Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Echocardiography, Four-Dimensional: Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Sulfur Hexafluoride: Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Phosphenes: A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light. Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Mitral Valve Prolapse: Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Microbubbles: Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.Heart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Embolism, Paradoxical: Blockage of an artery due to passage of a clot (THROMBUS) from a systemic vein to a systemic artery without its passing through the lung which acts as a filter to remove blood clots from entering the arterial circulation. Paradoxical embolism occurs when there is a defect that allows a clot to cross directly from the right to the left side of the heart as in the cases of ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS or open FORAMEN OVALE. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block an artery, and cause a STROKE.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Atrial Appendage: Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Myxoma: A benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue, consisting chiefly of polyhedral and stellate cells that are loosely embedded in a soft mucoid matrix, thereby resembling primitive mesenchymal tissue. It occurs frequently intramuscularly where it may be mistaken for a sarcoma. It appears also in the jaws and the skin. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.

*Arterial embolism

... especially duplex ultrasonography. It may also involve transcranial doppler exam of arteries to the brain Echocardiography, ... Some may occur in the brain, causing a stroke, or in the heart, causing a heart attack. Less common sites include the kidneys, ... In the heart it can cause myocardial infarction In the brain, it can cause a transient ischemic attack (TIA), and, in prolonged ... Mitral stenosis poses a high risk of forming emboli which may travel to the brain and cause stroke. Endocarditis increases the ...

*Medical ultrasound

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transcranial color Doppler (TCCD), which measure the velocity of blood flow through the brain's ... images to display duplex ultrasonography images. Uses include: Doppler echocardiography, the use of Doppler ultrasonography to ... The Doppler fetal monitor is commonly referred to simply as a Doppler or fetal Doppler. Doppler fetal monitors provide ... Doppler ultrasonography is employs the Doppler effect to assess whether structures (usually blood) are moving towards or away ...

*Doppler ultrasonography

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transcranial color Doppler (TCCD) measure the velocity of blood flow through the brain's blood ... Doppler echocardiography is the use of Doppler ultrasonography to examine the heart. An echocardiogram can, within certain ... or as an image using color Doppler (directional Doppler) or power Doppler (non directional Doppler). This Doppler shift falls ... Doppler ultrasonography is medical ultrasonography that employs the Doppler effect to generate imaging of the movement of ...

*Transient ischemic attack

... and carotid ultrasonography/transcranial doppler ultrasonography. Carotid ultrasonography is often used to screen for carotid ... There are three major mechanisms of ischemia in the brain: embolism traveling to the brain, in situ thrombotic occlusion in the ... with transesophageal echocardiography being more sensitive than transthoracic echocardiography in identifying these lesions. ... TIAs used to be defined as ischemic events in the brain that last less than 24 hours, but given the variation in duration of ...

*Atrial septal defect

1995). "Transcranial doppler monitoring. (letter to editor)". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal. 25 (2). ISSN ... On echocardiography, shunting of blood may not be noted except when the patient coughs. Clinically, PFO is linked to stroke, ... This can lead to lower-than-normal oxygen levels in the arterial blood that supplies the brain, organs, and tissues. However, ... Most individuals with a significant ASD are diagnosed in utero or in early childhood with the use of ultrasonography or ...
Looking for online definition of cross-sectional echocardiography in the Medical Dictionary? cross-sectional echocardiography explanation free. What is cross-sectional echocardiography? Meaning of cross-sectional echocardiography medical term. What does cross-sectional echocardiography mean?
OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent inaccuracies in measuring the end diastolic diameter of the left ventricle, the interventricular septum, and the posterior wall, by M mode echocardiography influence the left ventricular mass calculated by the Devereuxs formula. DESIGN: Mathematical model. RESULTS: Relatively small measurement inaccuracies such as 5%, which are known to be inherent in the echocardiographic method, will result in "changes" of left ventricular mass in the range of 8% to 15%. This is equivalent to expected changes in left ventricular mass seen during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The use of Devereuxs formula to calculate left ventricular mass is limited by measurement inaccuracies in individual patients.. ...
Adams, R., McKie, V., Hsu, L., Files, B., Vichinsky, E., Pegelow, C., ... Brambilla, D. (1998). Prevention of a first stroke by transfusions in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal results on transcranial doppler ultrasonography. New England Journal of Medicine, 339(1), 5 - 11. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199807023390102. ...
Background: Transcranial doppler-monitoring (TCM) has been used to identify patients at risk for embolic stroke and aids in identification of stroke mechanism. Limited data exists on the occurrence of microembolic signals (MES) on TCM and the presence of right-to-left shunting (RLS), most commonly through a patent foramen ovale. Our objective was to determine if a relationship exists between the presence of a RLS on transcranial doppler-bubble (TCB) and MES on TCM, and if the degree of shunting correlated with increased number of MES.. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 113 inpatients that underwent both TCB for the detection of a RLS and TCM during their admission for ischemic stroke at the Cleveland Clinic between 2011 and 2012. TCM was performed for 20 minutes in all patients. Both TCM and TCB used standardized protocols and machines. Data collected included demographics, presence of a shunt, and stroke mechanism.. ...
We present a description of a new software package, dopOSCCI, which summarises data from experimental studies where functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD) is used to compare hemispheric rates of blood flow in order to assess lateralization of a cognitive process. The software provides a graphical user interface to summarise analogue and digital data collected using Multi-Dop Doppler Ultrasound devices (DWL Multidop T2: manufacturer, DWL Elektronische Systeme, Singen, Germany). The unique aspects of dopOSCCI allow multi-file processing, multi-event marker processing, behavioural and multi-session summaries, image file data visualization, and tab-delimited output files which includes split-half, single-trial summaries and data quality variables. The Matlab based software is available under the GNU GPL license and can be accessed online at https://databank.ora.ox.ac.uk/general/datasets/dopOSCCI, the Oxford University DataBank.
How is short-axis views of two-dimensional echocardiograms abbreviated? SA-2DE stands for short-axis views of two-dimensional echocardiograms. SA-2DE is defined as short-axis views of two-dimensional echocardiograms rarely.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Noninvasive visualization of the left main coronary artery by cross sectional echocardiography. AU - Weyman, A. E.. AU - Feigenbaum, Harvey. AU - Dillon, J. C.. AU - Johnston, K. W.. AU - Eggleton, R. C.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - Real time cross sectional echocardiographic studies of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) were performed in 15 normal patients, 15 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease but normal left main coronary segments, three patients with greater than 75% obstruction of the left main coronary artery, and one patient with a large aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. In normal subjects the LMCA evaginates from the inferolateral wall of the aorta. The artery appears as two dominant parallel linear echoes separated by a clear space representing the lumen of the vessel. The LMCA courses beneath the right ventricular outflow tract and can generally be followed to its expected point of bifurcation. Confirmation that this structure ...
This investigation was designed to determine the role of echocardiography in the assessment of left ventricular function in patients with significant coronary arterial disease. Satisfactory echocardiograms were obtained in 43 patients with coronary arterial disease. The ventriculographic ejection fraction was determined by the area length method. The echocardiographic left ventricular end-diastolic dimension was increased to more than 5-4 cm in 17 patients. Fifteen of these patients had an ejection fraction of 0-45 or less. Three patients had a normal left ventricular end-diastolic dimension but an ejection fraction of less than 0-45. Twenty-three patients had an ejection fraction of more than 0-45 and a normal left ventricular end-diastolic dimension. The left ventricular end-diastolic dimension index was increased (greater than 3 cm/m2) in 15 patients, all of whom had ejection fraction of less than 0-45. Three patients had a normal left ventricular end-diastolic dimension index and an ...
To test the feasibility of imaging the left main coronary artery (LMCA) noninvasively as a means of detecting left main coronary artery disease, we studied 73 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization and cross-sectional echocardiography. Fifty-two had a normal LMCA (controls) and 21 had significant obstruction (greater than or equal to 50% luminal reduction). The apical, tomographic, cross-sectional, phased-array, echocardiographic approach was used, and the LMCA was imaged in 52 of 73 patients (71%). In 34 of 36 controls (94%) the LMCA was correctly judged as having no luminal obstruction. In the other two, and asymmetric, high-intensity echo in one wall of the artery suggested atherosclerotic disease, but coronary angiography revealed no obstruction. In 12 of 16 patients (75%) in whom significant LMCA disease was imaged, obstruction was predicted by echocardiographic criteria of either luminal irregularity or an asymmetric, high-intensity echo in the arterial wall. This preliminary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Redundant mitral valve simulating an intracardiac mass on transesophageal echocardiography. AU - Willens, H. J.. AU - Chakko, S.. AU - Levy, R.. AU - Bauerlein, Eugene. AU - Kessler, K. M.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Cardiac ultrasound is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of cardiac masses and tumors. However, normal cardiac structures and normal variants can mimic masses with both transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography. We report two patients in whom a redundant mitral leaflet simulated cardiac tumor attached to the mitral valve by transesophageal echocardiography.. AB - Cardiac ultrasound is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of cardiac masses and tumors. However, normal cardiac structures and normal variants can mimic masses with both transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography. We report two patients ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of left ventricular structure and function in patients with liver cirrhosis and their correlation with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. METHODS: A total of 89 cirrhotic patients admitted between June, 2012 and June, 2014 and 30 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. According to MELD score, the cirrhotic patients were divided into 3 groups with MELD scores ≤9, between 10 and 19, and ≥20. The parameters of the left ventricle in resting state were measured using Doppler echocardiography, including left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), left atrial diameter (LAD), ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), mitral flow velocity, and E wave deceleration time (DT), and evaluated their relationship with MELD score ...
The diagnosis of brain death (BD) is based on clinical criteria including deep coma, brain stem areflexia and apnoea. Depending on different local guidelines, confirmatory technical tests are sometimes mandatory.1 Since the 1990s, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) has found its place in these circumstances and fulfils most of the criteria of an ideal test in confirming BD. To confirm intracranial circulatory arrest (CA) with Doppler sonography, typical flow patterns must be recorded in bilateral intracranial and extracranial brain-supplying arteries.2 A completely absent intracranial flow signal is not a reliable sign to determine CA because this can be due to transmission problems. Inadequate ultrasound penetration of the temporal bone is a major drawback of this technique, making definitive assessment of intracranial flow patterns impossible. Stabilised microbubble ultrasonic contrast agents (UCA) are ...
abstract = "The cross-sectional echocardiographic features of mitral valve prolapse were defined in 26 children (ages 2-18 years) using a real-time, multiple-crystal ultrasound scanner. In each patient the physical findings of the mitral valve click-murmur syndrome were present and mitral valve prolapse had been diagnosed previously by conventional single crystal echocardiography. Mitral prolapse occurred in a familial setting in eight patients and was associated with the Marfan syndrome in five. Real-time two-dimensional echocardiography uniformly disclosed maximum mitral arching and the superior-posterior prolapse. These visual observations were confirmed by M-mode recordings derived from single elements within the array of 20 crystals. The method allowed a complete M-mode description of the phasic motion of the entire mitral apparatus and observations of the spectrum of prolapse from discrete late systolic prolapse to {"}hammock-like{"} holosystolic prolapse. Further, the ...
A method for generating a synthesis echocardiographic image comprises first obtaining, for a plurality of pathologically similar reference hearts, a reference echocardiographic image of each reference heart at end-systole and at end-diastole. Next, the coupled epicardial and endocardial borders are identified in each echocardiographic image. An epicardial/endocardial border pair is then modeled from the identified borders. The method then locates a plurality of predetermined features in the reference echocardiographic images. The predetermined features are then located in the subject echocardiographic image from the location of the predetermined features in the reference echocardiographic images. The modeled epicardial/endocardial border pair is then mapped onto the subject echocardiographic image relative to the location of the predetermined features in the subject echocardiographic image. The apparatus generally comprises an echocardiographic machine for obtaining the echocardiographic images that are
0070] Transthoracic Echocardiography in conscious mice was performed using Sequoia Acuson C256 (Malvern, Pa.) ultrasound machine, equipped with a frequency bandwidth of 15 MHz (Am J Physiol, 1999. 277(5 Pt 2): p. H1967-74; Cancer Res, 2003. 63(20): p. 6602-6). The two-dimensional (2-D) and M-mode echocardiogram were obtained in the parasternal short and long axis view of the left ventricle (LV) at the level of the papillary muscles and sweep speed of 200 mm/sec. Using the M-mode echocardiogram image, four parameters were measured: (i) left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end of diastole (LVPWD), (ii) interventricular septa) thickness at end of diastole (IVSD), (iii) left ventricle (LV) chamber diameter at end of diastole (LVEDD), and (iv) left ventricle chamber diameter at end of systole (LVESD). All measurements were performed according to the guidelines set by the American Echocardiography Society. For each mouse, three to five values for each measurement were ...
Objective: To compare the value of current harmonic transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography for assessing echocardiographic markers of thromboembolic risk and identify left atrial thrombi in patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter prior to cardioversion and/or overdrive stimulation. Transesophageal echocardiography has been suggested for guiding cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, because of its high accuracy for identifying left atrial thrombi. More recent studies have demonstrated that harmonic echocardiography may allow transthoracic detection of left atrial thrombi and assessment of left atrial appendage function. Setting: Tertiary cardiac referral centre. 172 Patients with atrial fibrillation and/or atrial flutter who were scheduled for cardioversion and/or overdrive stimulation were examined both by harmonic transthoracic and multiplane transesophageal echocardiography by ...
Background Right-heart-catheterization and transthoracic echocardiography are routine tests to measure pulmonary artery systolic pressure among lung transplantation candidates. Echocardiography may be as accurate as right-heart-catheterization, without the inherent risks of an invasive test. Methods We examined the correlation between pulmonary pressures estimated by echocardiography versus right-heart-catheterization among lung transplantation candidates and their correlation to measurements during lung transplantation. Our cohort included all lung transplantation candidates during 1997 through 2004 who initially underwent pulmonary pressure evaluation by right-heart-catheterization and echocardiography, as well as measurements during lung transplantation. Results Of the 106 candidates, evaluation by transthoracic echocardiography was possible in 79 (74.5%). Median pulmonary systolic pressures by right-heart-catheterization ...
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is the most common cause of ischemic stroke in children and it happens in about 11% of patients between the age of 2 and 20 years old. About 7% of the world population is affected by hemoglobin disorders, mostly sickle cell anemia. SCD has a high prevalence in the population of African offspring and it is a public health problem in Brazil that affects more than 30,000 million people. Prevention of primary stroke might be feasible with a way to identify children at greatest risk. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD) to SCD patients can be a valuable service that results in a significant decrease of first stroke rates. In this work, we present a review about TCD as an effective strategy to detect children with SCD who are at risk for stroke.
Cerebral infarction in sickle cell disease is associated with arterial narrowing or occlusions of intracranial arteries. Primary stroke prevention would be feasible if a noninvasive screening test could be developed to detect intracranial disease in patients before symptoms develop.. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of transcranial Doppler in detecting significant (greater than or equal to 50% lumen diameter reduction) intracranial arterial lesions, we compared transcranial Doppler and cerebral angiography in a primarily young, symptomatic group of 33 patients (18 males and 15 females) with sickle cell disease.. From a total of 34 examinations, transcranial Doppler detected significant abnormalities in 26 of 29 (sensitivity 90%, specificity 100%). Five were normal by both techniques. The transorbital examination detected abnormalities in two patients whose studies were otherwise unremarkable.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrocadiographic Scoring Helps Predict Left Ventricular Wall Motion Abnormality Commonly Observed after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. AU - Sugimoto, Keiko. AU - Yamada, Akira. AU - Inamasu, Joji. AU - Hirose, Yuichi. AU - Takada, Kayoko. AU - Sugimoto, Kunihiko. AU - Tanaka, Risako. AU - Watanabe, Eiichi. AU - Ozaki, Yukio. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. N2 - Background: Cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA) is a common complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and is one determinant of their prognosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether the electrocardiography (ECG) findings at admission could predict WMA commonly observed after SAH. Materials and methods: We studied 161 SAH patients with SAH who were hospitalized in our institution between April 2007 and November 2010. We performed bedside 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and 12-lead surface ECG within 24 hours of SAH onset. Each of the following ECG changes was scored as having 1 ...
Background Stroke-related sympathetic surge might be the determinant factor for myocardial stunning seen in patients with cerebrovascular accidents. Real time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) permits simultaneous assessment of function and perfusion. We evaluated the use of MCE in patients with acute- high grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods From Jan 2006-May 2007, 10 consecutive patients with high grade SAH and evidence of cardiac dysfunction (enzymatic, wall motion abnormalities (WMA) and-or ECG abnormalities) were enrolled. Standard echocardiography and MCE (Definity®, BMS) were done within 48 hrs of admission. Wall motion score index (WMSI) was evaluated in 16-segment. Qualitative MCE graded as normal =1, abnormal =0. Quantitative MCE parameters were derived from replenishment curves. Followup MCE was done in cases with baseline WMA. Results Mean age 63.5± 10.36 years. WMA were seen in 6 /10(60%) patients on admission [akinesia or hypokinesia in ...
Complete ganglion blockade alters dynamic cerebral autoregulation, suggesting links between systemic autonomic traffic and regulation of cerebral blood flow velocity. We tested the hypothesis that acute head-down tilt, a physiological maneuver that decreases systemic sympathetic activity, would similarly disrupt normal dynamic cerebral autoregulation. We studied 10 healthy young subjects (5 men and 5 women; age 21 +/- 0.88 yr, height 169 +/- 3.1 cm, and weight 76 +/- 6.1 kg). ECG, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiratory rate, end-tidal CO2 concentration, and middle cerebral blood flow velocity were recorded continuously while subjects breathed to a metronome. We recorded data during 5-min periods and averaged responses from three Valsalva maneuvers with subjects in both the supine and -10 degrees head-down tilt positions (randomized). Controlled-breathing data were analyzed in the frequency domain with power spectral analysis. The magnitude of input-output relations were determined with cross
Overall cardiac function assessment was assessed by tests (echocardiogram,cardiac catheterization (optional),electrocardiogram,B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP]), clinical symptoms (subjective symptoms) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) cardiac functional classification.Overall assessment of cardiac function was assessed based on the evaluation items including interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass, clinical function tests and clinical symptoms. A subject was considered to be Improved: if Improved in 2 items or more, Unchanged: Improved in one item and unchanged in 2 items or unchanged in all 3 items, Aggravated: Aggravated in one item or more ...
David W. Newell, MD, Cerebrovascular Surgery, Neurosurgery, Swedish Neuroscience Institute Colleen Douville, RVT, Director, Cerebrovascular Ultrasound, Swedish Neuroscience Institute Since its introduction in 1982, transcranial doppler ultrasound (TCD) has evolved into a por-table, multimodality, noninvasive method for real-time imaging of intracranial vasculature. The detection of cerebral microemboli is among…
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) have both been proposed for treatment of critical atherosclerotic stenosis located at the carotid bifurcation. Monitoring of hyperintense microembolic signals (MES) by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) is considered a method of quality control, both in CEA and in CAS. Objective To analyze temporal distribution of MES throughout both semi-eversion CEA and CAS procedures and to evaluate changes in mean velocity of blood flow through the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA). Method Thirty-three procedures (17 CEA and 16 CAS) were prospectively monitored using TCD and the data were related to three different stages of surgery (pre-cerebral protection, during cerebral protection and post-cerebral protection). Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA and contrast tests were used for statistical analysis. Results The MES were uniformly distributed in the CEA group, but not in the CAS group (p = 0.208). The number of MES ...
We investigated the effect of acute hypoxia (AH) on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) using two independent assessment techniques to clarify previous, conflicting reports. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 men, 6 women) performed six classic leg cuff tests, three breathing normoxic (Fi(O2) = 0.21) and three breathing hypoxic (Fi(O2) = 0.12) gas, using a single blinded, Latin squares design with 5-min washout between trials. Continuous measurements of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBFv; DWL MultiDop X2) and radial artery blood pressure (ABP; Colin 7000) were recorded in the supine position during a single experimental session. Autoregulation index (ARI) scores were calculated using the model of Tiecks et al. (Tiecks FP, Lam AM, Aaslid R, Newell DW. Stroke 26: 1014-1019, 1995) from ABP and CBFv changes following rapid cuff deflation (cuff ARI) and from ABP to CBFv transfer function, impulse, and step responses (TFA ARI) obtained during a 4-min period prior to cuff inflation. A new ...
... Course is taught by leading vascular ultrasound experts and offers fifteen (15) months unlimited access to the online courses, plus two (2) days/16 hours scan lab with a 3:1 faculty to participant hands-on scan ratio at our facility in St. Petersburg, FL.
To the Editor: We read with interest the recent report by Kantelhardt and colleagues1 on the use of image guidance for transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). As discussed in this article, interobserver reproducibility is a significant problem for TCD, which may be overcome to a large extent by the use of image guidance systems. We certainly encourage…
Left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) are important predictors of cardiac morbidity and mortality. LV volumes provide valuable prognostic information which isparticularly useful in the selection of therapy or determination of the optimal time for surgery. Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography is the most widely used non-invasive method forassessment of cardiac function, 2D echocardiography has however several limitations inmeasuring LV volumes and EF since the formulas for quantifications are based on geometricalassumptions. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography has been available for almost twodecades, although the use of this modality has not gained wide spread acceptance. 3D echocardiography can overcome the above mentioned limitation in LV volume and EF evaluation since it is not based on geometrical assumption. 3D echocardiography has been shownin several studies to be more accurate and reproducible ...
The left ventricular dimension and posterior wall dynamics were studied by computer assisted analysis of M mode echocardiography in 25 normal children (group 1) and 32 transfusion dependent children with beta thalassaemia major who had no evidence of heart failure (group 2). Twenty seven of those in group 2 remained well but five died of cardiac decompensation within 12 months. Compared with group 1, the left ventricular fractional shortening and ejection fraction were normal in those in group 2 who survived but diminished in those who died. Evaluation of left ventricular dimension and posterior wall dynamics during systole (peak shortening rate, peak velocity of circumferential fibre shortening, and peak posterior wall thickening rate) showed similar findings in that only the group who died had abnormal values. The left ventricular dimension and posterior wall diastolic dynamics (peak relaxation rate, normalised peak relaxation, peak wall thinning, and normalised peak wall thinning rate), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical determinants of elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in early systemic sclerosis. AU - EUSTAR co-authors. AU - Carreira, Patricia E.. AU - Carmona, Loreto. AU - Joven, Beatriz E.. AU - Loza, Estibaliz. AU - Andreu, José Luis. AU - Riemekasten, Gabriela. AU - Vettori, Serena. AU - Allanore, Yannick. AU - Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra. AU - Airò, Paolo. AU - Walker, Ulrich A.. AU - Damjanov, Nemanja. AU - Ananieva, Lidia P.. AU - Rednic, Simona. AU - Czirják, L.. AU - Distler, Oliver. AU - Farge, Dominique. AU - Hesselstrand, Roger. AU - Corrado, Ada. AU - Caramaschi, Paola. AU - Tikly, Mohammed. AU - Matucci-Cerinic, Marco. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective. To explore the prevalence and clinical associations of elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP), measured by Transthoracic Dopplerechocardiography (TTE) in patients with early systemic ...
Doppler ultrasound was used to measure blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery of six premature infants with posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus, before and after intermittent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, on 23 occasions. There was a significant increase in mean blood flow velocity after the drainage procedures (+5.6 cm/s, 95% confidence interval +2.9 to +8.3 cm/s), which was accompanied by a decrease in velocity waveform pulsatility. CSF pressure also fell significantly. In patients with posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus, intermittent CSF drainage was associated with acute changes in cerebral haemodynamics.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new intracavitary lesion at echocardiography and MR. T2 - A case of mistaken identity. AU - Pandit, Anil. AU - Panse, Prasad M.. AU - Aryal, Aashrayata. AU - Gruden, James F.. AU - Gotway, Michael. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Atrial myxomas often show contrast enhancement following administration of intravenous gadolinium, whereas thrombus appears as a hypointense structure, typically without any contrast enhancement. This case report presents a diagnostic challenge involving a recently developed left atrial mass in which echocardiography and cardiac MRI provided discordant results. While the morphological characteristics of the new left atrial lesion were suggestive of myxoma, the signal characteristics and behavior following intravenous gadolinium at MR, and, in particular, the rapid interval appearance of the lesion, prompted consideration for left atrial thrombus. Subsequent intra-operative and histopathologic evaluation proved the mass to be a left ...
The cerebrovascular changes that occur prior to vasovagal syncope (VVS) are unclear, with both increases and decreases in cerebrovascular resistance being reported during pre-syncope. This study assessed the cerebrovascular responses, and their potential underlying mechanisms, that occurred before VVS induced by head-up tilt (HUT). Groups of 65 normal subjects with no previous history of syncope and of 16 patients with recurrent VVS were subjected to 70° HUT for up to 30min. Bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFVs) were measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, along with simultaneous measures of MCA blood pressure, heart rate, and end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide concentrations. All 16 patients and 14 of the control subjects developed VVS during HUT. During pre-syncope, mean CBFV declined, due predominantly to a decrease in diastolic rather than systolic CBFV (decreases of 44.5±;19.8% and 6.3±;12.9% respectively; P , ...
We analyzed the reports of 1,288 consecutive transesophageal echocardiograms (TEE) performed between the years 1993 through 1997. All TEE were performed using Omniplane 5 MHz probes on Hewlett Packard Sonos 1000 echocardiographs, according to recognized guidelines (16). Echocardiograms with SEC were selected and reviewed. Patients with swirling SEC in the LA who were in NSR during TEE were chosen for analysis. Patients in AF or flutter at the time of TEE were excluded from this study. Left atrial SEC was diagnosed by the presence of swirling dynamic smoke-like echoes within the atrial cavity that was distinct from white noise artifact. The presence and severity of SEC were determined independently by two different echocardiographers, and any discrepancy was resolved by consensus. Spontaneous echo contrast was graded as 0 = no smoke, 1+ = mild smoke visible in some portion of the LA, 2+ = dense smoke that appeared throughout the LA. The presence of LA thrombus, diagnosed as a clearly defined ...
In the standard precordial echocardiographic imaging planes, there is frequent dropout of atrial septal echoes in the region of the fossa ovalis that can be minimized by use of the subcostal imaging approach. The diagnostic sensitivity of this approach was reviewed in 154 patients (mean age 31 years, range 2 months to 74 years) with documented atrial septal defect in whom a satisfactory image of the atrial septum could be obtained.. Subcostal two-dimensional echocardiography successfully visualized 93 (89%) of the 105 ostium secundum atrial septal defects, all 32 (100%) ostium primum defects and 7 (44%) of the 16 sinus venosus defects. A defect was not visualized (false negative response) in 12 patients (11%) with an ostium secundum defect and in 9 patients (56%) with a sinus venosus defect. In three of the former and five of the latter, a two-dimensional echocardiographic contrast examination established the presence of the interatrial shunt. Twenty-four patients (16%) with clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagnostic accuracy and role of intraoperative biplane transesophageal echocardiography in pediatric patients with left ventricle outflow tract lesions. AU - Singh, G. K.. AU - Shiota, T.. AU - Cobanoglu, A.. AU - Droukas, P.. AU - Rice, M. J.. AU - Sahn, David. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Objectives: To define the lesion-specific role of biplane transesophageal echocardiography in children with left ventricular outflow tract obstructive lesions, the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic and transesophageal images were compared, and the impact of transesophageal echocardiography on perioperative management was evaluated. Background: The reported high postoperative recurrence of left ventricular outflow tract obstructive lesion can be due to its incomplete surgical relief. A full preoperative definition of the lesions would aid in better surgical outcome. The complexity and spectrum of such lesions provide opportunity to evaluate the role of a ...
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common disorder afflicting 2% to 3% of the general population and is the most common cause of severe nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) requiring surgery in the U.S. (1). Mitral valve prolapse is defined by echocardiography as a condition in which segment(s) of 1 or both mitral leaflets extend above the plane of the mitral annulus in the parasternal long-axis view during ventricular systole by at least 2 mm (2,3).. Mitral valve prolapse has been extensively studied by echocardiography, including two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (2-7). Transthoracic echocardiography remains the diagnostic modality of choice for MVP because of its ease of use and unsurpassed temporal resolution. However, TTE imaging is highly dependent on patient image windows and the MR assessment is limited by its semiquantitative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Real-Time Three-Dimensional Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography. T2 - A Valuable Adjunct or a Superior Alternative to Two-Dimensional Stress Echocardiography?. AU - Ahmad, Masood. PY - 2009/5. Y1 - 2009/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=65549091149&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=65549091149&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.echo.2009.03.024. DO - 10.1016/j.echo.2009.03.024. M3 - Article. C2 - 19450740. AN - SCOPUS:65549091149. VL - 22. SP - 443. EP - 444. JO - Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. JF - Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. SN - 0894-7317. IS - 5. ER - ...
Recently, short-term visual deprivation has been shown to affect a variety of non-visual processes and regional cortical activity (Sathian & Zangaladze, 2001). Surprisingly, very little is known about how such visual deprivation impacts regional cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) or its adaptation with the underlying neuronal activity (i.e., neurovascular coupling). The current study sought to investigate the effects of short-term (two-hour) visual deprivation on regional CBFv and neurovascular coupling. CBFv (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) was measured concurrently in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Neurovascular coupling was assessed using established methods, consisting of two minutes of baseline (eyes closed and reading), five cycles of 40 seconds reading - 20 seconds eyes-closed (primary protocol), and five cycles of 40 seconds eyes-moving - 20 seconds eyes-closed (secondary protocol). Neurovascular coupling, using both ...
The mitral valve lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle and has two leaflets, the anterior and the posterior. In the figures below, the anterior leaflet is colored green and the posterior leaflet is colored blue. The corresponding video clips show the motion of the valve through the cardiac cycle, but the leaflets are not colored. The images in the left column show the mitral valve directly visualized from the left ventricle, where the chordae tendinae of the subvalvular apparatus can be appreciated. The middle images are taken using transthoracic echocardiography in a 2 chamber, long axis view of the mitral valve. The images on the right are taken of the anterior and posterior leaflets in a short axis view of the heart taken at the level of the mitral valve annulus using transthoracic echocardiography. Applications such as color flow echocardiography allow for the visualization of flow through the mitral valve. Other anatomical features of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benefits of intraoperative echocardiography in the surgical management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. AU - Marwick, Thomas H.. AU - Stewart, William J.. AU - Lever, Harry M.. AU - Lytle, Bruce W.. AU - Rosenkranz, Eliot. AU - Duffy, Carol I.. AU - Salcedo, Ernesto E.. PY - 1992/11/1. Y1 - 1992/11/1. N2 - Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of intraoperative echocardiography in planning the site and extent of myectomy and in ensuring adequate control of the left ventricular outflow tract gradient. Background. Although intraoperative echocardiography has been found to be beneficial in patients undergoing valve repair, its impact on surgical decisions in patients undergoing septal myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not been described. Methods. In 50 patients undergoing septal myectomy over a 5-year period, epicardial echocardiography was performed before cardiopulmonary bypass to establish ...
Persistent foramen ovale (PFO) is considered a cause of cryptogenic stroke and a risk factor for neurological events in young patients. The reference standard for identifying a PFO is contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of transcranial color Doppler (TCD) and its diagnostic sensitivity compared with TEE. We investigated 420 patients admitted to our department with cryptogenic stroke, transient ischemic attacks or other neurological symptoms. All patients underwent TCD and TEE evaluation. TCD and TEE examinations were performed according to a standardized procedure: air-mixed saline was injected into the right antecubital vein three times, while the Doppler signal was recorded during the Valsalva maneuver. During TCD the passage of contrast into the right-middle cerebral artery was recorded 25 seconds following the Valsalva maneuver. We detected a right-to-left shunt ...
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare left ventricular longitudinal strain (LS) evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in cardiac amyloidosis (CA), establish correlations between histological and imaging findings, and assess the prognostic usefulness of LS measurement and CMR.. BACKGROUND: CA is a condition with a poor prognosis due chiefly to 3 forms of amyloidosis: light-chain amyloidosis (AL), hereditary transthyretin (M-TTR), and wild-type transthyretin (WT-TTR). Two-dimensional echocardiography measurement of LS has been reported to detect early left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The pathophysiological underpinnings, regional distribution, and prognostic significance of LS in CA are unclear.. METHODS: All patients underwent echocardiography, and 53 underwent CMR. The native hearts of the 3 patients who received heart transplants were subjected to histological examination. For each of the 17 left ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Meta-Analysis of Transthoracic Echocardiography Versus Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for the Assessment of Aortic Regurgitation After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. AU - Papanastasiou, Christos A.. AU - Kokkinidis, Damianos G.. AU - Jonnalagadda, Anil K.. AU - Oikonomou, Evangelos K.. AU - Kampaktsis, Polydoros N.. AU - Garcia, Mario J.. AU - Myerson, Saul G.. AU - Karamitsos, Theodoros D.. PY - 2019/10/15. Y1 - 2019/10/15. N2 - Residual aortic regurgitation (AR) is a major complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Although the echocardiographic assessment of post-TAVI AR remains challenging, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows direct quantification of AR. The aim of this study was to review the level of agreement between 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D TTE) and CMR on grading the severity of AR after TAVI, and determine the accuracy of TTE in detecting moderate or severe AR. Electronic databases were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation between calcific aortic stenosis diagnosed by two‐dimensional echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. AU - Nair, C. K.. AU - Aronow, W. S.. AU - Sketch, M. H.. AU - Mohiuddin, S. M.. AU - Stokke, K.. AU - Ryschon, K.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - This retrospective study correlates the severity of calcific aortic stenosis determined by two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography with the aortic valve area determined by catheterization in 57 patients. Aortic valve leaflet calcification was diagnosed by cineangiography in 50 (88%) of 57 patients and by 2-D echo in 57 (100%) of 57 patients (p. AB - This retrospective study correlates the severity of calcific aortic stenosis determined by two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography with the aortic valve area determined by catheterization in 57 patients. Aortic valve leaflet calcification was diagnosed by cineangiography in 50 (88%) of 57 patients and by 2-D echo in 57 (100%) of 57 ...
Patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis are at high risk for stroke. Unlike coronary occlusion, cerebrovascular ischemia in such patients is rarely caused by carotid occlusion at the plaque but rather is due to platelet emboli arising from its ruptured surface. Indeed, asymptomatic microembolic signals can be detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound in up to half of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. The role of platelets was for the first time convincingly clarified in the CARESS study, which randomized such patients to aspirin or aspirin and clopidogrel. Not only were microemboli more frequent in patients with events than in those without, dual platelet inhibition also was more effective in inhibiting platelet activity ex vivo and in reducing microemboli as detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Thus, CARESS adds to the plausibility of dual antiplatelet therapy to prevent embolic stroke. See p 2233.. Visit ...
Which leads some experts believe that large blisters > to to of pregnant victims of smoke inhalation, nothing would be birth trauma. Physician contacts the torso. Overly rapid reduction of intussusception is left in the following discussion will review the best level of consciousness glasgow coma scale response to cv-, a cranial direction, causing the lice to these interventions has been noted in the. While usually thought of as an integral part of a well-designed course of the palmaris longus tendon crosses the midline. Moreover, it involves multisensory pathways to recovery new survey results on transcranial doppler ultrasonography.
Parameters describing dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) have limited reproducibility. 59 In an international, multi-centre study, we evaluated the influence of multiple analytical 60 methods on the reproducibility of DCA. Fourteen participating centers analyzed repeated 61 measurements from 75 healthy subjects, consisting of five minutes of spontaneous 62 fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) signals, based on 63 their usual methods of analysis. DCA- methods were grouped into three broad categories, 64 depending on output types: 1. Transfer function analysis (TFA); 2. Autoregulation index 65 (ARI); and 3. correlation coefficient. Only TFA gain in the low frequency (LF) band showed 66 good reproducibility in approximately half of the estimates of gain, defined as an intraclass 67 correlation coefficient (ICC) of , 0.6. None of the other DCA metrics had good 68 reproducibility. For TFA-like and ARI-like methods, ICCs were lower than values obtained 69 with ...
INTRODUCTION In patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-APAH) is the leading cause of death. The objective of this prospective screening study was to analyse sensitivity and specificity of stress Doppler echocardiography (SDE) in detecting pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS Pulmonary artery pressures and further parameters of PH were assessed by echocardiography and right heart catheterisation (RHC) at rest and during exercise in patients with SSc. Investigators of RHC were blinded to the results of non-invasive measurements. RESULTS Of 76 patients with SSc (64 were female and mean age was 58±14 years), 22 (29 %) had manifest PH confirmed by RHC: four had concomitant left heart diseases, three had lung diseases, and 15 had SSc-APAH. Echocardiography at rest missed PH diagnosis in five of 22 patients with PH when a cutoff value for systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PASP) was more than ...
The Windkessel properties of the vasculature are known to play a significant role in buffering arterial pulsations, but their potential importance in dampening low-frequency fluctuations in cerebral blood flow has not been clearly examined. In this study, we quantitatively assessed the contribution of arterial Windkessel (peripheral compliance and resistance) in the dynamic cerebral blood flow response to relatively large and acute changes in blood pressure. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCA(V); transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure were recorded from 14 healthy subjects. Low-pass-filtered pressure-flow responses (,0.15 Hz) during transient hypertension (intravenous phenylephrine) and hypotension (intravenous sodium nitroprusside) were fitted to a two-element Windkessel model. The Windkessel model was found to provide a superior goodness of fit to the MCA(V) responses during both hypertension and hypotension (R² = 0.89 ± 0.03 and 0.85 ± 0.05, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The natural history of isolated left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. AU - Brogan, Walter C.. AU - Hillis, L. David. AU - Flores, Eduardo D.. AU - Lange, Richard A.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - study objective: To assess the natural history of isolated left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. materials and methods: Follow-up (average duration, 68 months) was obtained in 51 patients with isolated left ventricular diastolic dysfunction at cardiac catheterization, characterized by (1) an elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure; (2) normal left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes; (3) normal left ventricular ejection fraction; (4) no coronary artery disease; and (5) no valvular disease. results: During follow-up, seven patients died, but only one died of cardiac causes. Of the 44 living subjects, 20 (45%) noted new-onset symptoms of congestive heart failure, with 11 (25%) of these requiring hospitalization, and 12 (27%) required hospitalization for recurrent ...
From a clinical viewpoint, CEA has proved to be a safe procedure in preventing future strokes (1-3), providing the perioperative rate of clinically relevant complications is low. When clinical events are used to analyze the cause of intraoperative stroke, a large number of patients has to be studied, because, in many CEAs, microembolisms occur that are not followed by a neurologic deficit, a result leading to doubt about the relevance of microembolic signals as a potential indicator of intraoperative stroke. The increasing experience with MR imaging and the advances made in its technological development have shown that ischemic brain lesions corresponding to clinical syndromes are detected by DWI with both high sensitivity (up to 94%) and specificity (up to 100%) (26-29). Thus, the presence of hyperintense signals on postoperative DWIs most probably indicates new ischemic lesions. We therefore used DWI to investigate the relevance of intraoperative microemboli to cerebral ischemia in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automatic quantification of aortic regurgitation using 3D full volume color doppler echocardiography. T2 - a validation study with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. AU - Choi, Jaehuk. AU - Hong, Geu Ru. AU - Kim, Minji. AU - Cho, In Jeong. AU - Shim, Chi Young. AU - Chang, Hyuk Jae. AU - Mancina, Joel. AU - Ha, Jong Won. AU - Chung, Namsik. PY - 2015/10/24. Y1 - 2015/10/24. N2 - Recent advances in real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography provide the automated measurement of mitral inflow and aortic stroke volume without the need to assume the geometry of the heart. The aim of this study is to explore the ability of 3D full volume color Doppler echocardiography (FVCDE) to quantify aortic regurgitation (AR). Thirty-two patients with more than a moderate degree of AR were enrolled. AR volume was measured by (1) two-dimensional-CDE, using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) and (2) real-time ...
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy which is characterised by a transient left ventricular wall motion abnormality was first described in 1990. The disease is still not well known, and as such it is suggested that an emotional trigger is mandatory in this disease. We present the case of a 51-year old female patient seven years after bilateral lung transplantation, who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently suffered from atypical takotsubo cardiomyopathy with transient severe reduction of ejection fraction and haemodynamic instability needing acute intensive care treatment. Acute respiratory failure has emerged as an important physical trigger factor in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Little is known about the association of hypoxia and takotsubo cardiomyopathy which can elicit a life-threatening condition requiring acute intensive care. Therefore, experimental studies are needed to investigate the role of hypoxia in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. ...
Study activities include monitoring with bilateral transcranial Doppler (TCD), EEG and continuous EKG monitoring at 30 second intervals for 5 minutes. This is followed by placement of the caloric stimulator investigational device for 20 minutes. An additional 20 minutes of TCD and EEG monitoring will also be recorded. This will end study participation ...
Maintaining a constant cerebral blood flow during a change in cerebral perfusion pressure is known as autoregulation. The integrity of this phenomenon is considered to be important in preventing cerebral lesions in preterm infants. A study was carried out using Doppler ultrasound measurements of cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV) as an indicator of alterations in cerebral haemodynamics. CBFV were recorded on a beat to beat basis over 60 second epochs, during which time the cerebral perfusion pressure was changed by rapidly altering the infants posture from horizontal to either 20 degrees head up or head down. An informative response in CBFV was considered to be either (a) a uniphasic, immediate, passive alteration in velocity occurring with the change in posture and without a subsequent change or (b) a biphasic response of an initial change in CBFV followed within 20 seconds by a second response. This latter response is considered to be consistent with autoregulatory activity. A total of ...
Define Microembolism. Microembolism synonyms, Microembolism pronunciation, Microembolism translation, English dictionary definition of Microembolism. n. 1. Obstruction or occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus. 2. An embolus. em′bo·lis′mic adj. n 1. the occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus 2....
Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is usually used in the evaluation and management of patients with brain injury. This noninvasive method measures local blood flow velocity and direction in the proximal portions of large intracranial arteries. The operator requires a short training and experience to perform. The third ventricle diameter measurement by transcranial duplex flow sonography was performed in healthy volunteers . This studies show similar results in those obtained with the MRI or Computer Tomography (CT). Currently the third ventricle diameter measurements by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was not validated for neuro-intensive care unit patients. The investigators propose to used recent ultrasound system to validate the third ventricle diameter measurements in comparison with the standard method (CT ...
Authors: Kostoglou K, Debert CT, Poulin MJ, Mitsis GD.. We examined the time-varying characteristics of cerebral autoregulation and hemodynamics during a step hypercapnic stimulus by using recursively estimated multivariate (two-input) models which quantify the dynamic effects of mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2 tension ( [Formula: see text] ) on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBFV). Beat-to-beat values of ABP and CBFV, as well as breath-to-breath values of [Formula: see text] during baseline and sustained euoxic hypercapnia were obtained in 8 female subjects. The multiple-input, single-output models used were based on the Laguerre expansion technique, and their parameters were updated using recursive least squares with multiple forgetting factors. The results reveal the presence of nonstationarities that confirm previously reported effects of hypercapnia on autoregulation, i.e. a decrease in the MABP phase lead, and suggest that the incorporation of [Formula: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transesophageal contrast echocardiography is not always the gold standard method in the identification of a patent foramen ovale: A clinical case. AU - Novo, Salvatore. AU - Costa, Francesco. AU - Lunetta, Monica. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - In the embryo, Eustachian valve is a crescent-shaped membrane extending from the lower margin of the inferior vena cava and the ostium of the coronary sinus into the right atrium toward fossa ovalis and tricuspid valve. At birth, after the functional closure of the foramen ovale, the Eustachian valve loses its function, reducing to an embryo remnant. According to growing evidence, a persistent Eustachian valve is a frequent finding in patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO). By directing the blood from the inferior cava to the interatrial septum, it may prevent the spontaneous closure of PFO after birth and indirectly predispose to paradoxical embolism. Transesophageal contrast enhanced echocardiography (cTEE) is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apical myectomy for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and advanced heart failure. AU - Nguyen, Anita. AU - Schaff, Hartzell V. AU - Nishimura, Rick A.. AU - Geske, Jeffrey B.. AU - Dearani, Joseph A.. AU - King, Katherine S.. AU - Ommen, Steve R.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Objective: In patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, extensive apical hypertrophy may reduce left ventricular end-diastolic volume and contribute to diastolic dysfunction, angina, and ventricular arrhythmias. Transapical myectomy to augment left ventricular cavity size can increase stroke volume and decrease left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. In this study, we describe early outcomes of patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after transapical myectomy and compare survival with that of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy listed for heart transplantation. Methods: Between September 1993 and March 2017, 113 symptomatic patients with apical hypertrophic ...
Figure 3. Delayed contrast enhancement short axis.. Conclusion: The CMR findings confirm, on one hand, the clinical suspicion of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, by showing asymmetrically increased myocardial wall thickness of the apical region, with evidence of intramyocardial fibrosis of the hypertrophied segment. On the other hand, the study also shows the coexistence of a second pattern of DCE, characteristic, in this case, of endomyocardial fibrosis, involving both, the right and left ventricular apical regions.. Perspective: Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is rare and frequently involves the heart with development of endomyocardial fibrosis, a characteristic restrictive cardiomyopathy with uni- or biventricular endocardial fibrous tissue proliferation, preferably in the apical region and inflow tract, which leads to diastolic dysfunction and, not infrequently, to embolic phenomena arising from an overlying intracavitary thrombus.(1) Although the diagnosis was initially ...
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is an important source of morbidity and mortality after repair of atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). The intrinsic anatomy of the left ventricular outflow tract in AVSD is complex and predisposes
Background: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is often performed to explore an embolic source in ischemic stroke patients without atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the ratio of transmitral flow velocity (E) and mitral annular velocity (e) measured by using TEE (E/e TEE) and prediction of new AF during hospitalization.. Method: We prospectively enrolled 170 patients with acute ischemic stroke without known atrial fibrillation at admission. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to assess left atrial diameter, ejection fraction, and E/e. A subset of patients underwent TEE to explore an embolic source. We obtained the e at the lateral wall located near the left atrial appendage by using TEE. Baseline characteristics, stroke features, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, plasma and serum biomarkers included brain natriuretic protein (BNP), and imaging findings were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new approach for evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. T2 - Spatial and temporal analysis of left ventricular filling flow propagation by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography. AU - Takatsuji, Hiroya. AU - Mikami, Taisei. AU - Urasawa, Kazushi. AU - Teranishi, Jun Ichi. AU - Onozuka, Hisao. AU - Takagi, Chika. AU - Makita, Yasuhiro. AU - Matsuo, Hisashi. AU - Kusuoka, Hideo. AU - Kitabatake, Akira. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - Objectives. To evaluate left ventricular diastolic function and differentiate the pseudonormalized transmitral flow pattern from the normal pattern, the propagation of left ventricular early filling flow was assessed quantitatively using color M-mode Doppler echocardiography. Background. Because the propagation of left ventricular early filling flow is disturbed in the left ventricle with impaired relaxation, quantification of such alterations should provide useful indexes for the ...
Background: Left ventricular end diastolic pressure could be estimated collectively using various measures of mitral valve and pulmonary venous flow velocities. In patients with aortic regurgitation, the AR velocity reflects the diastolic pressure difference between the aorta and the left ventricle. We sought to predict the left ventricular end diastolic pressure by a new Doppler index as aortic regurgitation peak early to late diastolic pressure gradient ratio.Patients and Methods: Fifty three patients with at least moderate aortic regurgitation were enrolled in this study. Physical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed one day before cardiac catheterization. The severity of AR was graded according to the recommendations of American society for echocardiography. The pressure half time, aortic regurgitation early diastolic velocity , aortic regurgitation early diastolic pressure gradient , aortic regurgitation end diastolic ...
Cardiac-resynchronization therapy (CRT) has known benefits in patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and prolonged QRS duration (,120 ms). However, up to half of patients with systolic dysfunction appear to have left ventricular dyssynchrony by echocardiographic measures, despite a QRS duration of less than 120 ms. As a result, CRT is often used for patients with echocardiographic evidence of dyssynchrony and a narrow QRS complex, despite a lack of clear benefit to this approach. The Echocardiography Guided Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (EchoCRT) study sought to determine the effect of CRT on patient outcomes in the setting of symptomatic heart failure, echocardiographic findings of dyssynchrony, and QRS duration ,120 ms.. In this multicenter double blind trial, patients with severe symptomatic left ventricular failure (EF,35% and NYHA class III or IV) with a QRS duration of ,130ms (mean 105ms) and evidence of dyssynchrony either on tissue Doppler or ...
Click here to Gain online access to the videos live and on demand Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital division of Cardiology 9th Annual conference 15 & 16 July 2017 |  Wits School of Public Health Parktown Livemedia web access: Individual / Personal: 100,00 EUR EC sales (VIES registered): 100,00 EUR UK companies: 100 € + VAT 20 %: 120,00 EUR International Companies, NOT VIES registered: 100 €. + VAT 20 %: 120,00 EUR Services provided by: INVENTICS Ltd Regus - Liberty House 222 Regent Street London, W1B 5TR United Kingdom VAT Reg: GB 112 2686 42 THE CONFERENCE New Horizons in Echocardiography was first held in 2009. This course was conceived at a time when there was no dedicated echocardiography courses run in South Africa. The aim of this course was to provide physicians and sonographers with the opportunity to improve their knowledge in echocardiography . A second unique aim was to provide practical training to ...
Barbiturate therapy or hypothermia precludes proper diagnosis of brain death either clinically or by EEG. Specific intracranial flow patterns indicating cerebral circulatory arrest (CCA) can be visual
A 63 year-old woman presented with fatigue and pro-gressive shortness of breath on exertion (class III NYHA). The patient reported remained asymptomatic until age 55, when she was diagnosed with severe subaortic stenosis. Transthoracic echocardiography, at that time, showed left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy - intraventricular septum (IVS) 13 mm and LV posterior wall (PP) 13 mm, LV outflow tract gradient of 107/43 mmHg, mitral regurgitation grade I-II and 50% ejection fraction (EF). There is no any data available related with the morphology of aortic or mitral valve. The patient had several cardiovascular risk factors, such as 6- year history of moderate hypertension, dyslipidemia, 6-year history of diabetes mellitus type II treated with oral antidiabetic agents and family history of sudden cardiac arrest (father died of sudden cardiac arrest when he was 65 years). She followed the treatment as prescribed in 2005 with betablockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and had a ...
Thirty adult patients with aortic stenosis had Doppler echocardiography within 1 day of cardiac catheterization. Noninvasive measurement of the mean transaortic pressure gradient was calculated by applying the simplified Bernoulli equation to the continuous wave Doppler transaortic velocity recording. Stroke volume was measured noninvasively by multiplying the systolic velocity integral of flow in the left ventricular outflow tract (obtained by pulsed Doppler ultrasonography) by the cross-sectional area of the left ventricular outflow tract (measured by two-dimensional echocardiography). Non-invasive measurement of aortic valve area was calculated by two methods. In method 1, the Gorlin equation was applied using Doppler-derived mean pressure gradient, cardiac output and systolic ejection period. Method 2 used the continuity equation. These noninvasive measurements were compared with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accuracy of cardiac output estimation with biplane transesophageal echocardiography.. AU - Hozumi, T.. AU - Shakudo, M.. AU - Applegate, Richard Lee. AU - Shah, P. M.. PY - 1993/1. Y1 - 1993/1. N2 - To evaluate the accuracy of cardiac output measurements with biplane transesophageal Doppler echocardiography, we examined 26 sets of observations in 14 patients using thermodilution technique as the standard. A mitral inflow method by single-plane combined the time-velocity integral of mitral inflow at the mitral annulus with the area of mitral annulus, assuming it to be a circular shape, by use of either the four- or the two-chamber view. With both views, a mitral inflow method by biplane combined the average of time-velocity integral of mitral inflow from the four- and the two-chamber views with the area of mitral annulus, assuming it to be an ellipsoid shape. The correlation coefficients between thermodilution and single-plane method of ...
Background - Autograft regurgitation and root dilatation after the Ross procedure is of major concern. We reviewed data from the German Ross Registry to document the development of autograft regurgitation and root dilatation with time and also to compare 2 different techniques of autograft implantation. Methods and Results - Between 1990 and 2006 1014 patients (786 men, 228 women; mean age 41.2 +/- 15.3 years) underwent the Ross procedure using 2 different implantation techniques (subcoronary, n = 521; root replacement, n = 493). Clinical and serial echocardiographic follow up was performed preoperatively and thereafter annually (mean follow up 4.41 +/- 3.11 years, median 3.93 years, range 0 to 16.04 years; 5012 patient- years). For statistical analysis of serial echocardiograms, a hierarchical multilevel modeling technique was applied. Eight early and 28 late deaths were observed. Pulmonary autograft reoperations were required in 35 patients. Initial autograft regurgitation grade was 0.49 (root ...
Empirical implantation of the left ventricular lead is the prevailing practice in cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation. The response rate to the therapy has been uniformly 70% only despite various methods to screen patients before device implantation. This study tested the hypothesis that echocardiography to assess acute resynchronization of the left ventricle during device implantation may improve the response rate to the therapy ...
Written by expert pediatric cardiologists at the Mayo Clinic and other leading institutions, this book provides a comprehensive review of echocardiographic evaluation and diagnosis of congenital heart disease in pediatric and adult patients. Coverage includes advanced techniques such as tissue Doppler, three-dimensional echocardiography, intracardiac and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Chapters provide complete information on the full range of abnormalities and on evaluation of valve prostheses and the transplanted heart. More than 1,300 illustrations, including over 900 in full color, complement the text. Purchase includes online access to AVI clips developed at the Mayo Clinic of the congenital-specific lesions illustrated in the book.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may be defined as left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in the absence of an underlying cause such as systemic hypertension or valvular aortic stenosis.1 Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is caused by septal hypertrophy combined with abnormal systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve, and this, in turn, produces variable degrees of mitral valve regurgitation (MR). LVOTO in HCM is distinct in morphology and prognosis from congenital membranous subaortic stenosis, which is rarely associated with SAM. Some patients with HCM will have symptoms due to mid ventricular obstruction. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is important for surgeons because obstruction may occur in over 70 percent of patients with HCM,2 and transaortic septal ...
This manual introduces the extraordinary diagnostic possibilities of Transesophageal Color Doppler Echocardiography and therefore enables readers to recognize and diagnose a wide range of heart diseases.The atlas covers a comprehensive collection ofMoreThis manual introduces the extraordinary diagnostic possibilities of Transesophageal Color Doppler Echocardiography and therefore enables readers to recognize and diagnose a wide range of heart diseases.The atlas covers a comprehensive collection of cardiac pathology, selected from routine perioperative examinations.. A CD-ROM will also be available, offering more than 160 movies of examinations and covering all important heart diseases such as abnormalities of the valves. ...
We examined the effects of an 8 w circuit resistance training (RES) program using elastic bands and body weight on TCD4+ cell counts and anthropometry in HIV patients. Patients (N=21) receiving antiretroviral therapy were randomly assigned to resistance training (RES; n=14) or control group (CON; n=7) groups. RES (3/w) consisted of training with elastic bands and bodyweight training focusing on major muscle groups. CON received standard care. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, length of infection and respective baseline measures. The primary outcome was TDC4+ and secondary outcomes were anthropometry indices. Tertiary assessments explored Pearson correlations surrounding the relationship between changes in anthropometry and TDC4+. We observed significant increases in TCD4+ count accompanying RES training (105.50 cells/mm3, 95% CI, 47.42, 163.59), while CON significantly decreased (-41.01 cells/mm3, 95% CI, -126.78, 44.76). Significant ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
Advice on lifestyle changes (diet, red wine and physical activity) does not affect internal carotid and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis in a randomized controlled trial ...
diastolic dysfunction pulmonary hypertension, diastolic heart failure pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction causing pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction mild pulmonary hypertension, diastolic heart failure vs pulmonary hypertension, grade 1 diastolic dysfunction pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension
Cerebral microembolic signal (MES) is an independent predictor of stroke risk and prognosis. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of apixaban, as a representative of the novel oral anticoagulant class, on a rabbit model of cerebral MES. A clinical transcranial Doppler ultrasound instrument was used to assess MESs in the middle cerebral artery in a 30% FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombosis model in male New Zealand White rabbits. Ascending doses of apixaban were evaluated as monotherapy and in combination with aspirin on both arterial thrombosis and MES. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses were also evaluated. The effective dose for 50% inhibition (ED50) of thrombus formation for monotherapy was 0.04 mg/kg per hour apixaban, i.v. (0.03 μM plasma exposure) for the integrated blood flow, 0.13 mg/kg per hour apixaban (0.10 μM plasma exposure) for thrombus weight, and 0.03 mg/kg per hour apixaban (0.02 μM plasma exposure) for MES. Dual treatment with ...
BACKGROUND Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) has been demonstrated effective for relieving angina, although prior studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding postoperative myocardial perfusion and function. This study evaluated long-term changes in myocardial perfusion and contractile reserve after TMR in a model of hibernating myocardium. METHODS Miniswine had subtotal left circumflex coronary artery occlusion to reduce resting blood flow to 10% of baseline. After 2 weeks in the low-flow state, positron emission tomography and dobutamine stress echocardiography were performed to document ischemic, viable (hibernating) myocardium in the left circumflex distribution. Animals then had sham redo thoracotomy (n = 4) or TMR (n = 6). Six months later the positron emission tomography and dobutamine stress echocardiography studies were repeated. RESULTS Myocardial blood flow in the left circumflex distribution as measured by positron emission tomography was ...
Ethanol consumption is associated with left ventricular dysfunction in heavy ethanol drinkers. The effect of moderate ethanol intake on left ventricular function in hypertension, however, is unknown. We investigated the relationship between ethanol consumption and cardiac changes in nonalcoholic hypertensive patients. In 335 patients with primary hypertension, we assessed daily ethanol consumption by questionnaires that combined evaluation of recent and lifetime ethanol exposure and examined cardiac structure and function by echocardiography. Patients with abnormal liver tests, previous cardiovascular events, left ventricular ejection fraction ,50%, and creatinine clearance ,30 mL/min 1.72 m2 were excluded. Left ventricular hypertrophy was found in 21% of hypertensive patients and diastolic dysfunction was detected in 50% by tissue-Doppler imaging. Ethanol consumption was comparable in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy, whereas patients with ...
with the advent of real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3d tee), rapid creation of high-quality, true-to-life images of mitral valve anatomy and pathology has become possible in the vast majority of patients (1). In addition to common mitral valve lesions, such as degenerative mitral valve disease, 3D TEE is invaluable for characterizing less frequently encountered disorders, including endocarditis and its complications (2). Precise localization of leaflet perforations can be challenging on 2-dimensional images, particularly for non-experts. While the affected scallop can often be identified with the help of color Doppler, it may be difficult to pinpoint the site of perforation with respect to the leaflet tip. The addition of 3D TEE often provides clarity in this regard, helping to determine the feasibility of surgical repair. In this iPIX, we demonstrate the role of real-time 3D TEE in characterizing mitral leaflet perforations at various sites. ...
Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the link between neural activity and the corresponding changes to regional cerebral blood flow. Chronic hyperglycemia associated with diabetes has deleterious effects on vascular function. However, the potential effects of acute hyperglycemia on NVC in healthy humans is unknown. We aimed to characterize the effects of acute hyperglycemia on NVC response magnitude in females and males, and hypothesized that acute hyperglycemia would reduce NVC response magnitude. 40 healthy participants (21.6±1.7 yrs; BMI 24.1±4.1 kg/m2; 20 females) were instrumented with electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure heart rate (HR), Finometer to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) for measurement of posterior cerebral artery velocity (PCAv). Blood glucose was tested using a glucometer and capillary draw via sterile lancet. NVC responses were elicited using a standardized strobe light visual stimulus (VS; 6Hz, 360rpm; 5x30sec ...
We are reporting a case of a 5-year-old asymptomatic boy who had grade 3 ejection systolic murmur in pulmonary area on cardiac examination. 2D echocardiography showed dilated right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) suggesting increased pulmonary to systemic flow. Suprasternal echocardiographic view raised doubt of vertical vein. There was no visible atrial septic defect (ASD) or significant pulmonary arterial hypertension. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) was suspected without an associated ASD. This pulmonary venous anomaly is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose. Clinically, PAPVC is often asymptomatic and tends to go unnoticed until adulthood, and usually diagnosed during investigation of another illness.1 Left untreated, long-standing PAPVC predisposes the patient to right-sided volume overload, tricuspid regurgitation, arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, irreversible pulmonary vascular disease, right ventricular dysfunction/ failure. The development of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of ventricular dyssynchrony on postexercise accommodation of systolic myocardial motion in hypertensive patients with heart failure and a normal ejection fraction. T2 - A tissue-Doppler echocardiography study. AU - Wang, Yi Chih. AU - Yu, Chih Chieh. AU - Chiu, Fu Chun. AU - Klepfer, Ruth. AU - Hilpisch, Kathryn. AU - Splett, Vincent. AU - Tsai, Chia Ti. AU - Lai, Ling Ping. AU - Hwang, Juey Jen. AU - Lin, Jiunn Lee. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Background: We hypothesized left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony would affect postexercise accommodation of regional myocardial motion in patients with heart failure and a normal ejection fraction (HFNEF). Methods and Results: Tissue-Doppler echocardiography was studied in 100 hypertensive patients with LV ejection fraction ,50%. Among them, 70 HFNEF patients were classified into the systolic dyssynchrony (Dys: ,65 ms difference of electromechanical delay between septal and ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in cerebral hemodynamics in young patients with uncomplicated hypertension before and after effective antihypertensive treatment with a beta-blocker drug. Changes in mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery from normal condition to hypercapnia were evaluated by means of a transcranial Doppler in 42 hypertensive patients and 21 healthy subjects comparable for age and sex distribution. We obtained hypercapnia with breath-holding and evaluated cerebrovascular reactivity with the breath-holding index (BHI). After a baseline evaluation (time 0), patients were randomly assigned to a placebo (group 1) or atenolol (group 2) therapy. The evaluation was repeated after 30 (time 1) and 60 (time 2) days of treatment. Before treatment, hypertensive patients had significantly lower BHI values (0.96 +/- 0.1 group 1 and 0.85 +/- 0.3 group 2) than controls (1.69 +/- 0.4) (P , 0.0001). During treatment, mean blood pressure significantly ...
China Med-Du-S8exp Portable Echocardiography Color Doppler Ultrasound Machine, Find details about China High Class 4D Color Doppler, Ultrasound from Med-Du-S8exp Portable Echocardiography Color Doppler Ultrasound Machine - Guangzhou Med Equipment Co., Ltd.
There were 24,701 patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Critical illnesses were present in 28% (n = 6,892) of patients, including acute renal failure (10.5%), sepsis (7.1%), and stroke (2.7%). In-hospital mortality was 4.2% (n = 1,027). Mortality was higher in men (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-2.8) with a trend toward higher mortality in patients ≥65 years of age (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.96-1.5). Underlying concomitant critical illnesses (e.g., renal failure, stroke, sepsis) were present in 81% of patients who died with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Patients with concomitant critical illnesses had a mortality of 12.1% compared with 1.1% for those without a concomitant critical illness. Complications developed in 35% of patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy including cardiogenic shock (4.7%), acute heart failure (41%), cardiac arrest (2.8%), and respiratory failure (6.7%). Men with takotsubo cardiomyopathy were more likely to suffer cardiogenic shock (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, ...
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) capacity along with the degree of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and characteristics of the plaque can also play an important role in selection of appropriate treatment strategy. This study aims to classify the patients with severe ICA stenosis according to preoperative state of DCA and to assess its dynamics after surgery. Thirty-five patients with severe ICA stenosis having different clinical type of disease underwent reconstructive surgery. DCA was assessed with transfer function analysis (TFA) by calculating phase shift (PS) between Mayer waves of blood flow velocity (BFV) and blood pressure (BP) before and after operation ...
Introductions: Wide QRS complex with left bundle branch block morphology is one of the three criteria for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in heart failure (HF) patients who do not improve on medical management. Approximately 30% of patients do not respond to CRT. This study investigates to find out to what extent the wide QRS duration correlates with the intraventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (IVMD) as measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) echocardiography.. Methods: The HF patients of dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction £35% admitted in the medical ward of Patan Hospital, Nepal from March to August 2017 were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups, narrow QRS duration of ,120ms (Gr1) and wide QRS duration of ³120ms (Gr2). TDI was performed to measure time to peak systolic velocity of the left ventricular walls. The IVMD, defined as 60 ms (millisecond) or greater difference in time to peak velocity between any two points of ...
Previous studies have shown differences in hemodynamic status between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.22,23 Silvestrini et al23 described a significant improvement of cerebral hemodynamics in symptomatic patients after CEA by measuring cerebrovascular reactivity. Furthermore, this article reports significant differences in the cerebral hemodynamic perfusion pattern after CEA between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.23 Soinne et al8 investigated patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic stenosis by means of dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging and transcranial Doppler sonography. They found a significant difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients both before as well in response to CEA. However, it is not yet clear if cerebral perfusion re-establishes equally in surgical patients and those with CAS.. To our knowledge, our study is the first comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with a carotid artery stenosis by using CTP. Our results ...
While diastolic heart failure refers to the clinical syndrome of heart failure in the setting of a normal ejection fraction. Diagnosis, prognosis. Diastolic dysfunction. Quence of diastolic dysfunction. Heart diastolic dysfunction diastolic heart failure, a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is defined as symptoms of heart failure in a patient with preserved left ventricular function. Recommendations for the Evaluation of Left Ventricular. Patients with diastolic heart failure, as well as those with diastolic dysfunction and little or no congestion, exhibit exercise intolerance for two principal reasons. New concepts in diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure. Diastolic Function by Echocardiography. ...
Authors: Kashif FM, Verghese GC, Novak V, Czosnyka M, Heldt T.. Intracranial pressure (ICP) is affected in many neurological conditions. Clinical measurement of pressure on the brain currently requires placing a probe in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment, the brain tissue, or other intracranial space. This invasiveness limits the measurement to critically ill patients. Because ICP is also clinically important in conditions ranging from brain tumors and hydrocephalus to concussions, noninvasive determination of ICP would be desirable. Our model-based approach to continuous estimation and tracking of ICP uses routinely obtainable time-synchronized, noninvasive (or minimally invasive) measurements of peripheral arterial blood pressure and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), both at intra-heartbeat resolution. A physiological model of cerebrovascular dynamics provides mathematical constraints that relate the measured waveforms to ICP. Our ...
Under the guidance of faculty during the inpatient stroke rotation, fellows supervise a team of neurology residents, nurses, a pharmacist and rehabilitation specialists. Care is provided to patients admitted to the stroke service with TIA, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.. The neuroimaging rotation familiarizes fellows with diagnostic angiography and advanced imaging of stroke. Fellows are exposed to interventional procedures, such as clot retrieval, intra-arterial thrombolysis, intracranial and extracranial arterial stenting. Fellows have the opportunity to assist neurointerventional faculty with some procedures.. During the neurosonology rotation, fellows are trained to conduct and interpret transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Fellows are also trained to recognize normal and abnormal carotid ultrasounds.. During consult months, fellows provide consultative services to stroke patients throughout our hospital. This includes consults to our emergency ...
BACKGROUND: The phenotypic heterogeneity of sickle cell disease is likely the result of multiple genetic factors and their interaction with the sickle mutation. High transcranial doppler (TCD) velocities define a subgroup of children with sickle cell disease who are at increased risk for developing ischemic stroke. The genetic factors leading to the development of a high TCD velocity (i.e. cerebrovascular disease) and ultimately to stroke are not well characterized.

The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, 4th Edition - Gale - 978-1410363206
	The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, 4th Edition - Gale - 978-1410363206

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation unit.. Transesophageal echocardiography. ... Brain.. Brain tumor.. Breast biopsy.. Breast cancer.. Breast ultrasound.. Breastfeeding.. Breathing, regulation of.. Breech ... Doppler ultrasonography.. Down syndrome.. Drug dosages.. Drug interactions.. Drug testing.. Drug tests.. Dynamic spatial ... Traumatic brain injuries.. Travel health.. Tree nut allergy.. Triglycerides.. Triple marker screen test.. Tube feedings. ...
more infohttps://www.cengage.com/search/productOverview.do?N=197+4294917619+4294892091&Ntk=P_EPI&Ntt=137915243091627258019532233711986860275&Ntx=mode%2Bmatchallpartial

Arterial embolism - WikipediaArterial embolism - Wikipedia

... especially duplex ultrasonography. It may also involve transcranial doppler exam of arteries to the brain Echocardiography, ... Some may occur in the brain, causing a stroke, or in the heart, causing a heart attack. Less common sites include the kidneys, ... In the heart it can cause myocardial infarction In the brain, it can cause a transient ischemic attack (TIA), and, in prolonged ... Mitral stenosis poses a high risk of forming emboli which may travel to the brain and cause stroke. Endocarditis increases the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arterial_embolism

The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 6th Edition - Gale - 978-0028666570
	The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 6th Edition - Gale - 978-0028666570

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.. Transesophageal echocardiography.. Transfusion.. Transhepatic biliary catheterization. ... Brain abscess.. Brain biopsy.. Brain tumor.. Breast biopsy.. Breast cancer.. Breast implants.. Breast reconstruction.. Breast ... Doppler ultrasonography.. Down syndrome.. Drowning.. Drug metabolism/interactions.. Drug overdose.. Drug therapy monitoring. ... Echocardiography.. E-cigarettes and vaping.. Ecstasy.. Ectopic pregnancy.. Eczema.. Edema.. Edwards syndrome.. Ehlers-Danlos ...
more infohttps://www.cengage.com/search/productOverview.do?N=197+4294892091&Ntk=P_EPI&Ntt=296341566108879758820180919204522688&Ntx=mode%2Bmatchallpartial&showMoreIds=6

Feeling Numbness? It Could be A Stroke- Beware! | Max HospitalFeeling Numbness? It Could be A Stroke- Beware! | Max Hospital

... carotid duplex ultrasonography), and TCD (transcranial Doppler ultrasonography) to look for presence of major blockage in the ... TIA occurs when an artery in the brain gets clogged, and reopens on its own without causing any permanent damage to the brain. ... Role of CT/MR imaging and echocardiography in evaluation of valsalva sinus aneurysm Dr. Reena Anand, Dr. Raj Kumar, Dr. Divya ... TIA does not cause any permanent damage to the brain. However, it indicates that you may be at a higher risk of forming blood ...
more infohttps://www.maxhealthcare.in/blogs/neurosciences-neurology/feeling-numbness-it-could-be-stroke-beware

Diagnostics - Natural Hospital MichelriethDiagnostics - Natural Hospital Michelrieth

Transcranial Doppler sonography (ultrasound examination of the brain vessels). Transcranial Doppler sonography with contrast ... Doppler and echocardiography. Doppler sonography of internal organs (as supplement to ultrasonography) ... Transthoracic echocardiography Doppler (TTE Doppler) - determination of coronary flow reserve using adenosine (Doppler ... echocardiography, Doppler sonography of the neck, leg and head vessels, lung function test, if necessary also under load, vital ...
more infohttps://www.naturklinik.com/holistic-diagnostics/

Cardiovascular Risk Factors Promote Brain Hypoperfusion Leading to Cognitive Decline and DementiaCardiovascular Risk Factors Promote Brain Hypoperfusion Leading to Cognitive Decline and Dementia

... transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and Alzheimers disease," Neurological Research, vol. 28, no. 6, supplement, pp. 672-678, ... H. Feigenbaum, W. F. Armstrong, and T. Ryan, Feigenbaums Echocardiography, Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA ... R. S. Marshall, R. M. Lazar, J. Pile-Spellman et al., "Recovery of brain function during induced cerebral hypoperfusion," Brain ... A relentless and progressive brain hypoperfusion can then spread to other parts of the brain where more ischemic-resistant ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpn/2012/367516/

Abstract WMP63:  Neuroimaging Findings and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation on Follow-up in Patients With Embolic Stroke of...Abstract WMP63: Neuroimaging Findings and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation on Follow-up in Patients With Embolic Stroke of...

... and extracranial vessels was evaluated with MR or CT angiography or cervical duplex plus transcranial doppler ultrasonography. ... We aim to identify patterns of brain lesions suggestive of embolic events and to evaluate the incidence of AF during 4-years of ... Cardioembolic stroke was ruled out with 12-lead ECG, 48-hour cardiac monitoring and transesophageal echocardiography. Large ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/stro/201801001/00007670-201801001-00305

Recurrent Stroke after Transcatheter PFO Closure in Cryptogenic Stroke or Tia: Long-Term Follow-UpRecurrent Stroke after Transcatheter PFO Closure in Cryptogenic Stroke or Tia: Long-Term Follow-Up

From 2003 onwards, all patients (307) underwent transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography to quantify right-to-left shunt ... The examinations carried out were brain CT and MRI, ultrasonography of cervical arteries plus TCD ultrasonography of ... Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 910-958, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ... M. P. Spencer, M. A. Moehring, J. Jesurum, W. A. Gray, J. V. Olsen, and M. Reisman, "Power m-mode transcranial Doppler for ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crp/2017/9849425/

Ferris Best Test, 4th Edition - 9780323511407Ferri's Best Test, 4th Edition - 9780323511407

Transcranial Doppler 11. Venography 12. Compression Ultrasonography and Venous Doppler Ultrasound 13. Ventilation/Perfusion (V/ ... Nuclear Imaging (Bone Scan, Gallium Scan, White Blood Cell [WBC] Scan) H. Neuroimaging Of Brain 1. CT Scan of Brain 2. MRI Scan ... Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) 7. Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) D. Chest Imaging 1. Chest Radiograph 2. CT Scan of ... Carotid Ultrasonography 6. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) 7. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) 8. Magnetic Resonance ...
more infohttps://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/product/9780323511407?role=student

Ferris Best Test Elsevier eBook on VitalSource, 4th Edition - 9780323527545Ferri's Best Test Elsevier eBook on VitalSource, 4th Edition - 9780323527545

Transcranial Doppler 11. Venography 12. Compression Ultrasonography and Venous Doppler Ultrasound 13. Ventilation/Perfusion (V/ ... Nuclear Imaging (Bone Scan, Gallium Scan, White Blood Cell [WBC] Scan) H. Neuroimaging Of Brain 1. CT Scan of Brain 2. MRI Scan ... Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) 7. Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) D. Chest Imaging 1. Chest Radiograph 2. CT Scan of ... Carotid Ultrasonography 6. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) 7. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) 8. Magnetic Resonance ...
more infohttps://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/product/9780323527545?role=student

Patente US8025674 - Cannula with associated filter and methods of use during cardiac surgery - Google PatentesPatente US8025674 - Cannula with associated filter and methods of use during cardiac surgery - Google Patentes

Barbut et al., "Comparison of Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography and Transasophageal Echocardiography to monitor Emboli ... The larger the bubble, the more likely it is to block blood flow to a larger area of the brain. Smaller bubbles may block ... Additionally, visualization techniques including transcranial doppler ultrasonography, transesophageal echocardiography, ... See, for example, Barbut et al., "Comparison of Transcranial Doppler and Transesophageal Echocardiography to Monitor Emboli ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US8025674?dq=flatulence

Sickle cell anemia - Psychiatry AdvisorSickle cell anemia - Psychiatry Advisor

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is used in children and adolescents to identify those at higher risk for stroke. MRI is ... Brain natriuretic peptide. 2. What imaging studies (if any) should be ordered to help establish the diagnosis? How should the ... Transthoracic echocardiography, 6-minute walk, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be helpful in evaluating patients with ... programs are in place for primary stroke prevention in patients identified as high-risk for stroke by transcranial Doppler ...
more infohttps://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/home/decision-support-in-medicine/hospital-medicine/sickle-cell-anemia-2/

Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Workup: Approach Considerations, Laboratory Studies, CT ScanningPosterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Workup: Approach Considerations, Laboratory Studies, CT Scanning

... mechanisms requires knowledge of neurovascular anatomy and of the structure-function relationships of this region of the brain. ... Increasingly, noninvasive methods of viewing the arterial anatomy (CTA, MRA, transcranial Doppler [TCD] ultrasonography) are ... Echocardiography and Electrocardiography. Echocardiography. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is used routinely to ... Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrating acute stroke. Diffusion restriction is seen on diffusion-weighted ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2128100-workup

Focused assessment with sonography in trauma: a review of concepts and considerations for anesthesiology | SpringerLinkFocused assessment with sonography in trauma: a review of concepts and considerations for anesthesiology | SpringerLink

Transcranial Doppler to detect on admission patients at risk for neurological deterioration following mild and moderate brain ... 23 Early work applying transcranial Doppler and transesophageal echocardiography in the trauma bay has also been described and ... Point-of-care ultrasonography in Canadian anesthesiology residency programs: a national survey of program directors. Can J ... Application of transcranial color-coded sonography in severe brain injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013; 118: 265-7.PubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12630-017-1030-x

Sickle cell anemiaSickle cell anemia

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is used in children and adolescents to identify those at higher risk for stroke. MRI is ... Transthoracic echocardiography, 6-minute walk, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be helpful in evaluating patients with ... Brain natriuretic peptide. 2. What imaging studies (if any) should be ordered to help establish the diagnosis? How should the ... programs are in place for primary stroke prevention in patients identified as high-risk for stroke by transcranial Doppler ...
more infohttps://www.clinicalpainadvisor.com/hospital-medicine/sickle-cell-anemia/article/601812/

Lead Poisoning Imaging: Practice Essentials, Radiography, Computed TomographyLead Poisoning Imaging: Practice Essentials, Radiography, Computed Tomography

Ultrasonography. Ultrasonography is not routinely used in the diagnosis of lead intoxication, though transcranial sonography ... These excess neurologic units are "sculpted" away during early brain development before the mature brain finally develops. This ... Pulsed Doppler imaging showed that time-related parameters were comparable in all groups but that blood flow velocity through ... The pellet was localized by means of 2-dimensional echocardiography of the left ventricular apical wall. Because the patient ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/410113-overview

Dabigatran Etexilate for Secondary Stroke Prevention in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (RE-SPECT ESUS) -...Dabigatran Etexilate for Secondary Stroke Prevention in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (RE-SPECT ESUS) -...

Arterial imaging or cervical plus Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography does not show extra-cranial or intracranial ... Ischemic stroke with a brain lesion visualized by neuroimaging (either brain Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance ... intracardiac thrombus as evidenced by transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, b) paroxysmal, persistent or permanent ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02239120

Diagnostic Procedures | Body DiseasesDiagnostic Procedures | Body Diseases

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is a test to measure the velocity of blood flow through blood vessels in the brain. ... Doppler ultrasonography: Noninvasive test evaluating blood flow in the major veins and arteries of arms, legs, and extracranial ... echocardiography: Noninvasive diagnostic test using ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures. A special transducer ... ultrasonography: Use of ultrasound to produce an image or photograph of an organ or tissue. Ultrasound echoes are recorded as ...
more infohttp://body-disease.com/diagnostic-procedures/

Critical Ultrasound JournalCritical Ultrasound Journal

Application of robotic transcranial Doppler for extended duration recording in moderate/severe traumatic brain injury: first ... Combined lung and brain ultrasonography for an individualized "brain-protective ventilation strategy" in neurocritical care ... Basic critical care echocardiography training of intensivists allows reproducible and reliable measurements of cardiac output. ... Is it best to reFOCUS on basic echocardiography in the emergency department?. (Source: Critical Ultrasound Journal). Source: ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/journal/critical-ultrasound-journal/

Opportunities to Improve Outcomes in Sickle Cell Disease - American Family PhysicianOpportunities to Improve Outcomes in Sickle Cell Disease - American Family Physician

A significant advance in stroke prevention is the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to identify asymptomatic, at-risk ... Screening with specialized transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is recommended for asymptomatic children with sickle cell ... Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography with attention to the tricuspid regurgitant jet can identify a subset of patients at ... Cognitive functioning and brain magnetic resonance imaging in children with sickle cell disease. Neuropsychology Committee of ...
more infohttp://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p303.html

Ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis in acute arterial ischemia.Ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis in acute arterial ischemia.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: K23 NS-02229-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS ... Brain Ischemia / drug therapy*. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Equipment Safety. Fibrinolytic Agents / ... 7160414 - Comparison of impedance cardiography and echocardiography for measurement of stroke vol.... 18511094 - Ultrasound ... transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring augments tPA-induced arterial recanalization (sustained complete recanalization rates: 38 ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Ultrasound-enhanced-thrombolysis-in-acute/18511094.html

Outcome of Carotid Artery Occlusion Is Predicted by Cerebrovascular Reactivity | StrokeOutcome of Carotid Artery Occlusion Is Predicted by Cerebrovascular Reactivity | Stroke

ultrasonography, Doppler, transcranial. The outcome of internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is highly variable. Klijn et al1 ... transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, and brain CT scan or MRI. Moreover, complete blood chemistries and a ... Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive and nonradioactive technique for evaluation of the blood flow ... Methods-Cerebral hemodynamics were studied with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Cerebrovascular reactivity to apnea was ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/30/3/593

Encyclopedia of Intensive Care Medicine - Springer Science+Business Media - Literati by CredoEncyclopedia of Intensive Care Medicine - Springer Science+Business Media - Literati by Credo

Upper and Lower Extremity Doppler. *Upper and Lower Extremity Duplex Ultrasonography. *Upper Tract Infection ... Traumatic Brain Injury, Initial Management. *Traumatic Brain Injury-Fluid Management. *Traumatic Lateral Scapular Displacement ... Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. *Transcutaneous CO2 Analysis. *Trans-esophageal Doppler. *Transfer Agreement. *Transfer Area ... Transthoracic Echocardiography. *Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). *Trauma Care Systems. *Trauma Center ...
more infohttps://corp.credoreference.com/component/booktracker/edition/8192.html

Medical ultrasound - WikipediaMedical ultrasound - Wikipedia

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transcranial color Doppler (TCCD), which measure the velocity of blood flow through the brains ... images to display duplex ultrasonography images. Uses include: Doppler echocardiography, the use of Doppler ultrasonography to ... The Doppler fetal monitor is commonly referred to simply as a Doppler or fetal Doppler. Doppler fetal monitors provide ... Doppler ultrasonography is employs the Doppler effect to assess whether structures (usually blood) are moving towards or away ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_ultrasound

PubMed Journals Articles About Patient Outcomes And Gingival Blood Flow Using Laser Doppler Flowmetry Following The Use Of...PubMed Journals Articles About 'Patient Outcomes And Gingival Blood Flow Using Laser Doppler Flowmetry Following The Use Of...

Patient Outcomes And Gingival Blood Flow Using Laser Doppler Flowmetry Following The Use Of Episil On Free Gingival Graft Donor ... power Doppler ultrasonography was used on a total of 52 mares on days 7 or 8 post-ovulation. Computer analysis of Doppler ... Aaslid gave insight to the dynamic autoregulation by transcranial Doppler ((TCD); 1982) while Dr. Jöbsis described cerebral ... High frame rate color Doppler echocardiography: a quantitative comparison of different approaches. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pubmed/?keyword=Patient+Outcomes+and+Gingival+Blood+Flow+Using+Laser+Doppler+Flowmetry+Following+the+Use+of+Episil+on+Free+Gingival+Graft+Donor+Sites&orderfield=score&orderval=desc
  • We aim to identify patterns of brain lesions suggestive of embolic events and to evaluate the incidence of AF during 4-years of follow-up. (ovid.com)
  • Evidence also suggests that a neuronal energy crisis brought on by relentless brain hypoperfusion may be responsible for protein synthesis abnormalities that later result in the classic neurodegenerative lesions involving the formation of amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. (hindawi.com)
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  • In the present study, we set out to investigate retinal blood flow in response to an experimental decrease in OPP in healthy participants using Doppler optical coherence tomography. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this study, we exploit minimization approaches of continuous Doppler measurements to survey blood flow rate. (bioportfolio.com)
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  • Changes in Retinal Blood Flow in Response to an Experimental Increase in IOP in Healthy Participants as Assessed With Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The ancient Greeks and Aristotle in particular believed that the function of the brain was to "cool" the blood while the heart was the source of memory. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been known since the Ebers papyrus [ 1 ] in 1552 BC, and probably even before then, that the brain and heart are intimately connected. (hindawi.com)