Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic
Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive
Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage
Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations
Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic
Brain Damage, Chronic
Disease Models, Animal
Glasgow Coma Scale
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
Deep Brain Stimulation
Ischemic Attack, Transient
Glasgow Outcome Scale
Nerve Tissue Proteins
Infant, Premature, Diseases
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage. (1/18)Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is a rare but benign, self-limited complication of supratentorial craniotomies that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been described in the imaging literature. RCH can be an unexpected finding on routine postoperative imaging studies and should not be mistaken for more ominous causes of bleeding such as coagulopathy, hemorrhagic infarction, or cortical vein occlusion. Cerebellar hemorrhage in the typical setting can be identified as RCH and does not require more extensive or invasive evaluation. (+info)
Age thresholds for increased mortality of three predominant crash induced head injuries. (2/18)Trauma in the US's increasingly aged population will pose medical, engineering, and legislative challenges in the coming decade. This study sought to identify the age threshold of maximal risk for patients with the three most common isolated types of head injuries from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Receiver-operator characteristic analysis was used to identify the quantitative age threshold associated with increased mortality for the three most common MVC-induced types of head injuries. For each injury, an algorithm using multivariable logistic regression modeling was implemented to examine mortality as a function of age, adjusted for the GCS motor score and patient gender. The age threshold that maximized the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) was identified and the curve examined. The increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for death associated with each threshold was estimated along with 95% confidence intervals. Data used was from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) version 7, Motor Vehicle Crash cases from Jan 1, 2001 to Dec 31, 2006. Three types of head injuries were of a sufficiently high incidence and severity level to be included in the study; the AIS 140684.3 (Cerebrum, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, n=499), AIS 140650.4 (Cerebrum, Subdural Hematoma NFS, n=273), and AIS 140629.4 (Hematoma/Hemorrhage, Not Further Specified, n=123). The age thresholds are 58 (AOR=4.12, 95% CI 1.21-14.07, p=0.024), 54 (AOR=4.71, 95% CI 1.08-20.46, p=0.039) and 47 (AOR=15.44, 95% CI 2.94-81.2, p=0.001), respectively. Maximal AUROC values ranged from 0.89-0.93. This data along with data on injury mechanism has been used to provide information on the ideal 'threshold' beyond which age becomes an important factor for these three types of head injuries. This is the first study to quantitatively estimate the mortality threshold age for common isolated head injuries. This study has potential implications in the arena of safety design for the elderly, automated crash notification, and auto safety legislation. (+info)
White matter and neurocognitive changes in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury. (3/18)(+info)
Progression of pre-existing Chiari type I malformation secondary to cerebellar hemorrhage: case report. (4/18)A previously healthy 32-year-old man was surgically treated under a diagnosis of right subcortical hematoma. Magnetic resonance imaging incidentally demonstrated tonsillar herniation. Thirty-two months later, he was readmitted with complaints of occipital, neck, and shoulder pain as well as cerebellar ataxia. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated cerebellar hemorrhage and progression in the downward herniation of the tonsils. Conservative treatment resulted in spontaneous disappearance of the cerebellar hematoma, and the clinical signs and radiological findings improved. Patients with Chiari type I malformation require neuroimaging follow up because the downward herniation of the tonsils can progress in association with subsequent pathophysiological disorders. (+info)
Brain abscess in a non-penetrating traumatic intracerebral hematoma: case report and review of literature. (5/18)We report a 57-year-old man who presented one month after sustaining a traumatic right temporal intracerebral hematoma with history of headache, left hemiparesis and altered sensorium of two days duration. A diagnosis of right temporal resolving hematoma was made on computed tomography scan. However, his sensorium progressively deteriorated and he underwent craniotomy and partial excision of an abscess. He was treated with appropriate antibiotics for six weeks despite of which he did not improve and died nine months later. We conclude that there should be a high index of suspicion for brain abscess in patients with traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage if the clinical and radiological picture is different from the expected course of a resolving hematoma. (+info)
Key role of sulfonylurea receptor 1 in progressive secondary hemorrhage after brain contusion. (6/18)(+info)
The difference in seizure incidences between young and adult rats related to lipid peroxidation after intracortical injection of ferric chloride. (7/18)INTRODUCTION: Clinical studies have shown that the incidence of early post-traumatic seizures is higher in children than in adults. It has been proposed that iron-induced lipid peroxidation plays an important role in the development of epileptogenic foci. This study examined some of the hypothesised reasons for the difference in the incidence of early post-traumatic seizures between children and adults. METHODS: 12 young rats and 12 adult rats were randomised into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 were control groups, comprising six young rats and six adult rats, respectively, and they were administered an intracortical injection of saline. Groups 3 and 4 were injury groups, comprising six young rats and six adult rats, respectively, and they were administered an intracortical injection of FeCl3. All the rats were observed for six hours post-injection for the occurrence of seizures, and were then killed. The injected hemispheres were extirpated and tested for the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as indices of oxidative damage. RESULTS: Seizures were observed only in Group 3. Increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity were observed in Group 3 (ANOVA, p-value is less than 0.001). Increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity were significantly higher in rats with seizures (Group 3) than in those without seizures (independent t-test, p-value is less than 0.001). CONCLUSION: Different levels of lipid peroxidation induced by an intracortical ferric chloride injection may account for the different incidence rates of seizures between young and adult rats. (+info)
Influence of age and anti-platelet/anti-coagulant use on the outcome of elderly patients with fall-related traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. (8/18)Ground-level fall is the most common cause of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (TICH) in the elderly. Many studies on geriatric TICH have regarded patients aged >/=65 years as a single group, but substantial heterogeneity is likely to exist within this population. Eighty-two elderly patients with fall-related TICH treated in our institution during a 6-year period were stratified into 3 age groups (65-74, 75-84, and >/=85 years), and intergroup differences in the demographics and outcomes at discharge were evaluated. The influence of the use of anti-platelet/anti-coagulant (AP/AC) agent on outcomes was also investigated. Comparison of demographic variables demonstrated significant differences in the frequency of preinjury alcohol consumption and use of AP/AC agents between the 3 groups, indicating that the causes or triggers of fall might be substantially different between the 65-74 years group and the other two groups combined. The frequency of unfavorable outcomes increased with age, and the increase was statistically significant. The 82 patients were divided into two subgroups depending on the use of AP/AC agents. The outcomes of the >/=85 years group taking AP/AC agents were particularly poor compared with those of the >/=85 years group not using AP/AC agents. Advancing age may be associated with unfavorable outcomes in elderly patients with fall-related TICH, and patients aged >/=85 years taking AP/AC have the greatest risk of unfavorable outcomes. Physicians must consider the risk/benefit analysis before prescribing AP/AC agents to patients aged >/=85 years. (+info)
Cerebral hemorrhage, also known as intracerebral hemorrhage, is a medical emergency that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing blood to leak into the surrounding brain tissue. This can cause severe brain damage and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Cerebral hemorrhage is a type of stroke, which is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. It can occur due to a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, aneurysms, brain tumors, and certain medications. Symptoms of cerebral hemorrhage can include sudden and severe headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, loss of consciousness, weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and vision problems. Treatment for cerebral hemorrhage typically involves reducing blood pressure, controlling bleeding, and managing symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blood clot or repair the ruptured blood vessel. The outcome of cerebral hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding, the location of the hemorrhage in the brain, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.
Intracranial hemorrhages (ICH) are bleeding within the skull that occurs when blood vessels in the brain rupture. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including head trauma, high blood pressure, aneurysms, brain tumors, and certain medications. ICH can be classified into several types, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding between the brain and the covering of the brain), subdural hemorrhage (bleeding between the brain and the outer layer of the skull), and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (bleeding within the brain tissue). ICH can be a serious medical condition that can lead to brain damage, stroke, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively.
Traumatic brain hemorrhage (TBH) is a type of brain injury that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain is ruptured, causing bleeding inside the skull. This can happen as a result of a blow to the head, such as a fall, car accident, or sports injury. TBH can be classified into two types: acute and chronic. Acute TBH occurs suddenly and is often associated with a severe head injury, while chronic TBH develops over time and may be caused by a long-term injury or a medical condition such as hypertension or aneurysm. Symptoms of TBH can vary depending on the location and severity of the bleeding. Common symptoms include headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, seizures, loss of consciousness, and changes in behavior or personality. Treatment for TBH depends on the severity of the injury and the underlying cause. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blood clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Medications may also be used to control bleeding, reduce swelling, and prevent infection. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.
Hemorrhage is the medical term used to describe the loss of blood from a vessel or vessel system. It can occur due to a variety of reasons, including injury, disease, or abnormal blood vessel function. Hemorrhage can be classified based on the location of the bleeding, the amount of blood lost, and the severity of the condition. For example, internal hemorrhage occurs within the body's organs or tissues, while external hemorrhage occurs outside the body, such as through a wound or broken skin. The severity of hemorrhage can range from mild to life-threatening, depending on the amount of blood lost and the body's ability to compensate for the loss. In severe cases, hemorrhage can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by low blood pressure and inadequate blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. Treatment for hemorrhage depends on the cause and severity of the bleeding. In some cases, simple measures such as applying pressure to the wound or elevating the affected limb may be sufficient to stop the bleeding. In more severe cases, medical intervention such as surgery or blood transfusions may be necessary to control the bleeding and prevent further complications.
Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the body's natural clotting process. It is produced by cells in the lining of blood vessels and is released into the bloodstream in response to injury or inflammation. tPA works by activating plasminogen, a protein found in the blood that helps to break down blood clots. When tPA binds to plasminogen, it converts it into plasmin, which then breaks down the fibrin fibers that make up the clot. This process helps to dissolve the clot and restore blood flow to the affected area. tPA is often used in medical treatments to dissolve blood clots that can cause serious health problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. It is typically administered as a medication, either intravenously or through injection into the affected area. However, tPA can also be dangerous if administered incorrectly or in excessive amounts, as it can cause bleeding. Therefore, it is typically only used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical condition that occurs when blood leaks into the space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, which are two layers of tissue that cover the surface of the brain. This can happen due to a ruptured aneurysm, which is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain that can burst and cause bleeding. SAH is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. The symptoms of SAH can include severe headache, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to light, confusion, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, SAH can lead to brain damage, stroke, and even death. Treatment for SAH typically involves surgery to repair or remove the ruptured aneurysm, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding. The prognosis for SAH depends on several factors, including the severity of the bleeding, the location of the aneurysm, and the patient's overall health.
In the medical field, a stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted or reduced, causing brain cells to die. This can happen in two ways: 1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 85% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain, cutting off blood flow to the affected area. 2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding into the brain. Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than ischemic strokes, accounting for about 15% of all strokes. Strokes can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the brain damage. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Prompt medical treatment is crucial for stroke patients, as the sooner treatment is given, the better the chances of recovery. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, surgery to remove a blood clot or repair a ruptured blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Retinal hemorrhage is a medical condition in which there is bleeding within the retina, which is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye. The blood can accumulate in the retina, causing small red or pink spots, or it can leak into the space between the retina and the underlying layer of the eye, causing larger, more diffuse areas of bleeding. Retinal hemorrhages can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, diabetes, trauma, and certain medications. They can also be a sign of more serious underlying conditions, such as a bleeding disorder or a brain injury. Retinal hemorrhages can be detected through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a dilated eye exam, a retinal scan, or other imaging tests. Treatment for retinal hemorrhages depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in others, medications or surgery may be recommended to prevent further bleeding or to treat the underlying condition.
Brain injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the brain, which is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. Brain injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, such as a blow to the head, exposure to toxins, infections, or degenerative diseases. Brain injuries can range from mild to severe and can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some common types of brain injuries include concussion, contusion, hematoma, edema, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity and location of the injury, but may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in behavior or personality, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain injuries depends on the severity and type of injury, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. In some cases, rehabilitation may be necessary to help individuals recover from the effects of a brain injury and regain their ability to function in daily life.
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a medical emergency that occurs when a woman experiences excessive bleeding after giving birth. It is defined as blood loss of 500 milliliters or more within the first 24 hours after delivery, or blood loss of 1000 milliliters or more within the first 24-48 hours after delivery. PPH can be caused by a variety of factors, including uterine atony (inadequate contraction of the uterus), retained placenta (failure of the placenta to fully separate from the uterus), and tears or lacerations in the vaginal walls or cervix. PPH can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively, and it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide.
Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells in the brain. They can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Brain tumors can occur in any part of the brain and can be primary (originating from brain cells) or secondary (spreading from other parts of the body to the brain). Symptoms of brain neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or hearing, difficulty with balance or coordination, and changes in personality or behavior. Diagnosis of brain neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for brain neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, also known as GI bleeding, is a medical condition in which there is bleeding in the digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, or anus. The bleeding can be acute or chronic, and the severity can range from mild to life-threatening. The symptoms of gastrointestinal hemorrhage can include black or tarry stools, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, and fainting. The cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be due to a variety of factors, including peptic ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal tumors, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, and liver disease. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal hemorrhage typically involves a physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies such as endoscopy or colonoscopy, and sometimes angiography. Treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. It may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.
Vitreous hemorrhage is a medical condition in which blood accumulates within the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina in the eye. This can occur due to a variety of causes, including trauma, bleeding disorders, diabetes, high blood pressure, and age-related changes in the eye. Vitreous hemorrhage can cause a range of symptoms, including floaters (spots or specks that appear to move around in the field of vision), blurred vision, and vision loss. In some cases, the blood may settle at the back of the eye and cause a shadow or obscuration of the vision. If the hemorrhage is severe or if it occurs in conjunction with other eye problems, it may require prompt medical attention. Treatment for vitreous hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. In some cases, the blood may resolve on its own over time, and no treatment may be necessary. However, if the bleeding is severe or if it is causing significant vision loss, the doctor may recommend surgery to remove the blood and restore vision.
Eye hemorrhage, also known as ocular hemorrhage, is a medical condition in which there is bleeding within the eye or surrounding structures. This can occur in various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva, retina, choroid, or vitreous humor. The severity of eye hemorrhage can vary depending on the location and amount of bleeding. In some cases, it may be a minor issue that resolves on its own, while in other cases, it can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. Eye hemorrhage can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, high blood pressure, blood disorders, eye infections, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain tumor or bleeding disorder. Treatment for eye hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medications or surgery may be required to stop the bleeding and prevent further damage to the eye.
Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the brain tissue, leading to swelling and increased pressure within the skull. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or certain medical conditions such as hypertension or heart failure. Brain edema can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, and even death. Treatment for brain edema typically involves addressing the underlying cause and reducing the pressure within the skull. This may involve medications to reduce inflammation or lower blood pressure, as well as procedures such as surgery to relieve pressure or remove excess fluid. In some cases, supportive care such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation may also be necessary.
Brain ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can lead to brain damage or even death. This can happen due to a blockage in one or more of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain, or due to a decrease in the amount of oxygenated blood reaching the brain. Brain ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including stroke, heart disease, high blood pressure, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia. Symptoms of brain ischemia can include headache, confusion, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain ischemia typically involves medications to dissolve blood clots or to reduce blood pressure, as well as surgery in some cases.
Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage is a medical condition that occurs when there is bleeding in the basal ganglia, a group of small, deep-seated structures in the brain that are responsible for controlling movement, emotions, and learning. This type of hemorrhage is usually caused by a rupture of small blood vessels in the brain, which can be the result of high blood pressure, head trauma, or a brain tumor. Symptoms of Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage may include headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Treatment for Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage may include medications to control high blood pressure, surgery to remove the blood clot, and rehabilitation to help with recovery.
Vasospasm, intracranial refers to a condition in which the blood vessels in the brain constrict or narrow, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the brain. This can occur as a complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which is a type of bleeding in the space surrounding the brain. Vasospasm can also occur as a result of other conditions, such as head injury, stroke, or infection. The constriction of the blood vessels can lead to a decrease in the amount of oxygen and nutrients that reach the brain, which can cause damage to brain tissue and lead to a range of symptoms, including headache, confusion, seizures, and even coma or death. Vasospasm is typically treated with medications that help to relax the blood vessels and improve blood flow to the brain. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the vasospasm and prevent further damage to the brain.
Intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive, is a medical condition in which a person experiences bleeding within the skull due to high blood pressure (hypertension). This type of hemorrhage can occur in various parts of the brain, including the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum. Hypertension can cause damage to blood vessels in the brain, making them more fragile and prone to rupturing. When this happens, blood can leak into the surrounding brain tissue, causing swelling and pressure within the skull. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive, is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves managing high blood pressure, controlling bleeding, and preventing further damage to the brain. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blood clot or relieve pressure within the skull. The outcome of treatment depends on the severity of the hemorrhage and the promptness of medical intervention.
Hematoma is a medical term that refers to the accumulation of blood in a tissue or organ. It occurs when a blood vessel breaks or leaks, causing blood to leak out into the surrounding tissue. Hematomas can be classified as either acute or chronic, depending on the length of time that the blood has been accumulating. Acute hematomas occur suddenly and are usually the result of trauma, such as a blow to the head or a fall. They can be painful and may cause swelling and discoloration of the affected area. Acute hematomas can be treated with ice packs, compression, and elevation of the affected area. Chronic hematomas, on the other hand, occur over a longer period of time and are often the result of a slow leak of blood from a blood vessel. They can be more difficult to treat and may require surgery to remove the accumulated blood. Hematomas can occur in any part of the body, but are most commonly found in the brain, liver, and muscles. They can be serious if they are large or if they occur in critical areas of the body, such as the brain or spinal cord. Treatment for hematomas depends on the size, location, and cause of the hematoma, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Postoperative hemorrhage refers to the excessive bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. It can occur immediately after surgery or may take several days to develop. Hemorrhage can be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary hemorrhage occurs during the surgical procedure, while secondary hemorrhage occurs after the surgery has been completed. Postoperative hemorrhage can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to blood vessels during surgery, failure to control bleeding during surgery, and the use of blood-thinning medications. Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include a rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, dizziness, and weakness. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage may include blood transfusions, medications to stop bleeding, and in severe cases, surgery to repair or remove the source of bleeding. It is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor patients after surgery to detect and treat postoperative hemorrhage promptly to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
An intracranial aneurysm is a bulge or balloon-like dilation of a blood vessel in the brain. It occurs when a weakened area in the wall of the blood vessel balloons out and forms a sac. This can cause the blood vessel to become stretched and prone to rupture, which can lead to a life-threatening brain hemorrhage. Intracranial aneurysms are most commonly found in the arteries that supply blood to the brain, particularly the anterior communicating artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the internal carotid artery. They can occur at any age, but are more common in people over the age of 50. Risk factors for developing an intracranial aneurysm include smoking, high blood pressure, a family history of the condition, and certain genetic disorders. Treatment options for intracranial aneurysms include surgery to clip or coagulate the aneurysm, or endovascular coiling, which involves inserting a catheter through a blood vessel in the groin and threading it up to the aneurysm, where a coil is placed to fill the aneurysm and prevent it from rupturing.
Choroid hemorrhage is a medical condition in which there is bleeding in the choroid layer of the eye. The choroid is a layer of blood vessels and connective tissue that supplies blood to the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. Choroid hemorrhage can occur due to a variety of causes, including high blood pressure, trauma, eye surgery, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell disease or coagulation disorders. It can also be a complication of certain medications, such as blood thinners. Symptoms of choroid hemorrhage may include vision loss, eye pain, and floaters (spots or specks that appear to float in the field of vision). In some cases, choroid hemorrhage may resolve on its own without any treatment. However, if the bleeding is severe or if it causes significant vision loss, treatment may be necessary. Treatment options may include observation, medication to reduce blood pressure or inflammation, or surgery to remove the blood clot.
Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage (PUH) is a medical condition that occurs when a peptic ulcer in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) bleeds. The bleeding can be mild or severe, and it can occur suddenly or gradually over time. PUH is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. The bleeding can cause symptoms such as black or tarry stools, (vomiting blood), weakness, dizziness, and fainting. In severe cases, PUH can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition. The most common cause of PUH is the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or other medications that irritate the stomach lining. Other risk factors include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, chronic stress, and a history of peptic ulcers. Treatment for PUH typically involves stopping the bleeding and preventing further bleeding. This may involve medications to reduce stomach acid production, endoscopic therapy to stop the bleeding, or surgery to remove the affected part of the stomach or duodenum. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.
A brain abscess is a collection of pus that forms in the brain or spinal cord. It is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Brain abscesses can be caused by bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as by injury or inflammation. Symptoms of a brain abscess may include headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, seizures, confusion, and changes in consciousness. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as surgery to drain the abscess and remove any infected tissue.，，。
A putaminal hemorrhage is a type of stroke that occurs when there is bleeding in the putamen, a part of the brain that is responsible for movement and coordination. The putamen is located in the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei in the brain that are involved in motor control, learning, and memory. Putaminal hemorrhages are relatively rare and can occur as a result of trauma, such as a blow to the head, or as a complication of other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure or an aneurysm. They can also occur spontaneously, without any known cause. Symptoms of a putaminal hemorrhage may include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, loss of balance or coordination, and changes in vision or consciousness. Treatment for a putaminal hemorrhage typically involves managing the underlying cause of the bleeding, such as controlling high blood pressure or treating an aneurysm, and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blood clot or repair the damaged blood vessel.
Aneurysm, ruptured refers to a medical condition in which a weakened or bulging blood vessel in the brain or elsewhere in the body bursts or leaks, causing blood to leak out into the surrounding tissue. This can be a life-threatening emergency, as the leaked blood can cause damage to surrounding brain tissue, leading to brain swelling, bleeding, and potentially permanent brain damage or death. Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by high blood pressure, smoking, or a family history of aneurysms. Treatment typically involves surgery or endovascular coiling to repair or clip the ruptured aneurysm and prevent further bleeding.
Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a medical condition in which blood accumulates behind the eye, in the space between the eye and the skull. It is also known as retroorbital hemorrhage or orbital hemorrhage. This type of hemorrhage can occur due to trauma, such as a blow to the eye, or as a complication of certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure or bleeding disorders. Symptoms of retrobulbar hemorrhage may include pain or discomfort in the eye, difficulty seeing, and swelling around the eye. Treatment for retrobulbar hemorrhage typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the bleeding and managing any complications that may arise. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blood and relieve pressure on the eye.
Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) are abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the brain. These connections can cause blood to flow in the wrong direction, leading to high blood pressure and an increased risk of stroke, seizures, and other complications. AVMs can occur anywhere in the brain, but they are most commonly found in the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes. They can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing later in life). Treatment options for AVMs include medication, radiation therapy, and surgery.
Hypoxia, brain refers to a condition in which the brain is not receiving enough oxygen. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including low oxygen levels in the blood, decreased blood flow to the brain, or damage to the blood vessels that supply oxygen to the brain. Hypoxia, brain can have serious consequences, as the brain is highly sensitive to oxygen deprivation. It can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, dizziness, headache, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can cause permanent brain damage or even death. Treatment for hypoxia, brain depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, it may involve increasing oxygen levels in the blood through oxygen therapy or administering medications to improve blood flow to the brain. In other cases, it may require more aggressive interventions, such as surgery or mechanical ventilation. Early recognition and treatment of hypoxia, brain are critical for preventing long-term complications and improving outcomes.
Cerebral hemorrhage, traumatic refers to bleeding in the brain that occurs as a result of a traumatic injury to the head. This type of hemorrhage can be caused by a blow to the head, a fall, or other types of physical trauma. The bleeding can occur in the brain itself or in the blood vessels that supply the brain. Symptoms of a traumatic cerebral hemorrhage may include headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the blood clot and medications to reduce swelling and prevent further bleeding. The prognosis for a traumatic cerebral hemorrhage depends on the severity of the injury and the location of the bleeding. In some cases, the bleeding can be fatal or can result in long-term disability.
Chronic brain damage refers to a type of damage that occurs over a prolonged period of time, typically months or years, and can result from a variety of causes such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, or substance abuse. Chronic brain damage can lead to a range of cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments, including memory loss, difficulty with language and communication, mood disorders, motor dysfunction, and changes in personality. The severity and extent of the damage can vary depending on the location and extent of the injury, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and other factors. Treatment for chronic brain damage typically involves a combination of medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. In some cases, rehabilitation may also be necessary to help individuals regain lost skills and function.
Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain, leading to increased pressure within the skull. This pressure can cause damage to the brain and result in a range of symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, difficulty walking, and cognitive impairment. Hydrocephalus can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, infection, tumors, genetic disorders, and bleeding in the brain. Treatment typically involves the insertion of a shunt, which is a tube that drains excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body where it can be absorbed or eliminated. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the underlying cause of the hydrocephalus or to repair damage to the brain or spinal cord.
A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma that occurs when blood accumulates between the dura mater (outermost layer of the brain) and the arachnoid mater (middle layer of the brain). It is also known as a subdural effusion or subdural collection. Subdural hematomas can be caused by a variety of factors, including head injury, bleeding disorders, and certain medications. They can also occur spontaneously, without any known cause. Symptoms of a subdural hematoma may include headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, drowsiness, seizures, and changes in mental status. In severe cases, a subdural hematoma can lead to brain swelling, which can cause life-threatening complications. Treatment for a subdural hematoma typically involves surgery to remove the blood and relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, conservative management with observation and medication may be appropriate. The prognosis for a subdural hematoma depends on the severity of the injury and the promptness of treatment.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Hemorrhagic shock is a medical emergency that occurs when a person loses a significant amount of blood, leading to a drop in blood pressure and inadequate blood flow to vital organs. This can result in damage to organs, tissue, and cells, and if not treated promptly, can be life-threatening. Hemorrhagic shock can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma (such as a severe injury or surgery), childbirth, severe bleeding from a medical condition (such as a bleeding ulcer or a bleeding tumor), or a severe allergic reaction. Symptoms of hemorrhagic shock may include pale skin, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, dizziness or lightheadedness, cold, clammy skin, and a weak or rapid pulse. Treatment typically involves stabilizing the patient's blood pressure and stopping the bleeding, which may involve surgery, medications, or other interventions.
In the medical field, "rupture, spontaneous" refers to the sudden and unexpected tearing or bursting of a structure or organ within the body. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including trauma, disease, or physical stress. For example, a spontaneous rupture of the spleen is a serious medical emergency that can occur when the spleen's blood vessels burst, causing internal bleeding. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of the aorta, the body's largest artery, can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Spontaneous ruptures can also occur in other organs and structures, such as the uterus during childbirth, the lung, or the bowel. In these cases, prompt diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent further complications and improve outcomes.
Cerebral infarction, also known as a stroke, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted, causing brain tissue to die. This can happen when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked by a clot or when a blood vessel bursts and leaks blood into the surrounding brain tissue. Cerebral infarction can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the affected area of the brain. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Cerebral infarction is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment to minimize the risk of long-term disability or death. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, surgery to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Brain infarction, also known as a stroke, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to the death of brain cells in that area. This can be caused by a blockage in a blood vessel (ischemic stroke) or by bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). The symptoms of brain infarction can vary depending on the location and size of the affected area of the brain. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Treatment for brain infarction depends on the cause and severity of the stroke. In some cases, medications may be used to dissolve blood clots or prevent further blood clots from forming. In other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blockage or repair damaged blood vessels. Rehabilitation may also be necessary to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Oral hemorrhage refers to bleeding in the mouth or gums. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or underlying medical conditions such as blood disorders or certain medications. The severity of oral hemorrhage can range from minor bleeding that can be easily controlled with pressure or a clotting agent to severe bleeding that requires immediate medical attention. Treatment for oral hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Thalamic diseases refer to a group of neurological disorders that affect the thalamus, a small but crucial part of the brain that plays a central role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and motor function. The thalamus is also involved in processing sensory information, such as touch, sight, and sound, and in relaying signals between different parts of the brain. Thalamic diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, traumatic brain injury, and degenerative processes. Some common thalamic diseases include: 1. Thalamic stroke: A stroke that affects the thalamus can cause a range of symptoms, including confusion, difficulty speaking, weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, and sensory changes. 2. Multiple sclerosis: This autoimmune disorder can cause inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, including those in the thalamus. 3. Huntington's disease: This inherited disorder causes the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain, including those in the thalamus, leading to symptoms such as movement disorders, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms. 4. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: This rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder is caused by a prion protein that accumulates in the brain, including the thalamus, leading to symptoms such as confusion, memory loss, and movement disorders. 5. Wilson's disease: This inherited disorder causes the accumulation of copper in the brain and liver, leading to damage to the thalamus and other brain regions, and symptoms such as tremors, difficulty walking, and psychiatric symptoms. Thalamic diseases can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they can cause a wide range of symptoms and can affect different parts of the brain. Treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy to improve motor function, and other supportive therapies to help manage the effects of the disease.
Intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic refers to bleeding within the skull that occurs as a result of a traumatic injury to the head. This type of hemorrhage can be caused by a blow to the head, a fall, or other types of physical trauma. The bleeding can occur in the brain itself, in the spaces around the brain, or in the blood vessels that supply the brain. Symptoms of a traumatic intracranial hemorrhage may include headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the blood and relieve pressure on the brain, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Cerebrovascular disorders refer to conditions that affect the blood vessels in the brain, leading to a disruption in blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain tissue. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, and genetic factors. Cerebrovascular disorders can be classified into two main categories: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic cerebrovascular disorders are caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can result from a blockage or narrowing of the blood vessels. Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disorders, on the other hand, are caused by bleeding in the brain, which can result from a ruptured blood vessel or an aneurysm. Some common examples of cerebrovascular disorders include stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and aneurysm. Stroke is a type of cerebrovascular disorder that occurs when blood flow to the brain is completely blocked or reduced, leading to brain damage or death. TIA, also known as a mini-stroke, is a temporary disruption in blood flow to the brain that usually lasts only a few minutes. An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain that can rupture and cause bleeding. Cerebrovascular disorders can have serious consequences, including disability, cognitive impairment, and even death. Treatment options for these disorders depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Early detection and prompt medical intervention are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Uterine hemorrhage, also known as uterine bleeding, is a medical condition characterized by excessive bleeding from the uterus. It can occur in women of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, including pregnancy, childbirth, hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, uterine polyps, uterine cancer, and other medical conditions. Uterine hemorrhage can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute uterine hemorrhage is a sudden and severe episode of bleeding that requires immediate medical attention, while chronic uterine hemorrhage is a persistent and gradual bleeding that occurs over a longer period of time. Symptoms of uterine hemorrhage may include heavy bleeding, abdominal pain, dizziness, weakness, and fainting. Treatment for uterine hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other medical interventions. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the bleeding and prevent complications.
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA) is a condition characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits called amyloid-beta in the walls of blood vessels in the brain. These deposits can lead to inflammation, thickening, and weakening of the blood vessels, which can cause them to leak or rupture, leading to brain damage or stroke. CAA is a common finding in older adults and is often associated with other age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Lewy body dementia. The symptoms of CAA can vary widely and may include headaches, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality. Treatment for CAA typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications such as stroke or brain hemorrhage.
Fetomaternal transfusion (FMT) is a rare but serious complication that can occur during pregnancy, particularly in cases of placenta previa or placental abruption. It occurs when there is a break in the placenta, allowing fetal blood to enter the mother's circulation and vice versa. This can lead to anemia in the mother and an increase in the fetal blood volume, which can cause problems such as low birth weight, prematurity, and even fetal death. FMT is typically diagnosed through blood tests and ultrasound, and treatment may involve blood transfusions for the mother and close monitoring of the fetus.
Uterine inertia is a medical condition characterized by a failure of the uterus to contract effectively during labor. This can result in a prolonged labor, which can be dangerous for both the mother and the baby. Uterine inertia can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine muscle weakness, and certain medical conditions such as placenta previa or uterine fibroids. Treatment for uterine inertia may include the use of medications to stimulate contractions, the use of forceps or a vacuum extractor to help deliver the baby, or in severe cases, a cesarean section may be necessary.
An ischemic attack, also known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA), is a temporary disruption of blood flow to a part of the brain. This can cause symptoms such as weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, or dizziness. Unlike a stroke, which is a more permanent disruption of blood flow, a TIA usually resolves on its own within a few hours. However, a TIA is a warning sign that a person is at increased risk of having a stroke, and prompt medical treatment is important to reduce that risk.
Cerebellar diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the cerebellum, a part of the brain responsible for coordinating movement, balance, and posture. The cerebellum is located at the base of the brain, just above the brainstem, and is divided into several lobes. Cerebellar diseases can be classified into two main categories: primary and secondary. Primary cerebellar diseases are those that affect the cerebellum directly, while secondary cerebellar diseases are those that affect the cerebellum as a result of damage to other parts of the brain or the body. Some common primary cerebellar diseases include: 1. Cerebellar ataxia: A group of disorders characterized by difficulty with balance,。 2. Spinocerebellar ataxia: A group of genetic disorders that affect the cerebellum and spinal cord. 3. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to build up in the liver, brain, and other organs, leading to damage to the cerebellum. 4. Multiple sclerosis: A chronic autoimmune disorder that can affect the cerebellum and other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Some common secondary cerebellar diseases include: 1. Stroke: A cerebrovascular accident that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to damage to the cerebellum. 2. Brain tumors: Tumors that grow in the brain can compress the cerebellum and cause symptoms such as difficulty with balance and coordination. 3. Infections: Infections such as meningitis and encephalitis can cause inflammation and damage to the cerebellum. 4. Trauma: Head injuries can cause damage to the cerebellum and lead to symptoms such as difficulty with balance and coordination. Treatment for cerebellar diseases depends on the underlying cause and the severity of symptoms. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms or slow the progression of the disease. Physical therapy and other forms of rehabilitation may also be recommended to help improve balance, coordination, and other motor functions. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a brain tumor or repair damage to the cerebellum.
Intracranial hypertension is a medical condition characterized by increased pressure within the skull (intracranial pressure). This pressure can cause damage to the brain and other structures within the skull, leading to a range of symptoms and potential complications. The normal range of intracranial pressure is typically between 7 and 20 mmHg. When this pressure becomes elevated, it can put pressure on the brain, causing symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, double vision, and even loss of consciousness. There are many potential causes of intracranial hypertension, including brain tumors, hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid in the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the protective membranes surrounding the brain), and head injuries. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the increased pressure, such as surgery to remove a brain tumor or drainage of excess fluid. In some cases, medications may also be used to lower intracranial pressure.，。
Nerve tissue proteins are proteins that are found in nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins play important roles in the structure and function of neurons, including the transmission of electrical signals along the length of the neuron and the communication between neurons. There are many different types of nerve tissue proteins, each with its own specific function. Some examples of nerve tissue proteins include neurofilaments, which provide structural support for the neuron; microtubules, which help to maintain the shape of the neuron and transport materials within the neuron; and neurofilament light chain, which is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are a hallmark of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Nerve tissue proteins are important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and any disruption in their production or function can lead to neurological disorders.
Infant, Premature, Diseases refers to health conditions that affect premature infants, who are born before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation. Premature infants are at a higher risk of developing various medical conditions due to their underdeveloped organs and immune systems. Some common diseases that can affect premature infants include respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. These conditions can be life-threatening and require specialized medical care and treatment. Early detection and intervention are crucial for improving the outcomes of premature infants with these diseases.
Lung diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the lungs and their ability to function properly. These conditions can be acute or chronic, and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of lung diseases include: 1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. 3. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A progressive lung disease that causes scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, making it difficult to breathe. 4. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and weight loss. 5. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, and can cause fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. 6. Emphysema: A lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. 7. Interstitial Lung Disease: A group of lung diseases that affect the tissue between the air sacs in the lungs, causing difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 8. Lung Cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body. These are just a few examples of the many different types of lung diseases that can affect people. Treatment for lung diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
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AVHANDLINGAR.SE: Optical Monitoring of Cerebral Microcirculation
- The blood flow and oxygen delivery in the microcirculatory blood vessels are regulated through mechanisms which may be influenced or impaired by disease or brain damage resulting from conditions such as brain tumors, traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (avhandlingar.se)
- Analgesic treatment limits surrogate parameters for early stress and pain response after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. (iasp-pain.org)
- We determined surrogate parameters of pain and general well-being after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), as well as the potential for improvement by different systemic analgesia paradigms. (iasp-pain.org)
- Our review narrowed its focus to three common neurologic injuries including traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and stroke. (preprints.org)
- BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a preventable cause of poor neurological outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). (bvsalud.org)
- Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Long-Term Stroke Risk After Traumatic Brain Injury. (cornell.edu)
- 2016. Dr C-L.FRANCOEUR, S-A.MAYER : Management of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage. (atide-asso.org)
- The computed tomography (CT) finding of a pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may lead the treating physician into a diagnostic dilemma. (biomedcentral.com)
- A combination of cerebral edema (with resultant reduced attenuation of the brain parenchyma), effacement of the subarachnoid spaces, as well as engorgement of venous structures in the pial surfaces leads to its perceptual high attenuation on cranial CT - leading to a false diagnosis of an acute SAH [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Acute seizures after intracerebral hemorrhage: a factor in progressive midline shift and outcome. (medscape.com)
- CT angiography "spot sign" predicts hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
- Mayer SA, Brun NC, Begtrup K. Recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
- Emergency department control of blood pressure in intracerebral hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
- Qureshi AI, Palesch YY, Martin R, Novitzke J, Cruz-Flores S, Ehtisham A. Effect of systolic blood pressure reduction on hematoma expansion, perihematomal edema, and 3-month outcome among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage: results from the antihypertensive treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage study. (medscape.com)
- Statin use and outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage: Case-control study and meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
- Cerebral amyloid angiopathy manifesting as recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
- Ritter MA, Droste DW, Hegedus K. Role of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in intracerebral hemorrhage in hypertensive patients. (medscape.com)
- Castellanos M, Leira R, Tejada J. Predictors of good outcome in medium to large spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhages. (medscape.com)
- Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with a severe high mortality and disability rate and accounts for about 10-15% of all strokes. (karger.com)
- Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for about 10-15% of all strokes with high mortality [ 1 ], 1-month mortality of ICH is approximate 40% and it increases with age [ 2 ]. (karger.com)
- Bio Dr. Threlkeld cares for critically ill patients with acute neurologic illness, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and epilepsy. (stanford.edu)
- Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a nondegenerative, noncongenital insult to the brain from an external mechanical force, possibly leading to permanent or temporary impairment of cognitive, physical, and psychosocial functions, with an associated diminished or altered state of consciousness. (medscape.com)
- Often, the term brain injury is used synonymously with head injury, which may not be associated with neurologic deficits. (medscape.com)
- Inconsistency in the definition and classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI), along with discrepancies in data collection, has made the epidemiology of TBI difficult to describe accurately. (medscape.com)
- Aphasia almost always results from injury or damage to one or more areas of the brain. (bioprepwatch.com)
- Severe brain injury or disease is the main cause of global aphasia. (bioprepwatch.com)
- Zaaroor M, Soustiel JF, Brenner B, Bar-Lavie Y, Martinowitz U, Levi L. Administration off label of recombinant factor-VIIa (rFVIIa) to patients with blunt or penetrating brain injury without coagulopathy. (medscape.com)
- The oppression and destruction by hematoma to brain tissue cause the primary brain injury. (karger.com)
- The inflammation and coagulation response after ICH would accelerate the formation of brain edema around hematoma, resulting in a more severe and durable injury. (karger.com)
- In the first few hours after ICH onset, primary brain injury by ICH is mainly caused by the oppression and destruction to the near tissue by hematoma formation. (karger.com)
- The inflammation, thrombin activation, and erythrocyte lysis caused by primary injury could promote the formation of brain edema, which is associated with poor outcome, and could cause more severe and durable injury [ 3 ]. (karger.com)
- Most patients could survive the initial injury of smaller hemorrhage, but the secondary injury may result in severe neurological deficits and even death [ 4 ]. (karger.com)
- Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is physical injury to brain tissue that temporarily or permanently impairs brain function. (msdmanuals.com)
- Surgery is often needed in patients with more severe injury to place monitors to track and treat intracranial pressure elevation, decompress the brain if intracranial pressure is increased, or remove intracranial hematomas. (msdmanuals.com)
- In the first few days after the injury, maintaining adequate brain perfusion and oxygenation and preventing complications of altered sensorium are important. (msdmanuals.com)
- Sports-Related Concussion Sports activities are a common cause of concussion, a form of mild traumatic brain injury. (msdmanuals.com)
- Any damage caused to the brain through injury or health conditions â€' commonly known as brain disease â€' can come in different forms, such as infections, trauma, tumors, seizures, and strokes. (clickpress.com)
- Based on the type of trauma, the brain disease market can be segmented into concussion, traumatic brain injury, and hemorrhage. (clickpress.com)
- A traumatic brain injury can lead to permanent brain damage with mental impairment and can also cause changes in the affected individualâ€™s personality. (clickpress.com)
- Brain injury was induced by filament perforation to mimic SAH. (iasp-pain.org)
- Mice with controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury were included as a control group with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but without neck preparation. (iasp-pain.org)
- The present review aimed to identify through what means neurologic injury can predispose individuals to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). (preprints.org)
- Cerebral hypoxia is an important cause of secondary brain injury. (bvsalud.org)
- All patients with acute brain injury under mechanical ventilation who were monitored with intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) catheters and underwent at least one PEEP increment were included in the study. (bvsalud.org)
- We've seen all kinds of traumatic brain injury cases in our decades of experience, and we're prepared to handle yours, too. (montlick.com)
- According to the Brain Injury Association of America , "most settlements and jury verdicts result in mild-to-moderate TBIs start in the low six-figure range, and it's not unusual for cases to ultimately settle in the millions of dollars. (montlick.com)
- An Observational Study on Practice of Ventilation in Brain Injury patients. (who.int)
- He has a particular clinical and research interest in traumatic brain injury. (stanford.edu)
- Sports and recreation-related concussions (SRRC), a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), are a very common and heavily publicized injury in sports medicine. (sportsmedreview.com)
- Unfortunately, in rare cases, athletes may present with concussion-like symptoms but have the more dreaded moderate traumatic brain injury. (sportsmedreview.com)
- The definition of moderate traumatic brain injury is inconsistent in the literature. (sportsmedreview.com)
- Thus, the most appropriate way to determine the safety of allowing an athlete to return to play with a moderate traumatic brain injury remains unclear. (sportsmedreview.com)
- Reference ranges and interest for early identification of newborns with brain injury. (atide-asso.org)
- 2010. Dr B.SCHIFRIN et al : Fetal brain injury associated with uterine hyperstimulation and cranio-cerebral compression during labor. (atide-asso.org)
- Mechanisms of brain injury and stroke, including cortical spreading depolarizations and cerebral blood flow physiology, and refining treatments and techniques to make treatment of brain pathology more safe and effective. (unm.edu)
- Spreading depolarization in acute brain injury inhibited by ketamine: a prospective, randomized, multiple crossover trial. (unm.edu)
- 5 ‑ 8 ] An ischemic stroke occurs when a cerebral vessel occludes, obstructing blood flow to a portion of the brain. (amhsr.org)
- Open head injuries involve penetration of the scalp and skull (and usually the meninges and underlying brain tissue). (msdmanuals.com)
- Closed head injuries typically occur when the head is struck, strikes an object, or is shaken violently, causing rapid brain acceleration and deceleration. (msdmanuals.com)
- Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative brain disorder that may occur after repetitive head trauma or blast injuries. (msdmanuals.com)
- The rising incidence of neurological disorders and increasing road accidents, which result in traumatic brain injuries, are among the key factors fueling the growth of the market. (grandviewresearch.com)
- The escalating cases of neurological disorders, such as intracranial tumors, hydrocephalus, brain infection, aneurysm, and meningitis, as well as increasing incidence of trauma events due to road accidents, sports injuries, and falls worldwide are anticipated to fuel market growth. (grandviewresearch.com)
- They are intended to be used in patients with stroke, traumatic brain injuries/concussions, hydrocephalus, neurological conditions, and other pathologies that may lead to intracranial hyper- and hypotension. (grandviewresearch.com)
- Concussions are highly traumatic brain injuries that affect brain function and result in loss of consciousness and headaches. (clickpress.com)
- This CLE course will address class and individual litigation strategies being used in sports-related concussion lawsuits against professional teams, colleges, sports leagues and conferences, high schools and youth organizations, and equipment manufacturers seeking significant compensation for players who sustained brain injuries while playing sports. (straffordpub.com)
- Further, plaintiffs claim defendants failed to warn players of risks involved with head injuries, possibly resulting in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (straffordpub.com)
- Introduction: One of the violence types more observed against children is the physical abuse, which produces many types of traumatic injuries. (bvsalud.org)
- Recommendations for comprehensive stroke centers: a consensus statement from the Brain Attack Coalition. (medscape.com)
- Bio Dr. Nick Telischak is a neurointerventional surgeon (neurointerventional radiologist) who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of stroke, brain aneurysms, brain arteriovenous malformations, brain and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae, carotid artery stenosis, vertebral body compression fractures, spinal metastases, axial back pain, and congenital vascular malformations. (stanford.edu)
- He completed fellowships in these areas at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of South Florida - one of the largest skull-base referral centers in the U.S. Carlson is certified in all areas of general adult and pediatric neurosurgery, with a particular focus on complex cranial disease, including aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, stroke treatment and prevention, trigeminal neuralgia and brain tumors, such as meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas and gliomas. (unm.edu)
- If a brain aneurysm does rupture, it can lead to stroke or death, without immediate medical attention. (baycare.org)
- In May 2022, CDC learned of three children in California hospitalized concurrently for brain abscess, epidural empyema, or subdural empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius . (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] Pediatric bacterial brain abscesses, epidural empyemas, and subdural empyemas, rare complications of respiratory infections and sinusitis, are often caused by Streptococcus species but might also be polymicrobial or caused by other genera, such as Staphylococcus . (medscape.com)
- Two data sources were analyzed: 1) pediatric hospitalizations for brain abscesses, epidural empyemas, and subdural empyemas reported to CHA's Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) and 2) cases reported to CDC in response to a national call for cases. (medscape.com)
- In CDC's national call for cases, a case was defined as the diagnosis of brain abscess, epidural empyema, or subdural empyema in a person aged ≤18 years without a previous neurosurgical procedure or history of head trauma, hospitalized on or after June 1, 2021, irrespective of etiology. (medscape.com)
- Available Streptococcus specimens isolated from a brain abscess, epidural empyema, subdural empyema, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid were collected for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing at CDC's Streptococcus reference laboratory to identify microbiological features shared among cases. (medscape.com)
- The cause of death was listed as subdural hemorrhage. (cdc.gov)
- The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has made recommendations regarding management of moderate TBI and, most notably, recommended that a minimum of 3-6 months is needed for a skull fracture and, if a brain bleed such as a subdural is incurred, that a repeat scan would need to show resolution of the bleed and re-expansion of the brain tissue. (sportsmedreview.com)
- 2019. Dr V.VLASYUK : Subdural Hemorrhage. (atide-asso.org)
- This thesis presents the work carried out to adapt DRS and LDF for monitoring cerebral microcirculation in the human brain.A method for real-time estimation of SO2 in brain tissue was developed based on the P3 approximation of diffuse light transport and quadratic polynomial fit to the measured DRS signal. (avhandlingar.se)
- Taking into account the previous history of resuscitation, worsening cerebral edema with a clinical diagnosis of brain death, stable hemoglobin level post transfusion, as well as fixed and dilated pupils (7 mm bilaterally), this is recognized to be a pseudo-SAH. (biomedcentral.com)
- Gross structural brain lesions and serious neurologic residua are not part of concussion, although temporary disability can result from symptoms (such as nausea, headache, dizziness, memory disturbance, and difficulty concentrating [postconcussion syndrome]), which usually resolve within weeks. (msdmanuals.com)
- 2018. Dr O.AMI, J-C.MARAN, P.GABOR et al : Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of fetal head molding and brain shape changes during the second stage of labor. (atide-asso.org)
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that occurs following exposure to traumatic events. (preprints.org)
- Brain edema is a pathological phenomenon that water and brain tissue volume increase. (karger.com)
- Encephalitis is characterized by an inflammation in the brain tissue. (clickpress.com)
- Software modules with specific user interface for LDF and DRS were programmed to process, record and present parameters such as perfusion, total backscattered light, heart rate, pulsatility index, blood fraction and SO2 from acquired signals.The systems were evaluated on skin, and experimentally by using optical phantoms with properties mimicking brain tissue. (avhandlingar.se)
- Improving systemic oxygenation may increase brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). (bvsalud.org)
- Deprivation of oxygen supply to the brain tissue leads to activation of the ischemic cascade with a series of molecular mechanisms being activated. (amhsr.org)
- Which Spreading Depolarizations Are Deleterious To Brain Tissue? (unm.edu)
- 2016. Dr N-N.RABELO, H.MATUSHITA, D-D.CORDEAL : Traumatic brain lesion in newborns. (atide-asso.org)
- One of the violence types most common in children is physical abuse, directly (kicking, pinching, spanking) or indirectly (with the use of punishment instruments) performed, producing several traumatic lesion types 4,6,9 . (bvsalud.org)
- A brain aneurysm is a serious condition that requires emergency medical care if it ruptures. (baycare.org)
- What is a Brain Aneurysm? (baycare.org)
- A brain aneurysm is a weak section in a wall of an artery in your brain. (baycare.org)
- A brain aneurysm may rupture and cause severe bleeding (hemorrhaging) in the brain. (baycare.org)
- What Causes Brain Aneurysm? (baycare.org)
- People who have a brain aneurysm often don't know it until it gets very large or ruptures. (baycare.org)
- If a brain aneurysm ruptures, it can cause severe bleeding in the brain. (baycare.org)
- How is Brain Aneurysm Diagnosed? (baycare.org)
- A brain aneurysm may be difficult to detect in a routine physical exam. (baycare.org)
- Immediate and delayed traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with head trauma and preinjury warfarin or clopidogrel use. (medscape.com)
- Levetiracetam versus (fos)phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in pediatric patients with intracranial hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
- Taylor S, Heinrichs RJ, Janzen JM, Ehtisham A. Levetiracetam is associated with improved cognitive outcome for patients with intracranial hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
- There is a short-of-effective medical treatment for secondary inflammation and reducing brain edema in ICH patients. (karger.com)
- Consecutive adult (>18 years) acutely brain injured patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit between 2010 and 2021 were eligible if CSF and CMD glucose and lactate concentrations were concomitantly measured at least once. (bvsalud.org)
- The IVH score: a novel tool for estimating intraventricular hemorrhage volume: clinical and research implications. (medscape.com)
- Clinical evaluation was performed during intraoperative measurements during tumor surgery (n = 10) and stereotactic deep brain stimulation implantations (n = 20). (avhandlingar.se)
- Treatments which are available for various brain diseases depend on the diagnosis. (clickpress.com)
Loss of consciousn2
- Symptoms include loss of consciousness, confusion, memory difficulties, and other signs of brain dysfunction. (msdmanuals.com)
- A moderate TBI can be defined as prolonged loss of consciousness (typically greater than 20 minutes but no more than 24 hours), post-traumatic amnesia lasting for up to 24 hours, glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 9 - 13 and/or abnormal neuroimaging (Andriessen 2013). (sportsmedreview.com)
- Recently, scientists at the University of Utah Health and Stanford University have found a way out in the form of a targeted therapy treatment that slows down the progression of or improves a couple of degenerative brain disorders, viz. (clickpress.com)
- This review mainly discusses the pathology and mechanism of brain edema, the effects of brain edema on ICH, and the methods of treating brain edema after ICH. (karger.com)
- inhibition of brain edema provides favorable outcome of ICH. (karger.com)
- Through collaboration with the Children's Hospital Association (CHA), CDC analyzed nationally representative pediatric hospitalizations for brain abscess and empyema. (medscape.com)
- CDC will continue to work with investigation partners to monitor ongoing trends in pediatric brain abscesses and empyemas. (medscape.com)
- In recent years, many studies focus on the mechanism of secondary inflammation that can cause brain edema and this may provide new therapy targets for ICH [ 7 ]. (karger.com)
- Although most brain aneurysms don't show symptoms, they can be life threatening. (baycare.org)
- Meningitis is characterized by an inflammation in the delicate membrane (meninges) that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. (clickpress.com)
- 2020. Dr V.KUMPULAINEN et al : Prevalence and risk factors of incidental findings in brain MRIs of healthy neonates. (atide-asso.org)
- which results in severe brain dysfunction. (msdmanuals.com)
- So, it is very important to study on the relationship between brain edema and ICH. (karger.com)
- Brain edema after ICH can be divided into perihematomal edema (PHE) and intrahematomal edema. (karger.com)
- vasogenic factors, thrombin formation, erythrocyte lysis and hemoglobin (Hb) toxicity [ 5 ] have been proved to be related to brain edema growth [ 6 ]. (karger.com)
- However, this can be a complicated requirement due to the fact that residual hemosiderin can be detected in CT and MRI scans for years after a brain insult ( Tamraz 2003 ). (sportsmedreview.com)
- Based on the type of tumor, the brain disease market can be segmented into brain tumor, hydrocephalus, and glioblastoma. (clickpress.com)
- Other factors that could contribute toward the growth of the global brain disease market include the demand for brain monitoring devices and growing occurrence of neurological disorders. (clickpress.com)
- Based on the type of infections, the brain disease market can be into meningitis and encephalitis. (clickpress.com)
- A neurological consult was sought at this point, to assess the brain function, anticipating a possibility of brain death. (biomedcentral.com)
- While the need for brain disease treatment is urgent, highly targeted and noninvasive treatments such as focused ultrasound approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) could attract attention. (clickpress.com)
- According to the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, around 350,000 brain and nervous system tumor cases have been registered in the U.S. European countries are also expected to show a steady growth rate in the global brain disease market. (clickpress.com)
- As a result, with a growing number of population aging above 30 years and rising risks of brain disorders, the growth in the global brain disease market could gain a strong impetus. (clickpress.com)
- With the advent of rare brain disease called â€˜rat lungworm diseaseâ€™ in the Hawaii state of the U.S., the need for accurate and responsive treatments is expected to increase significantly. (clickpress.com)
- In the next few years, Asia Pacific is likely to show a remarkable growth in the brain disease market through fast-paced developments in healthcare infrastructure and a growing demand for advanced treatments. (clickpress.com)
- 2022. Dr O.AMI et al : Using magnetic resonance imaging during childbirth to demonstrate fetal head moldability and brain compression. (atide-asso.org)