Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMice, Inbred C57BLHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Rats, Inbred F344Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
  • Posttraumatic encephalopathy is distinct from CTE, can be comorbid with CTE, and is a clinicopathologic syndrome induced by focal and/or diffuse, gross and/or microscopic destruction of brain tissue following brain trauma. (karger.com)
  • Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome, which is caused by single, episodic, or repetitive blunt force impacts to the head and transfer of acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain. (karger.com)
  • Symptoms of CTE may begin with persistent symptoms of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) following a documented episode of brain trauma or after a latent period that may range from days to weeks to months and years, up to 40 years following a documented episode of brain trauma or cessation of repetitive TBI. (karger.com)
  • Fig. 4: Fibre tract pathways in human and non-human primates. (nature.com)
  • Ackermann, H., Hage, S. R. & Ziegler, W. Brain mechanisms of acoustic communication in humans and nonhuman primates: an evolutionary perspective. (nature.com)
  • This doesn't just apply to humans or even primates, however. (wired.com)
  • New research suggests that shifts in brain chemistry were responsible for the divergence between different types of primates, with those of greater social intelligence and less aggression thriving as they adapted, survived and reproduced over time. (upi.com)
  • Raghanti and her colleagues decided to look for differences in chemical signatures among the brains of humans and other primates, including tufted capuchins, pig-tailed macaques, olive baboons, gorillas and chimpanzees. (upi.com)
  • Meindl and his colleagues, including C. Owen Lovejoy, who also assisted Raghanti's work, looked at the reproductive characteristics of macaques, one of the most demographically successful primates on the planet -- second only to humans. (upi.com)
  • On average, the size of primates' brains is nearly double what is expected for mammals of the same body size. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cajal's examinations also revealed dendrites (via which nerve cells receive signals from other neurons) were much longer in humans than in rodents and other animals, even other non-human primates. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A study on mice from 2015 showed that lymphatics vessels were present in the rodents' central nervous system , suggesting that the same might be true for humans and other primates. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Humans take longer than other primates to grow up because their larger brains divert energy from body growth during childhood. (sciencemag.org)
  • Humans are late bloomers when compared with other primates-they spend almost twice as long in childhood and adolescence as chimps, gibbons, or macaques do. (sciencemag.org)
  • Obtaining PET data on brain glucose use across the full growing years in other closely related primates would be fascinating but difficult, and likely impossible for the more relevant comparative species like chimpanzees," he says. (sciencemag.org)
  • These methods, which can be applied identically across different species of primates, help to highlight the paradox of nonlinear primate evolution-the fact that major changes in brain size and functional complexity resulted from small changes in the genome. (mit.edu)
  • and explore to what extent visual recognition and visual attention are related in humans and other primates. (mit.edu)
  • Since scientists don't know exactly how we ended up with brains bigger than other primates, they're left looking at examples of when the brain doesn't grow to the expected size. (howstuffworks.com)
  • These harms render the conduct of this research ethically unacceptable in apes, justifying regulatory barriers between these species and all other non-human primates for transgenic research," the 2010 paper said. (cnn.com)
  • In the MIT Technology Review , University of Colorado bioethicist Jacqueline Glover compared the experiment to the sci-fi dystopian movie "Planet of the Apes," in which super-intelligent primates overthrow humans. (cnn.com)
  • The use of transgenic monkeys to study human genes linked to brain evolution is a very risky road to take," James Sikela, a geneticist who works with primates at the University of Colorado, told the MIT Technology Review . (theepochtimes.com)
  • The scientists plan to further explore what role dendritic activity may play elsewhere in the brain other than vision. (yahoo.com)
  • In a three-part series originally brodcast on PBS in January 2010, Alan Alda takes this question personally, visiting with dozens of scientists on three continents -- even undergoing an examination of his own brain. (pbs.org)
  • Scientists used to think that we were born with all the brain cells we'd ever have. (npr.org)
  • Scientists at its forerunner, the Switzerland-based Blue Brain Project , have been working since 2005 to feed a computer with vast quantities of data and algorithms produced from studying tiny slivers of rodent gray matter. (cnn.com)
  • Now the team are joining forces with other scientists to create the Human Brain Project. (cnn.com)
  • He says the computer will primarily become a repository for knowledge about the brain that will allow scientists to conduct experiments without the need to probe inside people's skulls. (cnn.com)
  • Scientists have begun to identify the symphony of biological triggers that powered the extraordinary expansion of the human brain. (businessinsider.com)
  • Scientists had known that other animals, such as rats and mice, make new brain cells throughout their lives and there had been indirect evidence that humans beings can, too. (smh.com.au)
  • The Human Brain Project's scientists are hoping to work with supercomputer developers to ensure future machines match their requirements. (cnn.com)
  • In 2017, we continued to hear about the long-term cognitive impact that many scientists and athletes believe is a result of brain trauma sustained in football and other sports. (nytimes.com)
  • The scientists say their study, published in Frontiers of Neuroscience , opens a pathway to studying bat brains in order to understand certain human language disorders and potentially even improving computer speech recognition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many scientists have looked to the brain for clues to the evolutionary origins of humans. (upi.com)
  • The scientists studied the density of their brains' axons, the nerve endings that transport neurotransmitters, in slices of the basal ganglia, a portion of the striatum, a region key to the neural pathways controlling movement, learning and social behavior. (upi.com)
  • Based on those observations, he says, scientists expected there would be a greater degree of compartmentalization in the dendrites of human neurons than many other animals,' because they are much longer. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There are a lot of projects that are trying to do just this, but you have to realize, the brain is by far the most complex system scientists have ever tried to understand. (popularmechanics.com)
  • These are substances stand "stand out" during an MRI scan, thus allowing scientists to better visualise blood vessels in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Today, our scientists are mapping the human brain to unlock the answers to Alzheimer's. (npr.org)
  • What other diseases or disorders would scientists be looking to get answers to through this brain activity map project? (npr.org)
  • Could computer scientists build a machine that simulates the way humans think? (howstuffworks.com)
  • Other computer scientists prefer to design systems that don't use the brain as a model. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Until a few years ago, scientists thought one thing was certain: an adult's brain will not change. (mpg.de)
  • However, many scientists doubt whether brain jogging exercises increase the general performance of the brain. (mpg.de)
  • Scientists are able to evaluate the brain activity of a human via EEG signals. (mpg.de)
  • Scientists said on Wednesday they examined brain size and shape based on 20 Homo sapiens fossils, with the oldest dating back to roughly 300,000 years ago. (reuters.com)
  • Thousands of scientists and philosophers over hundreds of years have either recognized this uniqueness of ours or have denied it and looked for the antecedents of everything human in other animals. (edge.org)
  • In recent years clever scientists have found antecedents to all kinds of things that we had assumed were purely human constructions. (edge.org)
  • The findings suggest that early human species may be more distinguished by the shapes of their jaws than the sizes of their brains , scientists added. (livescience.com)
  • However, according to the RBC team, scientists have not yet developed a unique model that captures functional connectivity or details the wiring diagram of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • The complexity comes from the fact that spoken words require the coordinated efforts of numerous "articulators" in the vocal tract - the lips, tongue, jaw and larynx - but scientists have not understood how the movements of these distinct articulators are precisely coordinated in the brain. (yahoo.com)
  • Scientists now believe that humans yawn as a way to cool down our brains. (techspot.com)
  • Scientists at the French National Center for Scientific Research, in 2012, found that high-traffic brain regions - normally bright hubs of activity, even during sleep - are dark in coma patients while other areas inexplicably light up. (indiatimes.com)
  • In the last decade, the synergistic interaction of neurosurgeons, engineers, and neuroscientists, combined with new technologies, has enabled scientists to study the awake, behaving human brain directly. (mit.edu)
  • NIST and German scientists used the NIST sensor to measure alpha waves in the brain associated with a person opening and closing their eyes as well as signals resulting from stimulation of the hand. (nist.gov)
  • Working with Bhaduri, who has a background in statistics and bioinformatics, Pollen and Nowakowski began exploring how specific classes of neurons and stem cells in the developing brain contribute to normal brain growth as well as to neurodevelopmental disease, and have begun to build a comprehensive, open-source atlas of gene expression across the developing brain, which they hope will serve as a resource for other scientists. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now, scientists using brain scanners and a crew of eager dogs have discovered that dog brains, too, have dedicated voice areas . (slashdot.org)
  • Chinese scientists have implanted human brain genes into monkeys, taking another step into what has been described as the "ethical nightmare" realm of gene -editing. (theepochtimes.com)
  • In a study published last month in Beijing's National Science Review, the journal of the state-sponsored Chinese Academy of Science, scientists inserted the human gene, MCPH1, which has been linked to brain development, into 11 monkey embryos via a virus which carried the gene into the monkeys' brains. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Natural selection could have favoured bigger brains, faster thinking, different personalities, or lower susceptibility to neurological diseases, Lahn says. (newscientist.com)
  • There are plenty of theories, of course, especially regarding why: increasingly complex social networks, a culture built around tool use and collaboration, the challenge of adapting to a mercurial and often harsh climate - any or all of these evolutionary pressures could have selected for bigger brains. (businessinsider.com)
  • Although it was initially thought that bigger brains were supported by smaller digestive systems, later studies revealed that other mechanisms could also be at work. (sciencemag.org)
  • The human brain is comprised of 1011 neurons. (archive.org)
  • The human brain possesses about 100 billion neurons with roughly 1 quadrillion - 1 million billion - connections known as synapses wiring these cells together. (yahoo.com)
  • The brain processes information through the coordinated activity of billions of electrically active cells, called neurons. (forbes.com)
  • Spanish neuroscientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal revolutionized the study of the brain when he observed neurons for the first time. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When the researchers injected an electrical current into the neurons' dendrites, they found much less activity made its way to the somas (cell bodies) in human cells than to the rodent somas. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Ultimately, the properties of human dendrites could endow neurons with more computing power than those of rodents. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A human brain is composed of roughly 100 billion neurons, and those form a very intricate but also incredibly dynamic network. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Even if we ignored most of the complexity in the brain[if we put] aside the fact that we dont have just one type of neuron, or if we assumed all the neurons are healthy, and so onthere isnt a supercomputer on earth that could create this type of theoretical model for anything close to even a million neurons over any realistic time period. (popularmechanics.com)
  • But when you try to add more and more neurons, the system just breaks down and no longer acts anything like the neurons in the brain. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Our ultimate goal with this technology is to use data to understand how these networks of neurons work, and combine blocks of them together to make a realistic brain model. (popularmechanics.com)
  • the brain and neurons, there could be no such thing as awareness. (mail-archive.com)
  • Complex social patterns The researches found spindle neurons in the same location in toothed whales with the largest brains, which the researchers said suggests that they may be related to brain size. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Spindle neurons probably first appeared in the common ancestor of hominids, humans and great apes about 15 million years ago, the researchers said - they are not seen in lesser apes or monkeys. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Either the spindle neurons were only kept in the animals with the largest brains or they evolved several times independently, the researchers said. (hindustantimes.com)
  • They used data collected from fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) machines that capture changes in the blood oxygenation level in the brain based on how active groups of neurons are. (infowars.com)
  • Identifying the white matter pathways that connect these areas, their location and the development of the millions of neurons that make up the fibres of the brain is key to better understanding cognitive functions and disorders. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The human brain has been called the most complex object in the cosmos, with 86 billion intricately interconnected neurons and an equivalent number of supportive glial cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rather than simulate the firing and spiking of a bunch of neurons in software on massive clusters of computer chips, MIT researchers have created a digital chip with analog properties that emulates the flow of ions between connected brain cells and therefore can directly simulate how neurons actually fire across their synapses. (theregister.co.uk)
  • In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , boffins describe a chip consisting of 400 transistors that mimics the ion flows in synapse between two real-world neurons and - they hope - will allow electronic circuits to mimic the "plasticity" that human brains have - the ability to process, store, and adapt to new information. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Although the function of spindle neurons is not well understood, they are thought to be involved in cognitive processes and are affected by Alzheimer's disease and other debilitating brain disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. (innovations-report.com)
  • What's really unique about us is that our brains experience rapid establishment of connectivity in the first two years of life ," said Chet Sherwood, an evolutionary neuroscientist at George Washington University, who was not involved in the study. (businessinsider.com)
  • The researchers suspect that animals were so important during evolutionary history as to merit a dedicated processing area in the brain. (wired.com)
  • Washington says the findings of asymmetrical sound processing in both human and bat brains make evolutionary sense. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Feb. 9 (UPI) -- What is the evolutionary origin of humans' social intelligence? (upi.com)
  • Researchers believe their results, published in the journal PNAS , reveal the chemical combination that gave humans and their predecessors an evolutionary advantage. (upi.com)
  • With some evolutionary irony, the past 10,000 years of human existence actually shrank our brains. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Our new data, therefore, suggest evolutionary changes to early brain development in a critical and vulnerable period for neural wiring and cognitive development," Neubauer added. (reuters.com)
  • The familiar cartoon that makes its way around evolutionary biologists circles shows an ape at one end of a line and then several intermediate early humans culminating in a standing tall, erect human. (edge.org)
  • Sophisticated statistical analyses reveal differences in the shape of the jaw between these early human species that are sometimes as large as [the differences] between humans and chimpanzees," co-lead study author Philipp Gunz at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany,said in a statement. (livescience.com)
  • But there's another perspective that stems from thinking about the evolutionary background of our species: The human brain was designed for conspiracy theories. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Evolutionary psychologists such as Pascal Boyer and Ara Norenzayan have noted that the human brain has powerful mechanisms for searching out complex and hidden causes. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The research, undertaken by multiple universities and led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology in southwestern China, was intended to shed more light on the evolutionary process which led to human intelligence. (cnn.com)
  • The approach enabled a wide range of studies of human brain development, including implicating a new class of neural stem cell recently discovered by the lab in the evolutionary expansion of the human brain and identifying how the mosquito-borne Zika virus may contribute to microcephaly in infants infected in utero. (eurekalert.org)
  • The experiment, according to the scientific team in China , was an attempt to understand the evolutionary process which led to human intelligence. (theepochtimes.com)
  • While Marcus' book talked about the typical notion in evolutionary psychology that we have evolved to the optimal, he also noted that the human mind works as a function of two pathways, both the optimal performance and our brains' history. (lifeboat.com)
  • Most evolutionary changes are small, since the brain tends to tweak the existing parts rather than start from scratch, which would be a more costly and rather inefficient solution in a survival-of-the-fittest-type world. (lifeboat.com)
  • Although brain to body mass ratio, a rough measure of intelligence, is lower for baleen whales such as the humpback compared to toothed whales such as dolphins, the structure and large brain size of baleen whales suggests that they too have a complex and elaborate evolutionary history. (innovations-report.com)
  • The authors conclude: "Cetacean and primate brains may be considered as evolutionary alternatives in neurobiological complexity and as such, it would be compelling to investigate how many convergent cognitive and behavioral features result from largely dissimilar neocortical organization between the two orders. (innovations-report.com)
  • The brain may be an even more powerful computer than before thought - microscopic branches of brain cells that were once thought to basically serve as mere wiring may actually behave as minicomputers, researchers say. (yahoo.com)
  • Once they successfully attached pipettes to dendrites, the researchers took electrical recordings from individual dendrites within the brains of anesthetized and awake mice. (yahoo.com)
  • Many researchers doubt there is any mechanism by which nature could be selecting for greater intelligence today, because they believe culture has effectively blocked the action that natural selection might have on our brains. (newscientist.com)
  • Now researchers in New Zealand say they have found out what the brain does with its new cells: It shoots them along a pathway toward the smell center of the brain. (npr.org)
  • Researchers knew where new brain cells go in rats, but not in humans. (npr.org)
  • With help from researchers in Sweden, they studied brains from dozens of human cadavers. (npr.org)
  • Researchers say building a computer simulation could improve understanding and treatments of brain diseases like Alzheimer's. (cnn.com)
  • But in Japan, those limitations didn't go into place till later, allowing the researchers to do live magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans of three baby chimps as they grew to 6 years of age. (businessinsider.com)
  • The researchers found that chimpanzees and humans both had much more brain development in early life than macaques. (businessinsider.com)
  • The increase in total cerebral volume during early infancy and the juvenile stage in chimpanzees and humans was approximately three times greater than that in macaques," the researchers wrote in the journal article. (businessinsider.com)
  • New evidence shows that the human brain can manufacture fresh brain cells, researchers say in a study that may lead to better ways to treat brain damage and disease. (smh.com.au)
  • And studies show that the loss of smell may be an early sign of brain-destroying illnesses such as Parkinson's, the researchers said - a hint that these cells may be important. (smh.com.au)
  • This innovation allows researchers to move beyond the current "stimulation" of the brain, to both stimulating and sensing its electrical activity. (forbes.com)
  • When a college receiver sustained a concussion while wearing a high-tech mouthguard with motion sensors, it gave researchers a detailed window into what happens to the brain in the milliseconds after a big hit . (nytimes.com)
  • Researchers from Georgetown University Medical Center and American University have shown that, like humans, mustached bats use the left and right sides of their brains to process different aspects of sounds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • At least one group of researchers, led by Kent State 's Mary Ann Raghanti, believe a shift in brain chemistry provided the necessary spark. (upi.com)
  • Human imaging studies have for the first time identified brain circuitry associated with social status, according to researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) of the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • Now, a team of researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) - led by Dr. Daniel S. Reich - has confirmed that human brains also have lymphatic vessels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • First, the researchers injected the volunteers with gadobutrol, the molecules of which are small enough to leak out of the blood vessels and into the interstitial compartment of the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This, the researchers explain, suggests that their hypothesis was correct: there are lymphatic vessels in the dura that pick up fluid elements from the interstitial compartment of the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Human intelligence is being defined and measured for the first time ever, by researchers at the University of Warwick. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • First, the researchers used a 1987 study of PET scans of 36 people between infancy and 30 years of age to estimate age trends in glucose uptake by three major sections of the brain. (sciencemag.org)
  • The researchers, led by Christopher Kuzawa, an anthropologist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, found that when the brain demands lots of energy, body growth slows. (sciencemag.org)
  • Much of the media is reporting the news that researchers have for the first time used stem cells to create a "mini-brain" - tiny clumps of highly complex neural tissue that could provide new insights into brain development. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers found that when grown in a laboratory, the stem cells were able to self-assemble into structures resembling developing brain regions, and that these structures were able to interact. (www.nhs.uk)
  • These "mini-brain" regions, termed "organoids" by the researchers, were tiny - less than 4mm across. (www.nhs.uk)
  • What the researchers in fact set out to do is create a kind of model of the human brain at its very early stages. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers took human stem cells, derived from either embryonic stem cells or adult skin, and supplied them with nutrients and oxygen to support their development into brain tissue and structures. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The study's authors report that the stem cells were able to self-organise into small organs the researchers termed "cerebral organoids" that represent separate but interdependent brain regions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers also found that the organoids displayed key features of human brain development. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Emulating the human brain --which she described as the "ultimate and best computer"--is one of the main directions researchers have been moving toward. (zdnet.com)
  • Humpback whales have a type of brain cell seen only in humans, the great apes, and other cetaceans such as dolphins, US researchers reported on Monday. (hindustantimes.com)
  • This might mean such whales are more intelligent than they have been given credit for, and suggests the basis for complex brains either evolved more than once, or has gone unused by most species of animals, the researchers said. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Athens, Ga. - For the first time, researchers in the University of Georgia's Regenerative Bioscience Center have used an imaging method normally reserved for humans to analyze brain activity in live agricultural swine models, and they have discovered that pig brains are even better platforms than previously thought for the study of human neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (eurekalert.org)
  • By using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), the researchers demonstrated functional connectivity in sensorimotor regions of the swine brain that parallels to that of the human brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • For years, researchers have posited that the shape and size of a swine brain bears physiological and anatomical similarities to the human brain, and therefore swine are considered a good animal model for neurological disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • What this new model allows and has never been done before," West said, "is for researchers to ask more refined questions about how the brain talks to itself, functions and coordinates action. (eurekalert.org)
  • London, February 21 (ANI): Researchers have uncovered the neurological basis of speech motor control, the complex coordinated activity of tiny brain regions that controls our lips, jaw, tongue and larynx as we speak. (yahoo.com)
  • In their work, the researchers ran experiments to test, and ultimately predict, how different areas in the brain would respond when listening to stories (specifically, the Moth Radio Hour). (infowars.com)
  • Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have demonstrated for the first time that the brain is a key player in regulating glucose (sugar) metabolism in humans. (redorbit.com)
  • Specifically, the researchers were able to completely block the effects of diazoxide by infusing a specific potassium channel blocker directly into the brain. (redorbit.com)
  • In experiments, researchers used the interface to sort through satellite images for surface-to-air missiles faster than any machine or human analyst could manage alone. (technologyreview.com)
  • In the quest to discover the human spark, researchers often rely on volunteers who let them investigate their behavior, inclinations, and abilities. (pbs.org)
  • In their new Science paper, the researchers analyzed gene expression in single cells across key developmental time points and from different regions of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, the researchers were able to identify previously unknown gene expression differences between the neural stem cells that give rise to the brain's deep structures versus its neocortical surface, and to show that molecular signatures of different neural cell types arise much earlier in brain development than previously realized. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins University have discovered a way to halt the growth of, and then erase, human brain tumor cells that were transferred to mice. (healthcentral.com)
  • For the study, researchers took cells from human glioma tumors and injected them under the skin of mice. (healthcentral.com)
  • The researchers noted, however, that it is common for therapies to work in mice, but not in humans. (healthcentral.com)
  • Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have come up with a better way to simulate the processing that goes on in the human brain, and you hardware enthusiasts out there will appreciate this one. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Interestingly, there is a whole class of researchers who think that endo-cannabinoids, which have a structure similar to THC - the active ingredient in the pot you never inhaled - and which are involved in many brain functions including appetite, pain suppression, and memory, are affiliated with LTD. First, I knew my brain made its own opiates, but I did not know it made its own pot. (theregister.co.uk)
  • And the upside is that compared to trying to simulate it in software on a supercomputer cluster, as researchers are now trying to do, by using the analog synaptic chip, the simulation will run faster than your own brain does. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Despite substantial interest in the origins and determinants of honest behavior in biology ( 9 ), behavioral sciences ( 2 , 10 ), and economics ( 4 , 11 ), little is known about the neural processes that enable humans to resolve conflicts between honesty and personal financial gain. (pnas.org)
  • As these patterns become reinforced through natural selection, shifting brain chemistry could have encouraged cooperation and social learning, the type of behavior that enabled group hunting, tool usage and the development of language. (upi.com)
  • Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. (pnas.org)
  • Although they knew the perceived players' scores would not affect their own outcomes or reward -and were instructed to ignore them - participants' brain activity and behavior were highly influenced by their position in the implied hierarchy. (nih.gov)
  • The Fyssen Foundation is dedicated to encouraging scientific inquiry into the cognitive mechanisms that underlie animal and human behavior and has long sponsored symposia on topics of central importance to the cognitive sciences. (mit.edu)
  • Analysis of the monkeys' behavior and physiology showed they developed in a more human-like fashion, with better short-term memory and a faster reaction time compared to a control group. (cnn.com)
  • The authors suggest that these differences may indicate differences in brain function and behavior in aquatic species that are not yet understood. (innovations-report.com)
  • They also suggest that the current study provides a framework for further investigations into the brain and behavior of cetaceans, which are naturally elusive, poorly documented and often endangered. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using powerful supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC), they trained a language model using the LSTM method so it could effectively predict what word would come next - a task akin to Google auto-complete searches, which the human mind is particularly adept at. (infowars.com)
  • In military applications, BCIs are being used to develop weapons or vehicles controlled remotely by brain signals, and there is big commercial scope in the gaming industry with the development of computer games controlled by people's thoughts. (reuters.com)
  • We literally watched people's brains drain fluid into these vessels," says Dr. Reich. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using resting-state MRI analysis on thousands of people's brains around the world, the research has found that the areas of the brain which are associated with learning and development show high levels of variability, meaning that they change their neural connections with other parts of the brain more frequently, over a matter of minutes or seconds. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • THURSDAY, June 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Fast food and processed foods trigger deep-seated instincts in the human brain that likely promote overeating, a new study suggests. (webmd.com)
  • In a paper presented at the 2018 Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), the scholars described the results of experiments that used artificial neural networks to predict with greater accuracy than ever before how different areas in the brain respond to specific words. (infowars.com)
  • Fundamental to the HBP approach is to investigate the brain on different spatial and temporal scales (i.e. from the molecular to the large networks underlying higher cognitive processes, and from milliseconds to years). (wikipedia.org)
  • On page 304 , Nicholas Turk-Browne and colleagues discuss advanced fMRI analysis techniques that uncover unique insight into neural computations in humans, enable shared inferences about neural processes across multiple humans and describe a computing infrastructure for performing these cutting-edge analyses. (nature.com)
  • Thus, the human brain implements specialized processes that enable us to remain honest when faced with opportunities to cheat for personal material gain. (pnas.org)
  • In spite of aluminium's complete lack of biological essentiality, it actually participates avidly in brain biochemistry and substitutes for essential metals in critical biochemical processes. (springer.com)
  • A new study, published this week in Cell , shows that in people these antennalike projections also have distinct electrical properties that may help explain how the brain processes arriving information. (scientificamerican.com)
  • High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. (pnas.org)
  • Our position in social hierarchies strongly influences motivation as well as physical and mental health," said NIMH Director Thomas R Insel, M.D. "This first glimpse into how the brain processes that information advances our understanding of an important factor that can impact public health. (nih.gov)
  • A circuit involving the mid-front part of the brain that processes the intentions and motives of others and emotion processing areas deep in the brain activated when the hierarchy became unstable, allowing for upward and downward mobility. (nih.gov)
  • STORY LANDIS: The principle goal would be to understand how the human brain processes information to elicit actions and behaviors and encode memories and see. (npr.org)
  • The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. (nih.gov)
  • That said, if it is defined as "the narrow sense of task efficiency and effectiveness", there are already processes that computers or other technologies can do better than human beings, Leong qualified. (zdnet.com)
  • MEG is used for basic research on perceptual and cognitive processes in healthy subjects as well as screening of visual perception in newborns and mapping brain activity prior to surgery to remove tumors or treat epilepsy. (nist.gov)
  • there's growing recognition that animal models simply don't work well to study complex human processes," King said. (theepochtimes.com)
  • They found that the humpback cerebral cortex, the part of the brain where thought processes take place, was similar in complexity to smaller sized cetaceans such as dolphins. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prior to surgery, doctors needed to map their minds, a task performed by inserting electrodes into different parts of their brains, then measuring neuron-by-neuron responses to stimuli. (wired.com)
  • Simply to replicate one of the 10,000 neuron brain cells involved in the rat experiment took the processing capacity usually found in a single laptop. (cnn.com)
  • Whats keeping us from modeling a human brain, neuron by neuron, on a computer? (popularmechanics.com)
  • For example, detailed neuron representations are very computationally expensive, and whole brain simulation is at the leading edge of our computational capability. (wikipedia.org)
  • And I can imagine that this new journey of deep brain exploration will lead to important advances in both general knowledge of brain physiology and the management of devastating neurological and psychological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. (forbes.com)
  • Melissa Block speaks with Dr. Story Landis, director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, about the Brain Activity Map project written about in today's New York Times . (npr.org)
  • Microcephaly is an uncommon neurological disorder in which the brain only grows to an abnormally small size. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A subdural hematoma may exert pressure on the brain, causing neurological problems. (webmd.com)
  • The similarities of these functional networks, as published in the journal Brain Connectivity , set the stage for targeted clinical applications in the treatment and prevention of neurological disorders. (eurekalert.org)
  • Machine-learning algorithms trained to detect the neurological signals that signify interest in an image are used to analyze this brain activity. (technologyreview.com)
  • Identifying gene variants that are general risk factors for neurological and psychiatric disease is important, but understanding exactly which cell types in the developing brain are compromised and what the consequences are is still extremely challenging," Pollen added. (eurekalert.org)
  • The White House has announced a 10-year study on the inner workings of the human brain, akin to the Human Genome Project's research into genetics. (wnd.com)
  • The aim of the session is to inform participants about the Human Brain Project's innovative and interdisciplinary Research Infrastructure, as well as to grow the existing base of active users. (europa.eu)
  • One of the Project's primary hurdles is the unsystematic nature of the information collected from previous brain research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alan Alda finds out how human social networks compare to those of chimps and watches babies pick cooperative puppets over those that won't play. (pbs.org)
  • Humans, chimps and bonobos split from their last common ancestor between 6 and 8 million years ago. (businessinsider.com)
  • Now a new study sheds light on why: Unlike chimps, humans undergo a massive explosion in white matter growth, or the connections between brain cells, in the first two years of life. (businessinsider.com)
  • While past studies have shown that human brains go through a rapid expansion in connectivity, it wasn't clear that was unique amongst great apes (a group that includes chimps, gorillas, orangutans and humans). (businessinsider.com)
  • After further study, Dart reached a bold conclusion: this was the fossil of a previously unknown ancestor of modern humans - Australopithecus africanus , the "Man-Ape of South Africa. (businessinsider.com)
  • They calculated that one genetic variant of microcephalin arose approximately 37,000 years ago, which coincides with the emergence of culturally modern humans, and it increased in frequency too rapidly to be compatible with random genetic drift or population migration. (edge.org)
  • There are diseases that might strongly affect dendritic spiking and thus brain function, and we can use our new understanding of dendritic spiking to explore what might go wrong in those diseases," he said. (yahoo.com)
  • The head of the team is Richard Faull, an expert on brain diseases at the University of Auckland. (npr.org)
  • Hopes of curing terrible diseases, and fears about the consequences of trying to enhance human capability beyond what is normally possible," said Thomas Baldwin, a professor of philosophy at Britain's York University who is leading the study. (reuters.com)
  • This opens another direction by which we may discover ways to repair human brains that are damaged from injury or diseases, and underscores the importance of animal research in guiding biomedical research in humans,' Baxter said. (smh.com.au)
  • Early research suggested that disturbances in brain networks underlying certain diseases are measurable by electrodes placed deep within the brain. (forbes.com)
  • But, even as the team touts its experiments as a possible solution to the brain diseases that affect about two billion people worldwide, they have attracted critics who say their work is far too broad in scope to achieve usable results. (cnn.com)
  • This could offer a novel approach for studying diseases that originate during the very early stages of brain development. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This cool app discusses the most important topics in brain and nerve diseases and is ideal for all medical professionals, medical residents and interns, nurses, medical students, and of course curious lay people who just want to learn more about brain and nerve diseases. (apple.com)
  • In the long run, such basic research will also provide valuable information for the analysis of the etiology and treatment of human brain diseases (such as autism) caused by abnormal brain development," he said in an email to CNN. (cnn.com)
  • Even IBM's Watson can only respond to input -- it can't spontaneously pull up information or think in the way we humans do. (howstuffworks.com)
  • IBM's Watson supercomputer, which shellacked Jeopardy's top human champions during airings of the game show this week, is powered by 90 servers and a network-attached storage (NAS) cluster with 21.6TB of data. (computerworld.com)
  • If IBM's Watson were just some other human Jeopardy contestant, viewers probably would have tuned out in the midst of such a landslide victory. (computerworld.com)
  • The ability to compute thousands of trillions of operations per second or sift through billions of pieces of information per second allows them to solve problems once thought intractable," said Bader, pointing to how IBM's Watson supercomputer defeated human contestants during the U.S. game show Jeopardy earlier this year as an example. (zdnet.com)
  • Functional brain development in humans. (nih.gov)
  • In light of growing concerns about the robustness and reproducibility of functional MRI (fMRI) research findings, the Organization for Human Brain Mapping has created the Committee on Best Practices in Data Analysis and Sharing (COBIDAS) to delineate standards for reporting MRI methods, analyses and data sharing. (nature.com)
  • Zaccarella, E. & Friederici, A. D. Merge in the human brain: a sub-region based functional investigation in the left pars opercularis. (nature.com)
  • Sanides, F. The architecture of the human frontal lobe and the relation to its functional differentiation. (nature.com)
  • The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. (pnas.org)
  • To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/ . (pnas.org)
  • Much like the challenge of decoding the human genome, the complexities of mapping human brain function pose a challenge to the functional neuroimaging community. (pnas.org)
  • Building on the term "connectome," coined to describe the comprehensive map of structural connections in the human brain ( 7 ), we use "functional connectome" to describe the collective set of functional connections in the human brain. (pnas.org)
  • Without a functional map of the brain it's hard to tell what parts of the brain are talking to each other. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recently, Medtronic announced the first human implants of a new DBS system, Activa PC+S. This system is the first to enable the sensing and recording of brain signals in some of the deepest areas in the brain while simultaneously providing targeted DBS therapy. (forbes.com)
  • In a similar way, human dendrites may require very specific signals to strongly influence the soma. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A simplified way of looking at it is imagining that the transmission of signals is strengthened when the brain stores something - and is weakened when it forgets something. (mpg.de)
  • It's been known for some time that the gut sends signals to the brain that govern whether you feel hungry or full. (webmd.com)
  • However, newer research has indicated that fats and carbohydrates might send these signals through separate pathways to the brain, potentially creating a combined effect, Small said. (webmd.com)
  • Besides relaying sensory and motor signals, the structures of the brain stem direct involuntary functions. (visiblebody.com)
  • Electrical signals within the brain fire before a person even realizes he's recognized an image as odd or unusual. (technologyreview.com)
  • The brain produces distinct electrical signals that can be detected and decoded by the 64 EEG electrodes within the cap. (technologyreview.com)
  • Reading our brain signals and being able to distinguish 'interesting' from 'not interesting' prior to us having a conscious perception of seeing the item tells us that there is a substantial amount of processing that our brain does prior to the conscious awareness of the perception. (technologyreview.com)
  • It very convincingly shows that the conflicting demands of the brain's and the body's energy requirements for growth are met, in humans, by a temporal sequence of delayed growth. (sciencemag.org)
  • The brain directs our body's internal functions. (visiblebody.com)
  • The brain is the body's only organ that needs a constant supply of glucose to survive, so it makes sense that it would have some say over how much glucose is produced," said study leader Meredith Hawkins, M.D., professor of medicine and director of the Global Diabetes Initiative at Einstein. (redorbit.com)
  • This video illustrates the new findings about how the brain is affected by such blows. (nytimes.com)
  • These findings upset the notion that only humans use different sides of their brains to distinguish different aspects of sound," says the study's senior author, Stuart Washington, PhD, a neuroscientist at Georgetown. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The findings, published today in the online edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, suggest that drugs targeting the brain and central nervous system could be a novel approach to treating diabetes. (redorbit.com)
  • But carefully performed studies on dogs, conducted at Vanderbilt University, failed to replicate the results, suggesting the Einstein findings in rodents might not be relevant to higher mammals, including humans. (redorbit.com)
  • Those findings point out another feature of our evolved psychology-our brains turn up the volume on our danger systems when we are under threat. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The human brain is the most complicated organ that nature has ever created: 100 billion nerve cells and many more contact points between them provide our brain with capabilities that no supercomputer can match to this day. (mpg.de)
  • The human brain is a power organ that controls all body functions, interprets information from the outside world and stores that information in our memory. (indiatimes.com)
  • With modern innovations such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality, wi-fi, tablet computing and more, it's easy for man to look around and say that the human brain is a complex and well-evolved organ. (lifeboat.com)
  • The following year, a study led by Dr. Bruce Lahn of the University of Chicago continued tracking the presence of ASPM, as well as microcephalin, in human populations. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Medtronic has developed a deep brain stimulation (DBS) system that embeds this capability into an implantable device. (forbes.com)
  • The techniques used in the current thesis include deep brain stimulation (DBS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and non-invasive extraocular photomodulation. (uta.fi)
  • People can now look at how sets of nerve cells, tens of nerve cells, hundreds of nerve cells interact, but the goal of the brain activity map would be to ramp that up tenfold or a hundred fold or a thousand fold. (npr.org)
  • And that, I think, is a much - although it was a massive task, is actually, in many ways, a simpler task than understanding how the trillions of nerve cells in the brain are wired up and interact to give you function. (npr.org)
  • The other notable feature was the presence of spindle cells in the humpback cortex in areas comparable to hominids and in other areas of the whale brain as well. (innovations-report.com)
  • It is thus likely that some of these abilities are related to comparable histologic complexity in brain organization in cetaceans and in hominids. (innovations-report.com)
  • Estimates are that the new variant of ASPM first appeared in humans somewhere between 14,000 and 500 years ago, with the best guess that it first arose 5800 years ago. (newscientist.com)
  • It took thousands of years, but our understanding of how the brain works has brought us to the brink of enlightenment. (newscientist.com)
  • If their current bid for €1 billion ($1.3 billion) of European Commission funding over the next 10 years is successful, Markram predicts that his computer neuroscientists are a decade away from producing a synthetic mind that could, in theory, talk and interact in the same way humans do. (cnn.com)
  • For the next few million years, the brains of early hominins did not grow much larger than those of our ape ancestors and cousins. (businessinsider.com)
  • Starting around 3 million years ago, however, the hominin brain began a massive expansion. (businessinsider.com)
  • But they also reveal why the first two years of life play such a key role in human development. (businessinsider.com)
  • That probably helps to explain why those first few years of human life are so critical to set us on the course to language acquisition, cultural knowledge and all those things that make us human . (businessinsider.com)
  • Dr. Michael Pelfini has been working with the Whole Brain Thinking Model for over 15 years and will teach us how to have more effective conversations. (constantcontact.com)
  • How has the human brain evolved over the years? (scientificamerican.com)
  • This article was originally published with the title "How has the human brain evolved over the years? (scientificamerican.com)
  • For years," says Dr. Reich, "we knew how fluid entered the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The time period for when the brain's current shape emerged is in harmony with archaeological evidence that humans achieved what he called "the full suite of behavioral modernity" around 40,000 to 50,000 years ago, Neubauer said. (reuters.com)
  • Then, to calculate how uptake varied for the entire brain, they combined that data with the brain volumes and ages of more than 400 individuals between 4.5 years of age and adulthood, gathered from a National Institutes of Health study and others. (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, the period of highest brain glucose uptake-between 4.5 and 5 years of age-coincides with the period of lowest weight gain. (sciencemag.org)
  • One might have a "brain like a computer" in theory, but he believes a more evolved, computer-like human brain is thousands of years away. (lifeboat.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that honesty can be strengthened by noninvasive interventions and concur with theories proposing that the human brain has evolved mechanisms dedicated to control complex social behaviors. (pnas.org)
  • We have an ongoing project called the Human Connectome Project, which is developing wiring diagrams for the brains of a thousand people. (npr.org)
  • Under IBM ´s new method, these semiconductors could be powered by the ionic liquid and even mimic the way the human brain operates. (redorbit.com)
  • Some are attempting to design computers that can mimic human thought -- a tricky situation considering we still don't have a complete understanding of how we think. (howstuffworks.com)
  • If you really want to mimic brain function realistically, you have to do more than just spiking. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Better Humans is a collection of the world's most trustworthy writing on human potential and self improvement by coaches, academics, and aggressive self-experimenters. (medium.com)
  • Humans have a highly developed frontal lobe that is involved in executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. (archive.org)
  • Human exposure to myriad forms of this ubiquitous and omnipresent metal makes its presence in the brain inevitable, while the structure and physiology of the brain makes it particularly susceptible to the accumulation of aluminium with age. (springer.com)
  • The ear-canal-delivered extraocular light diminished the modulatory effects of threat-related distractors on brain physiology. (uta.fi)
  • Aside from humans, no other animal that has been studied, not even monkeys or apes, has proved to use such hemispheric specialization for sound processing - meaning that the left brain is better at processing fast sounds, and the right processing slow ones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Monkeys have this much, apes have a little more and humans have the most," Raghanti said. (upi.com)
  • The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain and is bunched up into convoluted folds called sulci to enable a greater area to be enclosed in the skull. (archive.org)
  • Something changed before the brain got big, before we developed this expanded cerebral cortex," Raghanti told UPI. (upi.com)
  • Both approaches to looking at early skulls give us evidence about the volumes of ancient brains and some details about the relative sizes of major cerebral areas. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To understand how speech articulation works, Chang and his colleagues recorded electrical activity directly from the brains of three people undergoing brain surgery at UCSF, and used this information to determine the spatial organization of the "speech sensorimotor cortex," which controls the lips, tongue, jaw, larynx as a person speaks. (yahoo.com)
  • Pioneering work visualizing human brain networks may help predict recovery time of stroke patients, and understand why certain people are more vulnerable to mental illness. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • In the past, MRI scans of the brain have proven particularly useful at identifying areas of the brain that become activated when people perform certain tasks. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Most brain-computer interfaces are designed to help disabled people communicate or move around. (technologyreview.com)
  • Using these techniques, we found that DBS increased attentional allocation to threat, reflected in behavioral and brain responses. (uta.fi)
  • Additional experiments confirmed that diazoxide was working through the brain. (redorbit.com)
  • The brain experiments were carried out in a magnetically shielded facility at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Berlin, Germany, which has an ongoing program in biomagnetic imaging using human subjects. (nist.gov)
  • A couple of labs at Harvard University have created a Web site called Test My Brain , where the public can participate in online experiments. (pbs.org)
  • Major funding for The Human Spark is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. (pbs.org)
  • There's no escaping the fact that the Human Brain Project , with its billion-dollar plan to recreate the human mind inside a supercomputer, sounds like a science fiction nightmare. (cnn.com)
  • Our study provides the foundation for this possibility in the adult human brain,' they wrote in their report, published in the journal Science. (smh.com.au)
  • I have not heard what science believes the human brain maximum capacity would be in those terms. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Science has proven where the existence of God resides in the brain and has been artificially reproduced and recorded. (topix.com)
  • Last month they announced a significant advancement when they were able to use their simulator to accurately predict the location of synapses in the neocortex, effectively mapping out the complex electrical brain circuitry through which thoughts travel. (cnn.com)
  • But humans can recognize complex patterns and adapt to them -- computers still have trouble doing that. (howstuffworks.com)
  • IBM Singapore's CTO Foong Sew Bun clarified that its Watson project was not to build a human brain as it is "much too complex and marvelous to ever replicate" in silicon form. (zdnet.com)
  • The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. (webmd.com)
  • Three other regions - the parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and retrosplenial complex - were found to help the brain "visualize" future spatial contexts for navigation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Brain-scanning technology has revealed that the two hemispheres of the brain most often work together in complex processing. (indiatimes.com)