Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Fluorocarbon PolymersDeep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Silver Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.Tin Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Subdural Space: Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Nerve Tissue ProteinsFerrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 22.214.171.124.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Scala Tympani: The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Neural Prostheses: Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Electronics, Medical: The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Neurophysiology: The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Mice, Inbred C57BLAcoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Electrochemotherapy: A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Neuronavigation: Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Electric Capacitance: The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Response of brain tissue to chronically implanted neural electrodes. J Neurosci Methods. 2005 Oct 15;148(1):1-18. Schwartz AB, ... Chronic brain implants record neuronal signals from the motor cortex, while methods such as EEG and fMRI obtain motor commands ... Therefore, it does not have the issue of tissue foreign body response as chronic brain implant technology does. The targeted ... EEG and fMRI do not obtain as strong signals as direct electrode implant. Traditional myoelectric prostheses are unable to ...
Basal ganglia disease
... electrodes into the sensorimotor area of the brain. These electrodes emit high-frequency stimulation to the implanted areas. ... Brain. 131 (Pt 9): 2499-509. doi:10.1093/brain/awn168. PMC 2724906 . PMID 18669484. "Sydenham Chorea Information Page" Saint ... Deep brain stimulation is a more complicated process than other therapies such as ablation. Evidence suggests that benefits of ... Basal ganglia disease is a group of physical dysfunctions that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ...
In animals, EEG signals are usually recorded using electrodes implanted in the brain; the majority of theta studies have ... In contrast to the situation in rats, where long periods of theta oscillations are easily observed using electrodes implanted ... recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes glued to the scalp. Two types of theta rhythm have been described. The ... Several types of brain pathology can give rise to abnormally strong or persistent cortical theta waves. Although there were a ...
Large-scale, parallel recordings with tens of implanted electrodes are possible, at least in rodents, during animal behavior. ... Neuronal cell loss accompanies the brain tissue response to chronically implanted silicon microelectrode arrays. Experimental ... The standard type of in vitro MEA comes in a pattern of 8 x 8 or 6 x 10 electrodes. Electrodes are typically composed of indium ... In another special design, 60 electrodes are split into 6 x 5 arrays separated by 500 μm. Electrodes within a group are ...
Robert Galbraith Heath
He performed many experiments there involving electrical stimulation of the brain via surgically implanted electrodes. He ... "A roentgenographic stereotaxic technique for implanting and maintaining electrodes in the brain of man". Electroencephalography ... was implanted with electrodes into the septal region (associated with feelings of pleasure), and many other parts of his brain ... placed DBS electrodes into the brains of 38 patients or more. This work was partially financed by the CIA and the US military. ...
T. S. Kanaka
She is the first neurosurgeon in India to perform chronic electrode implants in the brain; having performed deep brain ... She is currently involved in a project that fabricates deep-brain-stimulation kits in India by Indian biomedical engineers. ... "Tamil Nadu / Tiruchi News : "Check newborns' brain health"". The Hindu. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 2012-12-17. Benedict, Brenda (2 ...
... uses implantable electrodes to send high-frequency electrical signals to the thalamus. The electrodes are implanted as ... In classic cerebellar tremor, a lesion on one side of the brain produces a tremor in that same side of the body that worsens ... by turning off the implanted electrode. Batteries in the generator last about 5 years and can be replaced surgically. DBS is ... The patient uses a hand-held magnet to turn on and turn off a pulse generator that is surgically implanted under the skin. The ...
... a radiofrequency electrode with four contact points was placed on the brain. Once the electrode was in place, the contact ... Once the location of maximal relief was determined, the electrode was implanted and secured to the skull. After the primary ... A subcutaneous pulse generator was implanted into a pectoral pocket below the clavicle to stimulate the electrode. It was found ... The D. O. Hebb lecture". Brain : a journal of neurology. 121 (9): 1603-1630. doi:10.1093/brain/121.9.1603. PMID 9762952. Cruz, ...
Animals in space
Félicette had electrodes implanted into her brain, and the recorded neural impulses were transmitted back to Earth. A second ... Monkeys were implanted with sensors to measure vital signs, and many were under anesthesia during launch. The death rate among ... while undergoing surgery to remove an infected medical electrode. Baker was the center of media attention for the next several ...
Early studies using electrodes implanted in the brain indicated that the hippocampal formation might generate the P300. However ... Assuming that a cephalic reference is used (i.e., a reference electrode placed somewhere on the head, such as the tip of the ... Amplitudes are typically highest on the scalp over parietal brain areas. The P3b has been a prominent tool used to study ... This particular reduction in P3b amplitude may be due to weak neuromodulatory factors in the brains of those liable to develop ...
Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep
... studied seals in controlled environments by observing behavior as well as through surgically implanted EEG electrodes. ... Brain temperature has been shown to drop when a sleeping EEG is exhibited in one or both hemispheres. This decrease in ... In USWS, also known as asymmetric slow-wave sleep, one half of the brain is in deep sleep, a form of non-rapid eye movement ... Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep (USWS) is sleep with one half of the brain while the other half remains alert. This is in ...
Parkinson's disease clinical research
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical technique whereby a tiny electrode is inserted deep in the brain. The electrode is ... When implanted into the brains of rats with the disease, the new cells acted similar to astrocytes in the developing brain, ... The researchers implanted cells only in rats with disease signs. The astrocytes used in the study differ from other types of ... The implanted astrocytes restored health and stability and allowed the nerve cells to resume normal activity. Successful long- ...
Neural tissue engineering
Another situation that calls for implanting a foreign tissue is use of recording electrodes. Chronic Electrode Implants are a ... One method to treat CNS injury involves culturing stem cells in vitro and implanting the non-directed stem cells into the brain ... The CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord, while the PNS consists of nerves that originate from the brain and spinal ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a potential co-factor to promote functional activation of ES cell-derived neurons into the ...
Management of depression
In this technique electrodes are implanted in a specific region of the brain, which is then continuously stimulated. A March ... Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) uses an implanted electrode and generator to deliver electrical pulses to the vagus nerve, one of ... Regular engagement in physical exercise enhances cognitive functioning, increases brain neurotrophic proteins, such as brain- ... Deep brain stimulation is available on an experimental basis only in the United States; no systems are approved by the FDA for ...
Pain in invertebrates
Balaban and Maksimova surgically implanted fine wire electrodes in two regions of the brains of snails (Helix sp.). To receive ... The brains of the modern cephalopods in particular are highly developed, comparable in complexity to the brains of some ... Moreover, weight for body-weight, the cephalopod brain is in the same size bracket as the vertebrate brain, smaller than that ... Are Bigger Brains Better? Current Biology, 19: R995-R1008, November 17. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2009.08.023 Cephalopod brain size ...
... electrodes surgically implanted into the brain tissue). It may be used in patients with epilepsy not responding to medical ... Intracerebral electrodes are placed within the desired brain areas to record the electrical activity during epileptic seizures ... Potential risks of the procedure, accounting for less than 1% of cases, include brain hemorrhage and infection, which can lead ... Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is the practice of recording electroencephalographic signals via depth electrodes ( ...
The prosthetic can be controlled by the brain using a direct implant or implant into various muscles. The two main methods for ... Electrodes can be placed into nervous tissue, and the body can be trained to control the prosthesis. This technology has been ... a cochlear implant may be surgically implanted. Cochlear implants bypass most of the peripheral auditory system to provides a ... Neurostimulators, including deep brain stimulators, send electrical impulses to the brain in order to treat neurological and ...
Remote control animal
Spiny dogfish sharks have been remotely controlled by implanting electrodes deep in the shark's brain to a remote control ... In 2007, researchers at east China's Shandong University of Science and Technology implanted micro electrodes in the brain of a ... controlled by brain electrodes". New Scientist. Retrieved 10 December 2013. "The brain-in-a-rat problem". The Economist. 2 May ... This third electrode is used to give a rewarding electrical stimulus to the brain when the rat makes the correct move to the ...
... one or more electrodes are implanted in the brain, with subcutaneous leads to a neurostimulator, which may also be implanted. ... artifact from implanted thalamic stimulator FDA Okays Powerful Brain Implant Washington University implanting brain device to ... The electrodes stimulate the area of the thalamus, specifically the part of the brain that controls movement and muscle ...
... and subsequently with subdural electrodes. The ECoG data were then recorded from implanted subdural electrode grids placed ... Brain signals may be recorded either invasively, with recording devices implanted directly into the cortex, or noninvasively, ... Standard spacing between grid electrodes is 1 cm; individual electrodes are typically 5 mm in diameter. The electrodes sit ... Electrodes are then surgically implanted on the surface of the cortex, with placement guided by the results of preoperative EEG ...
History of psychosurgery in the United Kingdom
Ten sheaths, each containing six or seven electrodes, were implanted in the brain and connected to a socket on the head. Every ... in which white matter is gradually destroyed by passing electric current through electrodes implanted in the frontal lobes, was ... R Cooper 1977 Electrode implantation techniques. In J Sydney Smith and LG Kiloh (eds.) Psychosurgery and Society: symposium ... Further modifications dating from 1961 included the use of a stereotactic frame and brain images to make it easier to navigate ...
Sensorineural hearing loss
... to provide sound signals to the brain. These consist of both internal implanted electrodes and magnets and external components ... A cochlear implant is surgical implantation of a battery powered electronic medical device in the inner ear. Unlike hearing ... Brain stroke in a region affecting auditory function such as a posterior circulation infarct has been associated with deafness ... In cases of profound or total deafness, a cochlear implant is a specialised hearing aid which may restore a functional level of ...
The patients had diagnostic electrodes implanted in their hippocampus and then used a computer to move around in a virtual ... Cooke SF, Bliss TV (Jul 2006). "Plasticity in the human central nervous system". Brain. 129 (Pt 7): 1659-73. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... Brain. 122: 2321-2335. doi:10.1093/brain/122.12.2321. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Diana et al., 2007 Matsumura et ... Progress in Brain Research. Progress in Brain Research. 83: 13-36. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)61238-8. ISBN 9780444811493. PMID ...
Electrode stimulation from surgically implanted electrodes has been studied in the past decade in hopes of a permanent pain ... Electric stimulation utilizing implants deliver specific voltages to a specific part of the brain for specific durations. More ... Because the brain is considered plastic and each individual's brain is different, it is almost impossible to know how a ... Opiates activate μ-opioid receptors in the brain which alter the brain's perception of sensory input, alleviating pain and ...
In this experiment, researchers used implanted electrodes to measure the electrographic activity during the introduction of a ... He used methods of deep brain stimulation in order to ensure the targeted areas of the brain were able to reach the specific ... In the brain, electrical signals are spread by the firing of neurons which lead to a desired outcome in the body. This can be ... Each rat in the model was anesthetized and special probes were placed into specific parts of the brain according to the target ...
Neuroscience of free will
This was accomplished with the help of volunteer epilepsy patients, who needed electrodes implanted deep in their brain for ... Many brain activity measures have been insufficient and primitive as there is no good independent brain-function measure of the ... Various brain disorders implicate the role of unconscious brain processes in decision making tasks. Auditory hallucinations ... these experiences are in fact based on readouts of brain activity in a network of brain areas that control voluntary action... ...
Using deep brain stimulation, surgeons implanted two electrodes 2½ inches into either side of his brain, powered by a pacemaker ... implanted two electrodes 2.5 inches into either side of Phinney's brain, powered by a pacemaker in his chest. According to ESPN ... As Taylor was about to go to the Beijing Olympics late in 2008, Davis underwent deep brain stimulation in an effort to control ... The doctors told him the brain pacemaker could turn the clock back on the progress of Parkinson's five years. It's been four ...
Fiber optics can be implanted in the brain to stimulate and record this photon activity instead of electrodes. Two-photon ... It probes the brain by tuning the brain scanner to a certain wavelength to see which part of the brain are activated doing ... Brain-computer interface Brain-reading Cybernetics Cyberware Neuroprosthetics Neurosecurity Sensory substitution Simulated ... Deep brain stimulation has already been shown to enhance memory recall as noted by patients currently using this treatment for ...
By wirelessly monitoring the brain's electrical signals sent out by electrodes implanted in the subject's brain, the subject ... If the electrodes are moved by physical shock or the brain moves in relation to electrode position, the electrodes could be ... Regarding the development of electrodes implanted in the brain, an early difficulty was reliably locating the electrodes, ... For receiving sound) Cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brain stem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs) are ...
2003) Deep electrode insertion in Cochlear implants: Apical Morphology, electrodes and speech perception results. Acta ... Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 97, Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 291-300, 1993/ The importance of the apical region of the ... with multiple electrode contacts, multiple current sources (8) to drive the electrode contacts, electrode designed for round ... This implant included a long, flexible electrode, which could, for the first time, deliver electric signals to the auditory ...
Of the more than 1,100 predicate implants that the new implants were substantially equivalent to, only 3% had any publicly ... The electrodes contact the heart directly through the chest, allowing stimulation pulses to pass through the body. Recipients ... including deep-brain stimulators, can incorporate the ability to transmit vital health information from a patient's body to ... implants, and prostheses. Items as intricate as housings for cochlear implants are manufactured through the deep drawn and ...
Deep brain stimulation - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Because the brain can move a little during surgery, there is the possibility that the electrodes can move out of place. This ... 2.0 2.1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.FDA approves implanted brain stimulator to control tremors. Retrieved ... Implant boosts activity in injured brain. Nature news (August 1, 2007). Retrieved on August 1, 2007 ... Electronic equipment located outside the brain can then send signals to specific parts of the person's brain. DBS is used to ...
... to deep brain stimulation (DBS) where the aim is to stimulate areas of the brain with implanted electrodes. All the forms of ... In December 1888 Burckhardt operated on the brains of six patients (one of whom died a few days after the operation) at the ... After a few operations using ethanol, Moniz and Almeida Lima changed their technique and cut out small cores of brain tissue. ... During the operation, which is carried out under a general anaesthetic and using stereotactic methods, a small piece of brain ...
EEG electrodes detect electrical signals produced by neurons to measure brain activity and MEG uses oscillations in the ... Currently, the FDA classifies medical implants and devices into three categories, depending on MR-compatibility: MR-safe (safe ... "SPECT Brain Imaging". Retrieved January 12, 2016.. *^ a b c d Crosson B, Ford A, McGregor KM, Meinzer M, Cheshkov S, Li X, ... These measurements reflect the amount of brain activity in the various regions of the brain and allow to learn more about how ...
... deep brain stimulation or occupational therapy can be helpful. The electrodes for deep brain stimulation are usually placed ... persons who have non-MRI compatible implanted metallic devices, allergy to MR contrast agents, cerebrovascular disease, ... Deng H, Le W, Jankovic J (June 2007). "Genetics of essential tremor". Brain. 130 (Pt 6): 1456-64. doi:10.1093/brain/awm018. ... Critchley M (1949). "Observations on essential (heredofamilial) tremor". Brain. 72 (2): 113-139. doi:10.1093/brain/72.2.113.. ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
In humans, electrodes can be implanted only in patients who need surgery as treatment, but evidence suggests a similar ... With regard to the brain and brain function it is seldom that a particular brain region is activated solely by one cognitive ... doi:10.1093/brain/awt091. PMID 23687118.. *^ Field DT, Inman LA (2014). "Weighing brain activity with the balance: A ... This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other ...
جراحی مغز و اعصاب - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Jose Delgado invented the first electrode that was implanted in an animal's brain, using it to make it run and change direction ... History of electrodes in the brain: In 1878 Richard Canton discovered that electrical signals transmitted through an animal's ... "Awake Brain Surgery (Intraoperative Brain Mapping)". Johns Hopkins Medicine.. *^ Chivukula, Srinivas; Grandhi, Ramesh; ... This is used in functional neurosurgery where electrodes are implanted or gene therapy is instituted with a high level of ...
"Electrode lights the way to artificial photosynthesis". NewScientist. Reed Business Information Ltd. Retrieved 10 January 2012. ... Brain implant. *Exocortex. *Retinal implant. Quantum. *Quantum algorithms. *Quantum amplifier. *Quantum bus ... This type of cell still depends on a semiconductor (such as TiO2) for current conduction on one electrode, but with a coating ... One of these involve the use of a gold electrode to which photosystem II is linked; an electric current is detected upon ...
José Manuel Rodríguez Delgado
Rodríguez Delgado stepped into the ring with a bull which had had a stimoceiver implanted within its brain. The bull charged ... By 1952, he had co-authored his first paper on implanting electrodes into humans. ... Elliot S. Valenstein (1973). Brain Control: A Critical Examination of Brain Stimulation and Psychosurgery. John Wiley & Sons. ... The result of the aversive reaction to the stimulus was a negative feedback to the brain. Within hours her brain was ...
... activity in the brain was mainly established in experiments performed on awake kittens with multiple electrodes implanted in ... "Brain. 138 (Pt 3): 577-88. doi:10.1093/brain/awu372. PMC 4408427 . PMID 25582580.. ... "Brain wave" redirects here. For other uses, see Brain wave (disambiguation).. Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic ... Brain-computer interfaceEdit. Main article: Brain-computer interface. Neural oscillation has been applied as a control signal ...
Electroencephalographic effects of 450191-S and its metabolites in rabbits with chronic electrode implants]". Nippon Yakurigaku ... Oishi R; Nishibori M; Itoh Y; Saeki K. (May 27, 1986). "Diazepam-induced decrease in histamine turnover in mouse brain". Eur J ... Estazolam at high doses decreases histamine turnover via its action at the benzodiazepine-GABA receptor complex in mouse brains ... 1 April 1978). "Pharmacological characterization of benzodiazepine receptors in the brain". Eur J Pharmacol. 48 (3): 263-70. ...
Animal models of depression
... in which the animal is trained to spin a wheel to receive a current through electrodes implanted in its own brain for rewarding ... Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005, 16: 70-78 Vollmayr B, Henn FA. Learned helplessness in the rat: improvements in validity and ... Behav Brain Res 2010, 206: 310-312. Blanchard, R.J. et al. (2001) Animal models of social stress: effects on behavior and brain ... Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 1997, 2: 69-74. Grahn RE, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Impaired escape performance and enhanced conditioned ...
"Researchers One Step Closer to Building Synthetic Brain". Daily Tech. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April ... or may be bioactive with a more interactive functionality such as hydroxylapatite coated hip implants. Biomaterials are also ... Glass electrode. *Glass fiber reinforced concrete. *Glass ionomer cement. *Glass microspheres. *Glass-reinforced plastic ... plastic which is used extensively as the glide rails for industrial equipment and the low-friction socket in implanted hip ...
Examples include surface electrodes that detect electrical activity on the skin, needle electrodes implanted in muscle, or ... "Behav Brain Res. 192 (2): 149-65. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.04.007. PMC 3051349. PMID 18539345.. ... In 2002, an implant was interfaced directly into Warwick's nervous system. The electrode array, which contained around a ... implanted electrodes into an amputee's arm, which gave the patient sensory feedback and allowed for real time control of the ...
Electroencephalographic effects of 450191-S and its metabolites in rabbits with chronic electrode implants]". Nippon Yakurigaku ... In a brain sample of a fatal nitrazepam poisoning high concentrations of nitrazepam and its metabolite were found in the brain ... Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials demonstrate delayed interpeak latencies (IPLs) I-III, III-V and I-V. Toxic overdoses ... Nitrazepam causes a decrease in the cerebral contents of the amino acids glycine and alanine in the mouse brain. The decrease ...
During sleep, the neural connections in the brain are strengthened. This enhances the brain's abilities to stabilize and retain ... Research reported in 2013 revealed that it is possible to artificially stimulate prior memories and artificially implant false ... excited a single trigger hair with a constant mechanical stimulus using Ag/AgCl electrodes. The trap closed after only a ... Eight subjects were asked to follow a "brain healthy" diet, relaxation, physical, and mental exercise (brain teasers and verbal ...
They can be wires which detect electrical activity, needle electrodes implanted in muscles, and electrode arrays with nerves ... First, impulses from the motor center of the brain are sent to the foot and leg muscles. Next the nerve cells in the feet send ... The leg's muscle spindle nerve cells then sense and send the position of the floor back up to the brain. Finally, when the foot ... Herr and his group of researchers are developing a sieve integrated circuit electrode and prosthetic devices that are coming ...
... and the Utah electrode array has been used as a brain-computer interface for the paralyzed. Extracellular microelectrodes have ... been patterned onto an inflatable helix-shaped plastic in cochlear implants to improve deeper insertion and better electrode- ... Microfabrication has led to the development of Michigan probes and the Utah electrode array, which have increased electrodes ... In potentiometric biosensors, measurements of electric potential at one electrode are made in reference to another electrode. ...
... is a rat with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and sensorimotor cortex of its brain. They were ... Graham-Rowe, Duncan (2002-04-01). ""Robo-rat" controlled by brain electrodes". New Scientist. Archived from the original on ... a controversial scientist who was able to pacify a charging bull via electrodes fitted in its brain. He was also said to ... Doctor Robert Galbraith Heath also placed electrodes deep into the brains of patients and wrote hundreds of medical papers on ...
These stem cells are injected into blastocysts, which are implanted into surrogate mothers. This allows the experimenter to ... Gutschi S, Hermann W, Stenzl W, Tscheliessnigg KH (1 May 1973). "[Displacement of electrodes in pacemaker patients (author's ... Isolated brain. *Life extension *Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence. *Nanomedicine. *Nanosensors. *Organ printing ...
Biological neuron model
5.3 Cochlear implant. *5.4 Brain-computer interface *5.4.1 Artificial limb control and sensation ... depending on the size of the electrode and its proximity to the sources. Despite the decreased amplitude levels produced by ... Cochlear implant. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016) ... Brain-computer interface. Artificial limb control and sensation. Further reading on this subject see: ...
The patients had diagnostic electrodes implanted in their hippocampus and then used a computer to move around in a virtual ... The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe ... Cooke SF, Bliss TV (Jul 2006). "Plasticity in the human central nervous system". Brain. 129 (Pt 7): 1659-73. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... Brain : A Journal of Neurology. 122 ( Pt 12) (12): 2321-35. doi:10.1093/brain/122.12.2321. PMID 10581225.. ...
List of cats
Spinal cord stimulators implanted spinal pumps. Spinal cord stimulators use electrodes placed adjacent to but outside the ... Deep brain stimulation. The best long-term results with deep brain stimulation have been reported with targets in the ... 2005). "Deep brain stimulation for pain relief: a meta-analysis". J Clin Neurosci. 12 (5): 515-9. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2004.10. ... Microglia, the brain and spinal cord resident immune cells, respond to extrinsic cues. The source of these cues may include ...
... the presence of incompatible EEG electrodes can result in electrode heating and, in severe cases, skin burns. A number of ... If very strong pulses at a rapid rate are delivered to the brain, the induced currents can cause convulsions much like in the ... and medical devices such as pacemakers and other electronic implants. However, many studies have been conducted with ... A strong changing magnetic field can induce electrical currents in conductive tissue such as the brain. Since the magnetic ...
William H. Sweet implanted a pairs of silastic split-ring platinum electrodes around the ulnar and medium nerves in a patient ... Bill Black, 39, rock and roll pioneer and inductee of the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame; of a brain tumor The Highway Beautification ... of a brain tumor. Pope Paul VI made the first visit ever by the Roman Catholic Pontiff to the United States, appearing for a ...
Perbincangan pengguna:Tearfate/otak Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebas
Brain activity can be detected by implanted electrodes, raising the possibility of direct mind-computer interface. The reverse ... For other uses of the term brain see brain (disambiguation). For information on the human brain specifically, please see its ... This form of brain is often fried with scrambled eggs to produce the famous "Eggs n' Brains". The brain of animals also ... While all vertebrates have a brain, invertebrates have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia. Brains ...
... along with recordings made from electrodes implanted inside the brains of animals such as rats, show that the brain of a living ... For information specific to the human brain, see Human brain. For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation) and Brains ( ... Recordings of brain activity can be made using electrodes, either glued to the scalp as in EEG studies, or implanted inside the ... See also: Human brain. The brains of humans and other primates contain the same structures as the brains of other mammals, but ...
Researchers subsequently refined statistical methods for synthesizing the electrode data, and identified unique brain wave ... One of the dogs used in Pavlov's experiment with a surgically implanted cannula to measure salivation, preserved in the Pavlov ... Hans Berger, the first researcher to use EEG on an unopened skull, quickly found that brains exhibit signature "brain waves": ... These technologies provide more localized information about activity in the brain and create representations of the brain with ...
Passive Impedance Matching for Implanted Brain-Electrode Interfaces - IEEE Journals & Magazine
Brain Electrode Implants Helps Paralysed Monkey Regain Arm Movement | Gizmodo Australia
Equipped with roving electrodes, these implants seek out and restore neural connections between in the brain and the rest of ... National Primate Research Centre have found a way to restore movement to paralysed monkeys through the use of brain implants. ... Equipped with roving electrodes, these implants seek out and restore neural connections between in the brain and the rest of ... The electrodes are able to detect where the strongest movement signal is coming from, and attach itself to that area of the ...
Breakthrough for electrode implants in the brain - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Second, the electrode must be flexible in relation to the brain tissue. Remember that the brain floats in fluid inside the ... The electrode is so soft that it deflects against a water surface. In order to implant such electrodes, the researchers have ... The array of electrodes consists of eight flexible channels, designed to follow the movement of the brain.Both the electrode ... Our new technology enables us to implant as flexible electrodes as we want, and retain the exact shape of the electrode within ...
A better brain implant: Slim electrode cozies up to single neurons | University of Michigan News
... flexible electrode developed at the University of Michigan is 10 times smaller than the nearest competition and could make long ... A better brain implant: Slim electrode cozies up to single neurons * Nov 11, 2012 ... To demonstrate how well the electrode listens in on real neurons, Kipkes team implanted it into the brains of rats. The ... Because this electrode is so small and unobtrusive, it may be able to stay in the brain for long periods without upsetting the ...
A better brain implant: Slim electrode cozies up to single neurons - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
To demonstrate how well the electrode listens in on real neurons, Kipkes team implanted it into the brains of rats. The ... Because this electrode is so small and unobtrusive, it may be able to stay in the brain for long periods without upsetting the ... overcoming inflammation larger electrodes cause that damages both the brain and the electrodes. ... the electrodes need to be able to survive for years in the brain without doing significant damage. With only six weeks of ...
To treat opioid addiction, the patient's brain implanted with electrodes | MecDa - Latest Beauty and Health News
Home Medicine - Featured To treat opioid addiction, the patients brain implanted with electrodes ... A surgeon in the USA recently fit electrodes in his patients brain to treat his severe opioid addiction. This is the first ... The device or the microchip that has been placed in Gerods brain is called a deep brain simulator (DBS). The device works ... There is a risk of a brain hemorrhage, and the patient might die on the operating table. That is an anomaly, and the chances of ...
A better brain implant: Slim electrode cozies up to single neurons | The University Record Online
A better brain implant: Slim electrode cozies up to single neurons. By Kate McAlpine College of Engineering ... To demonstrate how well the electrode listens in on real neurons, Kipkes team implanted it into the brains of rats. The ... overcoming inflammation larger electrodes cause that damages both the brain and the electrodes. ... the electrodes need to be able to survive for years in the brain without doing significant damage. With only six weeks of ...
Brain Implants Can Detect What Patients Hear - Slashdot
After neurosurgeons cut a hole in their skulls, the research team placed 256 electrodes over the part of the brain that ... suffering from either epileptic seizures or brain tumors volunteered to allow scientists to insert electrodes into their brains ... Brain Implants Can Detect What Patients Hear 75 Posted by samzenpus on Wednesday February 15, 2012 @07:00PM. from the grandma,- ... After neurosurgeons cut a hole in their skulls, the research team placed 256 electrodes over the part of the brain that ...
Engineers 3D print soft, rubbery brain implants | MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering
The team implanted the electrode in the brain of a mouse and found it could pick up electrical signals from a single neuron. ... The team printed several soft electronic devices, including a small, rubbery electrode, which they implanted in the brain of a ... The brain is one of our most vulnerable organs, as soft as the softest tofu. Brain implants, on the other hand, are typically ... Engineers 3D print soft, rubbery brain implants. Jennifer Chu , MIT News Office Mar. 28, 2020 ...
Brain Implant may Help Restore Speech in Paralysed Person
Implanting Electrodes in the Brain Could Help Treat Severe Depression. Implanting electrodes in the brain could help treat ... Brain Implant That Detects and Prevents Epileptic Seizures in the Offing. Scientists are working on a brain implant with the ... Eric Ramsey had a wireless electrode implanted about 6 millimetres below the surface of his brain in 2004. The electrode ... Parkinsons Disease Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Brain Brain Facts Ataxia Language Areas in The Brain Ways to Improve ...
A starch and graphene hydrogel geared towards electrodes for brain implants is developed - UPV/EHU
... implants is developed Hydrogels with electrical and antibacterial properties suitable for neural interfaces have been created ... A starch and graphene hydrogel geared towards electrodes for brain ... A starch and graphene hydrogel geared towards electrodes for brain implants is developed. Hydrogels with electrical and ... Print A starch and graphene hydrogel geared towards electrodes for brain implants is developed ...
Implanted Magnetic Probes Measure Brain Activity | The Scientist Magazine®
brain. Brain activity. brain activity map. electrodes. electromagnetism. electrophysiology. magnetism. methods. neuroscience. ... Implanted Magnetic Probes Measure Brain Activity. Implanted Magnetic Probes Measure Brain Activity. Micrometer-size magnetrodes ... Analyzing the brains electrical activity to gain insights into its function can be achieved with electrodes either placed upon ... Electrodes. Two electrodes (one signal and one reference) are needed, at least one of them inserted into the cortex. The ...
Breakthrough for electrode implants in the brain - NeuroNews International
Second, the electrode must be flexible in relation to the brain tissue. Remember that the brain floats in fluid inside the ... The electrode is so soft that it deflects against a water surface. In order to implant such electrodes, the researchers have ... Our new technology enables us to implant as flexible electrodes as we want, and retain the exact shape of the electrode within ... The result in both cases is that they rub against and irritate the brain tissue, and the nerve cells around the electrodes die. ...
Implant (medicine) - Wikipedia
"Response of brain tissue to chronically implanted neural electrodes". Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 148 (1): 1-18. doi: ... Main article: Implant failure. The many examples of implant failure include rupture of silicone breast implants, hip ... in French)Implant Files scandal by ICIJ, November 2018.. References. *^ a b c d e f g h Wong, J.Y.; Bronzino, J.D.; ... In some cases implants contain electronics e.g. artificial pacemaker and cochlear implants. Some implants are bioactive, such ...
Radical Idea of Implanting Tiny Electrodes to the Deaf ( Scientists pursued the idea of implanti...)
The possible auditory nerve implants likely would be suitable fo...,Radical,Idea,of,Implanting,Tiny,Electrodes,,to,the,,Deaf, ... In nearly every measure these work better than cochlear implant... ... Scientists pursued the idea of implanting tiny electronic hearing devi...Now however scientists have shown in animals that its ... then compared deaf animals brain responses to sounds using cochlear implants and then the direct auditory nerve implants. These ...
Injectable Implants Could Help Crack the Brain's Codes - MIT Technology Review
A new type of flexible electronic device shows promise for long-term brain mapping and could be a more effective way to provide ... The therapy involves inserting electrodes into certain regions of the brain and producing electrical pulses meant to regulate ... Injectable Implants Could Help Crack the Brains Codes. A new type of flexible electronic device shows promise for long-term ... Implants for deep brain stimulation often must be repositioned or have their settings adjusted, and usually dont last for more ...
A mind-controlled robot arm doesn't have to mean brain implants
... controlled by the brain activity of a person sitting close by who stares straight... ... The person wears a cap covered in electrodes.. This "mind-controlled" robot limb is being manipulated by a brain-computer ... A mind-controlled robot arm doesnt have to mean brain implants. A brain-controlled prosthetic might not require dangerous and ... The implants that have been the norm need a significant amount of surgical expertise to connect to the human brain and can be ...
Elon Musk demonstrated a Neuralink brain implant in a live pig | New Scientist
A pig named Gertrude demonstrated a working Neuralink brain implant for the first time, and Elon Musk says the next step is to ... Musk showed a video of neurons responding to the electrodes.. Eventually, the hope is that these small devices will be able to ... It is designed to be implanted in the skull, with the wires embedded a few millimetres into the surface of the brain. Those ... Elon Musk, co-founder of Neuralink, led a demonstration of the brain implant technology on 28 August. Jae C Hong/AP/ ...
US7096070B1 - Medical implant device for electrostimulation using discrete micro-electrodes - Google Patents
Implant devices with a plurality of micro-electrodes are provided which are especially adapted for use in reducing the ... Other implant devices having micro-electrodes are provided which are especially adapted for electrostimulation and/or ... Thus, in cases where the implant is not optimally placed, it is not necessary to remove the implant and then reposition it ... of a plurality of micro-electrodes allows a clinically effective electrical stimulation pathway to be selected once the implant ...
DBS - Tag Search - IEEE Spectrum
Stretchy Electrodes Enable Long-Lasting Brain Implants. New material mimics the elastic properties of a neural membrane ... A new brain map shows the way towards using noninvasive brain stimulation technologies instead of implants ... Tourette Syndrome Patient: My Life With a Brain Implant. Deep brain stimulation for Tourettes is experimental, but showing ... How Brain Pacemakers Treat Parkinsons Disease. Figuring out how deep brain stimulation actually works may lead to next- ...
A cochlear implant may be an option. An audiologist can help you find out if a cochlear implant will help you. ... The electrodes trigger the auditory nerve. This lets your brain notice the incoming sounds. ... The surgeon will implant the receiver and electrodes. You will need time to heal from that before you can turn on the implants. ... This will help him have success with the cochlear implants.. Where to Get a Cochlear Implant. There are cochlear implant ...
Whole-patient epilepsy care: Uniting technology and psychosocial expertise - Mayo Clinic
Location of implanted stereo EEG electrodes. Location of implanted stereo EEG electrodes. A 3D reconstruction of the brain ... electrodes. Each blue dot represents an electrode contact. The red dots show the activation of electrode contacts when a ... Location of implanted stereo EEG electrodes Open pop-up dialog box Close ... Neuromodulation, using an implanted device that stimulates the brain to stop seizures, can be an option for patients who arent ...
Parkinson's: 'Adaptive' brain implant may improve therapy
Deep brain stimulation is used to improve the symptoms of Parkinsons disease, but it has many limitations. Can an innovative ... In deep brain stimulation, electrodes are surgically implanted into the brain. These are connected to a device that is attached ... adaptable deep brain stimulation implant.. In this trial, the implant was programmed to monitor the brain for signals related ... A new type of brain stimulation implant. The researchers tested a type of implant that responds and adjusts to signals from the ...
spinal cord stimulation - Tag Search - IEEE Spectrum
Experimental brain implants studied as drug addiction treatment | wfaa.com
The surgery involves implanting a device that acts as a kind of pacemaker for the brain. But some argue the human testing ... 29, 2018, photo shows a brain scan of a methamphetamine user with the path of electrodes that doctors at Ruijin Hospital in ... Experimental brain implants studied as drug addiction treatment. The surgery involves implanting a device that acts as a kind ... Before there were brain implants in China there was brain lesioning. Desperate families of heroin users paid thousands of ...
Information Technology for Clinical Applications and Microsystems | Building a Better Delivery System: A New Engineering/Health...
FIGURE 6 Brain-computer interfacing. A. Implanted electrodes. B. External electrodes. C. Tongue-operated intra-oral remote ... Monkeys with similarly implanted electrodes have shown that brain signals can move robotic arms in two dimensions (Taylor et al ... An array of small electrodes implanted into the brain of a 25-year-old quadriplegic man was programmed through wired connection ... The innovations are the implanted electrode system and the module that interprets brain signals and translates them into ...
electrodes tagged stories - MIT Technology Review
The Surgeon Who Wants to Connect You to the Internet with a Brain Implant. Eric Leuthardt believes that in the near future we ... Electrodes for Your Face Bring Your Emotions to Augmented and Virtual Reality. Tracking facial expressions can make VR and AR ... Advanced Electrodes for Better Li-Ion Batteries. Nanotube anodes could lead to higher-energy, faster-charging batteries for ... Cheap Magnetic Helmet Detects Some Kinds of Brain Damage. Prototype spots swelling and bleeding in a pilot study-but the novel ...
Frontiers | Revealing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Cell Death, Glial Proliferation, and Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction...
... and differentiation have provided new insight into inflammatory tissue dynamics around implanted intracortical electrode arrays ... and differentiation have provided new insight into inflammatory tissue dynamics around implanted intracortical electrode arrays ... Past studies traditionally observe neurons, microglia, astrocytes, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption around inserted ... Past studies traditionally observe neurons, microglia, astrocytes, and blood-brain barrier disruption around inserted ...
Carbohydrate News, Research
Researchers design starch and graphene hydrogel geared towards electrodes for brain implants Hydrogels are physical and ... Low-protein, high-carb diet may promote healthy brain ageing Researchers at the University of Sydney have shown that a low- ... Exposure to stimulating environment increases brain plasticity of mice as well as their offspring ... protein, high-carbohydrate diet may be the key to healthy brain ageing and longevity. ...
2013 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Code 996.79 : Other complications due to other internal prosthetic device, implant, and graft
electrodes*. brain 996.75. *. heart 996.72. *. esophagostomy 530.87. *. gastrointestinal NEC 996.79. *. genitourinary NEC ... Complication of implanted intrathecal drug delivery device. *Complication of implanted intrathecal drug delivery infusion ... due to (presence of) any device, implant, or graft classified to 996.0. -996.5. NEC 996.70. *. with infection or inflammation ... complication - see also Complications, due to (presence of) any device, implant, or graft classified to 996.0. -996.5. NEC*. ...
Surgically implanted electrodesTiny ElectrodesResearchersEpilepsyChronically implantedRetinal implantStimulationEpileptic seizuresVagus nerveElectroencephalographySingle neuronsReceiver and electrodesExperimentalNerveIndividual neuronsComplicationsInsert electrodesCochleaScientistsDeviceBrain'sPhysiologySeizuresNeurosciencePatient's skullArray of electrodesSpinal100,000PulsesNeural electrodesSurgery to implantNeurons in the brainRecord neuronal signalsPathwaysSendsDevicesLimbInvolvesNeurostimulatorSignals from the brainRestoreSkullNucleusCatheterDeepCircuitsPacemakersFunctional neurosurgery
Surgically implanted electrodes3
- Deep-brain stimulation requires surgically implanted electrodes. (nih.gov)
- The doctors surgically implanted electrodes in the man's brain, targeting a brain area called the thalamus. (webmd.com)
- Dr. Lipsman and colleagues surgically implanted electrodes in the subcallosal cingulate area of the patients' brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Radical Idea of Implanting Tiny Electrodes to the Deaf ( Scientists pursued the idea of implanti. (bio-medicine.org)
- A damaged retina cannot transmit those signals, so the artificial retina is outfitted with rows of tiny electrodes to do the job. (cnn.com)
- The new devices work by implanting an array of tiny electrodes into the back of the retina. (meta-religion.com)
- The theory is that if you can accurately map the neural signatures of certain diseases, you could then stimulate or inhibit the malfunctioning pathways with tiny electrodes in order to restore health, without having to flood the system with molecular medicines. (wired.co.uk)
- According to researchers, when someone becomes paralysed, the neurons that control movement remain active, only missing the actual bridge between the brain and the body. (gizmodo.com.au)
- The Lund researchers' tailored electrodes, which they call 3-D electrodes, are unique in that they are extremely soft and flexible in all three dimensions, in a way that enables stable recordings from the neurons over a long time. (healthcanal.com)
- In order to implant such electrodes, the researchers have developed a technique for encapsulating the electrodes in a hard but dissolvable gelatine material that is also very gentle on the brain. (healthcanal.com)
- The array of electrodes consists of eight flexible channels, designed to follow the movement of the brain.Both the electrode and implantation technology, which have been tested on rats, are patented by NRC researchers, in Europe and the US, among other places. (healthcanal.com)
- It may help researchers understand how electrical signals move through neural networks in the brain. (umich.edu)
- The study of his brain activity has helped researchers identify patterns associated with the different sounds. (medindia.net)
- The researchers tested a type of implant that responds and adjusts to signals from the brain that are related to the symptoms experienced in Parkinson's disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Also, since this device is adaptive and does not send out stimuli constantly, the researchers noted that it saves approximately 40 percent of the battery energy that would normally be consumed during traditional, open-loop brain stimulation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers at the University of Sydney have shown that a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet may be the key to healthy brain ageing and longevity. (news-medical.net)
- Since the researchers can't ask the rabbit whether it sees or not, they've also placed electrodes in the rabbits' brains to monitor activity. (popularmechanics.com)
- The man's improvements didn't disappear on days when he didn't get deep brain stimulation, and his ongoing rehabilitation therapy didn't appear to explain his progress, note the researchers. (webmd.com)
- In the experiment, the researchers implanted two neural microelectrodes in the brains of three rats. (bio-medicine.org)
- The researchers expect to ultimately use the project results to develop potential therapies aimed at "teaching" the brain to "unlearn" the detrimental patterns that underlie such disorders. (cbsnews.com)
- Researchers say their work will build on the established concept of deep brain stimulation, which has been used successfully to correct brain circuitry that has gone awry in movement disorders like Parkinson's disease. (cbsnews.com)
- And, because the brain is plastic, researchers are hoping that it can be trained to start functioning normally after the onset of a psychiatric disorder. (cbsnews.com)
- Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Lab will develop an implantable device that will use electrical signals to communicate with individual neurons in the brain. (kqed.org)
- Through the DARPA-funded project, researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and UCLA are developing an implantable brain device that will be able to eavesdrop on single neurons as they communicate with their neighbors. (kqed.org)
- Many researchers have toyed with the idea of using such suddenly unemployed regions of the brain to control artificial limbs that are designed to replace what has been lost. (economist.com)
- Ultimately the researchers plan to create a device that will operate somewhat like a cochlear implant, an electronic device that partially restores hearing. (scientificamerican.com)
- Canadian researchers have tested the effect of a surgical technique called deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the mood, weight, and overall well-being of 16 patients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The researchers used PET scans to evaluate the brain activity of the patients after undergoing 1 year of DBS. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers in France had attempted to implant electrodes in the brain to record brain activity during seizures, but the electrodes were left in only during the operation itself and provided only minimal information. (latimes.com)
- The new method to accurately record brain activity at scale has been developed by researchers at the Francis Crick Institute, Stanford University and UCL. (theengineer.co.uk)
- With a silicon chip attached to the top and the wires at the bottom gently inserted into the brain, this device can help researchers take a movie of neural activity. (theengineer.co.uk)
- A group of researchers from Stanford University now report a new addition to the optogenetic toolkit, and demonstrate that it can be used to precisely control biochemical signalling pathways in the mouse brain and to manipulate complex reward-related behaviour. (scienceblogs.com)
- The researchers were able to monitor the activity in the monkey's brains, and used that information to figure out the sequence of activity that happens when the monkey makes the correct decision. (businessinsider.com)
- When the monkeys were going to make a mistake, the researchers stimulated the decision-making area of their brain with the activity patterns that they had seen when the monkeys made the right choice. (businessinsider.com)
- After performing small experiments on a patient with electrodes temporarily implanted in his brain, Stanford researchers have pinpointed two nerve clusters that play a crucial role in the brain's ability to distinguish one face from another. (foxnews.com)
- Researchers have found that persons who have had a deep brain stimulation device implanted for treatment of Parkinson's disease may have lost their ability to swim. (news-medical.net)
- After their deep brain stimulation surgery, their other movements improved but the skills of swimming seemed to have deteriorated wrote the researchers. (news-medical.net)
- A device can help stimulate these electrodes from outside by sending electric impulses wrote the researchers. (news-medical.net)
- As soon as they turned off the electrodes inside their brains, they could swim again report the researchers. (news-medical.net)
- The symptoms of Parkinson's disease also returned as they switched off the electrodes and all three of the patients had to switch the devices on again wrote the researchers. (news-medical.net)
- US researchers have been given the go-ahead to implant the prototype device in 50 to 75 patients. (meta-religion.com)
- The woman is a patient of Dr. Andres Lozano , a neurosurgeon who is among a growing number of researchers studying the potential of deep brain stimulation to treat Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia. (npr.org)
- Non-coders often associate programming with math, but researchers have used fMRI readings to discover a possible link to the language processing centers of our brains. (fastcompany.com)
- Each person read several different Java code snippets of similar difficulty so that the researchers could average the resulting brain imaging data. (fastcompany.com)
- To rule out brain activity that was not related to interpreting code, the researchers subtracted imaging data related to an error detection task. (fastcompany.com)
- Such flexible electronics could be softer alternatives to existing metal-based electrodes designed to monitor brain activity, and may also be useful in brain implants that stimulate neural regions to ease symptoms of epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and severe depression. (mit.edu)
- Presurgical evaluation of epilepsy by brain diffusion: MR-detected effects of flumazenil on the epil. (biomedsearch.com)
- That's how Hofmann joined a long line of epilepsy patients who've helped scientists reveal basic secrets of the brain - knowledge that could pay off in better ways to measure consciousness in brain-injury patients and new treatments for a variety of diseases. (sfgate.com)
- For decades, studies of epilepsy patients have revealed secrets of the brain, like how the two halves operate differently. (sfgate.com)
- He's tested similar brain implants for epilepsy patients, but is not involved in this project. (kqed.org)
- Epilepsy typically occurs when a small spot in the brain - called the focus - short circuits and sends electrical activity through the brain. (foxnews.com)
- Neurosurgical patients being monitored for epilepsy have electrodes implanted into their brains. (autismspeaks.org)
- They would help elucidate the importance of a particular comorbidity (epilepsy) and would help to anchor specific subtypes of autism by direct reference to how cells in the brain respond. (autismspeaks.org)
- But a new kind of retinal implant, revealed at this week's Biomedical Engineering Society meeting in Atlanta, could eventually take those devices to another level. (popularmechanics.com)
- In 2009, Dr. Lucian Del Priore, an ophthalmology surgeon at NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia hospital, examined Barbara Campbell's eye after her retinal implant. (nytimes.com)
- A tiny retinal implant captures images directly in the eye. (zdnet.com)
- A new retinal implant could help blind people recognize faces, watch TV, and read again. (zdnet.com)
- Patients who tested less-advanced versions of the retinal implant were able to see light, shapes and movement. (meta-religion.com)
- I'm not advocating for deep brain stimulation as a first-line or a second line [treatment]. (mecda.org)
- Doctors can adjust the level of current going to the patient's brain to provide the stimulation according to his/her needs. (mecda.org)
- A new type of flexible electronic device shows promise for long-term brain mapping and could be a more effective way to provide therapeutic stimulation. (technologyreview.com)
- Implants for deep brain stimulation often must be repositioned or have their settings adjusted, and usually don't last for more than a few years. (technologyreview.com)
- Is Deep Brain Stimulation a Cure-all? (ieee.org)
- These treatments include different types of drugs that may focus either on motor on non-motor effects of the disease, as well as deep brain stimulation, which may be offered as an alternative therapy to people who do not respond well to drugs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In deep brain stimulation , electrodes are surgically implanted into the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- However, deep brain stimulation has - at least so far - come with certain risks and drawbacks . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A team at the University of California, San Francisco - whose work was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) - recognizes these drawbacks and set out to test more personalizable deep brain stimulation implants. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In this trial, the implant was programmed to monitor the brain for signals related to dyskinesia - or involuntary movements - which sometimes occurs as a side effect of deep brain stimulation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- So, when the device picked up signs of dyskinesia, it reduced stimulation to the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Because these tests were only carried out over a short period of time, it was not possible for the investigators to establish exactly how the innovative implant performed, compared with more traditional brain stimulation devices, when it comes to instances of dyskinesia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 0.01 degrees C). Here, we also report that transcranial pulsed ultrasound for intact brain circuit stimulation has a lateral spatial resolution of approximately 2 mm and does not require exogenous factors or surgical invasion. (nih.gov)
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive procedure that uses magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain to improve symptoms of depression. (mayoclinic.org)
- In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), an electromagnetic coil placed against the scalp creates a magnetic field that stimulates certain areas of the brain. (mayoclinic.org)
- Though the biology of why rTMS works isn't completely understood, the stimulation appears to impact how the brain is working, which in turn seems to ease depression symptoms and improve mood. (mayoclinic.org)
- Repetitive TMS is a noninvasive form of brain stimulation used for depression. (mayoclinic.org)
- Unlike vagus nerve stimulation or deep brain stimulation, rTMS does not require surgery or implantation of electrodes. (mayoclinic.org)
- Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internum (GPi DBS) has been used occasionally in severe cases. (biomedsearch.com)
- Following implant, the patient received bilateral low-voltage stimulation, consisting in amplitude of 1.3 V with a pulse width of 90 microseconds and a frequency of 130 Hz, yielding a current of 23 microA. (biomedsearch.com)
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) has proven to be efficacious in the treatment of essential tremor (ET). (nih.gov)
- Deep brain stimulation of the VIM is an efficient and safe treatment for ET. (nih.gov)
- Aug. 1, 2007 -- Tomorrow's edition of the journal Nature includes what doctors call the "remarkable" case of a brain -injured man helped by deep brain stimulation. (webmd.com)
- After getting deep brain stimulation, he is now able to talk and eat on his own. (webmd.com)
- Based on those brain scans, Schiff's team asked the man's family to let the man try deep brain stimulation. (webmd.com)
- Two days after surgery, the doctors turned the electrodes on as an initial test of deep brain stimulation. (webmd.com)
- Over the next six months, the doctors gradually gave the man deep brain stimulation. (webmd.com)
- Schiff and colleagues caution that other patients with severe traumatic brain injuries may not respond the same way to deep brain stimulation. (webmd.com)
- They call for further studies on deep brain stimulation for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. (webmd.com)
- If it were not for the deep brain stimulation surgery and rehabilitation, we would be no further along than we were in 1999. (webmd.com)
- 5 . The system for treating a disorder of claim 1 , wherein the noninvasive interaction comprises electrical stimulation applied with at least one electrode in contact with the ear canal. (google.com)
- Surgery and deep brain stimulation (DBS) can help severe cases. (medlineplus.gov)
- Overview of Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), the process of using a magnet near the brain for treatments such as major depression. (disabled-world.com)
- Recent studies have shown that stimulation over the left and right sides of the brain can have opposite effects on mood regulation. (disabled-world.com)
- Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) uses a magnet instead of an electrical current to activate a person's brain. (disabled-world.com)
- Unlike ECT, in which electrical stimulation is more generalized, rTMS can be targeted to a particular site in a person's brain. (disabled-world.com)
- What is deep brain stimulation? (rochester.edu)
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS) uses electrical stimulation to treat neurological conditions such as Parkinson disease (PD), tremors, and dystonia. (rochester.edu)
- The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of deep brain stimulation in obese patients with Prader Willi syndrome refractory to conventional treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Then doctors at Ohio State University explained the hope - that constant electrical stimulation of brain circuits involved in memory and thinking might keep those neural networks active for longer, essentially bypassing some of dementia's damage. (foxnews.com)
- The new approach is called deep brain stimulation, or DBS. (foxnews.com)
- But while existing deep brain stimulation techniques target large groups of neurons, the new research will require technologies that can communicate with single neurons. (kqed.org)
- Current deep brain stimulation devices have electrodes that are a hundred times bigger than individual neurons. (kqed.org)
- determine, without user intervention, an electrical stimulation contribution of the at least one defined electrode to the at least one stimulation zone. (google.co.uk)
- generate, without user intervention, an electrical stimulation amplitude to be delivered by the at least one defined electrode based on the determined electrical stimulation contribution of the at least one defined electrode and a defined intensity. (google.co.uk)
- modify, without user intervention, the electrical stimulation amplitude to be delivered by the electrode carried by the housing of the IMD in response to at least one of the user interface receiving user input graphically defining a representation of another electrical stimulation zone, the at least one electrical stimulation zone moving, and the at least one electrical stimulation zone stretching. (google.co.uk)
- In ICSS studies, animals are trained to perform a behavioural task (pressing a lever or a button with their nose or, as in this study, spinning a wheel) to receive a reward: direct stimulation of the brain pathways involved in reward perception. (hindustantimes.com)
- Over the past 7 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used in various centres to treat patients with intractable chronic cluster headache (CH). Results in these non-controlled studies were encouraging but need to be confirmed in controlled conditions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A signal generator and the electrode deliver stimulation to a first site. (google.de)
- Fear factor gone: Asleep deep brain stimulation benefits younger patients. (go.com)
- However, the circuitry in this region of the brain is complex, and neurons within it can respond to stimulation by either increasing their activity, decreasing it, or, over prolonged periods of time, both. (scienceblogs.com)
- The small study was titled, "Beware of deep water after subthalamic deep brain stimulation," and was published in the latest issue of Neurology this week. (news-medical.net)
- This small study writes about nine identified cases of individuals who underwent deep brain stimulation and thereafter lost their ability to swim. (news-medical.net)
- Daniel Waldvogel, MD, of the University of Zurich in Switzerland, explained about the cases saying, "Until more research is done to determine why some people with deep brain stimulation can no longer swim, it is crucial that people be told now of the potential risk of drowning and the need for a carefully supervised assessment of their swimming skills before going into deep water. (news-medical.net)
- After his deep brain stimulation, according to his previous habit he had jumped into the water hoping to swim. (news-medical.net)
- Exactly how deep brain stimulation is interfering with this ability needs to be determined. (news-medical.net)
- Other experts have said that only a small proportion of those getting deep brain stimulation are unable to swim. (news-medical.net)
- Waldvogel added that this was a small case series and larger studies are needed to be certain of an association between deep brain stimulation and losing the ability to swim. (news-medical.net)
- After at least 12 months of continuous stimulation, brain scans showed a sign of more activity in areas targeted by Alzheimer s. (telegram.com)
- While still experimental, deep brain stimulation with implanted electrodes is being tested as a way to ease dementia in patients with Alzheimer's and other neurological conditions. (npr.org)
- In 2008, Lozano's group published a study in which an obese patient was treated with deep brain stimulation of the hypothalamus. (npr.org)
- Because tinnitus has been linked to changes in neural activity within the brain, stimulation of the nerves within the cortex has been studied as a treatment option. (amazonaws.com)
- A group of 15 patients suffering from either epileptic seizures or brain tumors volunteered to allow scientists to insert electrodes into their brains . (slashdot.org)
- Scientists are working on a brain implant with the ability to more reliably detect and forestall epileptic seizures. (medindia.net)
- In this Jan. 10, 2020 photo, Genette Hofmann holds her cat Dottie in her home in Burlington, Wash., a few days before undergoing brain surgery in Seattle in hopes of reducing the epileptic seizures that had disrupted her life for decades. (sfgate.com)
- Hofmann needed the surgery - her Seattle surgeon was looking deep into her brain, where he found the trigger for the epileptic seizures that had disrupted her life for 30 years. (sfgate.com)
- Dr. Paul H. Crandall, a UCLA neurosurgeon who pioneered now widely used techniques for diagnosing the source of epileptic seizures in the brain and removing the offending cells, died March 15 from complications of pneumonia at Santa Monica-UCLA Medical Center. (latimes.com)
- The drug was having an impact on the vagus nerve -- a long, thin nerve that snakes its way from the brain through the abdomen. (wired.co.uk)
- The fruits of Tracey's efforts were encapsulated in 2012 , when he travelled to Bosnia to implant a vagus nerve stimulator into the neck of a human patient with disabling rheumatoid arthritis. (wired.co.uk)
- This "mind-controlled" robot limb is being manipulated by a brain-computer interface (BCI), which provides a direct link between the neural information of a brain that's wired to an electroencephalography (EEG) device and an external object. (engadget.com)
- A 3D reconstruction of the brain shows the location of implanted stereo electroencephalography (stereo EEG) electrodes. (mayoclinic.org)
Receiver and electrodes2
- Thus, these electrode technologies will realize new experimental neurophysiological concepts. (medicalxpress.com)
- Dr Chapin has managed to wire up the brains of some experimental rats in a way that enables them to move things around by the power of thought alone. (economist.com)
- Bill Kochevar, 56, of Cleveland, is able to raise his arm to take a bite of mashed potatoes thanks to experimental technology that reconnected his brain signals and his arm muscles. (cleveland.com)
- Experimental implants called BrainGate2 allowed Kochevar to grasp a cup for the first time since he suffered a major spinal cord injury in a 2006 bike accident. (cleveland.com)
- During the experimental therapy, electrodes implanted under Kochevar's skull were connected via cables to electrodes implanted in the muscles of his arm. (cleveland.com)
- DBS is an experimental technique involving the implantation of stimulating electrodes into the brain. (scienceblogs.com)
- Twenty years ago, neurosurgeon and researcher Kevin Tracey was studying whether an experimental molecule called CNI-1493 could limit damage to the brain after a stroke. (wired.co.uk)
- The intimate contact of the array with the nerve fibers achieves more precise activation of fibers signaling specific frequencies, reduced electrical current requirements and dramatically reduced interference among electrodes when they are stimulated simultaneously, Middlebrooks says. (bio-medicine.org)
- A cochlear implant skips around the hair cells and sends sound right to the nerve. (asha.org)
- This nerve carries the signals to the brain where they are interpreted as sound sensations. (empowher.com)
- The electromagnet painlessly delivers a magnetic pulse that stimulates nerve cells in the region of your brain involved in mood control and depression. (mayoclinic.org)
- It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't produce enough of a brain chemical called dopamine. (medlineplus.gov)
- The magnetic pulses pass through the person's skull and cause small electrical currents that stimulate nerve cells in the targeted region of the person's brain. (disabled-world.com)
- Electrodes implanted in the brain can pick up electrical signals sent back and forth by nerve cells. (innovations-report.com)
- Research teams across the globe have realised that by targeting individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits they may soon be able to treat a wide range of conditions that have formerly relied on drug-based interventions. (wired.co.uk)
- Specifically, penetrating intracortical electrodes with high spatial resolution can record and stimulate individual neurons or neuronal populations locally within the brain ( Buzsáki, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
- PEDOT nanotubes in the coating enable the electrodes to operate with less electrical resistance than current metal electrode sites, which means they can communicate more clearly with individual neurons. (bio-medicine.org)
- If the idea pans out in further animal and human studies, profoundly and severely deaf people would have another option that could allow them to hear low-pitched sounds common in speech, converse in a noisy room, identify high and low voices, and appreciate music areas where cochlea implants, though a boon, have significant limitations. (bio-medicine.org)
- It sends the signals to electrodes in your inner ear, or cochlea. (asha.org)
- The receiver sends the signal on to the electrodes which have been surgically inserted into the cochlea, which is a part of the inner ear. (empowher.com)
- A cochlear implant is a surgically implanted device that helps overcome problems in the cochlea (KO-klee-uh). (kidshealth.org)
- one wire containing electrodes that are inserted into the cochlea (the number of electrodes can vary depending on the cochlear implant model type used). (kidshealth.org)
- An internal component that consists of a small electronic device that is surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear, connected to electrodes that are inserted inside the cochlea. (entnet.org)
- The internal stimulator then sends the signals to the implanted electrodes in the cochlea. (entnet.org)
- Scientists at the Washington National Primate Research Centre have found a way to restore movement to paralysed monkeys through the use of brain implants. (gizmodo.com.au)
- Monitoring this activity can give scientists a higher-resolution picture of the brain's activity, and can help in tailoring therapies and long-term brain implants for a variety of neurological disorders. (mit.edu)
- Scientists pursued the idea of implanting tiny electronic hearing devi. (bio-medicine.org)
- Scientists pursued the idea of implanting tiny electronic hearing devices in the inner ear to help profoundly deaf people. (bio-medicine.org)
- Scientists believe that focusing on a specific spot in the brain reduces the chance for the type of side-effects that are associated with ECT. (disabled-world.com)
- The type of pulse used does not reach further than two inches into the brain and scientists can select which parts of the person's brain will be affected and which ones will not. (disabled-world.com)
- But when surgery is necessary, research scientists can ask to piggyback on the procedures for a rare chance to study the brain directly. (sfgate.com)
- Scientists are looking beyond drugs to implants in the hunt for much-needed new treatments. (foxnews.com)
- Scientists also are testing whether stimulating other parts of the brain might help lift depression or curb appetite among the obese. (foxnews.com)
- Here's the tricky thing about treating memory loss: Scientists still don't completely understand how the brain goes about capturing, storing and retrieving memories. (kqed.org)
- This is the first study in which scientists have looked into the brains of programmers, using the imaging tools of neuroscience. (fastcompany.com)
- Kipke stressed that the electrode that the team tested is not a clinical trial-ready device, but it shows that efforts to shrink electrodes toward the size of brain cells are paying off. (umich.edu)
- The device or the microchip that has been placed in Gerod's brain is called a deep brain simulator (DBS). (mecda.org)
- An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure. (wikipedia.org)
- In an announcement on 28 August, Neuralink unveiled prototypes of its device and showed off pigs that had had the devices implanted in their brains. (newscientist.com)
- The Neuralink team trotted out three pigs to demonstrate the device: the first, named Joyce, had no implant, and the second, named Gertrude, had an implant that monitored neurons in her snout. (newscientist.com)
- An improved medical implant device is provided which has a plurality of micro-electrodes. (google.com)
- This medical implant device can be used in laparoscopic surgery or other surgical or microsurgical techniques. (google.com)
- This medical implant device comprises an elongated body having a plurality of discrete micro-electrodes that are electrically connected to an electric connection terminal for connection to a power source, such that any two of the discrete micro-electrodes can potentially be used for establishing the electrical pathway. (google.com)
- A cochlear (koe-klee-er) implant is a device that can help if you have a severe hearing loss. (asha.org)
- The surgery involves implanting a device that acts as a kind of pacemaker for the brain. (wfaa.com)
- These include designing a fully implantable biocompatible recording device, further developing real-time computational algorithms, introducing a method for providing the brain with sensory feedback from the actuators, and designing and building artificial prostheses that can be controlled directly by brain-derived signals. (nih.gov)
- 19 . The system for treating a disorder of claim 1 , further comprising an implanted module in communication with the stimulator device. (google.com)
- We demonstrated the high design variability in the packaging of our electrode device, and in vivo neuronal recordings were performed by simply placing the device on a mouse's brain. (medicalxpress.com)
- Meanwhile, the team at MGH will work with Draper Laboratories to develop a tiny device that could be implanted under a patient's skull. (cbsnews.com)
- Electrodes would record neurological data, and then the device could be programmed to deliver tailored therapy to the brain. (cbsnews.com)
- But he is participating in a nascent effort at the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) School of Medicine and Harvard Medical School to develop a partially implantable device that could help people with brain injuries decode and interpret everyday scents. (scientificamerican.com)
- After nearly two years of negotiations, NASA sent him an FM telemetry device, which allowed him to hook up a patient's brain electrodes to a small transmitter. (latimes.com)
- DBS involves surgically implanting a medical device called a "brain pacemaker. (go.com)
- According to Crick, the new device combines silicon chip technology with super-slim microwire electrodes that can be placed deep in the brain without causing significant damage. (theengineer.co.uk)
- Alongside its ability to monitor brain activity, the device could also be used to inject electrical signals into precise areas of the brain. (theengineer.co.uk)
- When the device is connected to a brain, electrical signals from active neurons travel up the nearby microwires to a silicon chip, where the data is processed and analysed showing which areas of the brain are active. (theengineer.co.uk)
- The external device is implanted under the skin of the chest. (news-medical.net)
- Wireless multi-channel closed-loop neuroprostheses that integrate command signals from the brain with sensor-based feedback from the environment and the system's state offer the possibility of increasing device performance, ultimately improving quality of life for people with SCI. (frontiersin.org)
- A cochlear implant is an electronic device that restores partial hearing to individuals with severe to profound hearing loss who do not benefit from a conventional hearing aid. (entnet.org)
- It is surgically implanted in the inner ear and activated by a device worn outside the ear. (entnet.org)
- It is also a lot smaller, about one square millimetre, which reduces the amount of surgery that needs to be done to implant the device. (meta-religion.com)
- In 1933 a heart specialist called Dr Albert Hyman sought an alternative to injecting drugs directly into the heart and developed a device called the [link url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defibrillation']Hyman Otor[/link]. (wired.co.uk)
- Analyzing the brain's electrical activity to gain insights into its function can be achieved with electrodes either placed upon the scalp-as in electroencephalograms (EEGs)-or inserted into the brain. (the-scientist.com)
- Eventually, the company plans to implant electrodes directly into the brain's cortex to "allow us to address blindness from all causes," Dr. Greenberg said. (nytimes.com)
- An implant that could restore a sense of smell would involve electrodes placed on the brain's olfactory bulb ( arrows ). (scientificamerican.com)
- In late 2014, surgeons implanted two electrodes - each about the size of a baby aspirin - on the surface of his brain's motor cortex. (cleveland.com)
- They found that stimulating the hypothalamus was in turn driving increased brain activity in the hippocampus, a key cog in the brain's memory circuitry. (npr.org)
- Electrodes placed on the forehead can ease seizures and more. (technologyreview.com)
- Seizures have taught us more about brain and the mind, and the relationship between the two, than any other disease," he said. (sfgate.com)
- By embedding the electrodes at the same sites in every patient, Crandall's team was able to gradually focus on groups of cells where abnormal activity was occurring, allowing removal of the cells and mitigating seizures. (latimes.com)
- The deep brain stimulator surgery was performed by the Executive Chairman of the West Virginia University Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, Ali Rezai. (mecda.org)
- Projects should maximize opportunities to conduct innovative in vivo neuroscience research made available by direct access to brain recording and stimulating from invasive surgical procedures. (nih.gov)
- To learn more about the science of love, and the most recent findings in the study of human brain function as it relates to addictive behavior (yes, love is an addiction), we asked Johns Hopkins neuroscience professor and author , Dr. David Linden , five questions about the science of love and what we can expect to see in the future when it comes to neuroscientific discoveries. (washingtonpost.com)
- It could also be used to create electrical signals in the brain when neurons are damaged and aren't firing themselves, such as in motor neurone disease," said Andreas Schaefer, group leader in the neurophysiology of behaviour laboratory at the Crick and professor of neuroscience at UCL. (theengineer.co.uk)
- Moreover, these electrodes enable neuroprosthetic devices, which hold the promise to return functionality to individuals with spinal cord injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
- Hofmann's brain cells were rushed to the institute on "life support" in a cooler rigged up with artificial cerebral spinal fluid and oxygen. (sfgate.com)
- Dr. Humayun said he envisioned applying the technology to other conditions than blindness, implanting electrodes in other parts of the body to address bladder control problems, perhaps, or spinal paralysis. (nytimes.com)
- Spinal implants could soon cure paraplegia. (thetimes.co.uk)
- When the spinal cord is intact, the brain tells the body to move millions of times a day, usually without our realizing it. (cleveland.com)
- Kochevar's severe spinal cord injury severed the connection between his brain and body, and robbed him of the use of his arms and legs. (cleveland.com)
- Motor commands initiated in the brain travel through descending pathways in the spinal cord to effector motor neurons before reaching target muscles. (frontiersin.org)
- The electrode records the electronic pulses sent by 41 neurons that surround it in an area of the brain that generates the movements of the tongue and mouth when speech is being generated. (medindia.net)
- The therapy involves inserting electrodes into certain regions of the brain and producing electrical pulses meant to regulate abnormal ones. (technologyreview.com)
- They send electrical pulses to stimulate the parts of the brain that control movement. (medlineplus.gov)
- Each electrode represents one pixel, sending pulses of electricity to stimulate the eye's neurons, which transmit the image to the brain. (zdnet.com)
Surgery to implant2
Neurons in the brain1
Record neuronal signals2
- There are several elements that must go hand in hand for us to be able to record neuronal signals from the brain with decisive results. (healthcanal.com)
- Chronic brain implants record neuronal signals from the motor cortex, while methods such as EEG and fMRI obtain motor commands non-invasively. (wikipedia.org)
- What are the pathways for information processing in the brain? (umich.edu)
- The team at UCSF will focus first on recording neurological activity in different regions of the brain to identify pathways associated with anxiety and depression. (cbsnews.com)
- So the plan was to put the electrodes into hubs where brain pathways for memory, behavior, concentration and other cognitive functions converge, to see if the jolts reactivate those silenced circuits, added Ohio State s Rezai. (telegram.com)
- The sound and speech processor is a minicomputer that processes sound into digital information, and then sends that information to the implant package in the form of electrical signals. (kidshealth.org)
- a transmitter that sends the signals to the cochlear implant package. (kidshealth.org)
- A healthy retina sends electrical signals to the brain, telling it how to decipher light. (cnn.com)
- Because these devices are so small, we can combine them with emerging optical techniques to visually observe what the cells are doing in the brain while listening to their electrical signals," said Takashi Kozai, who led the project as a student in Kipke's lab and has since earned his Ph.D. "This will unlock new understanding of how the brain works on the cellular and network level. (umich.edu)
- While we won't see bionic arms or Iron Man-style suits on the market next year, Kipke is optimistic that prosthetic devices could start linking up with the brain in a decade or so. (umich.edu)
- The team printed several soft electronic devices, including a small, rubbery electrode, which they implanted in the brain of a mouse. (mit.edu)
- The team printed several soft electronic devices, including a small, rubbery electrode. (mit.edu)
- Yuk and his colleagues reasoned that if they could develop a printable conducting polymer, they could then use the material to print a host of soft, intricately patterned electronic devices, such as flexible circuits, and single-neuron electrodes. (mit.edu)
- Some implants are bioactive , such as subcutaneous drug delivery devices in the form of implantable pills or drug-eluting stents . (wikipedia.org)
- Cardiovascular medical devices are implanted in cases where the heart, its valves , and the rest of the circulatory system is in disorder. (wikipedia.org)
- But the rigid devices traditionally used to record these signals, or to therapeutically stimulate certain regions, can damage the brain and elicit an immune response, and they tend not to work for very long. (technologyreview.com)
- This project is significant because BCIs that operate robotic devices like this typically use signals from brain implants. (engadget.com)
- Implant devices with a plurality of micro-electrodes are provided which are especially adapted for use in reducing the frequency and/or severity of neurological tremors. (google.com)
- The FDA first approved cochlear implant devices for adults in 1985 and children in 1990. (asha.org)
- An implanted biofuel cell may someday power medical devices. (technologyreview.com)
- Class III devices include replacement heart valves and implanted cerebellar stimulators. (wikipedia.org)
- Many implants typically fall under Class II and Class III devices. (wikipedia.org)
- You have any metal or implanted medical devices in your body. (mayoclinic.org)
- In some cases, people with metal implants or devices can have rTMS. (mayoclinic.org)
- Then they hope to develop devices to stimulate precise locations in the brain to strengthen alternative circuits. (cbsnews.com)
- New medical devices to help amputees, people with paralysis or people with neurological conditions could be possible with an Anglo-American advance in recording brain activity at scale. (theengineer.co.uk)
- The new implant has a higher resolution than the earlier devices, with 60 electrodes. (meta-religion.com)
- In order to listen to a neuron for long, or help people control a prosthetic as they do a natural limb, the electrodes need to be able to survive for years in the brain without doing significant damage. (umich.edu)
- It could lead to tech that can pass a signal from the brain to a machine, for example helping those with amputations to control a prosthetic limb to shake a hand or stand up. (theengineer.co.uk)
- Organizational brain drain involves the mass exodus of talented workers from a company, often because they sense instability, a lack of opportunity within the company, or they may feel that they can realize their career goals more easily at another company. (investopedia.com)
- It involves the brain. (rushlimbaugh.com)
- DBS involves delivering electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain through implanted electrodes. (npr.org)
- Examples include the intraocular lens , intrastromal corneal ring segment , cochlear implant , tympanostomy tube , and neurostimulator . (wikipedia.org)
- While Second Sight implants use a camera to generate an initial image, the nanowires could serve as both the photoreceptor (the part that picks up the light) and neurostimulator (the part that stimulates the brain to make a person "see" an image. (popularmechanics.com)
- The electrode is connected to a very small neurostimulator (electrical generator) put in your chest or abdomen. (rochester.edu)
Signals from the brain1
- Equipped with roving electrodes, these implants seek out and restore neural connections between in the brain and the rest of the body necessary for movement. (gizmodo.com.au)
- US neuroscientists are hoping to restore speech to a man who has been paralysed for eight years, and is unable to communicate other than through eye movements, with the help of a brain implant. (medindia.net)
- Electrode implants that can partially restore sight to the blind already exist. (popularmechanics.com)
- Retinal implants are able to partially restore the vision of people with particular forms of blindness caused by diseases such as macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. (meta-religion.com)
- Remember that the brain floats in fluid inside the skull and moves around when we, for instance, breathe or turn our heads. (healthcanal.com)
- It is designed to be implanted in the skull, with the wires embedded a few millimetres into the surface of the brain. (newscientist.com)
- Years of drug use cost him his wife, his money and his self-respect, before landing him in this drab yellow room at a Shanghai hospital, facing the surgeon who in 72 hours will drill two small holes in his skull and feed electrodes deep into his brain. (wfaa.com)
- A cochlear implant consists of an implant package, which is secured inside the skull, and a sound and speech processor, which is worn externally (outside the body). (kidshealth.org)
- The neurosurgeon drills a hole in the skull and inserts an electrode about 4 inches into the brain. (go.com)
- For readers who are unaware, Nucleus accumbens is that part of the brain which reacts strongly to the opioids. (mecda.org)
- The wires send pulse current via the electrodes, and that can help in regulating the imbalance that exists currently in Gerod's nucleus accumbens. (mecda.org)
- Postoperative 3-dimensional reconstruction allowed checking of the definitive position of the electrode and contacts within the targeted nucleus. (biomedsearch.com)
- The nature of the relationship between the BOLD signal and the extracellular dopamine concentration in a brain region is not fully understood, so it is unclear whether the RPE-equivalent signal in the nucleus accumbens is a reflection of dopamine release. (jneurosci.org)
- It's estimated that more than 200000 people all over the world have deep brain simulators to help in different problems. (mecda.org)
- So is the deep brain simulator the right solution to the country's drug problem? (mecda.org)
- She is to receive two electrode implants deep in her brain, to be attached to wires that will run under her skin to a miniature battery-operated pulse generator that will be sewn into her chest. (thetimes.co.uk)
- The electrodes will permanently stimulate cells deep in her brain to alleviate her symptoms. (thetimes.co.uk)
- The team explained that for this surgery the doctors place electrodes deep inside certain areas of the brain and this can help control the abnormal movements of the body. (news-medical.net)
- T he brain is often described in terms of its wiring, connections, and circuits, and such language is not merely an analogy to a building's electrical infrastructure. (the-scientist.com)
- She added that after someone suffers a stroke, neurologists aim to engage and retrain the person's remaining brain circuits to improve control over bodily movements. (engadget.com)
- Transcranial pulsed ultrasound stimulates intact brain circuits. (nih.gov)
- The study's first author and MD/PhD student at UNC J. Elliott Robinson pointed out that mephedrone and other potentially addictive stimulants "inappropriately activate brain reward circuits that are involved in positive reinforcement. (hindustantimes.com)