants had a brain magnetic resonance imaging, blood samples drawn, and a physical and neurological examination. (medindia.net)
  • The infarct - brain tissue starved of blood - appears as the dark rectangular area in centre. (sciencephoto.com)
  • We assessed blood-brain barrier permeability, measured as permeability surface area product, by using CTP in patients with SAH with delayed infarction. (ajnr.org)
  • Pathologic accumulation of blood in the cranial vault (ie, ICH) may occur in the brain parenchyma or the surrounding meningeal spaces. (medscape.com)
  • I wonder if the thrombus can pass through the brain-blood barrier because I think small molecules like O 2 , CO 2 and ethanol can pass it. (stackexchange.com)
  • This question seems to stem from a misunderstanding of the nature of the Blood-Brain-Barrier, the circulatory system of the brain and of thrombi. (stackexchange.com)
  • The BBB is describes differences in the structure of the walls of the blood vessels of the brain, it is not a barrier to flow within the vessel, but a specialized barrier to flow out of the vessel. (stackexchange.com)
  • No, a thrombus would be much too large to pass through the highly selective blood brain barrier. (stackexchange.com)
  • No, thrombi are far too bulky to cross the blood brain barrier. (stackexchange.com)
  • The primary aim of this study is to determine the neuroprotective effect of intravenous administration of autologous cord blood in neonates with severe encephalopathy (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy or cerebral infarction). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cerebrolysin™ is a porcine-derived intravenous formulation composed of multiple lipid-soluble active agents that can cross the blood-brain barrier. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, the quality of MCAO - and thus the volume of brain infarcts - is very variable, a fact which is further aggravated by a certain rate of spontaneous lysis of injected blood clots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infarctions are divided into 2 types according to the amount of blood present: White infarctions (anemic infarcts) affect solid organs such as the spleen, heart and kidneys wherein the solidity of the tissue substantially limits the amount of nutrients (blood/oxygen/glucose/fuel) that can flow into the area of ischaemic necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An interruption of blood flow to the brain for more than 10 seconds causes unconsciousness, and an interruption in flow for more than a few minutes generally results in irreversible brain damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sickle shaped blood cells clot more easily than normal blood cells, impeding blood flow to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This, however, requires puncture of the femoral artery with a sheath and advancing a thin tube through the blood vessels to the brain where radiocontrast is injected before X-ray images are obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pressure-volume relationship between ICP, volume of CSF, blood, and brain tissue, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is known as the Monro-Kellie doctrine or the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • doctors later found out through scans that he had a blood shortage to his brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the most frequent cause is a blood vessel pressing on the facial nerve at the spot where it leaves the patient's brain stem, sometimes there is no known cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy has many causes and is essentially the reduction in the supply of blood or oxygen to a baby's brain before, during, or even after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arterioles can become permeable resulting in compromise of the blood brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both are caused by a disruption in blood flow to the brain, or cerebral blood flow (CBF). (wikipedia.org)
  • He underwent surgery to remove a blood clot from his brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are often managed with the blood thinner heparin, with the additional use of PCI in those at high risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially the body responds to lowered blood oxygen by redirecting blood to the brain and increasing cerebral blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted that cerebral hypoxia refers to oxygen levels in brain tissue, not blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • the oxygen level in the brain tissue will depend on how the body deals with the reduced oxygen content of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Areas of the brain generally do not become infarcted until blood flow to the region drops below 10 to 12 mL/100 g/min. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third decade of penumbral research found a transitional leap as using positron emission tomography (PET) scanning can identify brain tissue with decreased blood flow and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the ability to detect portions of the ischemic tissue that has not yet died. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is then dumped into the blood by the liver where it travels mainly to the muscle cells (95% of the body's creatine is in muscles), and to a lesser extent the brain, heart, and pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It measures the blood level of CK-MB (creatine kinase-muscle/brain), the bound combination of two variants (isoenzymes CKM and CKB) of the enzyme phosphocreatine kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may occur subsequent to blood-brain barrier failure, and lead to extravasation of serum components into the brain that are potentially toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore if blood supply to the brain is impeded, injury and energy failure is rapid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pituitary apoplexy or pituitary tumor apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the presence of blood leads to irritation of the lining of the brain, which may cause neck rigidity and intolerance to bright light, as well as a decreased level of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rapid rise in blood levels can be seen in myocardial infarction and unstable angina. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the authors clung to the idea that the material was intricately connected to the blood-brain barrier and failed to see the similarities it had with the perineuronal net described by Golgi. (wikipedia.org)
  • They receive blood from internal and external veins of the brain, receive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space via arachnoid granulations, and mainly empty into the internal jugular vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocardial endothelium may also act as a kind of blood-heart barrier (analogous to the blood-brain barrier), thus controlling the ionic composition of the extracellular fluid in which the cardiomyocytes bathe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parkinson s disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss. (medindia.net)
  • A concurrent medical condition was detected in 18/33 dogs with brain infarcts, with chronic kidney disease (8/33) and hyperadrenocorticism (6/33) being most commonly encountered. (avmi.net)
  • Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an archetypal small vessel disease of the brain caused by dominant mutations in the NOTCH3 receptor. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Whether a cerebral infarction is thrombotic or embolic based, its pathophysiology, or the observed conditions and underlying mechanisms of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research interests include antioxidants and aging, and the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, especially predictive factors in early life and the role of brain infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their focus was to understand how changes in the brain could be linked to Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders in advanced age. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are both more potential side effects on the developing premature with lung disease, and there is more evident protection by hypothermia when a greater volume of complex brain is actively developing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoperfusion in watershed areas can lead to mural and mucosal infarction in the case of ischemic bowel disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pioneer of brain surgery, he was the first exclusive neurosurgeon and the first person to describe Cushing's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, disseminated brain disease such as Alzheimer's disease or AIDS dementia also have an increased number of errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lacunar infarction could thus occur in this way, and the narrowing - the hallmark feature of lipohyalinosis - may merely be a feature of the swelling occurring around it that squeezes on the structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the patient is in Houston, he/she will undergo baseline assessments, including physical, neurological exams and tests, speech therapy testing, laboratory tests, and imaging (MRI) of the brain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This sometimes proves to provide a misdiagnosis of differential diagnoses including bilaterally symmetric schizencephaly (a less destructive developmental process on the brain), severe hydrocephalus (cerebrospinal fluid excess within the skull), and alobar holoprosencephaly (a neurological developmental anomaly). (wikipedia.org)
  • born 22 June 1938) in Lohe-Rickelshof, Germany is a German Austrian neurologist, neuroscientist, teacher and physician whose scientific discoveries have influenced brain research and the treatment and rehabilitation of neurological disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CT reading panel of ECASS wants to share its experience by publishing this series of early CT scans from study patients in order to improve early recognition of ischemic infarction by CT and thus to improve patient care, and to provide material for practice. (springer.com)
  • Patients with SAH are at increased risk of delayed infarction. (ajnr.org)
  • We performed a retrospective study of patients with SAH with delayed infarction on follow-up NCCT. (ajnr.org)
  • Subsequent follow-up NCCT demonstrated new delayed infarction in all 21 patients, at which time 38% of patients had new focal neurologic deficits. (ajnr.org)
  • Our study reveals a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product preceding delayed infarction in patients with SAH. (ajnr.org)
  • If we know the value of this predictive role in post-myocardial infarction patients with EF between 30% and 40%, we may be able to use it as a guide to defibrillator implantation decision. (onlinejacc.org)
  • 6-8 We performed a prospective study to correlate echocardiographic LV hypertrophy with development of new cardiac events and atherothrombotic brain infarction (ABI) in unselected patients older than 62 years. (elsevier.com)
  • Aronow, WS , Koenigsberg, M & Schwartz, KS 1988, ' Usefulness of echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in predicting new coronary events and atherothrombotic brain infarction in patients over 62 years of age ', The American Journal of Cardiology , vol. 61, no. 13, pp. 1130-1132. (elsevier.com)
  • This bias against contralesional stimuli is evident even when patients are presented with two signals within the ipsilesional visual field, whose processing remains intact following the damage, since it is done in the opposite brain hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • where patients who show extinction also display aggravated delays in their reaction time to stimuli, both when compared to patients who have other forms of right-brain damage and undamaged patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, he still was never able to produce two patients with the same brain damage that showed ideational apraxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, patients with unilateral infarctions of the posterior parietal lobe were compared against infarctions in 3 frontal regions: the supplementary motor area, frontal eye fields (FEF), and the DLPFC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only patients with infarctions of the DLPFC showed statistically significant error rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of OP1 before general hypoxia, at a dose of 20 to 50 μg, reduces brain infarction volume and mortality in neonatal rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, resulting in a hypoxic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study including reviews of autobiographical essays by the nuns upon joining the order, administration of memory and cognitive tests to the nuns (some over 100 years of age), and post-mortem examination of their brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Executive functions are brain processes that are responsible for planning, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, rule acquisition, initiating appropriate actions and inhibiting inappropriate actions, and selecting relevant sensory information. (wikipedia.org)