Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Brain disorders resulting from inborn metabolic errors, primarily from enzymatic defects which lead to substrate accumulation, product reduction, or increase in toxic metabolites through alternate pathways. The majority of these conditions are familial, however spontaneous mutation may also occur in utero.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Systemic lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDURONIDASE) and characterized by progressive physical deterioration with urinary excretion of DERMATAN SULFATE and HEPARAN SULFATE. There are three recognized phenotypes representing a spectrum of clinical severity from severe to mild: Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome and Scheie syndrome (formerly mucopolysaccharidosis V). Symptoms may include DWARFISM; hepatosplenomegaly; thick, coarse facial features with low nasal bridge; corneal clouding; cardiac complications; and noisy breathing.
Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
C57BL mice are a commonly used strain of laboratory mice that are inbred to produce consistent and predictable results in scientific research.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Brazil is a country in South America known for its high rates of infectious diseases such as dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya, as well as its successful vaccination programs.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.

Neuropathological findings after bone marrow transplantation: an autopsy study of 180 cases. (1/159)

We prospectively evaluated the neuropathological complications of 180 patients who underwent autopsy studies following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (177 allogeneic, three autologous). The most frequent underlying disorders included severe aplastic anemia (n = 55), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 53), acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 24) and Fanconi anemia (n = 16). There were 114 males and 66 females. Neuropathological findings were detected in 90.55% of the patients. The most frequent findings were subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) (n = 57), intraparenchymal hemorrhages (IHP) (n = 49), fungal infections (n = 16), Wernicke's encephalopathy (n = 10), microglial nodular encephalopathy (n = 10) and neurotoxoplasmosis (n = 8). In only 17 patients was the brain within normal limits. Survival time after BMT averaged 5.4 months and the majority of patients died in the first 3 months post BMT (n = 105). Central nervous system (CNS) pathology was the main cause of death in 17% of the patients (n = 31), with a predominance of IHP in this particular group. Furthermore, the survival time of these patients who died of CNS causes (96.3 days) was almost half of the survival time of those who died of extra-cerebral causes (177.8 days) (P = 0.0162). IHP (70. 96 vs27.22%) (P < 0.001), fungal infections (25.8 vs 8.88%) (P < 0. 001) and toxoplasmosis (9.67 vs 4.44%) (P < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in the group of patients who died due to CNS causes than in the control group. The findings of this work provide a possible guide to the possible causes of neurological syndromes following BMT. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 301-307.  (+info)

Bone marrow transplantation corrects osteopetrosis in the carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome. (2/159)

Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), found in renal tubules, brain, and osteoclasts, is critical in acid-base homeostasis and bone remodeling. Deficiency of CAII gives rise to a syndrome of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), and cerebral calcification with associated developmental delay. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and found most frequently in the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. We report 2 related Irish families with clinically severe CAII deficiency in whom the gene mutation has been fully elucidated. Two children, one from each family, have undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation because of severe progressive visual and hearing loss. The older 2 children had already developed cerebral calcification and marked visual loss at the time of diagnosis and were treated symptomatically. Post-transplantation evaluation at 2 and 3 years demonstrates histologic and radiologic resolution of their osteopetrosis with stabilization of hearing and vision. Both children remain developmentally delayed and continue to have RTA, and the older child has now developed cerebral calcification. Allogeneic bone marrow stem cell replacement cures the osteoclast component of CAII deficiency and retards the development of cerebral calcification, but it appears to have little or no effect on the renal lesions. (Blood. 2001;97:1947-1950)  (+info)

Prognostic significance of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in patients with congestive heart failure. (3/159)

BACKGROUND: Cerebral metabolic abnormalities were proposed as a potential marker of disease severity in congestive heart failure (CHF), but their prognostic significance remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the prognostic value of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in 130 consecutive patients with advanced CHF (100 men aged 42.6+/-11.9 years; left ventricular ejection fraction, 22.2+/-6.2%). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were obtained from localized regions ( approximately 8 mL) of the occipital gray matter and the parietal white matter. The primary end point was the occurrence of death after the proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. During follow-up (18.5+/-14.4 months), 21 patients died and 15 underwent urgent heart transplantation. In the Cox proportional model, occipital metabolites (N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, and myoinositol), parietal N-acetylaspartate level, and the duration of CHF symptoms (>12 months) were validated as univariate predictors of death. In multivariate Cox analyses, however, the occipital N-acetylaspartate level was an independent predictor of death (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.67; P<0.001). An analysis with respect to the combined end point of death or urgent transplantation showed similar results. The best cutoff value (9.0 mmol/kg) for occipital N-acetylaspartate level had 75% sensitivity and 67% specificity to predict mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The occipital N-acetylaspartate level is a powerful and independent predictor of CHF mortality, suggesting that cerebral metabolic abnormalities may be used as a new prognostic marker in the assessment of patients with CHF.  (+info)

Regression of ventral striatum hypometabolism after calcium/calcitriol therapy in paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis due to idiopathic primary hypoparathyroidism. (4/159)

A [(18)F]-FDG PET study was performed in a 44 year old man with proximal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC) secondary to idiopathic primary hypoparathyroidism (IPH) before and 1 year after calcium/calcitriol therapy. The [(18)F]-FDG PET performed before the start of the therapy disclosed a significant bilateral hypometabolism in the ventral striatum. One year later, with the patient still under calcium/calcitriol therapy and free of any occurrence of PKC episodes, the [(18)F]-FDG PET did not show the previously detected hypometabolism. The hypometabolism of the ventral striatum secondary to hypocalcaemia seems to play a crucial part in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis associated with IPH.  (+info)

Non-hepatic hyperammonaemia: an important, potentially reversible cause of encephalopathy. (5/159)

The clinical syndrome of encephalopathy is most often encountered in the context of decompensated liver disease and the diagnosis is usually clear cut. Non-hepatic causes of encephalopathy are rarer and tend to present to a wide range of medical specialties with variable and episodic symptoms. Delay can result in the development of potentially life threatening complications, such as seizures and coma. Early recognition is vital. A history of similar episodes or clinical risk factors and early assessment of blood ammonia levels help establish the diagnosis. In addition to adequate supportive care, investigation of the underlying cause of the hyperammonaemia is essential and its reversal, where possible, will often result in complete recovery. Detection of an unborn error of metabolism should lead to the initiation of appropriate maintenance therapy and genetic counselling.  (+info)

Glucose and oxygen hypometabolism in aceruloplasminemia brains. (6/159)

OBJECTIVE: Aceruloplasminemia is an iron metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene. It is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration in association with iron accumulation. Excess iron functions as a potent catalyst of biologic oxidation. Previously we showed that an increased iron concentration is associated with the products of lipid peroxidation in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissues. To clarify the free radical-mediated tissue injury caused by intracellular iron accumulation through mitochondrial dysfunction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have measure brain oxygen and glucose metabolisms using positron emission tomography (PET) and examined brains at autopsy for iron contents and activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in two affected patients who had different truncation mutations of the ceruloplasmin gene. RESULTS: PET showed a marked decrease in glucose and oxygen consumption in the entire brain of aceruloplasminemia patients, with a preponderance of metabolic reduction in basal ganglia. Enzyme activities in the mitochondrial respiratory chain of the basal ganglia were reduced to approximately 45% and 42% respectively for complexes I and IV. An inverse relationship was shown between the amounts of iron accumulated and the levels of mitochondrial enzyme activities in all the brain regions examined. CONCLUSION: Iron-mediated free radicals may contribute to the impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism in aceruloplasminemia.  (+info)

Fat oxidation defect presenting with overwhelming ketonuria. (7/159)

Ketonuria accompanying hypoglycaemia is conventionally thought to exclude fat oxidation defects. We describe a 2 year old girl with hypoglycaemic encephalopathy in whom a diagnosis of very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency was suggested on the basis of acylcarnitine analysis despite massive ketonuria.  (+info)

Axonal damage: a key predictor of outcome in human CNS diseases. (8/159)

Axonal damage has recently been recognized to be a key predictor of outcome in a number of diverse human CNS diseases, including head and spinal cord trauma, metabolic encephalopathies, multiple sclerosis and other white-matter diseases (acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis, leucodystrophies and central pontine myelinolysis), infections [malaria, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and infection with human lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) causing HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP)] and subcortical ischaemic damage. The evidence for axonal damage and, where available, its correlation with neurological outcome in each of these conditions is reviewed. We consider the possible pathogenetic mechanisms involved and how increasing understanding of these may lead to more effective therapeutic or preventive interventions.  (+info)

Brain diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or chemistry of the brain. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, injuries, toxins, and degenerative processes. Some common examples of brain diseases include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, cognitive decline, and behavioral changes. 2. Parkinson's disease: A movement disorder caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain. 3. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system, causing inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers. 4. Huntington's disease: A genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, leading to movement, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. 5. Epilepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, genetic mutations, and brain tumors. 6. Stroke: A medical emergency caused by a disruption of blood flow to the brain, which can result in brain damage or death. 7. Brain tumors: Benign or malignant growths of abnormal cells in the brain that can cause a range of symptoms, depending on their location and size. These are just a few examples of the many different types of brain diseases that can affect people. Treatment options for brain diseases depend on the specific condition and its severity, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, and other interventions.

In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.

"Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn" refers to a group of neurological disorders that are caused by genetic mutations or inherited metabolic disorders that affect the normal functioning of the brain. These disorders can affect various parts of the brain, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem, and can result in a wide range of symptoms, including developmental delays, seizures, intellectual disability, movement disorders, and behavioral problems. Examples of inborn metabolic brain diseases include phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), and galactosemia. These disorders are caused by a deficiency or abnormality in enzymes that are necessary for the metabolism of certain amino acids or sugars, leading to the accumulation of toxic substances in the brain. Inborn metabolic brain diseases are typically diagnosed through newborn screening tests or genetic testing. Treatment may involve dietary restrictions, supplementation with missing enzymes or nutrients, and in some cases, medications or other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing long-term neurological damage and improving outcomes for affected individuals.

Encephalitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the brain. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to certain toxins. Symptoms of encephalitis can vary widely and may include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and changes in behavior or personality. In severe cases, encephalitis can lead to long-term neurological damage or even death. Treatment for encephalitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the inflammation and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of a group of complex carbohydrates called mucopolysaccharides. These carbohydrates are important components of connective tissue, which is found throughout the body, including the skin, bones, heart, and brain. In MPS I, the body is unable to properly break down and recycle these carbohydrates, leading to a buildup of toxic substances in the body. This buildup can cause a range of symptoms, including skeletal abnormalities, joint stiffness, short stature, and intellectual disability. There are several different forms of MPS I, depending on the specific enzyme that is affected. The most severe form of the disorder is called Hurler syndrome, which typically presents in infancy with severe intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities, and respiratory problems. Other forms of MPS I, such as Hurler-Scheie syndrome and Scheie syndrome, are milder and may not present until later in childhood or adolescence. MPS I is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, genetic testing, and imaging studies. Treatment for MPS I typically involves enzyme replacement therapy, which involves regular infusions of a replacement enzyme to help break down the accumulated mucopolysaccharides. Other treatments may include physical therapy, surgery, and supportive care to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Leukoencephalopathies are a group of neurological disorders characterized by damage to the white matter of the brain. The white matter is made up of nerve fibers that transmit signals between different parts of the brain and spinal cord. Damage to these fibers can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of leukoencephalopathy and the location of the affected white matter. There are many different types of leukoencephalopathies, including inherited disorders such as Alexander disease, Canavan disease, and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, as well as acquired disorders such as multiple sclerosis, HIV-related encephalopathy, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Some leukoencephalopathies are progressive, meaning that the symptoms worsen over time, while others are static, meaning that the symptoms remain the same or improve slightly. Symptoms of leukoencephalopathy can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and the location of the affected white matter. Common symptoms include difficulty with movement, coordination, and balance, as well as cognitive and behavioral changes such as memory loss, difficulty with language and communication, and mood disorders. In some cases, leukoencephalopathy can also cause seizures, vision problems, and hearing loss.

In the medical field, "Brain Diseases, Metabolic" refers to a group of disorders that affect the brain's metabolism, which is the process by which the brain uses nutrients to produce energy and maintain its normal functions. These disorders can result from a variety of causes, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and nutritional deficiencies. Some examples of metabolic brain diseases include: 1. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of certain fatty acids in the brain, leading to progressive brain damage and seizures. 2. Maple syrup urine disease: A genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of certain amino acids, leading to a sweet-smelling urine and neurological symptoms. 3. Phenylketonuria (PKU): A genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine, leading to intellectual disability and other neurological problems if left untreated. 4. Leigh syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of certain fatty acids in the brain, leading to progressive neurological symptoms and often death in childhood. 5. Wilson's disease: A genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of copper, leading to liver and neurological damage. Treatment for metabolic brain diseases often involves dietary changes, supplements, and medications to correct the underlying metabolic abnormality. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to remove excess copper in Wilson's disease.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, including the production, release, and regulation of neurotransmitters, hormones, and other chemical messengers. These chemical processes play a critical role in regulating mood, behavior, cognition, and other aspects of brain function. In the medical field, brain chemistry is often studied in the context of neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction. By understanding the underlying chemical imbalances or abnormalities in the brain, researchers and healthcare providers can develop more effective treatments for these conditions. Some common neurotransmitters and hormones involved in brain chemistry include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and cortisol. Medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers often work by altering the levels of these chemicals in the brain to improve symptoms of various disorders.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common cause of dementia, a condition characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life. The disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits in the brain, including amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. These deposits disrupt the normal functioning of brain cells, leading to their death and the progressive loss of cognitive abilities. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease typically begin with mild memory loss and gradually worsen over time. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience difficulty with language, disorientation, and changes in personality and behavior. Eventually, they may become unable to care for themselves and require around-the-clock care. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease. These treatments may include medications, lifestyle changes, and support from caregivers and healthcare professionals.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and spinal cord. It is formed by specialized endothelial cells that line the walls of the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord, along with astrocytes and pericytes that support and regulate the BBB. The BBB plays a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis of the brain by regulating the transport of molecules and ions into and out of the brain. It acts as a barrier to prevent harmful substances, such as toxins and pathogens, from entering the brain, while allowing essential nutrients and signaling molecules to pass through. The BBB is also involved in the regulation of immune responses in the brain and spinal cord, and plays a role in the development and progression of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke.

Brain injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the brain, which is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. Brain injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, such as a blow to the head, exposure to toxins, infections, or degenerative diseases. Brain injuries can range from mild to severe and can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some common types of brain injuries include concussion, contusion, hematoma, edema, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity and location of the injury, but may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in behavior or personality, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain injuries depends on the severity and type of injury, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. In some cases, rehabilitation may be necessary to help individuals recover from the effects of a brain injury and regain their ability to function in daily life.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells in the brain. They can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Brain tumors can occur in any part of the brain and can be primary (originating from brain cells) or secondary (spreading from other parts of the body to the brain). Symptoms of brain neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or hearing, difficulty with balance or coordination, and changes in personality or behavior. Diagnosis of brain neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for brain neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.

Astrocytes are a type of glial cell found in the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. They are star-shaped cells that play a crucial role in supporting and maintaining the health of neurons, which are the nerve cells that transmit information throughout the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes have many functions in the brain, including: 1. Providing structural support to neurons and synapses, the connections between neurons. 2. Regulating the extracellular environment by controlling the levels of ions, neurotransmitters, and other molecules in the brain. 3. Maintaining the blood-brain barrier, which protects the brain from harmful substances in the bloodstream. 4. Participating in the formation and repair of blood vessels in the brain. 5. Modulating the activity of neurons by releasing signaling molecules called gliotransmitters. Astrocytes are also involved in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. Understanding the role of astrocytes in the brain is an active area of research in neuroscience and may lead to new treatments for these and other neurological conditions.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms that affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms can include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking and speech, and problems with emotional expression and social interaction. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can last for a lifetime, although the severity of symptoms can vary over time. It is not caused by a single factor, but rather by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends. While there is no cure for schizophrenia, with proper treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Brain mapping is a technique used in the medical field to create detailed images of the structure and function of the brain. It involves the use of various imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to create three-dimensional maps of the brain's anatomy and activity. The goal of brain mapping is to identify the specific areas of the brain that are responsible for different functions, such as movement, sensation, language, and emotion. By understanding how different parts of the brain work together, researchers and clinicians can better diagnose and treat a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. Brain mapping can also be used to study the effects of drugs, surgery, and other interventions on brain function, and to develop new treatments for neurological and psychiatric conditions. Overall, brain mapping is an important tool in the field of neuroscience, helping researchers and clinicians to better understand the complex workings of the human brain.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

In the medical field, aging refers to the natural process of physical, biological, and psychological changes that occur over time in living organisms, including humans. These changes can affect various aspects of an individual's health and well-being, including their metabolism, immune system, cardiovascular system, skeletal system, and cognitive function. Aging is a complex process that is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. As people age, their bodies undergo a gradual decline in function, which can lead to the development of age-related diseases and conditions such as arthritis, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. In the medical field, aging is studied in the context of geriatrics, which is the branch of medicine that focuses on the health and well-being of older adults. Geriatricians work to identify and manage age-related health issues, promote healthy aging, and improve the quality of life for older adults.

In the medical field, mental disorders are conditions that affect a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, causing significant distress or impairment in daily functioning. Mental disorders are diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-5 categorizes mental disorders into several broad categories, including: 1. Anxiety disorders: conditions characterized by excessive fear or worry, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. 2. Mood disorders: conditions characterized by significant changes in mood, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia. 3. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders: conditions characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behavior, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder. 4. Neurodevelopmental disorders: conditions that begin in childhood and affect cognitive and social development, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 5. Personality disorders: conditions characterized by enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that deviate from societal norms and cause significant distress or impairment, such as borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. 6. Substance-related and addictive disorders: conditions characterized by the use of substances or behaviors that cause significant impairment in daily functioning, such as alcohol use disorder, opioid use disorder, and gambling disorder. 7. Eating disorders: conditions characterized by abnormal eating behaviors that cause significant distress or impairment, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Mental disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Treatment for mental disorders typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.

In the medical field, complex mixtures refer to a type of substance that is composed of multiple components or ingredients, often with varying chemical structures and properties. These mixtures can be found in a variety of contexts, including pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, environmental pollutants, and consumer products. Complex mixtures can be challenging to study and understand because their individual components interact with each other in complex ways, and their overall effects on health and the environment may not be predictable based on the properties of the individual components alone. As a result, researchers and regulators often rely on a variety of analytical techniques and modeling approaches to study complex mixtures and assess their potential risks. Some examples of complex mixtures in the medical field include tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and certain types of air pollution. These mixtures contain a variety of chemicals, including carcinogens, irritants, and toxicants, that can have a range of adverse effects on human health, including respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the brain tissue, leading to swelling and increased pressure within the skull. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or certain medical conditions such as hypertension or heart failure. Brain edema can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, and even death. Treatment for brain edema typically involves addressing the underlying cause and reducing the pressure within the skull. This may involve medications to reduce inflammation or lower blood pressure, as well as procedures such as surgery to relieve pressure or remove excess fluid. In some cases, supportive care such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation may also be necessary.

In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.

In the medical field, "Brazil" typically refers to the country located in South America. Brazil is the largest country in both South America and Latin America, and it is known for its diverse population, rich culture, and natural resources. In terms of healthcare, Brazil has a publicly funded healthcare system called the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, or SUS). The SUS provides free or low-cost healthcare services to all Brazilian citizens and residents, including primary care, hospitalization, and specialized medical care. Brazil has also made significant strides in public health, particularly in the areas of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and dengue fever. The country has implemented widespread vaccination programs and has made efforts to improve access to healthcare services in underserved areas. However, Brazil still faces significant challenges in the healthcare sector, including a shortage of healthcare professionals, inadequate infrastructure, and disparities in access to healthcare services between different regions and socioeconomic groups.

Biological markers, also known as biomarkers, are measurable indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. In the medical field, biological markers are used to diagnose, monitor, and predict the progression of diseases, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. Biological markers can be found in various biological samples, such as blood, urine, tissue, or body fluids. They can be proteins, genes, enzymes, hormones, metabolites, or other molecules that are associated with a specific disease or condition. For example, in cancer, biological markers such as tumor markers can be used to detect the presence of cancer cells or to monitor the response to treatment. In cardiovascular disease, biological markers such as cholesterol levels or blood pressure can be used to assess the risk of heart attack or stroke. Overall, biological markers play a crucial role in medical research and clinical practice, as they provide valuable information about the underlying biology of diseases and help to guide diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. It is responsible for controlling many of the body's essential functions, including breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and sleep. The brainstem consists of three main parts: the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. These structures are responsible for regulating many different bodily functions, including sensory perception, motor control, and autonomic functions such as heart rate and breathing. Damage to the brainstem can result in a range of symptoms, including difficulty breathing, changes in heart rate, and loss of consciousness.

Brain ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can lead to brain damage or even death. This can happen due to a blockage in one or more of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain, or due to a decrease in the amount of oxygenated blood reaching the brain. Brain ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including stroke, heart disease, high blood pressure, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia. Symptoms of brain ischemia can include headache, confusion, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain ischemia typically involves medications to dissolve blood clots or to reduce blood pressure, as well as surgery in some cases.

A brain abscess is a collection of pus that forms in the brain or spinal cord. It is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Brain abscesses can be caused by bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as by injury or inflammation. Symptoms of a brain abscess may include headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, seizures, confusion, and changes in consciousness. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as surgery to drain the abscess and remove any infected tissue.,,。

Hypoxia, brain refers to a condition in which the brain is not receiving enough oxygen. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including low oxygen levels in the blood, decreased blood flow to the brain, or damage to the blood vessels that supply oxygen to the brain. Hypoxia, brain can have serious consequences, as the brain is highly sensitive to oxygen deprivation. It can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, dizziness, headache, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can cause permanent brain damage or even death. Treatment for hypoxia, brain depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, it may involve increasing oxygen levels in the blood through oxygen therapy or administering medications to improve blood flow to the brain. In other cases, it may require more aggressive interventions, such as surgery or mechanical ventilation. Early recognition and treatment of hypoxia, brain are critical for preventing long-term complications and improving outcomes.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, responsible for many of the higher functions of the nervous system, including perception, thought, memory, and consciousness. It is composed of two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The cerebral cortex is responsible for processing sensory information from the body and the environment, as well as generating motor commands to control movement. It is also involved in complex cognitive processes such as language, decision-making, and problem-solving. Damage to the cerebral cortex can result in a range of neurological and cognitive disorders, including dementia, aphasia, and apraxia.

Chronic brain damage refers to a type of damage that occurs over a prolonged period of time, typically months or years, and can result from a variety of causes such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, or substance abuse. Chronic brain damage can lead to a range of cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments, including memory loss, difficulty with language and communication, mood disorders, motor dysfunction, and changes in personality. The severity and extent of the damage can vary depending on the location and extent of the injury, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and other factors. Treatment for chronic brain damage typically involves a combination of medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. In some cases, rehabilitation may also be necessary to help individuals regain lost skills and function.

... is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the study of metabolic brain diseases. It was ... "Metabolic Brain Disease". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2022. Official website v t e ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 4 (3): 169-76. doi:10.1007/bf01000293. PMID 2796871. S2CID 24524207. Bergeron, M; Swain, MS; Reader, ... Metabolic Brain Disease. 17 (4): 463-75. doi:10.1023/A:1021986624600. PMID 12602522. S2CID 19491464. Butterworth, RF (2003). " ... severe metabolic alterations, and cerebral edema that can lead to brain death. In these cases the mortality without liver ... pathophysiology and treatment of these diseases Evaluate the clinical impact of MARS therapy on the course of the disease in ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 37 (1): 197-207. doi:10.1007/s11011-021-00857-7. ISSN 0885-7490. PMID 34757579. S2CID 243939724. ... Aug 2013). "Probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated disease". World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 4 (3 ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 28 (2): 151-4. doi:10.1007/s11011-012-9337-3. PMID 23010935. S2CID 11206990. Ortez, C; Jou, C; Cortès- ... doi:10.1093/brain/aws038. ISSN 1460-2156. PMC 3326257. PMID 22396397. Hauser, Robert A (July 6, 2016). "Parkinson Disease ... doi:10.1093/brain/aws038. PMC 3326257. PMID 22396397. Kolb, B. Whishaw, I. (2011) An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, 592. ... "Improved efficacy of temporally non-regular deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease". Experimental Neurology. 239: 60-7. ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 26 (1): 79-85. doi:10.1007/s11011-011-9237-y. PMID 21327546. S2CID 19377135. Robson, D; Welch, E; ... is a disease or category of diseases that commonly causes disability and increases mortality. The causes of TAN are not ... The disease affects poor tropical populations; there are no good statistics on how many people are affected worldwide, but in ... It is possible that there are several diseases being categorized as TAN. It has been estimated that 5% of surviving World War ...
"Brain Behaviour Initiative". Metabolic Brain Disease. 21 (2-3): 279-284. doi:10.1007/s11011-006-9024-3. PMID 16850254. S2CID ... Brain imaging has played a key role in shedding light on mental disorders. However, much of this work has been based on small ... Urbach-Wiethe disease (UWD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by early damage to the basolateral amygdala. Perhaps more ... Stein was the Director of UCT's early Brain and Behaviour Initiative, and was the inaugural Scientific Director of UCT's later ...
Jordaan GP, Emsley R (June 2014). "Alcohol-induced psychotic disorder: a review". Metabolic Brain Disease. 29 (2): 231-243. doi ... "diseases of the mind". Hippocrates writes: Men ought to know that from the brain, and from the brain only, arise our pleasures ... and Parkinson's disease focal neurological disease, such as stroke, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, and some forms of ... Mashour GA, Walker EE, Martuza RL (June 2005). "Psychosurgery: past, present, and future". Brain Research. Brain Research ...
... transport and brain disposition". Metabolic Brain Disease. 27 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1007/s11011-011-9274-6. PMC 3276770. PMID ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 17 (4): 375-387. doi:10.1023/a:1021970120965. ISSN 0885-7490. PMID 12602514. S2CID 23679769. Furrow, S ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 23 (1): 115-22. doi:10.1007/s11011-007-9076-z. PMID 18034292. S2CID 9020059. Watson, A. J. S.; Walker ... Metabolic Brain Disease. 10 (1): 17-24. doi:10.1007/BF01991779. PMID 7596325. S2CID 9751459. (Wikipedia articles needing page ... Metabolic Brain Disease. 14 (1): 1-20. doi:10.1023/A:1020653312697. PMID 10348310. S2CID 19954743. Navarro, Darren; Zwingmann, ... Brain atrophy associated with WKS occurs in the following regions of the brain: the mammillary bodies, the thalamus, the ...
December 2011). "Decreased expression of myelin gene regulatory factor in Niemann-Pick type C 1 mouse". Metabolic Brain Disease ... 2020). "Acetyl-leucine slows disease progression in lysosomal storage disorders". Brain Communications. 3 (1): fcaa148. doi: ... "eMedicine - Niemann-Pick Disease : Article by Robert A Schwartz". Retrieved 2008-10-27. "Niemann-Pick Disease". Retrieved 2008- ... November 2008). "Niemann-Pick disease type C1 is a sphingosine storage disease that causes deregulation of lysosomal calcium". ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 24 (2): 271-82. doi:10.1007/s11011-009-9136-7. PMID 19296210. S2CID 13460935. Department of Health and ... It is a precursor to GABA, glutamate, and glycine in certain brain areas. It acts on the GHB receptor and is a weak agonist at ... Both of the metabolic breakdown pathways shown for GHB can run in either direction, depending on the concentrations of the ... GHB-induced stimulation of tissue serotonin turnover may be due to an increase in tryptophan transport to the brain and in its ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 31 (3): 631-641. doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9794-1. ISSN 0885-7490. PMC 4863909. PMID 26821073. Al Zarouni ... Kennedy, David O. (2014). "The Deliriants - The Nightshade (Solanaceae) Family". Plants and the Human Brain. New York: Oxford ... which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep. Arundo donax, 0.0057% DMT ... Molecular Brain Research. 138 (2): 191-197. doi:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2005.04.009. PMC 5805132. PMID 15921820. Khanavi, M.; ...
December 2011). "Decreased expression of myelin gene regulatory factor in Niemann-Pick type C 1 mouse". Metabolic Brain Disease ... Vanier MT, Suzuki K (January 1998). "Recent advances in elucidating Niemann-Pick C disease". Brain Pathology. 8 (1): 163-74. ... One of the lesser known gene diseases that is known to be linked to obesity is the NPC1 disease, which is otherwise known as ... NPC1 disease is an autosomal-recessive lipid storage disease. It is mostly known for cholesterol infiltration, which in turn ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 31 (4): 727-735. doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9815-0. ISSN 0885-7490. PMID 26956130. S2CID 2740172. Lintas, ... Rett syndrome brain samples and autism brain samples show immaturity of dendrite spines and reduction of cell-body size due to ... Furthermore, a significant decrease in abundance of GABRB3 has been reported in the brains of patients with autism and Rett ... Skuse, D. H. (2000). "Imprinting, the X-chromosome, and the male brain: explaining sex differences in the liability to autism ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 29 (2): 351-7. doi:10.1007/s11011-014-9496-5. PMID 24532047. S2CID 14880172. Roy-Byrne PP, Craske MG, ... Current research also supports this perspective as it has been found that those with panic disorder also have a brain circuit ... "FASTSTATS - Illegal Drug Use". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 30 May 2013. Archived from the original on 5 July ... The reason chronic alcohol misuse worsens panic disorder is due to distortion of the brain chemistry and function. ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 24 (1): 27-53. doi:10.1007/s11011-008-9118-1. hdl:11577/2380064. PMID 19085093. S2CID 4564675. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016. ... Placebos have been found to modify the activity of several brain regions and to increase levels of dopamine and endogenous ... Winberg S, Carter CG, McCarthy JD, He XY, Nilsson GE, Houlihan DF (1993). "Feeding rank and brain serotonergic activity in ...
"Blood-brain barrier dysfunction following traumatic brain injury". Metabolic Brain Disease. 30 (5): 1093-1104. doi:10.1007/ ... The blood-brain barrier is formed by the brain capillary endothelium and excludes from the brain 100% of large-molecule ... The blood-brain barrier may become damaged in select neurological diseases, as indicated by neuroimaging studies of Alzheimer's ... Infections of the brain that do occur are often difficult to treat. Antibodies are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier, ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 31 (1): 205-212. doi:10.1007/s11011-015-9681-1. PMID 25987537. S2CID 3234882. Dean, Shannon L.; Singer ... Huntington's disease, Wilson disease, hyperthyroidism, lupus erythematosus, pregnancy (chorea gravidarum), drug intoxication ... causing a variety of streptococcal related diseases including Sydenham's chorea but also rheumatic heart disease and nephritic ... biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD), Fahr disease, familial dyskinesia-facial myokymia (Bird-Raskind ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 24 (1): 95-102. doi:10.1007/s11011-008-9112-7. hdl:1866/9593. ISSN 0885-7490. PMID 19104924. S2CID ... Sleep inversion is a feature of African trypanosomiasis, after which the disease takes its common name, "African sleeping ... Bosoi, Cristina R.; Rose, Christopher F. (March 2009). "Identifying the direct effects of ammonia on the brain". ... Disease". 2020-04-28. Retrieved 2020-08-11. Maxfield, Luke; Bermudez, Rene (2020), "Trypanosomiasis ( ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 30 (5): 1279-84. doi:10.1007/s11011-015-9672-2. PMID 25920484. S2CID 11375978. Belmont JW (June 1996 ... An extreme case of this was seen where monozygotic female twins had extreme variance in expression of Menkes disease (an X- ... For example, a female heterozygous for haemophilia (an X-linked disease) would have about half of her liver cells functioning ... Puck JM, Willard HF (January 1998). "X inactivation in females with X-linked disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. 338 ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 31 (3): 631-641. doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9794-1. ISSN 0885-7490. PMC 4863909. PMID 26821073. Díaz, J. L ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 26 (4): 299-306. doi:10.1007/s11011-011-9263-9. PMID 21938520. S2CID 26878522. Koenning, M.; Jackson, ... Type C is the most common form of the disease Type C2 is a rare form of the disease. Niemann-Pick disease type D (or Nova ... Lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick disease, type C Gaucher's disease Medical genetics of Ashkenazi Jews "Niemann-Pick". ... Niemann-Pick disease is a group of severe inherited metabolic disorders, in which sphingomyelin accumulates in lysosomes in ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 10 (1): 17-24. doi:10.1007/BF01991779. PMID 7596325. S2CID 9751459. Zarranz JJ (2007). Neurologia (in ... Metabolic Brain Disease. 13 (2): 97-122. doi:10.1023/A:1020657129593. PMID 9699919. S2CID 25130884. Kohnke, Sara; Meek, Claire ... The blood-brain barrier junctions are typically found to have WE lesions located at that region of the brain. An altered blood- ... Powell SZ, Schochet Jr SS (March 2003). "Intoxications and Metabolic Diseases of the Central Nervous System". In Nelson JS, ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 17 (4): 375-87. doi:10.1023/A:1021970120965. PMID 12602514. S2CID 23679769. Cersosimo, M. G.; Koller, ... It is found mostly in the bones, but also the liver, kidneys, and brain. In the human brain, the manganese is bound to ... Takeda, A. (2003). "Manganese action in brain function". Brain Research Reviews. 41 (1): 79-87. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(02)00234 ... Unlike Parkinson's disease, manganism is not associated with loss of the sense of smell and patients are typically unresponsive ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 24 (1): 27-53. doi:10.1007/s11011-008-9118-1. hdl:11577/2380064. PMID 19085093. S2CID 4564675. ... Manev H, Uz T, Smalheiser NR, Manev R (January 2001). "Antidepressants alter cell proliferation in the adult brain in vivo and ... At this time, decreased serotonin levels in the brain and symptoms of depression have not been linked Although there is ... Studies also show that the chronic secretion of stress hormones as a result of disease, including somatic infections or ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 4 (1): 61-65. doi:10.1007/BF00999495. PMID 2704347. S2CID 12032912. Dictionary of Biological ... The area postrema also has a significant role in the discussion of Parkinson's disease. Drugs that treat Parkinson's disease ... "Purinergic modulation of area postrema neuronal excitability in rat brain slices". Brain Research. 1165: 50-59. doi:10.1016/j. ... In 1896, he published a two-volume monograph on the gross anatomy of the human brain in which the area postrema was mentioned.[ ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 22 (3-4): 337-352. doi:10.1007/s11011-007-9064-3. PMID 17712616. S2CID 5823156. Stone TW (April 2001 ... Hypertryptophanemia is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in a massive buildup of the amino acid ... As the main defect behind hypertryptophanemia is suspected to alter and disrupt the metabolic pathway from tryptophan to ... Stone TW, Mackay GM, Forrest CM, Clark CJ, Darlington LG (July 2003). "Tryptophan metabolites and brain disorders". Clinical ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 29 (1): 121-30. doi:10.1007/s11011-014-9480-0. PMID 24435938. S2CID 10955351. Piroli GG, Grillo CA, ... Adipose tissue, commonly known as fat, is a depository for energy in order to conserve metabolic homeostasis. As the body takes ... Sonksen P, Sonksen J (July 2000). "Insulin: understanding its action in health and disease". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 85 ... Moreover, impairment in insulin-stimulated trafficking of GLUT4 in the hippocampus result in decreased metabolic activities and ...
Metabolic Brain Disease [serial online]. September 2014;29(3):813-824. Diagram (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles ... Unilateral asterixis may occur with structural brain disease. It can be a sign of hepatic encephalopathy, damage to brain cells ... With a metabolic encephalopathy, the patient is unable to hold their hands back resulting in a "flapping" motion consistent ... It can also be a feature of Wilson's disease. Asterixis is also seen in respiratory failure due to carbon dioxide toxicity ( ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. Impact Factor. 3.6 (2022). 5 Year Impact Factor. 3.5 (2022) ...
Brain Disorders, Inborn Genetic see Genetic Brain Disorders * Canavan Disease see Leukodystrophies ...
Dementia is loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Dementia may also be referred to as major neurocognitive ... Dementia is loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Dementia may also be referred to as major neurocognitive ... Dementia due to metabolic causes is a loss of brain function that can occur with abnormal chemical processes in the body. With ... Hormonal disorders, such as Addison disease, Cushing disease. *Heavy metal exposure, such as to lead, arsenic, mercury, or ...
Parkinson disease-related brain metabolic patterns may be an effective neuroimaging biomarker for metabolic alterations in the ... de novo PD-related brain metabolic patterns].". Reference. Shin JH, Lee JY, Kim YK, et al. Parkinson disease-related brain ... De novo Parkinson disease (PD)-related brain metabolic patterns may be an effective neuroimaging biomarker that highlights ... Close more info about Parkinson Disease-Related Brain Metabolic Patterns as Phenoconversion Biomarker ...
The 19th century saw the first systemic approach to disease through the use of rational, consistent outlines for taking ... Brain Imaging and Genetic Risk in the Pediatric Population, Part 1: Inherited Metabolic Diseases. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2015 ... Inherited metabolic diseases: a guide to 100 conditions. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2008 Jan. 93(1):92. ... Fabry disease, Refsum disease, ataxia telangiectasia). A few metabolic disorders primarily affect the liver, spleen, or heart ...
Such a network was launched in 1997: SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online: is a publicly funded initiative set up to promote cooperative, free electronic publishing of scientific journals from developing countries; the development of regional databases; and the implementation of indicators of scientific literature usage. It currently comprises 93 journals from Brazil, Chile and Cuba. We assessed its international impact by comparing the impact factors of journals before and after being incorporated in SciELO. ...
... electro-metabolic signaling in capillary pericytes disrupts brain blood flow control in aging and Alzheimers disease. ... Alzheimer Disease. Cerebrovascular Circulation. KATP Channels Identifier to cite or link to this item. ...
Metabolic Brain Disease. 17 (4): 375-87. doi:10.1023/A:1021970120965. PMID 12602514.. Parameter ,s2cid=. yang tidak diketahui ... "Centers for Disease Control. Diakses tanggal 28 Juni 2023.. *^ Yin, Z.; Jiang, H.; Lee, E. S.; Ni, M.; Erikson, K. M.; ... "Brain Research Reviews. 41 (1): 79-87. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(02)00234-5. PMID 12505649.. Parameter ,s2cid=. yang tidak ... Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. hlm. 199-227. doi: ...
Aging, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1, Brain Cell Senescence, and Alzheimers Disease April 4, 2023 ... Cell-cell metabolite exchange creates a pro-survival metabolic environment that extends lifespan January 8, 2023 ... Infections, Vaccinations, and Risk of Alzheimers Disease (AD)/Dementia: Probable Involvement of Reactivated Herpes Simplex ...
Categories: Brain Diseases, Metabolic Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
5) K. J. Jones, Metabolic Brain Disease, 3(1), 1988, 1-18 ... Alzheimers disease, senile tremor, and the like, and diseases ... "In one patient suffering from diagnosed Alzheimer´s disease and early stage Parkinson´s disease, which patient was sixty years ... "To reverse the degenerative nature of central nervous disorder disease, such as Parkinsons disease, Senile Dementia, ... Moreover, the trial studies mentioned on post-menopausal women with Alzheimers disease concerned the use of estrogen as ...
Alzheimers disease) is made by clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging assessments. Routine structural neuroimaging ... evaluation is based on nonspecific features such as atrophy, which is a late feature in the progression of the disease. ... Which brain structure changes on CT scans characteristic of Alzheimer disease?. What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of ... Cerebral metabolic and cognitive decline in persons at genetic risk for Alzheimers disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 May ...
Metabolic brain disease, 2004, 19(34):357-81.. *Cacoub P et al. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C. Arthritis ... Patients with coexisting liver disease (due to hepatitis B, autoimmune disease or alcohol abuse), diabetes mellitus, renal ... Skin diseases associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 1998 ... Gougerot-Blum disease as a manifestation of hepatitis C infection. Journal of cutaneous pathology, 2000, 27:569. ...
Is misery perfusion still a predictor of stroke in symptomatic major cerebral artery disease? Brain 2012;135:2515-26 doi: ... Noninvasive quantification of whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) by MRI. Magn Reson Med 2009;62:141-48 doi: ... Cerebral Hypoperfusion and Other Shared Brain Pathologies in Ischemic Stroke and Alzheimers Disease ... cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. HR. high-resolution. OEF. oxygen extraction fraction. rCBF. relative cerebral blood flow. ...
Metabolic Features of Brain Function with Relevance to Clinical Features of Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases by David Allan ... Brain metabolism is comprised in Alzheimers disease (AD) and Parkinsons disease (PD). Since the brain primarily relies on ... Brain metabolism is comprised in Alzheimers disease (AD) and Parkinsons disease (PD). Since the brain primarily relies on ... neurodegenerative diseases, aging and respiratory diseases. Diseases associated with metabolic dysfunction may be influenced by ...
The enzymatic defect associated with Lesch-Nyhan disease, deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl ... Michael Lesch and William Nyhan provided the first detailed clinical description of Lesch-Nyhan disease in 1964. ... Lesch-Nyhan disease and the basal ganglia. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2000 Apr. 32(2-3):449-75. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... The Molecular and Metabolic Bases of Inherited Disease. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2000. Chapter 107. ...
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(1):139-142. doi:10.3201/eid1601.090077.. APA. Lee, N., Wong, C. K., Chan, P., Lindegardh ... Brain computed tomography (CT) scans showed no acute cerebral lesion. CSF analyses showed no bacterial or viral pathogen or ... These patients had no meningismus, focal neurologic deficit, hypotension, respiratory distress, or metabolic disturbances. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ...
Clearance of Brain Metabolic Waste in a Natural Animal Model of Alzheimers Disease by Cranial Osteopathic Manipulation , ... "Clearance of Brain Metabolic Waste in a Natural Animal Model of Alzheimers Disease by Cranial Osteopathic Manipulation." Upon ... Executive summary: Parkinsons disease is a long term neurodegenerative disorder that effects nerve cells in the brain that ... Yees previous research focused on neurologic prognostication in patients with critical brain disease. His current research ...
Learn how speech and language therapists support recovery after brain injury to help individuals succeed and participate in ... Metabolic disorders, e.g. liver and kidney diseases or diabetic coma. *Toxic products taken into the body through inhalation or ... An acquired brain injury (ABI), is defined as any trauma to the head which disrupts the function of the brain (NICE 2007). It ... What is a brain injury?. If youre a speech and language therapist, please sign up or log in to access the full version of this ...
... nanofiber-hydrogel composite loaded with stem cells can effectively treat the perianal fistulas associated with Crohns disease ... A seed-like hydrogel with metabolic cascade microbiota for oral treatment of liver failure. Volume 58, Pages 30-40Ke-Wei Chen, ... Novel hydrogel at the interface of brain monitoring. By utilizing a hydrogel that absorbs body fluids, researchers have ... Crohns disease, a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease, is a disorder estimated by the US Centers for Disease Control and ...
Metabolic Brain Disease, 30(6), pp. 1467-1477. (doi: 10.1007/s11011-015-9730-9) (PMID:26380981) ... Exposure to ethanol during neurodevelopment modifies crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities in a region-specific manner ... on crucial 21-day-old offspring Wistar rat brain parameters, such as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and two ... Exposure to ethanol during neurodevelopment modifies crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities in a region-specific manner ...
... brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, and CNS infectious diseases.. Neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative diseases (including the ... Genetic epilepsies; metabolic epilepsy; sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP); clinical epilepsy research; myalgic ... BRAIN Initiative Neurotechnology Development Program BRAIN CONNECTS Program. BRAIN Initiative Research Resource Grants for ... Primary brain tumor (pediatric and young adult). Primary brain tumor (adult) and immunotherapy. Hemorrhagic stroke and aneurysm ...
Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn [C10.]. *Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Nervous System [C10.] ... Brain Diseases, Metabolic [C18.452.132]. *Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn [C18.452.132.100]. *Lysosomal Storage Diseases, ... "Gaucher Disease" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Ginns EI, Ryan E, Sidransky E. Gaucher disease in the COVID-19 pandemic environment: The good, the bad and the unknown. Mol ...
To learn more about metabolic approaches to mental disorders, including ketogenic therapy, visit Metabolic Mind, a nonprofit ... Ketogenic therapy has been shown to stabilize brain networks and has 100 years of evidence of efficacy in neurological ... of patients die within ten years of disease onset, making anorexia nervosa one of the deadliest of all psychiatric illnesses. ... Guido Frank, Professor of Psychiatry at UC San Diego School of Medicine, an expert in eating disorder research and brain ...
Researchers from Australia and China have published their findings in Metabolic Brain Disease. UniSA neuroscientist and ... s disease mice showed a significant deterioration of cognition and pathological changes in the brain while fed the high fat ... Mice with impaired cognitive function were also more likely to gain excessive weight due to poor metabolism caused by brain ... s disease, predicted to reach 100 million cases by 2050. “Obesity and diabetes impair the central nervous system, ...
GTP energy metabolism; Signaling; Brain tumors; Brain metastatic cancers; Metabolic diseases; NAFLD; Biochemistry and cell ... We study signal transduction control of oncogenic metabolic programs in cancers of the brain, blood and breast tissues. Our ... Also, studies on pathophysiology of sickle cell disease, to reduce morbidity and mortality from sickle cell disease.. punam. ... Genetic and environmental risk factors of asthma and allergic disease; allergic disease epidemiology, progression and ...
Insufficient sleep has been linked to a number of chronic diseases. ... Laboratory research has found that short sleep duration results in metabolic changes that may be linked to obesity. ... It is believed that sleep in childhood and adolescence is particularly important for brain development and that insufficient ... As chronic diseases have assumed an increasingly common role in premature death and illness, interest in the role of sleep ...
  • With some of these disorders, if treated early, brain dysfunction can be reversed. (
  • Metabolic disorders may cause confusion and changes in thinking or reasoning. (
  • To rule out certain brain disorders, an EEG (electroencephalogram), head CT scan , or head MRI scan is usually done. (
  • With some metabolic disorders, treatment may stop or even reverse the dementia symptoms. (
  • Medicines used to treat Alzheimer disease have not been shown to work for these types of disorders. (
  • Until the genes and their mutations that underlie neurological disease are characterized, inherited disorders have to be defined the way clinicians have been classifying disease over the last 2 centuries. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is often asymptomatic, but numerous extrahepatic disorders, especially dermatological diseases, have been recognized in association with HCV infection [1-8]. (
  • The skin diseases frequently associated with HCV include cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis, mixed cryoglobulinaemia, porphyria cutanea tarda and lichen planus, but other skin disorders, such as pruritus, urticaria, erythema multiforme and nodosum, may also be linked to HCV [2]. (
  • neurodevelopmental, metabolic and neuromuscular disorders. (
  • According to the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders , approximately 28 million people in the United States are living with an eating disorder, and an average of 10 % of patients die within ten years of disease onset, making anorexia nervosa one of the deadliest of all psychiatric illnesses. (
  • To learn more about metabolic approaches to mental disorders, including ketogenic therapy, visit Metabolic Mind , a nonprofit initiative of Baszucki Group. (
  • A combination of obesity, age and diabetes is very likely to lead to a decline in cognitive abilities, Alzheimer's disease and other mental health disorders. (
  • Overview of Lysosomal Storage Disorders Lysosomal storage disorders are hereditary metabolic disorders. (
  • Overview of Hereditary Metabolic Disorders Hereditary metabolic disorders are inherited genetic conditions that cause metabolism problems. (
  • Neuroimaging is widely believed to be generally useful for excluding reversible causes of dementia syndrome such as normal-pressure hydrocephalus, brain tumor, and subdural hematoma, and for excluding other likely causes of dementia such as cerebrovascular disease. (
  • A variety of imaging modalities, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral metabolism, have shown characteristic changes in the brain of patients with Alzheimer disease in prodromal and even presymptomatic states. (
  • Mice with impaired cognitive function were also more likely to gain excessive weight due to poor metabolism caused by brain changes. (
  • It does not cross the blood-brain barrier and does not affect the metabolism of levodopa within the central nervous system. (
  • Published in The FASEB Journal , the study found that small overindulgences exacerbated the abnormal mechanisms related to sugar and fat metabolism that exist in people with metabolic syndrome. (
  • Men with metabolic syndrome had worsening symptoms after consuming the shake, including inflammation and disturbed fat metabolism. (
  • In Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease, gangliosides, which are products of fat metabolism, accumulate in brain tissue. (
  • Exposure to ethanol during neurodevelopment modifies crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities in a region-specific manner. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • Crohn's disease, a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease, is a disorder estimated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to afflict more than three million adult Americans. (
  • Carbidopa and Levodopa tablets, USP are a combination of carbidopa and levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and syndrome. (
  • The study included two groups of male volunteers: one group of healthy controls and a second with metabolic syndrome and at least two or more risk factors for heart disease. (
  • In a butanol threshold test, de novo PD-related brain metabolic patterns were associated with olfaction ( P =.018) among patients with isolated RBD but not in patients with de novo PD and prolonged RBD ( P =.21). (
  • Our aim was to measure the CBF, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen use in patients with different severities of middle cerebral artery stenosis or acute stroke by using the arterial spin-labeling and susceptibility-weighted imaging techniques. (
  • Patients with the classic disease also develop persistent and severe self-injurious behavior. (
  • In addition to the classic clinical disease, patients with less severe disease and partial syndromes are increasingly recognized. (
  • In CSF, in patients without central nervous system (CNS) disease/infection, cytokines/chemokines are either undetectable (e.g., interleukin-6 [IL-6], CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL9/MIG) or present at low levels (e.g. (
  • Dr. Yee's previous research focused on neurologic prognostication in patients with critical brain disease. (
  • Around 30-40% of patients with Crohn's disease develop perianal fistulas - an inflamed tunnel between the skin and the inside of the anus. (
  • A large number of patients are diagnosed with Crohn's disease in their late teens to early 20s, and they are contemplating a lifetime of suffering from perianal fistulas," says Florin Selaru, associate professor of medicine and oncology, director of the IBD Center at Hopkins and professor in IBD research at Johns Hopkins Medicine, and one of the senior authors of the paper. (
  • Clinicians are reminded to treat suspected influenza in high-risk outpatients, those with progressive disease, and all hospitalized patients with antiviral medications as soon as possible, regardless of negative rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) results and without waiting for RT-PCR testing results. (
  • As a result, we now know many genetic defects responsible for neurological disease, but frequently we do not know much about the resulting protein product and therefore the pathophysiologic basis for the disease. (
  • Genetic data also will be useful in identifying mutations and polymorphisms that predispose to some of the acquired diseases of the nervous system, some of which are discussed in this article. (
  • [ 7 ] One of the major principles of pathophysiology that has appeared in recent decades is that many acquired diseases have one or several genetic bases (predispositions). (
  • AD is a genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disease that is a common cause of cognitive impairment acquired in midlife and in late life, but its clinical impact is modified by other neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular conditions. (
  • Lesch-Nyhan disease is a genetic disorder associated with 3 major clinical elements: overproduction of uric acid, neurologic disability, and behavioral problems. (
  • Genetic mutations in Lesch-Nyhan disease and its variants are heterogenous and include point mutations leading to amino acid substitution (yellow circles), point mutations leading to premature stop (red squares), insertions (blue triangles), deletions (white lines), and other more complex changes (not shown). (
  • Understand how host genetic variations and sex differences influence the mitochondrial (dys)function and increases the severity and outcomes of cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, heart failure and fatty liver disease. (
  • Wilson disease is a genetic condition in which a person's body cannot handle the normal amount of copper obtained through foods. (
  • UniSA neuroscientist and biochemist Associate Professor Larisa Bobrovskaya says the research adds to the growing body of evidence linking chronic obesity and diabetes with Alzheimer's disease, predicted to reach 100 million cases by 2050. (
  • Notably, insufficient sleep has been linked to the development and management of a number of chronic diseases and conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. (
  • Laboratory research has found that short sleep duration results in metabolic changes that may be linked to obesity. (
  • This prospective cohort study assessed whether PD-related brain metabolic patterns may be used as biomarkers in isolated REM sleep behavior disorder. (
  • The [de novo PD-related brain metabolic patterns] can be an efficient biomarker individually applicable in [isolated REM sleep behavior disorder]," the study authors wrote. (
  • Alzheimer disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by gradual onset of dementia . (
  • It will be led by Dr. Guido Frank , Professor of Psychiatry at UC San Diego School of Medicine, an expert in eating disorder research and brain biology. (
  • For several decades, it has been hypothesized that anorexia nervosa is a metabolic disorder of psychological origin," said Dr. Frank. (
  • Parkinson's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder of the extrapyramidal nervous system affecting the mobility and control of the skeletal muscular system. (
  • An international study led by UniSA neuroscientists Professor Xin-Fu Zhou and Associate Professor Larisa Bobrovskaya has established a clear link between mice fed a high-fat diet for 30 weeks, resulting in diabetes, and a subsequent deterioration in their cognitive abilities, including developing anxiety, depression and worsening Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Women who frequently shift around their sleeping hours could have worse metabolic health outcomes than their peers who stick with a. (
  • Data from the Human Genome Project surely will be useful in identifying mutations in the thousands of genes that must underlie inherited diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. (
  • Dementia is loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. (
  • Dementia due to metabolic causes is a loss of brain function that can occur with abnormal chemical processes in the body. (
  • Outcome varies, depending on the cause of the dementia and the amount of damage to the brain. (
  • Practice parameters for diagnosis and evaluation of dementia, as published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), consider structural brain imaging to be optimal. (
  • The dopamine transporter (DaTScan) is used to distinguish Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer disease. (
  • Neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative diseases (including the shared mechanisms of nerve cell death that contribute to many diseases), Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID), NINDS tissue/cell resources, basic invertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (
  • Genetically modified Alzheimer's disease mice showed a significant deterioration of cognition and pathological changes in the brain while fed the high fat diet. (
  • However, sleep changes in those with Alzheimer's disease are more complex. (
  • Alzheimer's disease causes progressive, irreversible memory loss and affects how individuals think, reason, and behave. (
  • Experts believe that individuals with Alzheimer's disease may have damaged cells in their SCN. (
  • If an individual has Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid sticks together and causes amyloid plaques that negatively affect communication between brain cells. (
  • The changes happened in the thalamus and hippocampus, which are particularly vulnerable to damage from Alzheimer's disease. (
  • People with Alzheimer's disease have tangles of tau protein in their brains, indicating damage to nerve cells. (
  • Our studies will investigate how nutritional ketosis impacts brain circuitry and behavior in anorexia nervosa and ultimately, psychiatric disease. (
  • Hemispheres with occluded MCA (group 3) or acute stroke (group 4) had a significantly lower CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and a significantly higher oxygen extraction fraction than the contralateral hemisphere. (
  • Moreover, the oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the occluded MCA region during acute stroke. (
  • NCT02984137 ) to determine whether PD-related brain metabolic patterns may be used as biomarkers in isolated RBD and to compare metabolic patterns derived from long-stand and de novo PD. (
  • Pathologic hallmarks of the disease include beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and reactive gliosis. (
  • Beta-amyloid is a waste product that can build up in the fluid between brain cells, or neurons. (
  • Some studies suggest that when someone sleeps, the brain clears excess beta-amyloid from the brain. (
  • Research on mice shows that sleep deprivation causes elevated brain beta-amyloid levels. (
  • They found that beta-amyloid levels in the brain increased by about 5% following sleep deprivation. (
  • The relationship between beta-amyloid, tau, and Alzheimer's is complex, and experts understand that high quality sleep allows an individual to clear excess brain proteins. (
  • Current evidence indicates that symptoms of Parkinson's disease are related to depletion of dopamine in the corpus striatum. (
  • This is thought to be the mechanism whereby levodopa relieves symptoms of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Still, they remain unsure whether sleep disruption prompts Alzheimer's, aggravates symptoms, and causes disease progression or whether sleep disruption is a consequence of the disease. (
  • Recent research has found older people in LMICs are at risk of suffering from 34 emerging noncommunicable diseases that lead to chronic diseases and disabilities. (
  • As chronic diseases have assumed an increasingly common role in premature death and illness, interest in the role of sleep health in the development and management of chronic diseases has grown. (
  • Parkinson's disease. (
  • Administration of dopamine is ineffective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease apparently because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Routine structural neuroimaging evaluation has long been based on nonspecific features such as atrophy, which is a late feature in the progression of the disease. (
  • with chemical changes in excreta, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tissues, or sometimes with abnormalities found on images of the brain and other organs. (
  • Notably, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease and irregular heartbeats ( cardiac arrhythmias ) have been found to be more common among those with disordered sleep than their peers without sleep abnormalities. (
  • By utilizing a hydrogel that absorbs body fluids, researchers have produced a brain-machine interface that doesn't trigger a foreign body response. (
  • Can One Junk Food Snack Trigger Metabolic Disease? (
  • One high-calorie snack or meal could be enough to trigger metabolic disease - or make it worse in people who already have it, according to a new report. (
  • Epithelial and immune cell homeostasis in the context of intestinal health and disease. (
  • He has authored 20 original peer-reviewed papers relating to the use of osteopathic manipulation for pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, influenza vaccine, improving immune function, applications of osteopathic philosophy, falls prevention, leg length discrepancies and, most recently, leg edema. (
  • Many of these appear to code for proteins produced in the brain. (
  • We're thrilled to be partnering with Dr. Frank and his team to assess this metabolic approach in those battling anorexia nervosa. (
  • Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease occur when the body lacks enzymes needed to break down gangliosides. (
  • By the mid 1960s, defects that led to the accumulation of metabolic products in the urine, blood, or neural tissues were identified. (
  • Since its decarboxylase inhibiting activity is limited to extracerebral tissues, administration of carbidopa with levodopa makes more levodopa available for transport to the brain. (
  • called sphingolipidoses and are caused by a buildup of gangliosides in the tissues in the brain. (
  • The 19th century saw the first systemic approach to disease through the use of rational, consistent outlines for taking histories and doing physical examinations. (
  • New neuroimaging methods not only facilitate diagnosis of the most common neurodegenerative conditions (particularly AD) after symptom onset but also show diagnostic promise even at very early or presymptomatic phases of the disease. (
  • Ketogenic therapy has been shown to stabilize brain networks and has 100 years of evidence of efficacy in neurological conditions, including epilepsy. (
  • Doctors link increases in this protein with impaired brain function. (
  • Alzheimer's also involves a brain protein called tau, which helps regulate healthy signaling between neuronal cells. (
  • Traumatic brain injury, also referred to as 'head injury', results from an outside force and subsequent complications which can follow and further damage the brain. (
  • In a study using a rat model of Crohn's disease, a biodegradable hydrogel composite loaded with stem cells has shown significant success in treating perianal fistulas (PAF) - one of the many complications of Crohn's disease. (
  • Neurovascular dysfunction, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and cerebral blood flow (CBF) dysregulation and reduction, is increasingly recognized as contributing to Alzheimer disease. (
  • Researchers from Australia and China have published their findings in Metabolic Brain Disease . (
  • Researchers think that Alzheimer's causes cellular changes in the brain, disrupting the sleep-wake cycle, which is a type of circadian rhythm. (
  • With the advances of magnetic resonance technology, the CBF, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen can be measured in MRI. (
  • Arterial spin-labeling and SWI sequences were used to acquire CBF, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. (
  • When this offset a decrease in CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen remained at a normal level. (
  • An occluded MCA led to reduction in both the CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. (
  • A reduction in cerebral blood flow in brain tissue is typically accompanied by a compensatory increase in the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) to maintain normal neuronal function. (
  • It is possible to use both parameters and the arterial oxygen content to derive cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) use, which is of critical importance in the occurrence of stroke. (
  • These include a lack of oxygen, rising pressure, and swelling within the brain. (
  • The current study has examined the effects of moderate maternal exposure to EtOH (10 % v/v in the drinking water) throughout gestation, or gestation and lactation, on crucial 21-day-old offspring Wistar rat brain parameters, such as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and two adenosine triphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase), in major offspring CNS regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons). (
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) results from a trauma to the head, e.g. from a road traffic incident, assault or a fall. (
  • I want to talk to someone about my research proposal (basic research, neural mechanisms, or disease mechanisms). (
  • However, levodopa, the metabolic precursor of dopamine, does cross the blood-brain barrier, and presumably is converted to dopamine in the brain. (
  • Biochemistry of Blood Coagulation, Expression and Alternative Splicing of Tissue Factor (TF) pre-mRNA in the Vasculature, Circulating TF in Health and Disease, TF and the Pathobiology of Cancer, Alternatively Spliced TF and Angiogenesis. (
  • Alzheimer disease is diagnosed via clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging assessments. (
  • The impact of the osteopathic approach on chronic disease and elderly care: Proposals should explore the impact of the osteopathic approach on chronic disease and elderly care through clinical, translational or basic science research. (