Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.PrimatesBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn: Brain disorders resulting from inborn metabolic errors, primarily from enzymatic defects which lead to substrate accumulation, product reduction, or increase in toxic metabolites through alternate pathways. The majority of these conditions are familial, however spontaneous mutation may also occur in utero.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mucopolysaccharidosis I: Systemic lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDURONIDASE) and characterized by progressive physical deterioration with urinary excretion of DERMATAN SULFATE and HEPARAN SULFATE. There are three recognized phenotypes representing a spectrum of clinical severity from severe to mild: Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome and Scheie syndrome (formerly mucopolysaccharidosis V). Symptoms may include DWARFISM; hepatosplenomegaly; thick, coarse facial features with low nasal bridge; corneal clouding; cardiac complications; and noisy breathing.Leukoencephalopathies: Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mice, Inbred C57BLMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Lentiviruses, Primate: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.Strepsirhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.United StatesPropylaminesEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Intergenerational Relations: The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.Menopause, Premature: The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.IowaSchools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.
  • Institute of Neuroscience, CAS Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. (nih.gov)
  • Neurogenesis in the adult brain has emerged as one of the most dynamic and rapidly moving fields in modern neuroscience research. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • 2020) Opportunities and limitations of genetically modified nonhuman primate models for neuroscience research . (broadinstitute.org)
  • This new breakthrough brings great anticipation for further human study of caloric restriction, for AD investigators and for those physicians who treat millions of people suffering with this disease" says Giulio Maria Pasinetti, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Director of the Neuroinflammation Research Center at Mount Sinai School of Medicine and lead author of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • Desimone says he's hoping that some success in monkeys will interest drug companies in neuroscience-alluding to a recent trend of large drug companies abandoning research on brain diseases because the work often proved unsuccessful. (technologyreview.com)
  • This 1-day public workshop will bring together experts and key stakeholders from academia, government, industry, and nonprofit organizations to examine the scientific opportunities and challenges, as well as bioethical considerations, of genetically engineered nonhuman primate models for neuroscience research. (nap.edu)
  • In China, there are 40 breeding companies which together have 250,000 cynomolgus monkeys and 40,000 rhesus macaques that could be used for scientific research, says Mu-Ming Poo of the Chinese Academy of Sciences's Institute of Neuroscience, and leader of a government-funded plan for a 15-year national brain project also involving genetically modified monkeys. (newscientist.com)
  • It's getting more and more difficult for neuroscience labs in the West to do research on non-human primates," says Terrence Sejnowski of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, and co-organiser of the State of the Brain meeting. (newscientist.com)
  • In the upcoming five-week course for adults Sackler Brain Bench - Neuroscience of Sports: Your Brain in Action , which starts Monday, September 16, experts including Columbia University Medical Center neurosurgeon and neuroscientist Sameer Sheth will explain more about the neuroscience of athletics. (amnh.org)
  • What will you be discussing in your lecture at the Sackler Brain Bench - Neuroscience of Sports: Your Brain in Action course on Monday, September 30? (amnh.org)
  • Don't miss Dr. Sheth and other experts explain the intricate details of the workings of the brain in this fall's Sackler Brain Bench - Neuroscience of Sports: Your Brain in Action course . (amnh.org)
  • Importantly, the brains of large animals can be studied using sensitive measures that should be highly translatable to the human condition, including MRI and PET imaging, EEG, and electrophysiology, as well as behavioral tests looking at motor and cognitive function," says Professor Jenny Morton, PhD, of the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Thus, marked apoptotic NCD occurs in the primate midbrain dopamine system half-way through gestation, and appears to be associated with the rapid developmental increase in striatal dopamine innervation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The role of dopamine as a neurotransmitter in the brain reward circuitry is highlighted in this chapter, because it relates to the four classes of drugs discussed in this report-nicotine, alcohol, stimulants, and opioids. (nap.edu)
  • Scientists established that the malady arises from insufficient quantities of the neurotransmitter dopamine in an area of the brain that controls movement, the basal ganglia. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • When this gene is faulty, a protein called alpha-synuclein builds up in the brain, disrupting and then killing the brain cells that make dopamine, a signalling chemical vital for movement. (newscientist.com)
  • In the brain , this phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter , activating the five types of dopamine receptors - D 1 , D 2 , D 3 , D 4 , and D 5 -and their variants. (wikidoc.org)
  • Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area . (wikidoc.org)
  • However, because dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier , dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system . (wikidoc.org)
  • To increase the amount of dopamine in the brains of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's disease and dopa-responsive dystonia , L-DOPA , which is the precursor of dopamine, can be given because it can cross the blood-brain barrier . (wikidoc.org)
  • In most areas of the brain, including the striatum and basal ganglia , dopamine is inactivated by reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT1), then enzymatic breakdown by monoamine oxidase ( MAOA and MAOB ) into 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid . (wikidoc.org)
  • Here is an example of ongoing work on stem cell transplants for the treatment of Parkinson's disease , in which the proximate cause of the condition is an accelerated age-related loss of a small but vital population of dopamine-generating neurons in the brain. (fightaging.org)
  • A gene therapy approach aimed at restoring dopamine synthesis in the brain has proven efficacious in a nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Consider bioethical principles and issues related to genetic engineering of animal models for nervous system disorders, and discuss potential metrics for determining the models' readiness for nonhuman primate research. (nap.edu)
  • Scientist Qiang Sun, director of the Nonhuman Primate Research Facility, says "there was much failure before we found a way to successfully clone a monkey" by removing the nucleus from an egg cell and replacing it with that of donor cells from an aborted fetus. (viralnova.com)
  • Our main focus is on the creation of new primate disease models for understanding the pathological mechanisms of brain disorders and for developing new approaches to effective treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The database they have generated is not just an incredibly useful research tool but also a harbinger of the sort of data sets we will soon be able to develop and use to probe brain disorders. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The translational disconnect from preclinical studies with predominantly rodent animal models to human clinical trials remains a key challenge associated with lagging development of therapies for brain disorders. (nap.edu)
  • Human amyloidosis, Alzheimer disease and related disorders. (springer.com)
  • The company has built a unique capability to enable a safe and effective delivery of gene therapies to the CNS to treat lysosomal diseases and other genetic disorders of the CNS. (pharmiweb.com)
  • T he gestational environment can impact fetal brain structure and function and increase long-term susceptibility to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders (see Figure 1). (dana.org)
  • Sun says "This will generate real models not just for genetically based brain diseases, but also cancer, immune, or metabolic disorders and allow us to test the efficacy of the drugs for these conditions before clinical use. (viralnova.com)
  • Primate embryonic stem cells studied extensively for the first time, advancing efforts to better understand reproduction and genetic disorders. (wisc.edu)
  • Naturally regenerative mechanism discovered in the mature primate brain, spurring new research toward curing Alzheimer's, other degenerative brain disorders. (wisc.edu)
  • 2012). Mechanisms of these indirect effects of alcohol on the brain are likely mediated via soluble factors, such as ceramides (e.g., de la Monte et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • There has been a considerable amount of effort over the past decade to understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for the degenerative process in the hope that it will eventually be possible to interfere with this process to effect a slowing or reversal of the disease. (bmj.com)
  • That might lead to new treatments for dementia, Boldrini said -- if research can uncover some of the molecular mechanisms that support neuron production and survival in older brains. (medicinenet.com)
  • LTP is widely believed to be one of the main neural mechanisms by which memory is stored in the brain. (google.com)
  • Robert Sapolsky is a neuroendocrinologist who examines the mechanisms by which stress can damage the brain. (macfound.org)
  • He is the author of Stress, the Aging Brain, and the Mechanisms of Neuron Death (1992), Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: A Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases, and Coping (3rd ed., 2004), and The Trouble with Testosterone: And Other Essays on the Biology of the Human Predicament (1997). (macfound.org)
  • The Montine Laboratory addresses these prevalent, unmet medical needs through a combination of neuropathology, biomarker development and application early in the course of disease, and experimental studies that test hypotheses concerning specific mechanisms of neuron injury and approaches to neuroprotection. (stanford.edu)
  • The human brain-especially the pre-frontal region-has developed special mechanisms that allow it to efficiently make rapid decisions by controlling the way it receives and processes cues from the environment. (amnh.org)
  • Although clinical evidence from patients with lesions and research on non-human primates have enriched the anatomy of visuospatial pathways, the detailed neural circuits are still under investigation. (springer.com)
  • In essence, the scientists from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center used an electronic prosthetic system to tap into existing circuitry in the brain at the cellular level and record the firing patterns of multiple neurons in the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain involved in decision-making. (medindia.net)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • In fetal monkey brains, apoptosis in midbrain DA neurons was identified histologically by chromatin clumping in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells, and confirmed by TUNEL and active caspase-3 staining. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, we examined histologically a series of normal fetal and neonatal monkey brains for signs of apoptosis in midbrain DA neurons, and compared frequency of apoptosis with maturation of the nigrostriatal DA system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By reverse transcription PCR, tissues from 32 (62%) case-patients (brains from 8 infants with microcephaly and placental/fetal tissues from 24 women) were positive for Zika virus. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings demonstrate that Zika virus replicates and persists in fetal brains and placentas, providing direct evidence of its association with microcephaly. (cdc.gov)
  • Several studies that used mouse models have revealed that Zika virus infection of mice during early pregnancy results in infection of placenta and fetal brain, causing intrauterine growth restrictions, spontaneous abortions, and fetal demise ( 14 - 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • During gestation, the fetal brain develops dramatically as structures and connections form, providing the foundation for all future development. (dana.org)
  • For several reasons, environmental influences during fetal development are especially potent in the brain. (dana.org)
  • Second, brain development involves a cascade of interactions with the environment, so that even small deviations from the normal developmental trajectory during fetal life can become progressively magnified over time, producing long-lasting or permanent consequences. (dana.org)
  • And third, the immature fetal blood-brain barrier offers limited protection against neurological insults. (dana.org)
  • 9 Between the 8th and 16th weeks of gestation, migrating neurons form the subplate zone, an area of the fetal brain that disappears after about 34 weeks, and await connections. (dana.org)
  • 10 Once neurons reach their final destination at about the 16th fetal week, they branch out to establish connections among brain regions before migrating to their target locations. (dana.org)
  • Dr Mitra initiated the idea of brain-wide mesoscale circuit mapping, and his laboratory is involved in carrying out such mapping in the Mouse ( http://mouse.brainarchitecture.org ) and the Marmoset (in collaboration with Japanese and Australian scientists at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute and Monash University). (cshl.edu)
  • The ability to comprehensively map the architecture of connections between neurons in primate brains has long proven elusive for scientists. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists have long debated whether primates have always had big brains compared to body size, or if this was a trait that appeared later. (phys.org)
  • Thanks to the new virtual endocasts, scientists were able to take a closer look at anatomical features which revealed that, while adapiforms placed relatively less emphasis on smell more similar to modern primate brains, the relative brain size was not so different from that of plesiadapiforms, said study co-author Jonathan Bloch, curator of vertebrate paleontology at the Florida Museum. (phys.org)
  • Scientists have hypothesized that vision may have helped early primates forage in complex arboreal forest systems. (phys.org)
  • Working with the J Craig Venter Institute and the Institute of Systems Biology Scientists, they looked at the effect of infections of primary neuronal stem cells from the human brain in tissue culture, focusing on gene expression and proteins perturbed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Columbia scientists have identified a gene that allows neurons that release serotonin - a neurotransmitter that regulates mood and emotions - to evenly spread their branches throughout the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists are exploring the origins of chronic wasting disease before it becomes truly catastrophic. (hcn.org)
  • Scientists have called this neurodegenerative disease, which attacks deer, elk and moose, a " nightmare " and a " state of emergency. (hcn.org)
  • Scientists learn more about how inhibitory brain cells g. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Scientists are far from being able to grow a brain in a bottle. (stanford.edu)
  • From the 1940s through the 1960s, surgeons battled the ailment by destroying regions of the brain, chosen more by trial and error than by a clear understanding of neural misbehavior. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • They then "played" that recording back to the same brain area to electrically stimulate decision-based neural activity. (medindia.net)
  • Neural transplantation is effective in animal models of HD and offers a potential strategy for brain repair in patients. (bmj.com)
  • H) a non-human life form engineered such that it contains a human brain or a brain derived wholly or predominantly from human neural tissues. (reason.com)
  • 2 Brain Repair and Imaging in Neural Systems (B.R.A.I.N.S), Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. (sciencemag.org)
  • The study reports high-grade gliomas form synapses which hijack electrical signals from healthy neurons in the brain, promoting tumor growth. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • At the heart of our current understanding of addiction is the idea that in vulnerable individuals, the disease of addiction is produced by the interaction of the drugs themselves with genetic, environmental, psychosocial, behavioral, and other factors, which causes long-lived alterations in the biochemical and functional properties of selected groups of neurons in the brain. (nap.edu)
  • The results, published in Science Advances: Evolutionary Biology , suggest that primates tend to develop increasingly complex manipulative skills in a specific order, and that primates with more sophisticated brains develop more sophisticated skills. (bigthink.com)
  • Part of the team, including Huan Ngo from Northwestern University, Hernan Lorenzi at the J Craig Venter Institute, Kai Wang and Taek-Kyun Kim at the Institute for Systems Biology and McLeod, integrated host genetics, proteomics, transcriptomics and circulating microRNA datasets to build a model of these effects on the human brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Castano EM, Frangione B (1988) Biology of disease. (springer.com)
  • Examine current tools and technologies used in rodent models (e.g., transgenesis, chimera, adeno-associated viruses [AAVs], gene therapy, etc.) and explore how they would need to be modified for use in other animal models, such as nonhuman primates. (nap.edu)
  • His work involved development of AAV vectors in rodent and non-human primate models. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger brain that is amenable to imaging and intracerebral therapy, longer lifespan, and a more human-like neuro-architecture. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mary Ann Raghanti , Ph.D., associate professor and chair of the Department of Anthropology at Kent State, and two of her graduate students, Alexa Stephenson and Melissa Edler , contributed to this massive analysis by quantifying the tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons in the human and nonhuman primate brain. (kent.edu)
  • In a subset of relatively younger patients with relatively shorter disease duration, the effects of DBS appeared to spread to more cognitive regions of the STN, benefiting loops that connect the caudate to various prefrontal areas importantfor outcome evaluation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Complex foraging strategies, social structures, and cognitive abilities, are likely to have co-evolved throughout primate evolution," adds Alex DeCasien, an NYU doctoral candidate and lead author of the study. (nyu.edu)
  • The social brain hypothesis sees social complexity as the primary driver of primate cognitive complexity, suggesting that social pressures ultimately led to the evolution of the large human brain. (nyu.edu)
  • The work was undertaken by the University of Edinburgh in the Brain Research Imaging Centre ( http://www.bric.ed.ac.uk -part of the SINAPSE collaboration) and the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology ( http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk -part of the cross council Lifelong Health and Wellbeing Initiative, G0700704/84698). (springer.com)
  • In the next phase of the study, a drug known to disrupt cognitive activity, cocaine, was administered to the animals to simulate brain injury. (medindia.net)
  • Based on the findings of this study, we hope in the future to develop an implantable neuroprosthesis that could help people recover from cognitive deficiencies due to brain injuries," Hampson added. (medindia.net)
  • The posterior cingulate cortex is highly connected and one of the most metabolically active regions in the brain, but there is no consensus as to its cognitive role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to Alzheimer Disease Neuropathologic Changes and Apparent Cognitive Resilience in the Nun and Honolulu-Asia Aging Studies. (stanford.edu)
  • In contrast, hippocampal sclerosis prevalence was very similar, but skewed to poorer cognitive performance, suggesting that hippocampal sclerosis could act sequentially with other diseases to impair cognitive function. (stanford.edu)
  • Sequences encoding DUF1220 domains show rhythmicity, resonance and signs of positive selection, especially in primates, and are expressed in several human tissues including brain, where their expression is restricted to neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using monkey brain tissues, we found that A53T interacts with neurofascin, an adhesion molecule involved in axon subcellular targeting and neurite outgrowth. (jneurosci.org)
  • Aged monkey brain tissues show an increased interaction of neurofascin with A53T. (jneurosci.org)
  • Brain tissues from animals (ranging in age from 4-35 years) were examined by RNA blotting techniques, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. (springer.com)
  • University of Florida paleontologists found clues in the remarkably preserved skulls of adapiforms, lemur-like primates that scurried around the tropical forests of Wyoming about 50 million years ago. (phys.org)
  • A more recent study found a similar connection involving primates. (eurekalert.org)
  • Not only is it extremely abundant, but it is only found in primates and cannot "jump" of its own accord. (australasianscience.com.au)
  • Targeted 1q21 array CGH investigation of the potential association between DUF1220 and brain size found that DUF1220 copy number decrease is associated with microcephaly in individuals with 1q21 CNVs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study suggests that chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive, degenerative brain disease found in people with a history of repeated head trauma, may be more common among football players than previously thought. (nih.gov)
  • The ameba was found in the brain of a dead mandrill (a type of primate). (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the investigators found that older adults' brains had less "angiogenesis" -- or new blood vessel growth. (medicinenet.com)
  • Overall, the study found, older and younger brains had similar numbers of "intermediate" progenitor cells and "immature" neurons -- signaling that older people had a similar capacity for generating new cells as young people. (medicinenet.com)
  • A team led by Sergiu Pasca , MD, assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, has found one - a technique that reliably and selectively produces pinhead-sized replicas of specific, different human brain parts in laboratory dishware. (stanford.edu)
  • The constructs are, at present, devoid of some important cell types found in a real human brain. (stanford.edu)
  • Previous studies of the capabilities of brain-damaged patients had found only that both their location and motion processing abilities were impaired, and animal and human neuroimaging studies had not been able to conclusively tease apart the two abilities. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 2016). The dynamics of many directly transmitted diseases are dependent on social encounters among conspecifics, and the frequency of encounters is contingent on factors of social context, like group size (Nunn et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • The findings offer a glimmer of hope that there may someday be a way to prevent and stop this devastating disease in its tracks. (innovations-report.com)
  • Harmonization of their neuropathologic data allows cross comparison, with findings common to both studies likely generalizable, while distinct observations may point to aging brain changes that are dependent on sex, ethnicity, environment, or lifestyle factors. (stanford.edu)
  • These findings show how methylation changes in brain genes are not well-tolerated, thus negating ideas of epigenetic evolution in primates. (icr.org)
  • For one, it allows our comparatively large brains time to develop, enabling us to eventually learn complex skills, like the ability to manipulate objects with our hands. (bigthink.com)
  • Virtual brains reconstructed from ancient, kiwi-sized primate skulls could help resolve one of the most intriguing evolutionary mysteries: how modern primates developed large brains. (phys.org)
  • So they didn't start out with large brains and maintain them. (phys.org)
  • AMES, Iowa - A new study from an Iowa State University biologist shows that menopause in mid-life is a uniquely human phenomenon among primates. (healthcanal.com)
  • Gene co-expression study is based on data in the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. (cshl.edu)
  • Our study shows once again that in the course of evolution, only mammals that live a long time and have enough time to learn were able to develop a large brain and complex fine motor skills including the ability to use tools," Heldstab said. (bigthink.com)
  • A new study raises questions about the link between cell phone use and an increased risk of developing brain cancer. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The eight virtually reconstructed and dissected brains-the most ever created for a single study-show an evolutionary burst including improved vision and more complex neurological function preceded an increase in brain size , said Harrington, now a Duke University doctoral student. (phys.org)
  • As our study shows, the earliest primates actually had relatively small brains. (phys.org)
  • This can be done with a number of different brains (a so-called cross-sectional study) or with one brain at several points in time (a longitudinal study). (frontiersin.org)
  • 7 , 8 Capitalizing on this perspective, this study tested the contribution of adverse psychosocial experiences in childhood to 3 adult conditions that are known to predict age-related diseases: depression, inflammation, and the clustering of metabolic risk markers, hereinafter referred to as age-related-disease risks. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we sought to test whether elevated levels of Arc interfere with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) TrkB receptor signaling, which is known to be essential for both the induction and maintenance of LTP. (plos.org)
  • In this study, we show that increased levels of Arc disrupt brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through the TrkB receptor (which is important for both the induction and maintenance of LTP). (plos.org)
  • A new study directed by Mount Sinai School of Medicine extends and strengthens the research that experimental dietary regimens might halt or even reverse symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). (innovations-report.com)
  • The new study shows for the first time that Crispr can create viable primates with genomes modified at specific targeted genes. (technologyreview.com)
  • The aim of this study was to use longitudinal small animal 18 F-FDG PET imaging to determine a PD specific glucose metabolic brain pattern for a PD rat model. (nature.com)
  • Barrasso's bipartisan bill, the Chronic Wasting Disease Transmission in Cervidae Study Act, was cosponsored by senators from across the country, including Idaho, Wyoming and Colorado. (hcn.org)
  • THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to popular thought, older adults' brains can churn out just as many new cells as younger brains do, a new study suggests. (medicinenet.com)
  • Two population-based studies key to advancing knowledge of brain aging are the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) and the Nun Study. (stanford.edu)
  • Sergiu Pasca uses this imaging system to observe the 3-D brain cultures he and his team create to study brain development. (stanford.edu)
  • They allow me to study aspects of the brain that differentiate us from our nearest evolutionary neighbors, non-human primates. (amnh.org)
  • Specifically, I study how the human brain has developed to optimize rapid decision-making based on changing cues in the environment. (amnh.org)
  • How are you able to study the brain and learn about these systems in such great detail? (amnh.org)
  • There is a particular type of MRI, called functional MRI (fMRI), that allows us to study brain function-not just what the brain looks like, but what parts of the brain are engaged during a specific activity. (amnh.org)
  • In these cases, if the patient consents, we have the opportunity to study those parts of the brain. (amnh.org)
  • These types of procedures allow us to study the human brain with a level of precision that is unparalleled. (amnh.org)
  • The study, funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke, was published this week in Scientific Reports . (eurekalert.org)
  • This study reported that these types of brain genes could tolerate very little epigenetic modification outside the normal profile for the human brain. (icr.org)
  • A pivotal clinical trial in MPS IIIA and a phase 1-2 clinical trial in GM1 Gangliosidosis are in preparation, while we are currently collaborating with a major partner to define the strategy of development for the treatment of Fragile X syndrome, a genetic disease related to autism. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Brain morphometry (also known as computational neuroanatomy or, particularly in the earlier literature, neuromorphometry) is concerned with the quantification of anatomical features, and changes thereof, in individual brains or brain populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unique features of individual brains captured. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, the growing availability of MR images of more and more diverse brain populations also allows more detailed inferences about brain changes that occur over larger time scales, way beyond the duration of an average research project. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of all 1q21 sequences tested, DUF1220 sequences were the only ones to show consistent correlation between copy number and brain size in both disease (micro/macrocephaly) and non-disease populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the core is alignment of characteristics of the parasite itself, the genes it expresses in the infected brain, susceptibility genes that could limit the host's ability to prevent infection, and genes that control susceptibility to other diseases present in the human host. (eurekalert.org)
  • Jumping genes have been important in the evolution of higher primates, leading to faster brain function, improved foetal nourishment, useful red-green colour discrimination and greater resistance to disease-causing microbes - and even the loss of fat storage genes in gibbons. (australasianscience.com.au)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. and PARIS, Aug. 01, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Lysogene (FR0013233475 - LYS), a pioneering biopharmaceutical company specializing in gene therapy targeting central nervous system (CNS) diseases, today announced upcoming oral and poster presentations at the 2018 International MPS Symposium being held August 2-5, 2018, in San Diego. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The 15th International MPS and related diseases Symposium 2018 is hosted in San Diego, CA, US. (pharmiweb.com)
  • William Klunk on Dynamic changes in PET amyloid and FDG imaging at different stages of Alzheimer's disease. (alzforum.org)
  • William Klunk on Longitudinal, quantitative assessment of amyloid, neuroinflammation, and anti-amyloid treatment in a living mouse model of Alzheimer's disease enabled by positron emission tomography. (alzforum.org)
  • In the research here, the authors are aiming to suppress a step in the generation of amyloid-β , one of the proteins that aggregates in growing amounts and is associated with brain cell death in Alzheimer's disease. (fightaging.org)
  • Allsop D, Wong CW, Ikeda S-I, Landon M, Kidd M, Glenner GG (1988) Immunohistochemical evidence for the derivation of a peptide ligand from the amyloid β -protein precursor of Alzheimer disease. (springer.com)
  • Bahmanyar S, Higgins GA, Goldgaber D, Lewis DA, Morrison JH, Wilson MC, Shankar SK, Gajdusek DC (1987) Localization of amyloid β-protein messenger RNA in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Cohen ML, Go1de TE, Usiak MF, Younkin LH, Younkin SG (1988) In situ hybridization of nucleus basalis neurons shows increased β -amyloid mRNA in Alzheimer disease. (springer.com)
  • Goedert M (1987) Neuronal localization of amyloid beta protein precursor mRNA in normal human brain and in Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Goldgaber D, Lerman MI, McBride OW, Saffiotti U, Gajdusek DC (1987) Characterization and chromosomal localization of a cDNA encoding brain amyloid of Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • This mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. (jax.org)
  • Two other lines, A anc C were also generated, with line A having similar levels of transgene expression and amyloid beta accumulation to line B while line C has 2-fold higher expression of human Amyloid beta-precursor protein and shows 4-fold higher accumulations of soluble and insoluble AB peptides in the brain. (jax.org)