A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Cell surface receptors for CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. They are heterotrimeric proteins formed by the association of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with the LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although the receptor regulates neuronal development, it is structurally similar to the cytokine receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6; (RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-6).
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored cell surface receptors that are specific for GLIAL CELL LINE-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS. They form a multi-component receptor complex with PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET and regulate a variety of intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS in conjunction with c-ret protein.
A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nerve tissue proteins are the structural and functional components of neurons and glial cells that make up the nervous system.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit. It is anchored to the cell surface via GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and has specificity for binding to CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. It lacks signal transducing domains which are found on the other two subunits of the receptor.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligand that is specific for the GFRA2 RECEPTOR. Neurturin is essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic NEURONS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A family of closely related nerve growth factors that promote NEURON survival. They bind to GDNF RECEPTORS and stimulate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION through PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
C57BL mice are a commonly used strain of laboratory mice that are inbred to produce consistent and predictable results in scientific research.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.
A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Rats, Inbred F344 are a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in medical research due to their genetic uniformity and susceptibility to various diseases.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (1/3019)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. (2/3019)

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons undergo sprouting around the margins of a striatal wound. The mechanism of this periwound sprouting has been unclear. In this study, we have examined the role played by the macrophage and microglial response that follows striatal injury. Macrophages and activated microglia quickly accumulate after injury and reach their greatest numbers in the first week. Subsequently, the number of both cell types declines rapidly in the first month and thereafter more slowly. Macrophage numbers eventually cease to decline, and a sizable group of these cells remains at the wound site and forms a long-term, highly activated resident population. This population of macrophages expresses increasing amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA with time. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA is also expressed in and around the wound site. Production of this factor is by both activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. The production of these potent dopaminergic neurotrophic factors occurs in a similar spatial distribution to sprouting dopaminergic fibers. Moreover, dopamine transporter-positive dopaminergic neurites can be seen growing toward and embracing hemosiderin-filled wound macrophages. The dopaminergic sprouting that accompanies striatal injury thus appears to result from neurotrophic factor secretion by activated macrophages and microglia at the wound site.  (+info)

BDNF mediates the effects of testosterone on the survival of new neurons in an adult brain. (3/3019)

New neurons are incorporated into the high vocal center (HVC), a nucleus of the adult canary (Serinus canaria) brain that plays a critical role in the acquisition and production of learned song. Recruitment of new neurons in the HVC is seasonally regulated and depends upon testosterone levels. We show here that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in the HVC of adult males but is not detectable in that of females, though the HVC of both sexes has BDNF receptors (TrkB). Testosterone treatment increases the levels of BDNF protein in the female HVC, and BDNF infused into the HVC of adult females triples the number of new neurons. Infusion of a neutralizing antibody to BDNF blocks the testosterone-induced increase in new neurons. Our results demonstrate that BDNF is involved in the regulation of neuronal replacement in the adult canary brain and suggest that the effects of testosterone are mediated through BDNF.  (+info)

Activated human T cells, B cells, and monocytes produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro and in inflammatory brain lesions: a neuroprotective role of inflammation? (4/3019)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has potent effects on neuronal survival and plasticity during development and after injury. In the nervous system, neurons are considered the major cellular source of BDNF. We demonstrate here that in addition, activated human T cells, B cells, and monocytes secrete bioactive BDNF in vitro. Notably, in T helper (Th)1- and Th2-type CD4(+) T cell lines specific for myelin autoantigens such as myelin basic protein or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, BDNF production is increased upon antigen stimulation. The BDNF secreted by immune cells is bioactive, as it supports neuronal survival in vitro. Using anti-BDNF monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antiserum, BDNF immunoreactivity is demonstrable in inflammatory infiltrates in the brain of patients with acute disseminated encephalitis and multiple sclerosis. The results raise the possibility that in the nervous system, inflammatory infiltrates have a neuroprotective effect, which may limit the success of nonselective immunotherapies.  (+info)

Growth factor-mediated Fyn signaling regulates alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor expression in rodent neocortical neurons. (5/3019)

Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) transduce signals to regulate neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. However, the nature of their activators and molecular mechanisms underlying these neural processes are unknown. Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and platelet-derived growth factor enhance expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor 1 and 2/3 proteins in rodent neocortical neurons via the Src-family PTK(s). The increase in AMPA receptor levels was blocked in cultured neocortical neurons by addition of a Src-family-selective PTK inhibitor. Accordingly, neocortical cultures from Fyn-knockout mice failed to respond to BDNF whereas those from wild-type mice responded. Moreover, the neocortex of young Fyn mutants exhibited a significant in vivo reduction in these AMPA receptor proteins but not in their mRNA levels. In vitro kinase assay revealed that BDNF can indeed activate the Fyn kinase: It enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Fyn as well as that of enolase supplemented exogenously. All of these results suggest that the Src-family kinase Fyn, activated by the growth factors, plays a crucial role in modulating AMPA receptor expression during brain development.  (+info)

Differential sorting of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal neurons. (6/3019)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is released through the constitutive secretory pathway from cells in peripheral tissues and nerves where it can act as a target-derived survival factor. In contrast, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be processed in the regulated secretory pathway of brain neurons and secreted in an activity-dependent manner to play a role in synaptic plasticity. To determine whether sorting differences are intrinsic to the neurotrophins or reflect differences between cell types, we compared NGF and BDNF processing in cultured hippocampal neurons using a Vaccinia virus expression system. Three independent criteria (retention or release from cells after pulse-chase labeling, depolarization-dependent release, and immunocytochemical localization) suggest that the bulk of newly synthesized NGF is sorted into the constitutive pathway, whereas BDNF is primarily sorted into the regulated secretory pathway. Similar results occurred with AtT 20 cells, including those transfected with cDNAs encoding neurotrophin precursor-green fluorescent protein fusions. The NGF precursor, but not the BDNF precursor, is efficiently cleaved by the endoprotease furin in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Blocking furin activity in AtT 20 cells with alpha1-PDX as well as increasing the expression of NGF precursor partially directed NGF into the regulated secretory pathway. Therefore, neurotrophins can be sorted into either the constitutive or regulated secretory pathways, and sorting may be regulated by the efficiency of furin cleavage in the TGN. This mechanism may explain how neuron-generated neurotrophins can act both as survival factors and as neuropeptides.  (+info)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents low-frequency inputs from inducing long-term depression in the developing visual cortex. (7/3019)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reported to enhance synaptic transmission and to play a role in long-term potentiation in hippocampus and neocortex. If so, a shortage or blockade of BDNF might lead to another form of synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD). To test this possibility and to elucidate mechanisms if it is the case, EPSCs evoked by test stimulation of layer IV were recorded from layer II/III neurons in visual cortical slices of young rats in the whole-cell voltage-clamp mode. LTD was induced by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) at 1 Hz for 10-15 min if each pulse of the LFS was paired with depolarization of neurons to -30 mV but was not induced if their membrane potentials were kept at -70 mV. Such an LTD was blocked by exogenously applied BDNF, probably through presynaptic mechanisms. Suppression of endogenous BDNF activity by the anti-BDNF antibody or an inhibitor for BDNF receptors made otherwise ineffective stimuli (LFS without postsynaptic depolarization) effective for LTD induction, suggesting that endogenous BDNF may prevent low-frequency inputs from inducing LTD in the developing visual cortex.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (8/3019)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and survival of neurons in the brain. It is produced by neurons themselves and acts as a growth factor, promoting the growth and differentiation of new neurons, as well as the survival of existing ones. BDNF is involved in a wide range of brain functions, including learning, memory, mood regulation, and neuroplasticity, which is the brain's ability to change and adapt in response to new experiences and environmental stimuli. It has also been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. BDNF is synthesized in the brain and released into the extracellular space, where it binds to specific receptors on the surface of neurons, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling pathways that promote neuronal growth and survival. It is also involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, which is the ability of synapses (connections between neurons) to strengthen or weaken in response to changes in their activity. Overall, BDNF is a critical factor in the maintenance and function of the brain, and its dysregulation has been linked to a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is produced by various cells, including astrocytes, microglia, and neurons, and acts on neurons to promote their survival, differentiation, and function. CNTF has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in various neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. It has also been studied as a potential treatment for retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, as it can promote the survival and differentiation of retinal ganglion cells. In addition to its effects on neurons, CNTF has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and to play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism. It is a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines and is encoded by the CNTF gene.

Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. It is produced by glial cells, which are non-neuronal cells that support and protect neurons. GDNF is a neurotrophic factor, which means that it promotes the survival, growth, and differentiation of neurons. It is particularly important for the survival of neurons in the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system, where it helps to maintain the health of sensory and motor neurons. GDNF has been shown to have a number of therapeutic potential applications in the treatment of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as depression and anxiety.

Nerve growth factors (NGFs) are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of the nervous system. They are primarily produced by neurons and Schwann cells, which are glial cells that wrap around and support neurons. NGFs are involved in a variety of processes related to the nervous system, including the growth and survival of neurons, the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the modulation of pain perception. They also play a role in the development of the peripheral nervous system, including the formation of sensory and motor neurons. In the medical field, NGFs have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and traumatic brain injury. They have also been investigated as a potential treatment for peripheral neuropathy, a condition characterized by damage to the nerves that carry sensory and motor signals to and from the body's extremities.

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a protein that plays a role in the development and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is produced by various cells, including neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, and acts on specific receptors on the surface of neurons to regulate their growth, survival, and function. In the medical field, CNTF has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in a variety of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. It has also been investigated as a potential treatment for retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. The receptor for CNTF is a complex protein that consists of several subunits, including the CNTF receptor alpha (CNTFRα), the glycoprotein 130 (gp130), and the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor beta (LIFRβ). These subunits form a heterotrimeric receptor complex that is activated by binding of CNTF, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that regulate various cellular processes, including gene expression, cell survival, and differentiation.

The receptor, trkB, is a type of protein receptor that is found on the surface of cells in the brain and other parts of the body. It is a member of the tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of receptors, which are activated by neurotrophins, a group of signaling molecules that play important roles in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. The trkB receptor is primarily activated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin that is involved in the growth, survival, and differentiation of neurons. Activation of the trkB receptor by BDNF can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including the promotion of neurite outgrowth, the protection of neurons from apoptosis (cell death), and the regulation of synaptic plasticity, which is the ability of synapses (connections between neurons) to change in strength in response to experience. Abnormalities in the function of the trkB receptor have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including depression, anxiety, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. As such, the trkB receptor is an important target for the development of new treatments for these conditions.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptors (GDNF receptors) are a group of proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the nervous system. These receptors are responsible for binding to and responding to a protein called glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which is produced by glial cells and plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neurons. GDNF receptors are important for the survival and differentiation of neurons, and they are also involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and the formation of synapses. In the context of the nervous system, GDNF receptors are thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system, as well as in the central nervous system. Abnormalities in the expression or function of GDNF receptors have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury. As such, GDNF receptors are an important area of research in the field of neurology, and efforts are underway to develop therapies that target these receptors in order to treat or prevent these disorders.

Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. It is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are secreted by neurons and other cells to support the growth, survival, and differentiation of neurons. NT-3 is primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where it is involved in the development and maintenance of sensory and motor neurons. It is also found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and has been implicated in the development and maintenance of sensory neurons in the skin and other tissues. In addition to its role in neurodevelopment, NT-3 has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. It has also been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for these conditions, as well as for other neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury and stroke.

Nerve tissue proteins are proteins that are found in nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins play important roles in the structure and function of neurons, including the transmission of electrical signals along the length of the neuron and the communication between neurons. There are many different types of nerve tissue proteins, each with its own specific function. Some examples of nerve tissue proteins include neurofilaments, which provide structural support for the neuron; microtubules, which help to maintain the shape of the neuron and transport materials within the neuron; and neurofilament light chain, which is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are a hallmark of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Nerve tissue proteins are important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and any disruption in their production or function can lead to neurological disorders.

Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) are proteins found on the surface of certain types of neurons and other cells in the body. NGF receptors play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, particularly in the growth and survival of sensory neurons. There are two main types of NGF receptors: TrkA and p75NTR. TrkA receptors are primarily responsible for mediating the growth-promoting effects of NGF, while p75NTR receptors can have either growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting effects, depending on the context in which they are expressed. NGF receptors are also involved in a variety of other physiological processes, including pain sensation, inflammation, and cancer progression. In the context of cancer, NGF receptors have been shown to play a role in promoting the growth and survival of certain types of tumors, making them an attractive target for cancer therapy.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, including the production, release, and regulation of neurotransmitters, hormones, and other chemical messengers. These chemical processes play a critical role in regulating mood, behavior, cognition, and other aspects of brain function. In the medical field, brain chemistry is often studied in the context of neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction. By understanding the underlying chemical imbalances or abnormalities in the brain, researchers and healthcare providers can develop more effective treatments for these conditions. Some common neurotransmitters and hormones involved in brain chemistry include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and cortisol. Medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers often work by altering the levels of these chemicals in the brain to improve symptoms of various disorders.

Brain injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the brain, which is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. Brain injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, such as a blow to the head, exposure to toxins, infections, or degenerative diseases. Brain injuries can range from mild to severe and can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some common types of brain injuries include concussion, contusion, hematoma, edema, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity and location of the injury, but may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in behavior or personality, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain injuries depends on the severity and type of injury, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. In some cases, rehabilitation may be necessary to help individuals recover from the effects of a brain injury and regain their ability to function in daily life.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-ret is a protein that is involved in the development and progression of cancer. It is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family of proteins, which are involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The c-ret protein is encoded by the RET gene, which is located on chromosome 10. Mutations in the RET gene can lead to the production of a constitutively active c-ret protein, which can cause uncontrolled cell growth and the development of cancer. The c-ret protein is primarily found in cells of the nervous system, but it has also been found in other types of cells, including those in the thyroid gland, lung, and kidney.

In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. It is produced by various cells, including neurons, glial cells, and some immune cells. NGF is involved in the survival, growth, and differentiation of neurons, particularly sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. It also plays a role in the development of the sympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. In addition to its role in the nervous system, NGF has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. NGF is also involved in the development and progression of cancer, and it has been shown to promote the growth and survival of some cancer cells. As a result, it has been targeted as a potential therapeutic target in cancer treatment.

Indole alkaloids are a class of organic compounds that contain an indole ring, which is a six-membered aromatic heterocyclic ring with a nitrogen atom. These compounds are found in a wide variety of plants, including the opium poppy, yew trees, and certain species of fungi. Indole alkaloids have a variety of biological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Some indole alkaloids, such as morphine and codeine, are used as pain relievers in medicine. Others, such as vincristine and vinblastine, are used as anti-cancer drugs.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells in the brain. They can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Brain tumors can occur in any part of the brain and can be primary (originating from brain cells) or secondary (spreading from other parts of the body to the brain). Symptoms of brain neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or hearing, difficulty with balance or coordination, and changes in personality or behavior. Diagnosis of brain neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for brain neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.

Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor alpha Subunit (CNTF-Rα) is a protein that plays a role in the development and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a receptor for the cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which is a protein that promotes the survival and differentiation of neurons. CNTF-Rα is expressed on the surface of neurons and is involved in the regulation of neuronal growth, survival, and function. It is also involved in the development of the retina and the maintenance of the structure and function of the optic nerve. In the medical field, CNTF-Rα is being studied as a potential target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis.

Neurturin is a protein that is involved in the development and function of the nervous system. It is a member of the GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) family of proteins, which are important for the survival and differentiation of neurons. Neurturin is primarily produced by glial cells, which are a type of cell that supports and protects neurons in the nervous system. Neurturin has been shown to play a role in a number of different neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for these conditions, as it may help to protect neurons and promote their survival and function. In addition to its role in neurological disorders, neurturin has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and may be involved in the regulation of immune responses. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as cancer and diabetes.

In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.

In the medical field, "cell survival" refers to the ability of cells to survive and continue to function despite exposure to harmful stimuli or conditions. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, or other forms of stress that can damage or kill cells. Cell survival is an important concept in many areas of medicine, including cancer research, where understanding how cells survive and resist treatment is crucial for developing effective therapies. In addition, understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell survival can also have implications for other areas of medicine, such as tissue repair and regeneration.

In the medical field, a receptor, nerve growth factor (NGF) is a type of protein receptor that is found on the surface of certain cells in the nervous system. NGF receptors are responsible for binding to nerve growth factor, a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. NGF receptors are found on the surface of neurons, which are specialized cells that transmit signals throughout the body. When NGF binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of signaling pathways within the neuron that promote growth, survival, and differentiation. NGF is also involved in the repair and regeneration of damaged neurons, and it has been shown to play a role in the development of certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. In addition to its role in the nervous system, NGF has also been shown to have effects on other types of cells, including immune cells and cancer cells. As a result, NGF and its receptors have become the focus of extensive research in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, and oncology.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

Brain mapping is a technique used in the medical field to create detailed images of the structure and function of the brain. It involves the use of various imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to create three-dimensional maps of the brain's anatomy and activity. The goal of brain mapping is to identify the specific areas of the brain that are responsible for different functions, such as movement, sensation, language, and emotion. By understanding how different parts of the brain work together, researchers and clinicians can better diagnose and treat a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. Brain mapping can also be used to study the effects of drugs, surgery, and other interventions on brain function, and to develop new treatments for neurological and psychiatric conditions. Overall, brain mapping is an important tool in the field of neuroscience, helping researchers and clinicians to better understand the complex workings of the human brain.

TrkC is a type of receptor protein that is found on the surface of certain cells in the body. It is a member of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) family of receptors, which are activated by neurotrophins, a group of signaling molecules that play important roles in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. TrkC receptors are primarily expressed in cells of the peripheral nervous system, such as sensory neurons, and are involved in the development and maintenance of these cells. They are also found in some cells of the central nervous system, although in lower levels. When a neurotrophin binds to a TrkC receptor on the surface of a cell, it triggers a signaling cascade within the cell that leads to a variety of cellular responses, including cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Dysregulation of TrkC signaling has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as peripheral neuropathies.

Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (RPTKs) are a class of cell surface receptors that play a crucial role in cell signaling and communication. These receptors are transmembrane proteins that span the cell membrane and have an extracellular domain that binds to specific ligands, such as hormones, growth factors, or neurotransmitters. When a ligand binds to an RPTK, it triggers a conformational change in the receptor, which activates its intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. This domain then phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues on intracellular proteins, leading to the activation of downstream signaling pathways that regulate various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, migration, and survival. RPTKs are involved in many important physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune responses. However, they can also contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, as mutations in RPTKs can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. Therefore, RPTKs are an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for treating cancer and other diseases.

In the medical field, "Animals, Newborn" typically refers to animals that are less than 28 days old. This age range is often used to describe the developmental stage of animals, particularly in the context of research or veterinary medicine. Newborn animals may require specialized care and attention, as they are often more vulnerable to illness and injury than older animals. They may also have unique nutritional and behavioral needs that must be addressed in order to promote their growth and development. In some cases, newborn animals may be used in medical research to study various biological processes, such as development, growth, and disease. However, the use of animals in research is highly regulated, and strict ethical guidelines must be followed to ensure the welfare and safety of the animals involved.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, responsible for many of the higher functions of the nervous system, including perception, thought, memory, and consciousness. It is composed of two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The cerebral cortex is responsible for processing sensory information from the body and the environment, as well as generating motor commands to control movement. It is also involved in complex cognitive processes such as language, decision-making, and problem-solving. Damage to the cerebral cortex can result in a range of neurological and cognitive disorders, including dementia, aphasia, and apraxia.

Receptor, trkA is a type of protein receptor that is found on the surface of certain cells in the human body. It is a member of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) family of receptors, which are activated by binding to specific ligands called neurotrophins. The trkA receptor is primarily expressed in neurons, and it plays a key role in the development, maintenance, and survival of these cells. Activation of the trkA receptor by its ligand, nerve growth factor (NGF), can stimulate a variety of cellular responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of trkA receptor signaling has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Axotomy refers to the surgical or traumatic severing of a nerve or nerve fiber. This can result in the loss of function in the affected area, as the nerve is no longer able to transmit signals to or from the brain or spinal cord. Axotomy can occur in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic injuries, surgical procedures, and certain diseases such as multiple sclerosis or peripheral neuropathy. Treatment for axotomy may involve medications, physical therapy, or in some cases, surgical repair or reconstruction of the damaged nerve.

Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factors (GDNF) are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and survival of neurons in the nervous system. They are produced by glial cells, which are non-neuronal cells that support and protect neurons. GDNF has been shown to promote the growth and differentiation of neurons, as well as to protect them from damage and degeneration. It is also involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and the formation of synapses, which are the connections between neurons. In the medical field, GDNF has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in a variety of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis. Clinical trials have shown that GDNF can improve motor function and reduce symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease, and it is currently being investigated as a potential treatment for other neurological conditions.

In the medical field, an axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell (neuron) that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body towards other neurons, muscles, or glands. The axon is covered by a myelin sheath, which is a fatty substance that insulates the axon and helps to speed up the transmission of electrical signals. Axons are responsible for transmitting information throughout the nervous system, allowing the brain and spinal cord to communicate with other parts of the body. They are essential for many bodily functions, including movement, sensation, and cognition. Damage to axons can result in a variety of neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and peripheral neuropathy. Treatments for these conditions often focus on preserving and regenerating axons to restore normal function.

Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) is a cytokine protein that plays a role in the regulation of hematopoiesis, which is the process of blood cell formation. It is produced by a variety of cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and some types of cancer cells. LIF has several functions in the body, including promoting the survival and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, which are the cells that give rise to all types of blood cells. It also plays a role in the differentiation of these cells into specific types of blood cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. In the medical field, LIF is being studied as a potential therapeutic agent for a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders. It has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and may be useful in treating inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Brain ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can lead to brain damage or even death. This can happen due to a blockage in one or more of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain, or due to a decrease in the amount of oxygenated blood reaching the brain. Brain ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including stroke, heart disease, high blood pressure, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia. Symptoms of brain ischemia can include headache, confusion, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain ischemia typically involves medications to dissolve blood clots or to reduce blood pressure, as well as surgery in some cases.

The corpus striatum is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in movement control, reward processing, and cognitive functions. It is located in the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain that are involved in a wide range of functions, including motor control, learning, and memory. The corpus striatum is composed of two main structures: the caudate nucleus and the putamen. These structures are interconnected and work together to process information and coordinate movement. The corpus striatum receives input from various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, and sends output to other parts of the brain, including the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Damage to the corpus striatum can result in a range of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. It can also affect cognitive functions, such as learning and memory, and can lead to behavioral and emotional changes.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. It is responsible for controlling many of the body's essential functions, including breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and sleep. The brainstem consists of three main parts: the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. These structures are responsible for regulating many different bodily functions, including sensory perception, motor control, and autonomic functions such as heart rate and breathing. Damage to the brainstem can result in a range of symptoms, including difficulty breathing, changes in heart rate, and loss of consciousness.

Astrocytes are a type of glial cell found in the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. They are star-shaped cells that play a crucial role in supporting and maintaining the health of neurons, which are the nerve cells that transmit information throughout the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes have many functions in the brain, including: 1. Providing structural support to neurons and synapses, the connections between neurons. 2. Regulating the extracellular environment by controlling the levels of ions, neurotransmitters, and other molecules in the brain. 3. Maintaining the blood-brain barrier, which protects the brain from harmful substances in the bloodstream. 4. Participating in the formation and repair of blood vessels in the brain. 5. Modulating the activity of neurons by releasing signaling molecules called gliotransmitters. Astrocytes are also involved in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. Understanding the role of astrocytes in the brain is an active area of research in neuroscience and may lead to new treatments for these and other neurological conditions.

In the medical field, "Behavior, Animal" refers to the study of the actions, responses, and interactions of animals, including humans, with their environment. This field encompasses a wide range of topics, including animal behavior in the wild, animal behavior in captivity, animal behavior in domestic settings, and animal behavior in laboratory settings. Animal behaviorists study a variety of behaviors, including social behavior, mating behavior, feeding behavior, communication behavior, and aggression. They use a variety of research methods, including observational studies, experiments, and surveys, to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive animal behavior. Animal behavior research has important applications in fields such as conservation biology, animal welfare, and veterinary medicine. For example, understanding animal behavior can help conservationists develop effective strategies for protecting endangered species, and it can help veterinarians develop more effective treatments for behavioral disorders in animals.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It is also involved in regulating movement, motivation, and emotional responses. In the medical field, dopamine is often used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a lack of dopamine in the brain. It can also be used to treat high blood pressure, as well as to manage symptoms of depression and schizophrenia. Dopamine is typically administered through injections or intravenous infusions, although it can also be taken orally in some cases.

Receptors, OSM-LIF are a type of cell surface receptors that are expressed on certain cells in the body, including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. These receptors are activated by the binding of specific molecules, such as growth factors or hormones, and play a role in regulating various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. OSM-LIF receptors are a sub-type of the LIF receptor family, which also includes the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor. These receptors are activated by the binding of specific ligands, such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), respectively. In the context of the nervous system, OSM-LIF receptors play a role in regulating the development and function of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. For example, LIF has been shown to promote the survival and differentiation of neurons, while also inhibiting their apoptosis (programmed cell death). Additionally, LIF has been shown to play a role in the regulation of astrocyte and oligodendrocyte function, including the promotion of their proliferation and differentiation. Overall, the OSM-LIF receptor family plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes in the body, including those related to the development and function of the nervous system.

Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit (LIFR-alpha) is a protein that plays a role in the development and differentiation of various cell types, including cells of the immune system. It is a receptor for the cytokine Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), which is involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, and differentiation. LIFR-alpha is expressed on the surface of cells and binds to LIF, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. In the immune system, LIFR-alpha is expressed on various immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, and plays a role in the development and function of these cells. Abnormalities in the expression or function of LIFR-alpha have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurological disorders. For example, mutations in the LIFR-alpha gene have been associated with certain types of leukemia, and LIFR-alpha has been shown to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis.

Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (T3MO) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of tyrosine, an amino acid that is a precursor to many important molecules in the body, including neurotransmitters, hormones, and melanin. T3MO catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which is then converted to dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine by other enzymes. T3MO is primarily found in the brain and adrenal gland, and it is involved in the regulation of mood, motivation, and stress response. Abnormalities in T3MO activity have been linked to a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia.

In the medical field, "cell count" refers to the measurement of the number of cells present in a specific sample of tissue or fluid. This measurement is typically performed using a microscope and a specialized staining technique to distinguish between different types of cells. For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a common laboratory test that measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Similarly, a urine analysis may include a cell count to measure the number of white blood cells or bacteria present in the urine. Cell counts can be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, such as infections, inflammation, or cancer. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments or to detect any changes in the body's cellular makeup over time.

Carbazoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered aromatic ring with two nitrogen atoms. They are structurally similar to benzene, but with two nitrogen atoms replacing two carbon atoms. In the medical field, carbazoles have been studied for their potential use as anti-cancer agents. Some carbazole derivatives have been shown to selectively target and kill cancer cells, while sparing healthy cells. They are also being investigated for their potential use in the treatment of other diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Carbazoles have also been used as fluorescent dyes in biological imaging and as photoactive materials in optoelectronic devices.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the brain tissue, leading to swelling and increased pressure within the skull. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or certain medical conditions such as hypertension or heart failure. Brain edema can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, and even death. Treatment for brain edema typically involves addressing the underlying cause and reducing the pressure within the skull. This may involve medications to reduce inflammation or lower blood pressure, as well as procedures such as surgery to relieve pressure or remove excess fluid. In some cases, supportive care such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation may also be necessary.

Nerve degeneration refers to the progressive loss of function and structure of a nerve over time. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or aging. Nerve degeneration can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on which nerves are affected and the severity of the degeneration. Common symptoms of nerve degeneration include pain, numbness, weakness, and tingling sensations. In some cases, nerve degeneration can lead to more serious complications, such as muscle atrophy or paralysis. Treatment for nerve degeneration typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the degeneration, as well as managing symptoms and preventing further damage to the affected nerves.

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is a protein that is primarily found in astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system. GFAP is a structural protein that helps to maintain the shape and stability of astrocytes, and it is also involved in various cellular processes such as cell signaling and communication. In the medical field, GFAP is often used as a diagnostic marker for certain neurological conditions, particularly those that involve damage or dysfunction of astrocytes. For example, increased levels of GFAP in the cerebrospinal fluid or brain tissue have been associated with a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury. Additionally, GFAP has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for these and other neurological conditions, as it plays a key role in astrocyte function and may be involved in the development and progression of disease.

Cell differentiation is the process by which cells acquire specialized functions and characteristics during development. It is a fundamental process that occurs in all multicellular organisms, allowing cells to differentiate into various types of cells with specific functions, such as muscle cells, nerve cells, and blood cells. During cell differentiation, cells undergo changes in their shape, size, and function, as well as changes in the proteins and other molecules they produce. These changes are controlled by a complex network of genes and signaling pathways that regulate the expression of specific genes in different cell types. Cell differentiation is a critical process for the proper development and function of tissues and organs in the body. It is also involved in tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in the progression of diseases such as cancer, where cells lose their normal differentiation and become cancerous.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.

Blotting, Western is a laboratory technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample by transferring proteins from a gel to a membrane and then incubating the membrane with a specific antibody that binds to the protein of interest. The antibody is then detected using an enzyme or fluorescent label, which produces a visible signal that can be quantified. This technique is commonly used in molecular biology and biochemistry to study protein expression, localization, and function. It is also used in medical research to diagnose diseases and monitor treatment responses.

Cytokine Receptor gp130 is a protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and other physiological processes. It is a type I transmembrane receptor that is expressed on various cell types, including immune cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. gp130 is a component of several cytokine receptor complexes, including the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR), and the oncostatin M receptor (OSMR). These receptors bind to specific cytokines, such as IL-6, LIF, and OSM, and activate gp130, leading to downstream signaling pathways that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. gp130 is also involved in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory diseases. Dysregulation of gp130 signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and targeting gp130 has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy.

Choline O-Acetyltransferase (ChAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in many important functions in the body, including muscle movement, memory, and learning. In the medical field, ChAT is often studied in relation to various neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis. In these conditions, the levels of ChAT may be reduced or abnormal, leading to a deficiency in acetylcholine and potentially contributing to the symptoms of the disease. ChAT is also used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions, such as myasthenia gravis, where it can be measured in the blood or in muscle tissue. Additionally, ChAT inhibitors are being studied as potential treatments for certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, where they may help to increase acetylcholine levels in the brain.

Oxidopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of various physiological processes in the body, including blood pressure, heart rate, and gastrointestinal motility. It is synthesized from dopamine by the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase, which adds a hydroxyl group to the beta position of the dopamine molecule. In the medical field, oxidopamine is used as a medication to increase blood pressure and heart rate in patients with low blood pressure or heart failure. It is typically administered intravenously and works by stimulating the release of norepinephrine from the adrenal glands, which in turn constricts blood vessels and increases heart rate. Oxidopamine is also used in research to study the effects of dopamine on various physiological processes and to develop new treatments for conditions such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.

In the medical field, dendrites are the branched extensions of neurons that receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors. They are responsible for transmitting signals from the dendrites to the cell body of the neuron, where they are integrated and processed before being transmitted to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Dendrites are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and are involved in a wide range of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy.

Axonal transport is the movement of molecules and organelles within the axons of neurons. It is a vital process for maintaining the proper functioning of neurons and the nervous system as a whole. Axonal transport occurs in two main directions: anterograde transport, which moves materials from the cell body towards the axon terminal, and retrograde transport, which moves materials from the axon terminal towards the cell body. There are two main types of axonal transport: fast axonal transport and slow axonal transport. Fast axonal transport is faster and moves larger molecules, such as mitochondria and synaptic vesicles, while slow axonal transport is slower and moves smaller molecules, such as proteins and RNA. Disruptions in axonal transport can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as traumatic brain injury and stroke.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and spinal cord. It is formed by specialized endothelial cells that line the walls of the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord, along with astrocytes and pericytes that support and regulate the BBB. The BBB plays a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis of the brain by regulating the transport of molecules and ions into and out of the brain. It acts as a barrier to prevent harmful substances, such as toxins and pathogens, from entering the brain, while allowing essential nutrients and signaling molecules to pass through. The BBB is also involved in the regulation of immune responses in the brain and spinal cord, and plays a role in the development and progression of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke.

In the medical field, cell death refers to the process by which a cell ceases to function and eventually disintegrates. There are two main types of cell death: apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that occurs naturally in the body as a way to eliminate damaged or unnecessary cells. It is a highly regulated process that involves the activation of specific genes and proteins within the cell. Apoptosis is often triggered by signals from the surrounding environment or by internal cellular stress. Necrosis, on the other hand, is an uncontrolled form of cell death that occurs when cells are damaged or stressed beyond repair. Unlike apoptosis, necrosis is not a programmed process and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, toxins, and physical trauma. Both apoptosis and necrosis can have important implications for health and disease. For example, the loss of cells through apoptosis is a normal part of tissue turnover and development, while the uncontrolled death of cells through necrosis can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation in conditions such as infection, trauma, and cancer.

Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various stimuli, including hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters. In the medical field, CREB is often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and mood disorders. CREB is activated by the binding of cyclic AMP (cAMP), a second messenger molecule that is produced in response to various signaling pathways. Once activated, CREB translocates to the nucleus and binds to specific DNA sequences called cyclic AMP response elements (CREs), which are located in the promoter regions of target genes. This binding leads to the recruitment of other transcription factors and coactivators, which help to promote the transcription of target genes. In cancer, CREB has been shown to play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and migration. In neurodegenerative diseases, CREB has been implicated in the regulation of neuroplasticity and the maintenance of cognitive function. In mood disorders, CREB has been shown to play a role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and the expression of genes involved in mood regulation. Overall, CREB is a key regulator of gene expression in various physiological and pathological processes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in a wide range of diseases and disorders.

In the medical field, aging refers to the natural process of physical, biological, and psychological changes that occur over time in living organisms, including humans. These changes can affect various aspects of an individual's health and well-being, including their metabolism, immune system, cardiovascular system, skeletal system, and cognitive function. Aging is a complex process that is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. As people age, their bodies undergo a gradual decline in function, which can lead to the development of age-related diseases and conditions such as arthritis, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. In the medical field, aging is studied in the context of geriatrics, which is the branch of medicine that focuses on the health and well-being of older adults. Geriatricians work to identify and manage age-related health issues, promote healthy aging, and improve the quality of life for older adults.

Antidepressive agents, also known as antidepressants, are a class of medications that are used to treat depression and other mood disorders. They work by altering the levels of certain chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, which are believed to play a role in regulating mood and emotions. There are several different types of antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and others. Each type of antidepressant works in a slightly different way, and they may be prescribed for different types of depression or other mood disorders. Antidepressants are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed by a healthcare provider. However, they can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sexual dysfunction, and they may interact with other medications or medical conditions. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the risks and benefits of antidepressants, and to follow their instructions carefully.

Valine is an essential amino acid that is required for the growth and maintenance of tissues in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Valine plays a role in the production of energy and the maintenance of muscle tissue. It is also involved in the regulation of blood sugar levels and the production of certain hormones. In the medical field, valine is sometimes used as a dietary supplement to help support muscle growth and recovery, as well as to treat certain medical conditions such as liver disease and muscle wasting.

In the medical field, a chick embryo refers to a fertilized egg of a chicken that has been incubated for a certain period of time, typically between 4 and 21 days, until it has developed into an embryo. Chick embryos are commonly used in scientific research as a model system for studying developmental biology, genetics, and other areas of biology. They are particularly useful for studying the early stages of development, as they can be easily manipulated and observed under a microscope. Chick embryos are also used in some medical treatments, such as in the development of new drugs and therapies.

A brain abscess is a collection of pus that forms in the brain or spinal cord. It is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Brain abscesses can be caused by bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as by injury or inflammation. Symptoms of a brain abscess may include headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, seizures, confusion, and changes in consciousness. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as surgery to drain the abscess and remove any infected tissue.,,。

Neuropeptides are small, protein-like molecules that are synthesized and secreted by neurons in the nervous system. They play a variety of roles in regulating and modulating various physiological processes, including mood, appetite, pain perception, and hormone release. Neuropeptides are typically composed of 3-50 amino acids and are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons. They are then transported to the synaptic terminals, where they are released into the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic neuron or on other cells in the body. There are many different types of neuropeptides, each with its own unique structure and function. Some examples of neuropeptides include dopamine, serotonin, and opioid peptides such as endorphins. Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or hormones, and they play important roles in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

The cerebellum is a part of the brain located at the base of the skull, just above the brainstem. It is responsible for coordinating and regulating many of the body's movements, as well as playing a role in balance, posture, and motor learning. The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, including the eyes, ears, and muscles, and uses this information to fine-tune motor movements and make them more precise and coordinated. It also plays a role in cognitive functions such as attention, language, and memory. Damage to the cerebellum can result in a range of movement disorders, including ataxia, which is characterized by uncoordinated and poorly controlled movements.

Optic nerve injuries refer to any damage or trauma that affects the optic nerve, which is the main nerve responsible for transmitting visual information from the retina to the brain. These injuries can result from a variety of causes, including blunt or penetrating trauma to the eye, head or brain, infections, tumors, or other medical conditions. Optic nerve injuries can cause a range of visual symptoms, including loss of vision, decreased visual acuity, double vision, and sensitivity to light. In some cases, optic nerve injuries can be temporary and resolve on their own, while in other cases, they can be permanent and result in significant vision loss or blindness. Treatment for optic nerve injuries depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the injury. In some cases, treatment may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying cause of the injury. In other cases, treatment may focus on managing symptoms and preserving remaining vision.

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that are involved in regulating cell growth and division. When these genes are mutated or overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, which can lead to the development of cancer. Proto-oncogenes are also known as proto-oncogene proteins.

Synaptophysin is a protein that is found in nerve terminals, where it plays a role in the formation and maintenance of synapses, which are the junctions between neurons where information is transmitted. Synaptophysin is a type of synaptic vesicle protein, which means that it is found in the small sacs, or vesicles, that contain neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules in nerve terminals. Synaptophysin is also used as a diagnostic marker for certain neurological disorders, such as multiple system atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neurotoxin that has been used in research to study the effects of Parkinson's disease on the brain. It is a synthetic compound that is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter dopamine, but it is not able to be broken down by the body's enzymes and instead accumulates in the brain. When MPTP is taken, it is converted into a toxic metabolite that damages the dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that is important for movement control. This leads to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. MPTP has also been used as a recreational drug, but it can be highly toxic and can cause serious harm or death if taken in large amounts.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are a type of injury that occurs when the spinal cord is damaged or disrupted, usually as a result of trauma or disease. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the back of the neck and lower back, and it is responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body. When the spinal cord is injured, it can result in a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the injury. These can include loss of sensation or movement in the affected area, difficulty with bladder or bowel control, and changes in sexual function. SCI can be caused by a variety of factors, including car accidents, falls, sports injuries, and acts of violence. Treatment for SCI typically involves a combination of medical and rehabilitative care, and the goal is to help individuals with SCI regain as much function as possible and improve their quality of life.

Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.

In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.

In the medical field, "Spirostans" refers to a class of drugs that are used to treat various types of cancer. Spirostans are a type of chemotherapy drug that work by interfering with the growth and division of cancer cells. They are often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to increase their effectiveness. There are several different types of spirostans, including docetaxel, paclitaxel, and nab-paclitaxel. These drugs are typically administered intravenously (through a vein) and can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and hair loss. They can also cause more serious side effects, such as low blood cell counts, liver damage, and allergic reactions. Spirostans are used to treat a variety of cancers, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. They are often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs or radiation therapy to increase their effectiveness.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common cause of dementia, a condition characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life. The disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits in the brain, including amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. These deposits disrupt the normal functioning of brain cells, leading to their death and the progressive loss of cognitive abilities. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease typically begin with mild memory loss and gradually worsen over time. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience difficulty with language, disorientation, and changes in personality and behavior. Eventually, they may become unable to care for themselves and require around-the-clock care. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease. These treatments may include medications, lifestyle changes, and support from caregivers and healthcare professionals.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is a complex network of nerves and neurons that controls and coordinates all bodily functions in the human body. It is composed of the brain and spinal cord, which are protected by the skull and vertebral column, respectively. The brain is the control center of the CNS and is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling movement, regulating bodily functions, and governing emotions and thoughts. It is divided into several regions, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure that extends from the base of the brain down through the vertebral column. It serves as a communication pathway between the brain and the rest of the body, transmitting signals from the body's sensory receptors to the brain and from the brain to the body's muscles and glands. Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system, which is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, and emotion.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, the nerve cells that make up the brain and spinal cord. These diseases are typically associated with aging, although some can occur at a younger age. Neurodegenerative diseases can affect different parts of the brain and spinal cord, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some of the most common neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The exact causes of neurodegenerative diseases are not fully understood, but they are believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some neurodegenerative diseases are caused by mutations in specific genes, while others may be triggered by exposure to toxins, infections, or other environmental factors. Treatment for neurodegenerative diseases is often focused on managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. This may involve medications, physical therapy, speech therapy, and other forms of supportive care. While there is currently no cure for most neurodegenerative diseases, ongoing research is aimed at developing new treatments and improving the quality of life for people living with these conditions.

Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process that occurs naturally in the body. It is a vital mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and eliminating damaged or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, cells undergo a series of changes that ultimately lead to their death and removal from the body. These changes include chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which are engulfed by neighboring cells or removed by immune cells. Apoptosis plays a critical role in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune function. However, when apoptosis is disrupted or dysregulated, it can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of various tissues in the human body. It is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family of proteins, which are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. In the medical field, FGF2 is often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. For example, FGF2 has been shown to promote the growth and survival of cancer cells, making it a potential target for cancer therapy. It has also been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease, as it can stimulate the growth of blood vessels and contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, FGF2 plays a role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, and has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. It is also involved in the regulation of bone growth and remodeling, and has been studied in the context of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Overall, FGF2 is a complex and multifaceted protein that plays a critical role in many different biological processes, and its function and regulation are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.

In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.

Dendritic spines are small protrusions on the dendrites of neurons, which are the branching extensions of the cell body that receive signals from other neurons. These spines are important for the formation and function of synapses, which are the junctions between neurons where information is transmitted. In the medical field, dendritic spines are of particular interest because they are thought to play a role in the development and progression of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Changes in the structure and number of dendritic spines have been observed in the brains of individuals with these conditions, and research is ongoing to better understand the relationship between dendritic spine abnormalities and these disorders. In addition to their role in neurological disorders, dendritic spines are also important for normal brain function and development. They are thought to be involved in learning, memory, and other cognitive processes, and changes in dendritic spine structure and function have been linked to cognitive impairments in both healthy individuals and those with neurological disorders.

Secondary Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson's disease with a known cause) is a type of Parkinson's disease that is caused by an underlying medical condition or exposure to a toxic substance. Unlike primary Parkinson's disease, which is of unknown cause, secondary Parkinson's disease has a specific cause that can be identified. The underlying causes of secondary Parkinson's disease can include: 1. Exposure to toxins: Exposure to certain toxins, such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals, can increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. 2. Infections: Certain infections, such as viral infections, can increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. 3. Medications: Certain medications, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants, can increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. 4. Genetic factors: Some people may be more susceptible to developing Parkinson's disease due to genetic factors. 5. Head injuries: Head injuries, particularly those that result in traumatic brain injury, can increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Secondary Parkinson's disease can present with similar symptoms to primary Parkinson's disease, including tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. However, the symptoms may be more severe and progress more quickly in secondary Parkinson's disease. Treatment for secondary Parkinson's disease may involve addressing the underlying cause, as well as managing the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Oncostatin M (OSM) is a cytokine that belongs to the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of proteins. It is primarily produced by activated immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, and has been shown to play a role in the regulation of immune responses, inflammation, and cancer. In the context of cancer, OSM has been shown to promote tumor growth and invasion by stimulating the proliferation and survival of cancer cells, as well as by promoting angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels that supply tumors with nutrients and oxygen). OSM has also been shown to suppress the immune response against cancer cells, allowing them to evade detection and destruction by the immune system. As a result, OSM has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. Several drugs that target OSM or its receptor have been developed and are currently being tested in clinical trials.

Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that affects movement. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in controlling movement. The symptoms of Parkinson's disease typically develop gradually and may include tremors, stiffness, slow movement, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Other common symptoms may include loss of smell, constipation, sleep disturbances, and cognitive changes. Parkinson's disease is usually diagnosed based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuroimaging tests. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and other treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for people with the condition.

In the medical field, "Culture Media, Conditioned" refers to a type of growth medium that has been prepared by adding nutrients and other components to a basic medium, such as agar, to support the growth of specific microorganisms. The term "conditioned" indicates that the medium has been treated or modified in some way to enhance the growth of the target microorganisms. Conditioned culture media are often used in diagnostic microbiology to isolate and identify specific microorganisms from clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or sputum. The medium may be further conditioned by adding specific supplements or antibiotics to inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms and promote the growth of the target organism. Overall, conditioned culture media are an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as they allow healthcare professionals to accurately identify the causative agent and select the most effective antimicrobial therapy.

In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.

Huntington's Disease (HD) is a genetic disorder that affects the brain and is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function, movement control, and emotional stability. It is caused by a mutation in the HTT gene, which leads to the production of an abnormal protein called huntingtin. This protein accumulates in brain cells, causing them to degenerate and die, particularly in the areas of the brain responsible for movement, cognition, and emotion. HD is an inherited disorder, meaning that it is passed down from parents to their children through their genes. The severity of the disease can vary widely among affected individuals, and symptoms typically begin to appear in mid-life, around the age of 40-50. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience a range of symptoms, including difficulty with movement, slurred speech, memory loss, mood swings, and personality changes. There is currently no cure for HD, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for affected individuals. These may include medications to control movement disorders, therapy to improve cognitive function and emotional stability, and support services to help individuals and their families cope with the challenges of the disease.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant medication that is used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and other conditions such as chronic pain, insomnia, and enuresis (bedwetting). It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which can help to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety. Imipramine is usually taken orally in tablet form and may take several weeks to start working. It can cause side effects such as dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness.

Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.

Kainic acid is a chemical compound that is naturally found in the brains of certain animals, including humans. It is a non-competitive antagonist of the glutamate receptors, which are a type of neurotransmitter receptor that plays a key role in the transmission of signals between nerve cells in the brain. When kainic acid binds to these receptors, it blocks the normal transmission of signals, leading to a range of effects on the brain and nervous system. In the medical field, kainic acid is sometimes used as a tool to study the function of the glutamate receptors and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. It is also used in some experimental treatments for these conditions, although its use in humans is generally limited due to its potential for causing serious side effects, including seizures, psychosis, and even death.

Glutamic acid is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body and is essential for various bodily functions. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, but it is still important for maintaining good health. In the medical field, glutamic acid is sometimes used as a medication to treat certain conditions. For example, it is used to treat epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Glutamic acid is also used to treat certain types of brain injuries, such as stroke, by promoting the growth of new brain cells. In addition to its medicinal uses, glutamic acid is also an important component of the diet. It is found in many foods, including meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, and grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement.

Brain infarction, also known as a stroke, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to the death of brain cells in that area. This can be caused by a blockage in a blood vessel (ischemic stroke) or by bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). The symptoms of brain infarction can vary depending on the location and size of the affected area of the brain. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Treatment for brain infarction depends on the cause and severity of the stroke. In some cases, medications may be used to dissolve blood clots or prevent further blood clots from forming. In other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blockage or repair damaged blood vessels. Rehabilitation may also be necessary to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.

Hypoxia, brain refers to a condition in which the brain is not receiving enough oxygen. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including low oxygen levels in the blood, decreased blood flow to the brain, or damage to the blood vessels that supply oxygen to the brain. Hypoxia, brain can have serious consequences, as the brain is highly sensitive to oxygen deprivation. It can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, dizziness, headache, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can cause permanent brain damage or even death. Treatment for hypoxia, brain depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, it may involve increasing oxygen levels in the blood through oxygen therapy or administering medications to improve blood flow to the brain. In other cases, it may require more aggressive interventions, such as surgery or mechanical ventilation. Early recognition and treatment of hypoxia, brain are critical for preventing long-term complications and improving outcomes.

Denervation refers to the loss of nerve supply to a particular tissue or organ. This can occur due to various reasons such as injury, disease, or surgical removal of the nerve. When a tissue or organ is denervated, it loses its ability to receive signals from the nervous system, which can lead to a range of symptoms and complications. In the medical field, denervation can have significant implications for the diagnosis and treatment of various conditions. For example, denervation of the muscles can lead to muscle weakness or paralysis, while denervation of the heart can lead to arrhythmias or other cardiac problems. In some cases, denervation may be reversible with appropriate treatment, while in other cases it may be permanent.

Receptors, Cytokine are proteins that are present on the surface of cells and are responsible for binding to specific cytokines, which are signaling molecules that play a crucial role in regulating immune responses, cell growth, and differentiation. Cytokine receptors are typically found on the surface of immune cells, such as T cells and B cells, as well as on other cell types, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. When a cytokine binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a signaling cascade within the cell that can lead to a variety of cellular responses, such as the activation or suppression of immune cells, the promotion of cell growth or differentiation, or the regulation of inflammation. Dysregulation of cytokine signaling can contribute to a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of cytokine receptors is an important area of research in the medical field.

Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that develops from immature nerve cells, called neuroblasts, in the sympathetic nervous system. It is most commonly found in children, although it can also occur in adults. Neuroblastoma can occur anywhere in the body where neuroblasts are present, but it most often affects the adrenal glands, the neck, and the chest. The symptoms of neuroblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include abdominal pain, swelling, and a lump or mass in the abdomen or neck. Treatment for neuroblastoma typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Autoradiography is a technique used in the medical field to visualize the distribution of radioactive substances within a biological sample. It involves exposing a sample to a small amount of a radioactive tracer, which emits radiation as it decays. The emitted radiation is then detected and recorded using a special film or imaging device, which produces an image of the distribution of the tracer within the sample. Autoradiography is commonly used in medical research to study the metabolism and distribution of drugs, hormones, and other substances within the body. It can also be used to study the growth and spread of tumors, as well as to investigate the structure and function of cells and tissues. In some cases, autoradiography can be used to visualize the distribution of specific proteins or other molecules within cells and tissues.

Drosophila proteins are proteins that are found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a widely used model organism in genetics and molecular biology research. These proteins have been studied extensively because they share many similarities with human proteins, making them useful for understanding the function and regulation of human genes and proteins. In the medical field, Drosophila proteins are often used as a model for studying human diseases, particularly those that are caused by genetic mutations. By studying the effects of these mutations on Drosophila proteins, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. Drosophila proteins have also been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, and neurobiology. For example, researchers have used Drosophila to study the role of specific genes and proteins in the development of the nervous system, as well as the mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases (ERKs) are a family of protein kinases that play a crucial role in cellular signaling pathways. They are activated by various extracellular signals, such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones, and regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. ERKs are part of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is a highly conserved signaling cascade that is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. The MAPK pathway consists of three main kinase modules: the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K), the MAPK kinase (MAP2K), and the MAPK. ERKs are the downstream effector kinases of the MAPK pathway and are activated by phosphorylation by MAP2Ks in response to extracellular signals. ERKs are widely expressed in many different cell types and tissues, and their activity is tightly regulated by various mechanisms, including feedback inhibition by phosphatases and protein-protein interactions. Dysregulation of ERK signaling has been implicated in many human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of ERK signaling and developing targeted therapies to modulate ERK activity are important areas of ongoing research in the medical field.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is commonly used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and bulimia nervosa. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, and other functions. Fluoxetine is usually taken orally and may take several weeks to start working. Common side effects of fluoxetine include nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, and sexual dysfunction. It is important to note that fluoxetine should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and may not be suitable for everyone.

GAP-43 protein, also known as growth associated protein 43, is a protein that plays a role in the growth and development of neurons in the brain and nervous system. It is involved in the formation of new connections between neurons, a process known as synaptogenesis, and is also involved in the maintenance of existing connections. GAP-43 protein is thought to play a role in the development of the nervous system by promoting the growth and branching of axons, which are the long projections of neurons that transmit signals to other cells. It is also involved in the formation of synapses, which are the junctions between neurons where signals are transmitted. In addition to its role in the development of the nervous system, GAP-43 protein has also been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. It is thought that changes in the levels or function of GAP-43 protein may contribute to the development or progression of these disorders. Overall, GAP-43 protein is an important molecule in the development and function of the nervous system, and its role in neurological disorders is an active area of research.

Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor found in the central nervous system. They are named after the agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which binds to and activates these receptors. NMDA receptors are important for a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection. They are also involved in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes composed of two subunits, NR1 and NR2, which can be differentially expressed in various brain regions and cell types. The NR2 subunit determines the pharmacological properties and functional profile of the receptor, while the NR1 subunit is essential for receptor function. Activation of NMDA receptors requires the binding of both glutamate and a co-agonist, such as glycine or d-serine, as well as the depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. This leads to the opening of a cation-permeable channel that allows the influx of calcium ions, which can trigger various intracellular signaling pathways and modulate gene expression. In summary, NMDA receptors are a type of glutamate receptor that play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system.

Stilbamidines are a class of synthetic organic compounds that are structurally related to the stilbene group. They have been used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including glaucoma, high blood pressure, and depression. Some stilbamidines have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of cancer and other diseases.

Retinal degeneration is a group of eye diseases that cause damage to the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. The retina contains specialized cells called photoreceptors that convert light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain, where they are interpreted as visual images. When the photoreceptors are damaged or destroyed, the retina loses its ability to detect light, leading to vision loss or blindness. Retinal degeneration can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, aging, exposure to toxins or radiation, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or hypertension. There are several types of retinal degeneration, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease, and retinitis pigmentosa, each with its own specific characteristics and progression. Treatment for retinal degeneration depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be recommended to slow the progression of the disease. In other cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to preserve or restore vision.

Corticosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex in response to stress. It plays a key role in the body's stress response and helps regulate metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure. Corticosterone is also involved in the development and maintenance of bone tissue, and it has anti-inflammatory effects. In the medical field, corticosterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. It is available as a prescription medication and is typically administered orally or by injection.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the central nervous system. It is a non-protein amino acid that is synthesized from glutamate in the brain and spinal cord. GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning that it reduces the activity of neurons and helps to calm and relax the brain. In the medical field, GABA is often used as a treatment for anxiety disorders, insomnia, and epilepsy. It is available as a dietary supplement and can also be prescribed by a doctor in the form of medication. GABA supplements are believed to help reduce feelings of anxiety and promote relaxation by increasing the levels of GABA in the brain. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of GABA on the human body and to determine the most effective ways to use it as a treatment.

The amygdala is a small almond-shaped structure located deep within the temporal lobes of the brain. It is part of the limbic system, which is responsible for regulating emotions, memory, and behavior. The amygdala plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. It receives sensory information from the thalamus and evaluates it for potential threats or danger. If a threat is detected, the amygdala sends signals to other parts of the brain, such as the hypothalamus and the brainstem, to initiate a fight-or-flight response. The amygdala is also involved in the formation and retrieval of emotional memories. It helps to consolidate emotional memories and store them in long-term memory, which can be important for learning from past experiences and avoiding similar situations in the future. In addition to its role in emotion regulation and memory, the amygdala is also involved in other functions, such as social behavior, decision-making, and addiction. Damage to the amygdala can result in a range of emotional and behavioral problems, including anxiety disorders, depression, and aggression.

Diazinon is an organophosphate insecticide that has been used in agriculture and medicine to control pests and parasites. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. When acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, acetylcholine builds up in the nervous system, leading to overstimulation and potentially causing symptoms such as muscle twitching, weakness, and respiratory failure. Diazinon has been associated with a range of adverse health effects, including neurological damage, reproductive problems, and cancer. It is no longer used in the United States due to its toxicity and potential health risks.

Coculture techniques refer to the process of growing two or more different cell types together in a single culture dish or flask. This is commonly used in the medical field to study interactions between cells, such as how cancer cells affect normal cells or how immune cells respond to pathogens. Coculture techniques can be used in a variety of ways, including co-culturing cells from different tissues or organs, co-culturing cells with different cell types, or co-culturing cells with microorganisms or other foreign substances. Coculture techniques can also be used to study the effects of drugs or other treatments on cell interactions. Overall, coculture techniques are a valuable tool in the medical field for studying cell interactions and developing new treatments for diseases.

Cell proliferation refers to the process of cell division and growth, which is essential for the maintenance and repair of tissues in the body. In the medical field, cell proliferation is often studied in the context of cancer, where uncontrolled cell proliferation can lead to the formation of tumors and the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body. In normal cells, cell proliferation is tightly regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways and feedback mechanisms that ensure that cells divide only when necessary and that they stop dividing when they have reached their full capacity. However, in cancer cells, these regulatory mechanisms can become disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and the formation of tumors. In addition to cancer, cell proliferation is also important in other medical conditions, such as wound healing, tissue regeneration, and the development of embryos. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell proliferation is therefore critical for developing new treatments for cancer and other diseases.

In the medical field, cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and using information. It encompasses a wide range of mental functions, including perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive abilities are essential for daily functioning and can be affected by various medical conditions, such as brain injuries, neurological disorders, and mental illnesses. In medical settings, cognitive assessments are often used to evaluate a patient's cognitive abilities and diagnose any underlying conditions that may be affecting them. Cognitive therapy is also a type of psychotherapy that focuses on improving cognitive processes to alleviate symptoms of mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are a group of proteins that are produced as a normal byproduct of metabolism in the brain. They are formed from the cleavage of a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) by enzymes called beta-secretase and gamma-secretase. In healthy individuals, Aβ peptides are cleared from the brain by a process called phagocytosis, in which immune cells called microglia engulf and degrade the peptides. However, in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the clearance of Aβ peptides is impaired, leading to the accumulation of these peptides in the brain. The accumulation of Aβ peptides in the brain is thought to play a key role in the development of AD. The peptides can form insoluble aggregates called amyloid plaques, which are a hallmark of AD. These plaques can disrupt the normal functioning of neurons and contribute to the cognitive decline associated with the disease. In addition to their role in AD, Aβ peptides have also been implicated in other neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia.

Methionine is an essential amino acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is involved in the metabolism of proteins, the synthesis of important molecules such as carnitine and choline, and the detoxification of harmful substances in the liver. In the medical field, methionine is often used as a dietary supplement to support liver function and to treat certain medical conditions. For example, methionine is sometimes used to treat liver disease, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatitis C, as it can help to reduce liver inflammation and improve liver function. Methionine is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer, as it can help to slow the growth of cancer cells and reduce the risk of tumor formation. In addition, methionine is sometimes used in the treatment of certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, as it can help to improve cognitive function and reduce the risk of neurodegeneration. Overall, methionine is an important nutrient that plays a vital role in many aspects of human health, and its use in the medical field is an important area of ongoing research and development.

Phenelzine is a medication that is used to treat depression. It is a type of antidepressant called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). MAOIs work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which can help to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression. Phenelzine is typically used to treat severe depression that has not responded to other treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). It is usually taken once or twice a day, and the dosage may need to be adjusted based on the individual's response to the medication. Phenelzine can cause side effects, such as dizziness, nausea, and dry mouth, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking it.

Brain tissue transplantation is a medical procedure in which healthy brain tissue is transplanted into a patient's brain to replace damaged or diseased tissue. This procedure is typically used to treat neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The transplantation process involves removing healthy brain tissue from a donor, typically a brain-dead individual, and then surgically implanting it into the patient's brain. The transplanted tissue can either be used to replace damaged tissue in a specific area of the brain or to provide a source of healthy cells that can help to regenerate damaged tissue. While brain tissue transplantation has shown promise in preclinical studies, it is still a relatively new and experimental procedure, and there are many challenges associated with its use in humans. These challenges include finding suitable donors, ensuring that the transplanted tissue is properly matched to the patient, and preventing rejection of the transplanted tissue by the patient's immune system.

N-Methylaspartate (NMA) is a chemical compound that is found in the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid that is structurally similar to aspartate, another amino acid that is important for the proper functioning of the nervous system. NMA is thought to play a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. In the medical field, NMA is often used as a research tool to study the function of the nervous system and to develop new treatments for neurological disorders.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos are a group of proteins that play a role in cell growth and differentiation. They are encoded by the c-fos gene and are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In normal cells, c-fos proteins are expressed at low levels and play a role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. However, in cancer cells, the expression of c-fos proteins is often increased, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of cancer. Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos are therefore considered to be oncogenes, which are genes that have the potential to cause cancer.

In the medical field, "Trauma, Nervous System" refers to damage or injury to the nervous system as a result of physical trauma, such as a blow to the head, neck, or spine. This can result in a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, numbness or weakness in the extremities, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and changes in behavior or mood. In severe cases, trauma to the nervous system can lead to paralysis, loss of consciousness, or even death. Treatment for trauma to the nervous system typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and rehabilitation to help patients recover as much function as possible.

Cell transplantation is a medical treatment that involves the transfer of healthy cells from one part of the body to another to replace damaged or diseased cells. The cells can be derived from the patient's own body or from a donor. There are several types of cell transplantation, including bone marrow transplantation, cord blood transplantation, and stem cell transplantation. These treatments are used to treat a variety of conditions, including leukemia, lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injuries. During cell transplantation, the healthy cells are typically harvested from the donor or the patient's own body and then infused into the recipient's bloodstream or directly into the affected area. The cells then migrate to the damaged or diseased area and begin to replace the damaged cells. Cell transplantation is a complex and often risky procedure, and it is typically reserved for patients with severe or life-threatening conditions. However, it has the potential to provide significant benefits to patients who are not responsive to other treatments.

Saposins are a group of enzymes that are involved in the degradation of sphingolipids, which are a type of lipid found in cell membranes. There are four different types of saposins, named Saposin A, B, C, and D, each with a specific function in the body. Saposins play a crucial role in the functioning of lysosomes, which are organelles within cells that contain enzymes responsible for breaking down various types of cellular waste. Saposins help to activate these enzymes by binding to them and facilitating their entry into the lysosome. Deficiencies in saposins can lead to a group of inherited disorders known as sphingolipidoses, which are characterized by the accumulation of sphingolipids in various tissues throughout the body. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including neurological problems, skin abnormalities, and organ damage. In the medical field, saposins are used as diagnostic tools to help identify and monitor sphingolipidoses, and they are also being studied as potential therapeutic targets for these disorders.

Sodium benzoate is a preservative that is commonly used in the medical field to prevent the growth of microorganisms in various medical products, such as injectable solutions, eye drops, and topical creams. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and is often added to solutions in concentrations of 0.1% to 1%. Sodium benzoate works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, fungi, and yeasts by disrupting their metabolic processes. It is generally considered safe for use in medical products, but high concentrations can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some individuals. In addition to its use as a preservative, sodium benzoate has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and may be useful in the treatment of certain conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic applications.

Chronic brain damage refers to a type of damage that occurs over a prolonged period of time, typically months or years, and can result from a variety of causes such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, or substance abuse. Chronic brain damage can lead to a range of cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments, including memory loss, difficulty with language and communication, mood disorders, motor dysfunction, and changes in personality. The severity and extent of the damage can vary depending on the location and extent of the injury, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and other factors. Treatment for chronic brain damage typically involves a combination of medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. In some cases, rehabilitation may also be necessary to help individuals regain lost skills and function.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals between nerve cells in the brain and throughout the body. It plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and other bodily functions. In the medical field, serotonin is often studied in relation to mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Low levels of serotonin have been linked to these conditions, and medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often prescribed to increase serotonin levels in the brain and improve symptoms. Serotonin is also involved in the regulation of pain perception, blood pressure, and other bodily functions. Imbalances in serotonin levels have been implicated in a variety of medical conditions, including migraines, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is a synthetic analog of the nucleoside thymidine, which is a building block of DNA. It is commonly used in the medical field as a marker for DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. BrdU is incorporated into newly synthesized DNA during the S phase of the cell cycle, when DNA replication occurs. This makes it possible to detect cells that are actively dividing by staining for BrdU. BrdU staining is often used in immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry to study the proliferation of cells in various tissues and organs, including the brain, bone marrow, and skin. BrdU is also used in some cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, to target rapidly dividing cancer cells. By inhibiting DNA synthesis, BrdU can slow down or stop the growth of cancer cells, making them more susceptible to treatment. However, it is important to note that BrdU can also cause DNA damage and has been associated with an increased risk of cancer in some studies. Therefore, its use in medical research and treatment should be carefully monitored and regulated.

Parkinsonian Disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by the presence of symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, stiffness, slowness of movement, and postural instability. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to certain toxins, and brain injury. Parkinsonian Disorders can be further classified into several subtypes, including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. Treatment for Parkinsonian Disorders typically involves medications to manage symptoms and may also include physical therapy, occupational therapy, and surgery in some cases.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by a variety of cells, including immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, as well as non-immune cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. IL-6 has a wide range of functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting inflammation, and stimulating the growth and differentiation of immune cells. It is also involved in the regulation of metabolism, bone metabolism, and hematopoiesis (the production of blood cells). In the medical field, IL-6 is often measured as a marker of inflammation and is used to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, as well as for the management of chronic pain and other conditions.

Cytoprotection is a term used in the medical field to describe the process of protecting cells from damage or injury. This can be achieved through various mechanisms, such as the production of antioxidants, the activation of cellular repair pathways, or the inhibition of cell death pathways. In the context of medicine, cytoprotection is often used to describe the use of drugs or other interventions to protect cells from damage caused by various factors, such as toxins, infections, or radiation. For example, some drugs used in chemotherapy are cytoprotective, as they help to protect healthy cells from the toxic effects of the chemotherapy drugs. Cytoprotection is also an important concept in the field of neurology, where it is used to describe the use of drugs or other interventions to protect neurons from damage caused by conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Overall, cytoprotection is a critical process for maintaining the health and function of cells, and understanding the mechanisms of cytoprotection is an important area of research in medicine and biology.

Antidepressive agents, tricyclic, are a class of medications that were originally developed in the 1950s and are used to treat depression and other mood disorders. They are called "tricyclic" because they have three rings of atoms in their chemical structure. Tricyclic antidepressants work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood. They are typically taken orally and can take several weeks to start working. While tricyclic antidepressants are effective in treating depression, they can also have side effects such as dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. They can also interact with other medications and may not be safe for everyone to take, particularly those with certain medical conditions or who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Tricyclic antidepressants are no longer the first-line treatment for depression, but they may still be prescribed in certain cases, particularly for older adults or those with more severe depression.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant medication that is used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and other conditions. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, which can help to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety. Desipramine is typically prescribed for the treatment of major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder. It may also be used to treat other conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder, and chronic pain. Desipramine is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's condition and response to the medication. It is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to report any side effects or changes in your symptoms to your healthcare provider.

Neurofilament proteins are a group of proteins that are primarily found in the axons of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. They are important structural components of the neuronal cytoskeleton and play a role in maintaining the shape and stability of axons. There are three main types of neurofilament proteins: neurofilament light (NF-L), neurofilament medium (NF-M), and neurofilament heavy (NF-H). These proteins are encoded by different genes and have different molecular weights and functions. Abnormalities in the expression or function of neurofilament proteins have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia, and multiple sclerosis. In these conditions, the accumulation of abnormal neurofilament proteins in the brain and spinal cord can lead to the degeneration of neurons and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are characteristic hallmarks of these diseases.

Quinolinic acid is a naturally occurring compound that is found in the body and is also produced by certain bacteria. It is a derivative of the quinoline ring, which is a type of aromatic heterocyclic compound. Quinolinic acid is involved in a number of biological processes, including the metabolism of tryptophan and the production of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), a coenzyme that plays a key role in energy metabolism. In the medical field, quinolinic acid has been studied for its potential role in a number of conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, as well as certain types of cancer. Some research has suggested that high levels of quinolinic acid may be associated with an increased risk of these conditions, while other studies have found that quinolinic acid may have potential therapeutic benefits. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of quinolinic acid in health and disease.

Rett Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that primarily affects girls and is characterized by a regression in motor skills, speech, and social abilities after a period of normal development. The symptoms of Rett Syndrome typically begin to appear between 6 and 18 months of age and include hand wringing, repetitive movements, loss of speech, and difficulty with walking and eating. The exact cause of Rett Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be caused by a mutation in the MECP2 gene. There is currently no cure for Rett Syndrome, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and improve the quality of life for those affected.

MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) poisoning is a neurological disorder caused by exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP. MPTP is a naturally occurring compound found in some species of bacteria and plants, but it is also a byproduct of the illegal synthesis of the drug MDMA (ecstasy). MPTP poisoning typically occurs when individuals accidentally ingest MPTP or its contaminated derivatives, such as contaminated street drugs or contaminated cosmetics. MPTP poisoning affects the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that is responsible for producing dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in movement. When these neurons are damaged or destroyed, it can lead to a condition called Parkinson's disease-like syndrome, which is characterized by symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. MPTP poisoning is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as medications to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to implant a device that can help control movement.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes that play a critical role in cellular signaling pathways. They are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, migration, and metabolism. PI3Ks are activated by various extracellular signals, such as growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and they generate second messengers by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol lipids on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. This leads to the recruitment and activation of downstream effector molecules, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, which regulate various cellular processes. Dysregulation of PI3K signaling has been implicated in the development of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Therefore, PI3Ks are important targets for the development of therapeutic agents for these diseases.

Atrophy refers to the decrease in size, volume, or mass of a body part or organ due to a lack of use, injury, or disease. In the medical field, atrophy can occur in various parts of the body, including muscles, organs, and tissues. For example, muscle atrophy can occur when a person is bedridden or has a sedentary lifestyle, leading to a decrease in muscle mass and strength. Organ atrophy can occur in conditions such as kidney failure, where the kidneys become smaller and less functional over time. Brain atrophy, also known as neurodegeneration, can occur in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, where the brain's cells gradually die off, leading to a decline in cognitive function. Atrophy can also be a symptom of certain diseases or conditions, such as cancer, where the body's cells are damaged or destroyed, leading to a decrease in size and function of affected organs or tissues. In some cases, atrophy can be reversible with appropriate treatment, while in other cases, it may be permanent.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide hormone that is produced by neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. It is one of the most widely distributed neuropeptides in the brain and body, and it plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, stress response, and mood regulation. In the brain, NPY is primarily produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that plays a key role in regulating hunger and metabolism. NPY is also produced by neurons in other regions of the brain, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, which are involved in emotional regulation and reward processing. NPY acts on a number of different receptors in the brain and body, including Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, and Y6 receptors. These receptors are found on a variety of different cell types, including neurons, immune cells, and smooth muscle cells. Activation of NPY receptors can have a wide range of effects, depending on the specific receptor that is activated and the cell type that expresses it. In the medical field, NPY and its receptors are being studied as potential targets for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, anxiety, depression, and addiction. For example, drugs that block NPY receptors have been shown to reduce appetite and body weight in animal studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for obesity and related conditions in humans. Similarly, drugs that activate NPY receptors have been shown to have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in animal studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for anxiety and depression in humans.

Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by various cells of the immune system, including white blood cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses and inflammation, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cytokines can be classified into different groups based on their function, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), promote inflammation and recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), help to dampen the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), help to regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Cytokines play a critical role in many diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also important in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a critical role in various cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, and metabolism. It is a member of the Akt family of kinases, which are activated by various growth factors and cytokines. In the context of cancer, c-akt has been shown to be frequently activated in many types of tumors and is often associated with poor prognosis. Activation of c-akt can lead to increased cell survival and resistance to apoptosis, which can contribute to tumor growth and progression. Additionally, c-akt has been implicated in the regulation of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, further contributing to the development and progression of cancer. Therefore, the study of c-akt and its role in cancer has become an important area of research in the medical field, with the goal of developing targeted therapies to inhibit its activity and potentially treat cancer.

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.

Lymphokines are a type of cytokine, which are signaling molecules secreted by immune cells such as T cells and B cells. They play a crucial role in regulating the immune response and are involved in various immune-related processes, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Lymphokines are produced in response to infections, injuries, or other stimuli that activate the immune system. They can be classified into several categories based on their function, including interleukins, interferons, and tumor necrosis factors. Interleukins are a group of lymphokines that regulate the activity of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages. They are involved in various immune responses, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Interferons are another group of lymphokines that are produced in response to viral infections. They have antiviral properties and can also stimulate the immune system to fight off infections. Tumor necrosis factors are a group of lymphokines that are involved in the immune response to infections and tumors. They can stimulate the production of other cytokines and chemokines, which help to recruit immune cells to the site of infection or tumor. Overall, lymphokines play a critical role in the immune response and are involved in many different aspects of immune function.

STAT3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in response to various signaling pathways, including cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. In the medical field, STAT3 is often studied in the context of cancer, as it is frequently activated in many types of tumors and is involved in promoting cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. Dysregulation of STAT3 signaling has been implicated in the development and progression of various cancers, including breast, prostate, and lung cancer. Additionally, STAT3 has been shown to play a role in other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory diseases. Targeting STAT3 signaling is therefore an active area of research in the development of new cancer therapies and other treatments.

Calbindins are a family of calcium-binding proteins that play important roles in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in various tissues and organs in the body. They are primarily found in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of cells, where they help to transport and store calcium ions. There are several different types of calbindins, including calbindin-D28k, calbindin-D9k, and calbindin-1. Calbindin-D28k is the most abundant and widely distributed of the calbindins, and it is found in a variety of tissues, including the brain, liver, and kidneys. Calbindin-D9k is found primarily in the brain and spinal cord, and it is thought to play a role in the regulation of calcium signaling in neurons. Calbindin-1 is found in the pancreas and is thought to play a role in the regulation of insulin secretion. Calbindins are important for maintaining proper calcium levels in the body, and disruptions in their function have been linked to a number of diseases, including osteoporosis, hypertension, and certain neurological disorders.

In the medical field, "age factors" refer to the effects of aging on the body and its various systems. As people age, their bodies undergo a variety of changes that can impact their health and well-being. These changes can include: 1. Decreased immune function: As people age, their immune system becomes less effective at fighting off infections and diseases. 2. Changes in metabolism: Aging can cause changes in the way the body processes food and uses energy, which can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. 3. Cardiovascular changes: Aging can lead to changes in the heart and blood vessels, including increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. 4. Cognitive changes: Aging can affect memory, attention, and other cognitive functions, which can lead to conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Joint and bone changes: Aging can cause changes in the joints and bones, including decreased bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. 6. Skin changes: Aging can cause changes in the skin, including wrinkles, age spots, and decreased elasticity. 7. Hormonal changes: Aging can cause changes in hormone levels, including decreased estrogen in women and decreased testosterone in men, which can lead to a variety of health issues. Overall, age factors play a significant role in the development of many health conditions and can impact a person's quality of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of these changes and to take steps to maintain their health and well-being as they age.

Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur as a complication of diabetes. It is caused by damage to the nerves that control movement, sensation, and other functions in the body. There are several types of diabetic neuropathy, including: 1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy and affects the nerves in the extremities, such as the hands, feet, and legs. It can cause numbness, tingling, pain, and weakness in the affected areas. 2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the nerves that control automatic bodily functions, such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure. It can cause symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and gastrointestinal problems. 3. Proximal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the arms and legs, causing weakness and muscle wasting in the affected areas. 4. Mononeuropathy: This is a type of neuropathy that affects a single nerve, causing symptoms such as pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected area. Diabetic neuropathy can be a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to a range of problems, including foot ulcers, infections, and even amputations. It is important for people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and to see their healthcare provider regularly for monitoring and treatment.

Biological markers, also known as biomarkers, are measurable indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. In the medical field, biological markers are used to diagnose, monitor, and predict the progression of diseases, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. Biological markers can be found in various biological samples, such as blood, urine, tissue, or body fluids. They can be proteins, genes, enzymes, hormones, metabolites, or other molecules that are associated with a specific disease or condition. For example, in cancer, biological markers such as tumor markers can be used to detect the presence of cancer cells or to monitor the response to treatment. In cardiovascular disease, biological markers such as cholesterol levels or blood pressure can be used to assess the risk of heart attack or stroke. Overall, biological markers play a crucial role in medical research and clinical practice, as they provide valuable information about the underlying biology of diseases and help to guide diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

Infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a type of stroke that occurs when blood flow to a specific area of the brain is blocked, usually by a blood clot. The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to the front and side of the brain, and when it becomes blocked, it can cause damage to the brain tissue in that area. Symptoms of MCA infarction can include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and loss of balance or coordination. In severe cases, MCA infarction can lead to or even death. Treatment for MCA infarction typically involves medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, as well as rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair any damage to the artery.

Cerebral ventricles are the cavities within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). They are responsible for producing and circulating CSF, which serves as a cushion and lubricant for the brain and spinal cord, and helps to protect them from injury. The cerebral ventricles are divided into four main parts: the lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, the fourth ventricle, and the cerebellar ventricles. Disorders of the cerebral ventricles can lead to a variety of neurological symptoms, including headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment.

Nestin is a type of intermediate filament protein that is expressed in various types of stem cells, including neural stem cells, muscle stem cells, and hematopoietic stem cells. It is a marker of neural progenitor cells and is often used to identify and isolate these cells for research and therapeutic purposes. In the medical field, Nestin is also used as a diagnostic tool to identify certain types of tumors, such as gliomas and neuroblastomas, which often express high levels of Nestin. Additionally, Nestin has been shown to play a role in the development and maintenance of neural stem cells, making it a potential target for therapies aimed at promoting neural regeneration and repair.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure used to treat certain neurological and movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor, and epilepsy. The procedure involves implanting a small device, called a neurostimulator, into the brain, which sends electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain to reduce symptoms of the disorder. During DBS surgery, a neurosurgeon makes a small incision in the scalp and skull to access the brain. They then use imaging techniques, such as MRI or CT scans, to guide the placement of electrodes into the targeted area of the brain. The electrodes are connected to the neurostimulator, which is typically placed under the skin near the collarbone. Once the device is implanted, it can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses to the targeted area of the brain at specific intervals. The frequency and intensity of the impulses can be adjusted as needed to optimize symptom control and minimize side effects. DBS is considered a highly effective treatment for certain neurological and movement disorders, with many patients experiencing significant improvements in their symptoms after surgery. However, the procedure is not without risks, and patients should carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before making a decision to undergo DBS.

S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit, also known as S100β, is a protein that is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, which are found in a wide range of tissues throughout the body. In the medical field, S100β is often used as a biomarker for brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. It is thought to be released from damaged brain cells in response to injury, and levels of S100β in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid can be measured to assess the extent of brain damage. S100β has also been studied in the context of other diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders. However, the exact role of S100β in these conditions is not yet fully understood.

Memory disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect an individual's ability to remember, learn, and recall information. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, brain disease, or aging. Some common types of memory disorders include: 1. Amnesia: A condition characterized by the loss of memory, either temporary or permanent. 2. Dementia: A group of symptoms that include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with daily activities, caused by a variety of factors such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and Lewy body dementia. 3. Anterograde amnesia: A type of amnesia that affects the ability to form new memories after the onset of the condition. 4. Retrograde amnesia: A type of amnesia that affects the ability to recall memories from before the onset of the condition. 5. Semantic dementia: A type of dementia that affects an individual's ability to understand and use language. 6. Temporal lobe epilepsy: A type of epilepsy that can cause memory loss and other cognitive problems. 7. Mild cognitive impairment: A condition characterized by mild memory loss and other cognitive problems that may progress to dementia. Memory disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.

In the medical field, cell movement refers to the ability of cells to move from one location to another within a tissue or organism. This movement can occur through various mechanisms, including crawling, rolling, and sliding, and is essential for many physiological processes, such as tissue repair, immune response, and embryonic development. There are several types of cell movement, including: 1. Chemotaxis: This is the movement of cells in response to chemical gradients, such as the concentration of a signaling molecule. 2. Haptotaxis: This is the movement of cells in response to physical gradients, such as the stiffness or topography of a substrate. 3. Random walk: This is the movement of cells in a seemingly random manner, which can be influenced by factors such as cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics. 4. Amoeboid movement: This is the movement of cells that lack a well-defined cytoskeleton and rely on changes in cell shape and adhesion to move. Understanding cell movement is important for many medical applications, including the development of new therapies for diseases such as cancer, the study of tissue regeneration and repair, and the design of new materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Morpholines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms. They are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. In the medical field, morpholines have been studied for their potential use as antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agents. Some specific examples of morpholine-based drugs that have been developed for medical use include the antiviral drug ribavirin and the antipsychotic drug risperidone.

Cognition disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to think, reason, remember, and learn. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and aging. Cognition disorders can manifest in different ways, depending on the specific area of the brain that is affected. For example, a person with a memory disorder may have difficulty remembering important information, while someone with a language disorder may have trouble expressing themselves or understanding what others are saying. Some common types of cognition disorders include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. 2. Dementia: A general term used to describe a decline in cognitive function that is severe enough to interfere with daily life. 3. Delirium: A sudden onset of confusion and disorientation that can be caused by a variety of factors, including illness, medication side effects, or dehydration. 4. Aphasia: A language disorder that affects a person's ability to speak, understand, or use language. 5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a person's ability to focus, pay attention, and control impulses. 6. Learning disorders: A group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire and use knowledge and skills. Cognition disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and intervention are important for managing these conditions and improving outcomes.

Adrenergic fibers are a type of nerve fiber that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) at their terminal ends. These fibers are part of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response. Adrenergic fibers are found throughout the body, but are particularly abundant in the heart, blood vessels, and bronchial tubes. They play a key role in regulating heart rate, blood pressure, and bronchodilation (widening of the bronchial tubes), among other functions. When norepinephrine is released from adrenergic fibers, it binds to receptors on the surface of target cells, triggering a variety of physiological responses. For example, norepinephrine can cause blood vessels to constrict, increasing blood pressure, or cause the heart to beat faster and harder, preparing the body for physical activity. Overall, adrenergic fibers are an important component of the sympathetic nervous system and play a critical role in regulating many physiological processes in the body.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the nerves that are located outside of the brain and spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting signals between the central nervous system and the rest of the body, allowing us to feel sensations, move our muscles, and control our organs. Peripheral nerve injuries can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including trauma, compression, infection, or disease. Symptoms of peripheral nerve injuries can vary depending on the location and severity of the injury, but may include numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of sensation in the affected area. Treatment for peripheral nerve injuries depends on the cause and severity of the injury. In some cases, conservative treatments such as physical therapy or medication may be sufficient to manage symptoms and promote healing. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged nerve tissue.

Cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two or more daughter cells. This process is essential for the growth, development, and repair of tissues in the body. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the process by which somatic cells (non-reproductive cells) divide to produce two identical daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the process by which germ cells (reproductive cells) divide to produce four genetically diverse daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction. Abnormalities in cell division can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cancer. In cancer, cells divide uncontrollably and form tumors, which can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Sciatic neuropathy is a condition that occurs when there is damage or compression of the sciatic nerve, which is the largest nerve in the human body. The sciatic nerve runs from the lower back down the back of each leg, and it is responsible for controlling movement and sensation in the lower extremities. There are several potential causes of sciatic neuropathy, including injury, infection, compression by a herniated disk or other spinal condition, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis. Symptoms of sciatic neuropathy can include pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and muscle spasms in the lower back, buttocks, and legs. Treatment for sciatic neuropathy depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, conservative treatments such as physical therapy, pain medication, and lifestyle changes may be effective. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the nerve or repair damage.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

Deafness is a medical condition characterized by a partial or complete inability to hear sounds. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to loud noises, infections, and aging. In the medical field, deafness is typically classified into two main types: conductive deafness and sensorineural deafness. Conductive deafness occurs when there is a problem with the outer or middle ear that prevents sound waves from reaching the inner ear. Sensorineural deafness, on the other hand, occurs when there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve that transmits sound signals to the brain. Deafness can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, affecting their ability to communicate, socialize, and participate in daily activities. Treatment options for deafness depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, hearing aids or cochlear implants may be used to improve hearing, while in other cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary to address the underlying cause of the deafness.

Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (NCAMs) are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. They are involved in cell-cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis, which are essential processes for the formation and function of neural circuits. NCAMs are expressed on the surface of neurons and other cells of the nervous system, and they interact with other NCAMs on adjacent cells or with other adhesion molecules on the same cell. These interactions help to stabilize cell-cell contacts and promote the formation of neural networks. There are several subtypes of NCAMs, including NCAM1, NCAM2, and NCAM3, which differ in their structure and function. NCAMs are also expressed in other tissues, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, where they play roles in tissue development and repair. Abnormalities in NCAM expression or function have been linked to a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Therefore, understanding the role of NCAMs in the nervous system is important for developing new treatments for these conditions.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular signaling pathways. They are involved in regulating various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. MAPKs are activated by extracellular signals such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones, which bind to specific receptors on the cell surface. This activation leads to a cascade of phosphorylation events, where MAPKs phosphorylate and activate downstream effector molecules, such as transcription factors, that regulate gene expression. In the medical field, MAPKs are of great interest due to their involvement in various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and neurological disorders. For example, mutations in MAPK signaling pathways are commonly found in many types of cancer, and targeting these pathways has become an important strategy for cancer therapy. Additionally, MAPKs are involved in the regulation of immune responses, and dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in various inflammatory disorders. Finally, MAPKs play a role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, and dysfunction of these pathways has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

Facial nerve injuries refer to any damage or trauma that affects the facial nerve, which is responsible for controlling the muscles of the face and controlling various functions such as blinking, smiling, and chewing. These injuries can result from a variety of causes, including surgery, trauma, infections, and tumors. Symptoms of facial nerve injuries may include drooping of the eyelid, difficulty closing the mouth, and a distorted facial expression. Treatment for facial nerve injuries may involve medications, physical therapy, or surgery, depending on the severity and cause of the injury.

Cholinergic fibers are a type of nerve fiber that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at their terminals. These fibers are primarily involved in the transmission of signals within the nervous system and play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Cholinergic fibers can be found throughout the body, including in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and enteric nervous system (ENS). In the CNS, cholinergic fibers are involved in learning, memory, and attention, as well as in the regulation of mood and behavior. In the PNS, cholinergic fibers are involved in the control of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular secretion. In the ENS, cholinergic fibers are involved in the regulation of gut motility and secretion. Disruptions in cholinergic signaling have been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. As such, cholinergic fibers are an important area of research in the field of neuroscience and have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of these disorders.

Cinnamomum zeylanicum, commonly known as Cinnamon, is a species of evergreen tree in the laurel family, Lauraceae. It is native to Sri Lanka, but is also cultivated in other parts of the world, including China, Indonesia, and India. In the medical field, Cinnamomum zeylanicum is used for its medicinal properties. It has been traditionally used to treat a variety of conditions, including digestive disorders, respiratory problems, and skin infections. Cinnamon is also used as a natural sweetener and flavoring agent in food and beverages. In modern medicine, cinnamon is used as an ingredient in some over-the-counter medications for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It has also been studied for its potential to lower blood sugar levels and improve cholesterol levels, which may help prevent or manage type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, it is important to note that while cinnamon has many potential health benefits, it should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment. As with any supplement or natural remedy, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using cinnamon or any other herbal remedy.

Protein precursors are molecules that are converted into proteins through a process called translation. In the medical field, protein precursors are often referred to as amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that can be combined in various ways to form different proteins, each with its own unique function in the body. Protein precursors are essential for the proper functioning of the body, as proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism, cell signaling, and immune function. They are also important for tissue repair and growth, and for maintaining the structure and function of organs and tissues. Protein precursors can be obtained from the diet through the consumption of foods that are rich in amino acids, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. In some cases, protein precursors may also be administered as supplements or medications to individuals who are unable to obtain sufficient amounts of these nutrients through their diet.

Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.

Cell culture techniques refer to the methods used to grow and maintain cells in a controlled laboratory environment. These techniques are commonly used in the medical field for research, drug development, and tissue engineering. In cell culture, cells are typically grown in a liquid medium containing nutrients, hormones, and other substances that support their growth and survival. The cells are usually placed in a specialized container called a culture dish or flask, which is incubated in a controlled environment with a specific temperature, humidity, and oxygen level. There are several types of cell culture techniques, including: 1. Monolayer culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a single layer on the surface of the culture dish. This is the most common type of cell culture and is used for many types of research and drug development. 2. Suspension culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a liquid medium and are free to move around. This is commonly used for the cultivation of cells that do not form a monolayer, such as stem cells and cancer cells. 3. Co-culture: In this technique, two or more types of cells are grown together in the same culture dish. This is used to study interactions between different cell types and is commonly used in tissue engineering. 4. 3D culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a three-dimensional matrix, such as a scaffold or hydrogel. This is used to mimic the structure and function of tissues in the body and is commonly used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Overall, cell culture techniques are essential tools in the medical field for advancing our understanding of cell biology, developing new drugs and therapies, and engineering tissues and organs for transplantation.

Ibogaine is a psychoactive alkaloid found in the root bark of the Tabernanthe iboga plant, which is native to central Africa. It has been used for centuries by indigenous peoples in West Africa for spiritual and medicinal purposes. In the medical field, ibogaine is being studied for its potential to treat addiction to drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine. It is believed to work by reducing cravings and blocking the reinforcing effects of these drugs on the brain. However, the use of ibogaine for addiction treatment is not yet widely accepted by mainstream medicine due to concerns about its safety and efficacy. There have been reports of serious side effects, including cardiac arrhythmias, and some studies have found that ibogaine may not be effective in treating addiction in the long term. Despite these concerns, some individuals and organizations continue to promote the use of ibogaine for addiction treatment, and there is ongoing research to better understand its potential benefits and risks.

Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor (AβPP) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. It is a transmembrane protein that is primarily found in the brain and is responsible for the production of amyloid-beta peptides, which are the main components of the amyloid plaques that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. AβPP is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is transported to the Golgi apparatus, where it is processed into different forms. One of the main forms is the amyloid-beta peptide, which is produced by the cleavage of AβPP by enzymes called beta-secretase and gamma-secretase. The accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides in the brain is thought to be a key factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The peptides can aggregate and form insoluble plaques, which can disrupt the normal functioning of neurons and lead to the death of brain cells. In addition to its role in Alzheimer's disease, AβPP has also been implicated in other neurological disorders, such as frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson's disease.

The caudate nucleus is a small, elongated structure located in the basal ganglia of the brain. It is part of the striatum, which is a group of nuclei that play a role in movement control, reward processing, and cognitive functions such as learning and memory. The caudate nucleus is involved in a variety of functions, including motor control, attention, and decision-making. It receives input from a variety of brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, and sends output to other parts of the brain, including the putamen and globus pallidus. Damage to the caudate nucleus can result in a range of neurological symptoms, including movement disorders such as dystonia and chorea, as well as cognitive and emotional disturbances.

Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.

In the medical field, "canaries" typically refers to a group of individuals who are used as a proxy for a larger population to test the safety and efficacy of new drugs or medical treatments. These individuals are often chosen because they have a genetic or medical condition that makes them more susceptible to the effects of the treatment being tested, or because they have a similar demographic profile to the population that the treatment is intended for. For example, in the development of new drugs for respiratory diseases, canaries may be used as a model organism to test the safety and efficacy of the drug before it is tested in humans. This is because canaries are known to be sensitive to respiratory irritants, and their response to the drug can provide valuable information about its potential effects on humans. Similarly, in the development of new vaccines, canaries may be used as a model organism to test the safety and efficacy of the vaccine before it is tested in humans. This is because canaries are known to be susceptible to certain viral infections, and their response to the vaccine can provide valuable information about its potential effects on humans. Overall, the use of canaries in the medical field is an important tool for ensuring the safety and efficacy of new drugs and medical treatments before they are tested in larger populations.

Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that are attached to the cell membrane through a glycosyl group, which is a complex carbohydrate. These proteins play important roles in cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell recognition. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including immune response, cell growth and differentiation, and nerve transmission. Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types: transmembrane glycoproteins, which span the entire cell membrane, and peripheral glycoproteins, which are located on one side of the membrane.

Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32) is a protein that plays a role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including learning and memory, mood, and movement. It is expressed in a wide range of brain regions, including the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex. DARPP-32 is a substrate for several kinases, including protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), which phosphorylate it at different sites. The phosphorylation state of DARPP-32 can regulate the activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which are both involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and learning. DARPP-32 has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. In these conditions, the levels or activity of DARPP-32 may be altered, leading to disruptions in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and other cellular processes.

Nervous system diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nervous system, which is responsible for transmitting signals between different parts of the body. These diseases can affect any part of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. Some examples of nervous system diseases include: 1. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are conditions that cause the progressive loss of nerve cells and their functions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. 2. Neuromuscular diseases: These are conditions that affect the muscles and nerves that control movement, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis. 3. Neurological disorders: These are conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. 4. Neuropsychiatric disorders: These are conditions that affect the brain and behavior, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. 5. Infections of the nervous system: These are conditions caused by infections, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and neurocysticercosis. Treatment for nervous system diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, surgery, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and managing symptoms.

Receptors, Glutamate are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. These receptors are found throughout the central nervous system and play a critical role in many important brain functions, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. There are several different subtypes of glutamate receptors, each with its own unique properties and functions. Some of the most well-known subtypes include the NMDA receptor, the AMPA receptor, and the kainate receptor. These receptors are activated by glutamate binding, which leads to the opening of ion channels and the flow of ions across the cell membrane. This can result in changes in the electrical activity of the cell and can trigger a variety of cellular responses, including the release of other neurotransmitters and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways.

Seizures are abnormal electrical discharges in the brain that can cause a variety of symptoms, including convulsions, muscle spasms, loss of consciousness, and changes in behavior or sensation. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, infection, genetic disorders, and certain medications. They can be classified into different types based on their symptoms and the part of the brain affected. Treatment for seizures may include medications, surgery, or other interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.

Cerebral infarction, also known as a stroke, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted, causing brain tissue to die. This can happen when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked by a clot or when a blood vessel bursts and leaks blood into the surrounding brain tissue. Cerebral infarction can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the affected area of the brain. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Cerebral infarction is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment to minimize the risk of long-term disability or death. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, surgery to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.

Radiation injuries, experimental refer to injuries or damage caused to living tissue as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation in a laboratory or research setting. These injuries can occur intentionally, as part of a scientific study or experiment, or unintentionally, as a result of equipment malfunction or other accidents. The effects of radiation on living tissue can vary depending on the type and amount of radiation exposure, as well as the duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of radiation exposure include burns, skin damage, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In severe cases, radiation exposure can lead to organ damage, tissue necrosis, and even death. Experimental radiation injuries are typically studied in order to better understand the effects of radiation on living tissue and to develop new treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses. These studies may involve exposing animals or cells to different types and doses of radiation, and then observing the effects of the radiation on the exposed organisms or cells. The results of these studies can be used to inform the development of new radiation protection measures and treatments for radiation-related injuries and illnesses in humans.

Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and other conditions. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain, which helps to regulate mood, appetite, and sleep. Citalopram is typically taken orally in tablet form and is usually prescribed at a starting dose of 10-20 mg per day, which may be increased gradually up to a maximum dose of 60 mg per day. It is important to note that citalopram may cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and sexual dysfunction, and should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Blotting, Northern is a laboratory technique used to detect and quantify specific RNA molecules in a sample. It involves transferring RNA from a gel onto a membrane, which is then hybridized with a labeled complementary DNA probe. The probe binds to the specific RNA molecules on the membrane, allowing their detection and quantification through autoradiography or other imaging methods. Northern blotting is commonly used to study gene expression patterns in cells or tissues, and to compare the expression levels of different RNA molecules in different samples.

Flavones are a type of flavonoids, which are a class of natural compounds found in many plants. Flavones are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been studied for their potential health benefits. In the medical field, flavones have been studied for their potential role in preventing and treating a variety of conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Some specific flavones that have been studied include quercetin, kaempferol, and luteolin. Flavones are found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, and herbs, and are often used as dietary supplements. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of flavones and to determine the appropriate dosage and safety of these supplements.

Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in the brain. It is involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which is the study of how gene expression is controlled without changing the underlying DNA sequence. MeCP2 is a transcriptional repressor, meaning that it can prevent the transcription of certain genes by binding to methylated DNA. Methylation is a chemical modification of DNA that occurs when a methyl group is added to the cytosine base of a CpG dinucleotide. CpG dinucleotides are commonly found in promoter regions of genes, which are the regions of DNA that control gene expression. Mutations in the MECP2 gene can lead to a number of neurological disorders, including Rett syndrome, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects girls. Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene that result in a loss of function of the MeCP2 protein. This loss of function can lead to a range of symptoms, including intellectual disability, developmental delays, and seizures. In addition to its role in neurological disorders, MeCP2 is also involved in a number of other biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, and the regulation of the immune system.

Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, is a type of alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable and has a distinctive odor. Ethanol is effective at killing a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used to clean surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings to prevent the spread of infection. In addition to its use as a disinfectant, ethanol is also used as a solvent for medications and other substances, and as a fuel for medical devices such as inhalers and nebulizers. It is also used as a preservative in some medications and vaccines to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Ethanol can be toxic if consumed in large amounts, and can cause a range of symptoms including dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and even death. It is important to use ethanol and other disinfectants and antiseptics safely and according to the instructions provided, to avoid accidental exposure or injury.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by certain species of marine animals, including pufferfish, cone snails, and some species of sea slugs. TTX is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless compound that is highly toxic to humans and other animals. In the medical field, TTX is primarily used as a research tool to study the function of voltage-gated sodium channels, which are essential for the transmission of nerve impulses. TTX blocks these channels, leading to a loss of electrical activity in nerve cells and muscles. TTX has also been used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as chronic pain and epilepsy. However, its use in humans is limited due to its toxicity and the difficulty in administering it safely. In addition to its medical uses, TTX has also been used as a pesticide and a tool for controlling invasive species. However, its use as a pesticide is controversial due to its potential toxicity to non-target organisms and its persistence in the environment.

The cochlea is a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled structure in the inner ear that is responsible for converting sound waves into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. It is located in the temporal bone of the skull and is composed of three fluid-filled chambers: the scala vestibuli, scala media, and scala tympani. When sound waves enter the ear, they cause the eardrum to vibrate, which in turn causes the fluid in the cochlea to move. This movement creates pressure waves that stimulate hair cells in the basilar membrane, which is a thin strip of tissue that runs along the length of the cochlea. The hair cells convert the mechanical energy of the pressure waves into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain via the auditory nerve. Damage to the cochlea can result in hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Treatment options for cochlear damage may include hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other forms of auditory rehabilitation.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings that include episodes of mania or hypomania (abnormally elevated or irritable mood) and depression. These mood swings can be severe and can significantly impact a person's daily life, relationships, and ability to function. Bipolar disorder is typically diagnosed based on a person's symptoms, medical history, and a physical examination. There are several different types of bipolar disorder, including bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, and other specified bipolar and related disorders. Treatment for bipolar disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy. Medications used to treat bipolar disorder may include mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Therapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and family-focused therapy. It is important to note that bipolar disorder is a serious medical condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. With proper treatment, many people with bipolar disorder are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.

Glioma is a type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells, which are the supportive cells of the brain and spinal cord. Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for about 80% of all brain tumors. They can occur in any part of the brain, but are most commonly found in the frontal and temporal lobes. Gliomas are classified based on their degree of malignancy, with grades I to IV indicating increasing levels of aggressiveness. Grade I gliomas are slow-growing and have a better prognosis, while grade IV gliomas are highly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Symptoms of gliomas can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or speech, difficulty with coordination or balance, and personality changes. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

p-Chloroamphetamine (PCA) is a psychoactive drug that was once used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant. It is a derivative of amphetamine and has stimulant properties. However, PCA has been banned in many countries due to its potential for abuse and serious side effects, including psychosis, hallucinations, and cardiovascular problems. In the medical field, PCA is not currently used for any legitimate medical purpose.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a hormone that is produced by the cells of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as by neurons in the brain and other parts of the body. It is a polypeptide hormone, which means that it is made up of chains of amino acids. VIP has a number of effects on the body, including: 1. Relaxing smooth muscle: VIP can cause the muscles in blood vessels to relax, which can lead to a decrease in blood pressure. 2. Increasing the production of insulin: VIP can stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin, which is a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels. 3. Regulating the digestive system: VIP can stimulate the production of digestive enzymes and the movement of food through the digestive tract. 4. Modulating the immune system: VIP can help to regulate the immune system and reduce inflammation. VIP is also involved in a number of other physiological processes, including the regulation of heart rate and the contraction of the uterus during childbirth. It is sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and certain types of diarrhea.

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that plays a role in various physiological processes in the body, including the regulation of hormone secretion, metabolism, and pain perception. It is synthesized in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream, where it acts on receptors in various tissues throughout the body. PACAP has been shown to stimulate the release of several hormones from the pituitary gland, including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). It also has effects on the cardiovascular system, where it can cause vasodilation and lower blood pressure. In addition to its physiological effects, PACAP has been implicated in various diseases and disorders, including depression, anxiety, and pain. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for these conditions.

CREB-Binding Protein (CREB) is a transcriptional coactivator that plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in response to various stimuli, including hormones, growth factors, and stress. In the medical field, CREB is often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. CREB is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors, which are activated by phosphorylation in response to extracellular signals. Once activated, CREB binds to specific DNA sequences called cAMP response elements (CREs) in the promoter regions of target genes, leading to their transcription and subsequent protein production. In cancer, CREB has been shown to play a role in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, CREB has been implicated in regulating the expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. In psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, CREB has been shown to play a role in regulating the expression of genes involved in mood regulation and stress response. Overall, the regulation of CREB activity is a critical mechanism for controlling gene expression in response to various stimuli, and dysregulation of CREB activity has been implicated in a wide range of diseases and disorders.

Receptors, cell surface are proteins that are located on the surface of cells and are responsible for receiving signals from the environment. These signals can be chemical, electrical, or mechanical in nature and can trigger a variety of cellular responses. There are many different types of cell surface receptors, including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors. These receptors play a critical role in many physiological processes, including sensation, communication, and regulation of cellular activity. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of cell surface receptors is important for developing new treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

S100 Calcium Binding Protein G (S100G) is a protein that belongs to the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. It is primarily expressed in the brain, where it plays a role in the regulation of intracellular calcium levels and the modulation of neuronal excitability. S100G has also been implicated in the development and progression of certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. In addition, S100G has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, and it may have potential as a therapeutic target for these conditions.

Caspase 3 is an enzyme that plays a central role in the process of programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is a cysteine protease that cleaves specific proteins within the cell, leading to the characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis. In the medical field, caspase 3 is often studied in the context of various diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. It is also a target for the development of new therapeutic strategies, such as drugs that can modulate caspase 3 activity to either promote or inhibit apoptosis. Caspase 3 is activated by a variety of stimuli, including DNA damage, oxidative stress, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. Once activated, it cleaves a wide range of cellular substrates, including structural proteins, enzymes, and transcription factors, leading to the disassembly of the cell and the release of its contents. Overall, caspase 3 is a key player in the regulation of cell death and has important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the blood flow to and from the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain and removing waste products. The brain is a highly metabolically active organ, and it requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function properly. The cerebrovascular system is made up of the arteries, veins, and capillaries that supply blood to the brain. Any disruption in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to serious health problems, including stroke and brain injury.

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

In the medical field, a peptide fragment refers to a short chain of amino acids that are derived from a larger peptide or protein molecule. Peptide fragments can be generated through various techniques, such as enzymatic digestion or chemical cleavage, and are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptide fragments can be used as biomarkers for various diseases, as they may be present in the body at elevated levels in response to specific conditions. For example, certain peptide fragments have been identified as potential biomarkers for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, peptide fragments can be used as therapeutic agents themselves. For example, some peptide fragments have been shown to have anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various diseases. Overall, peptide fragments play an important role in the medical field, both as diagnostic tools and as potential therapeutic agents.

Protein isoforms refer to different forms of a protein that are produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. Alternative splicing is a process by which different combinations of exons (coding regions) are selected from the pre-mRNA transcript of a gene, resulting in the production of different protein isoforms with slightly different amino acid sequences. Protein isoforms can have different functions, localization, and stability, and can play distinct roles in cellular processes. For example, the same gene may produce a protein isoform that is expressed in the nucleus and another isoform that is expressed in the cytoplasm. Alternatively, different isoforms of the same protein may have different substrate specificity or binding affinity for other molecules. Dysregulation of alternative splicing can lead to the production of abnormal protein isoforms, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of alternative splicing and the functional consequences of protein isoforms is an important area of research in the medical field.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms that affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms can include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking and speech, and problems with emotional expression and social interaction. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can last for a lifetime, although the severity of symptoms can vary over time. It is not caused by a single factor, but rather by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends. While there is no cure for schizophrenia, with proper treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

The CA1 region is a subfield of the hippocampus, a structure in the brain that is involved in learning and memory. The hippocampus is located in the temporal lobe of the brain and is divided into several subfields, including the CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus regions. The CA1 region is located at the tip of the hippocampus and is the main output region of the hippocampus. It is composed of pyramidal neurons, which are the main type of neuron in the hippocampus. These neurons receive input from the CA3 region and send output to the entorhinal cortex, a region of the brain that is involved in memory and spatial navigation. Damage to the CA1 region has been linked to memory loss and cognitive impairment, and it is a common site of damage in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. Research on the CA1 region has focused on understanding how it contributes to learning and memory, as well as on developing treatments for conditions that affect this region of the brain.

Cocaine is a powerful stimulant drug that is derived from the leaves of the coca plant. It is a highly addictive substance that is illegal in many countries, including the United States. Cocaine is typically used as a recreational drug, but it can also be used for medical purposes, such as to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, cocaine is sometimes used as a local anesthetic to numb the skin and other tissues during surgery or other medical procedures. It is also sometimes used to treat certain medical conditions, such as glaucoma, because it can constrict blood vessels and reduce pressure in the eye. However, cocaine is also highly addictive and can cause a range of serious health problems, including heart attack, stroke, and respiratory failure. It is also associated with a high risk of addiction and can lead to a range of social and psychological problems. As a result, the use of cocaine for medical purposes is generally limited and is only done under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.

Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also sometimes used to treat obesity and to treat or prevent depression. Amphetamine works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which can help to improve focus, attention, and energy levels. It is available in both prescription and over-the-counter forms, and it is usually taken orally. Side effects of amphetamine can include increased heart rate, difficulty sleeping, and nervousness or agitation. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking amphetamine and to avoid using it in excess or for longer than recommended.

Myalgia is a medical term that refers to muscle pain or discomfort. It can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including muscle strains, injuries, infections, and autoimmune disorders. Myalgia can also be a side effect of certain medications or medical treatments. The pain associated with myalgia can range from mild to severe and can affect one or more muscles in the body. Treatment for myalgia depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or other interventions.

Receptors, GABA-A are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These receptors are found throughout the central nervous system and play a key role in regulating inhibitory neurotransmission. Activation of GABA-A receptors leads to the opening of chloride ion channels, which results in a decrease in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. This decrease in membrane potential makes it more difficult for the neuron to generate an action potential, which in turn reduces the release of neurotransmitters and decreases the overall activity of the neuron. GABA-A receptors are important for a variety of physiological processes, including muscle relaxation, sleep, and the regulation of anxiety and seizures.

Adenoviridae is a family of non-enveloped viruses that infect humans and other animals. They are responsible for a variety of respiratory and eye infections, as well as other illnesses. The viruses in this family have a double-stranded DNA genome and are characterized by their icosahedral capsid, which is composed of protein subunits. There are over 50 different types of adenoviruses that have been identified, and they can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, direct contact, or contaminated surfaces. In the medical field, adenoviruses are important to consider in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.

Eye proteins are proteins that are found in the eye and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of the eye. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and vitreous humor. Some examples of eye proteins include: 1. Collagen: This is a protein that provides strength and support to the cornea and lens. 2. Alpha-crystallin: This protein is found in the lens and helps to maintain its shape and transparency. 3. Rhodopsin: This protein is found in the retina and is responsible for vision in low light conditions. 4. Vitreous humor proteins: These proteins are found in the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina. They help to maintain the shape of the eye and provide support to the retina. Disruptions in the production or function of these proteins can lead to various eye diseases and conditions, such as cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of eye proteins is important for the development of effective treatments for these conditions.

In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.

In the medical field, brain waves refer to the electrical activity that occurs in the brain. These electrical signals are generated by the movement of ions across the cell membranes of neurons in the brain. Brain waves can be measured using an electroencephalogram (EEG), which is a non-invasive test that records the electrical activity of the brain. There are several different types of brain waves, each with its own characteristic frequency and pattern. The most common types of brain waves are: 1. Alpha waves: These are the most common type of brain wave, and they occur when a person is relaxed and awake. Alpha waves have a frequency of 8-13 Hz. 2. Beta waves: These brain waves occur when a person is alert and focused. Beta waves have a frequency of 14-30 Hz. 3. Theta waves: These brain waves occur when a person is in a light sleep or daydreaming state. Theta waves have a frequency of 4-7 Hz. 4. Delta waves: These brain waves occur when a person is in a deep sleep state. Delta waves have a frequency of less than 4 Hz. Brain waves can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of neurological conditions, including epilepsy, sleep disorders, and brain injuries. They can also be used to study the effects of drugs and other substances on brain function.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in many important bodily functions. BuChE is primarily found in the blood and in the liver, but it is also present in other tissues throughout the body. In the medical field, BuChE is often measured as a way to assess liver function, as the enzyme is produced by liver cells. Abnormal levels of BuChE can be an indication of liver disease or other conditions that affect liver function. BuChE is also used as a biomarker for exposure to certain toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals. In addition, researchers are studying BuChE as a potential target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) are a type of cytoskeletal protein that provide structural support to cells. They are found in all types of cells, including epithelial cells, muscle cells, and nerve cells. IFPs are composed of multiple subunits that form long, fibrous polymers that are arranged in a helical structure. These filaments are intermediate in size between the microfilaments and microtubules, which are other types of cytoskeletal proteins. IFPs play a number of important roles in cells, including maintaining cell shape, providing mechanical strength, and anchoring organelles in place. They are also involved in a variety of cellular processes, such as cell division, migration, and differentiation.

Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant medication that is primarily used to treat depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which can help to improve mood and reduce pain. Amitriptyline is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally. It can also be used to treat other conditions, such as insomnia, migraines, and irritable bowel syndrome. However, like all medications, amitriptyline can have side effects. Common side effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, constipation, and weight gain. More serious side effects can include increased heart rate, high blood pressure, and serotonin syndrome, which is a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur when serotonin levels in the brain become too high. It is important to note that amitriptyline should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and may not be suitable for everyone.

In the medical field, cell size refers to the dimensions of a cell, which is the basic unit of life. The size of a cell can vary widely depending on the type of cell and its function. For example, red blood cells, which are responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body, are much smaller than white blood cells, which are involved in the immune response. Similarly, nerve cells, which transmit signals throughout the body, are much longer than most other types of cells. The size of a cell can also be influenced by various factors such as the availability of nutrients, hormones, and other signaling molecules. Changes in cell size can be an indicator of various medical conditions, such as cancer or certain genetic disorders. Therefore, measuring cell size can be an important diagnostic tool in the medical field.

Dizocilpine maleate, also known as dizocilpine or dizocilpine dibromide, is a drug that belongs to a class of compounds called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. It is used in scientific research to study the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on the brain and nervous system. In the medical field, dizocilpine maleate has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. However, it has not been approved for use in humans by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to concerns about its safety and efficacy. Dizocilpine maleate is a potent and selective NMDA receptor antagonist that blocks the action of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. It is believed that by blocking NMDA receptors, dizocilpine maleate can reduce the overactivity of neurons in the brain that is thought to contribute to the symptoms of certain neurological and psychiatric conditions. However, dizocilpine maleate has also been associated with a range of side effects, including cognitive impairment, psychosis, and motor dysfunction. As a result, its use in humans is limited and is typically only conducted in controlled clinical trials under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Receptors, AMPA are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that are widely expressed in the central nervous system. They are named after the neurotransmitter AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), which is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. AMPA receptors are important for fast synaptic transmission, as they are rapidly activated by glutamate and can mediate strong postsynaptic currents. They are also involved in a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, and have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. AMPA receptors are composed of four subunits, each of which contains an ion channel that opens in response to binding of glutamate. There are several different subunit combinations that can form AMPA receptors, which can affect their properties and distribution in the brain.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the nervous system. ACh is a chemical messenger that is used to transmit signals between nerve cells, and AChE plays a critical role in regulating the levels of ACh in the synaptic cleft, the small gap between nerve cells where signaling occurs. In the medical field, AChE is often studied in the context of diseases that affect the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, and certain types of nerve damage. In these conditions, the activity of AChE may be altered, leading to changes in the levels of ACh in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. AChE inhibitors are drugs that are used to treat certain neurological disorders by slowing down the breakdown of ACh, thereby increasing its levels in the brain. These drugs are commonly used to treat Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis, among other conditions.

Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins (SERTs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain and other tissues. These proteins are located on the surface of nerve cells (neurons) and are involved in the process of reuptake, which is the process by which neurotransmitters are taken back up into the neuron that released them. SERTs play a critical role in regulating mood, appetite, and other physiological processes, and imbalances in SERT activity have been linked to a number of mental health conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders.

Receptors, Oncostatin M (OSMR) are a type of cell surface receptor protein that are expressed on various types of cells, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Oncostatin M is a cytokine that is produced by activated T cells and other immune cells, and it binds to OSMR to regulate a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the context of cancer, OSMR has been shown to play a role in the development and progression of certain types of tumors. For example, OSMR has been found to be overexpressed in some types of breast cancer, and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis for patients with these tumors. Additionally, OSMR has been shown to regulate the activity of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, which can impact the immune response to cancer. Overall, OSMR is an important regulator of cellular processes that can impact the development and progression of cancer, and it is a potential target for the development of new cancer therapies.

Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that break down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. There are two main types of cholinesterases: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Acetylcholinesterase is primarily found in the synaptic clefts of nerve cells, where it breaks down acetylcholine after it has transmitted a signal across the synapse. This helps to terminate the signal and prevent overstimulation of the postsynaptic neuron. Butyrylcholinesterase is found in a variety of tissues throughout the body, including the liver, kidney, and blood. It is also found in the brain, where it plays a role in the breakdown of acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters. In the medical field, cholinesterases are important because they are often used as markers of organ function and can be used to diagnose certain diseases. For example, low levels of acetylcholinesterase activity in the blood can be a sign of organ damage or dysfunction, while high levels of butyrylcholinesterase activity can be a sign of liver disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used as medications to treat certain neurological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis.

Binder DK, Scharfman HE (September 2004). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor". Growth Factors. 22 (3): 123-31. doi:10.1080/ ... "trkB encodes a functional receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 but not nerve growth factor". Cell ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF is a ... Wu K, Len GW, McAuliffe G, Ma C, Tai JP, Xu F, Black IB (November 2004). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor acutely enhances ...
Neurotrophic factors Brain derived neurotrophic factor Neuroplasticity Neurogenesis Neurogenesis hypothesis of depression Duman ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is vital to the survival, growth, and maintenance of neurons in ... Phillips, Cristy (2017). "Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Depression, and Physical Activity: Making the Neuroplastic ... by impaired neurotrophic support. Neurotrophic factors (also known as neurotrophins) are a family of closely related proteins ...
... with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). As reviewed by Sharifi and Yasui, MECP2 protein, encoded by the MECP2 gene binds ... The majority of dopamine in the mammalian brain is synthesized by nuclei located in the mesencephalon. The substantia nigra ... Laboratory studies on Rett syndrome may show abnormalities such as: EEG abnormalities from 2 years of age atypical brain ... I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop". Brain Research Reviews. 20 (1): 91-127. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(94)00007-C. ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a major role in both bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. BDNF is a ... The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene plays a role in the growth, differentiation, and maintenance of neurons. ... Dwivedi Y (2012). "Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Suicide Pathophysiology". In Dwivedi Y (ed.). The Neurobiological Basis ... Lin CC, Huang TL (April 2020). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and mental disorders". Biomedical Journal. 43 (2): 134-142. ...
... socio-economic and psychological factors. Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are both directly associated ... Sher L (May 2011). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and suicidal behavior". QJM. 104 (5): 455-8. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcq207. ... Sher L (2011). "The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathophysiology of adolescent suicidal behavior". ... Simpson G, Tate R (December 2007). "Suicidality in people surviving a traumatic brain injury: prevalence, risk factors and ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is structurally similar to NGF, NT-3, and NT-4/5, and shares the TrkB receptor with NT ... Most neurotrophic factors belong to one of three families: (1) neurotrophins, (2) glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor ... The CNTF family of neurotrophic factors includes ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ... Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was originally detected as survival promoter derived from a glioma cell. ...
This gene interacts with brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cadps2 has been linked to autism and is in the 7q autism ... French, L.; Pavlidis, P. (6 January 2011). "Relationships between gene expression and brain wiring in the adult rodent brain". ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ... CADPS2 has been linked to human and mouse brain structure in two large genomic studies. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Lauterborn JC, Truong GS, Baudry M, Bi X, Lynch G, Gall CM (Oct 2003). "Chronic elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... Chronic CX-614 treatments produce rapid increases in the synthesis of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF which has very ...
May 2017). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met genotype modulates amygdala habituation". Psychiatry Research: ... It may also negatively affect reward processing in the brain and lead to anhedonia or depression in patients. These factors ... Numerous areas of the brain are thought to be associated with StPD. Higher levels of dopamine in the brain, possibly ... Although environmental factors likely play an important role in the onset of the disorder. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism and ...
2003 Yves Barde, Discovery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. 2004 Roger Tsien, Development of Tools for Monitoring ... 2006 Solomon H. Snyder, Identification of Opiate Receptors in the Brain. 2007 Huda Zoghbi, Discovery of the Genetic Basis of ... 2017 Doris Tsao and Winrich Freiwald, Discovery of brain mechanisms of face recognition. 2018 S. Lawrence Zipursky and Joshua R ... 2013 Marcus Raichle, Discoveries Relating to the "Default Mode Network" of Brain Function. 2014 David W. Tank, Discovery of ...
"Spatio-temporal expression of a novel neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NDNF) in mouse brains during development". BMC ... Neuron derived neurotrophic factor (NDNF) is a secreted protein that, in humans, is located on chromosome 4. This protein helps ... "NDNF neuron derived neurotrophic factor [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2023-05-12. ... January 2020). "Neuron-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Is Mutated in Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism". American Journal of ...
In cell culture, cycloprolylglycine increases brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It has been evaluated for ... "Neuropeptide cycloprolylglycine increases the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuronal cells". Doklady ... suggest that the pharmacological properties of Noopept are derived from its action as an activator of Hypoxia-inducible factor ... V.; Seredenin, S. B. (September 2020). "Cognitive Enhancer Noopept Activates Transcription Factor HIF-1". Doklady Biochemistry ...
... brain derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and its receptor, amyloid precursor protein (APP), and tropomyosin receptor kinase A ( ... "Interactions between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the TRKB receptor. Identification of two ligand binding domains in ... Traumatic brain injury involves the necrotic and apoptotic death of brain cells in vulnerable and delicate areas such as the ... Both myelination and neurite outgrowth occur during brain maturation, and it is during this late period of brain development ( ...
"Precursor form of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor are decreased in the pre- ... May 1991). "The neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 are ligands for the trkB tyrosine ... "trkB encodes a functional receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 but not nerve growth factor". Cell ... "trkB encodes a functional receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 but not nerve growth factor". Cell ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression of DARPP-32. The Akt and CDK5/p35 intracellular pathway is suggested ... "AKT and CDK5/p35 mediate brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction of DARPP-32 in medium size spiny neurons in vitro". The ... "AKT and CDK5/p35 mediate brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction of DARPP-32 in medium size spiny neurons in vitro". The ... "Role of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced DARPP-32 expression in medium size spiny ...
... the main receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. It has been found to possess poor blood-brain-barrier penetration when ... Lewin G, Carter BD (25 March 2014). Neurotrophic Factors. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 490-491. ISBN 978-3-642-45106- ... 189-. ISBN 978-1-4398-2708-6. Numakawa T (August 2014). "Possible protective action of neurotrophic factors and natural ...
The gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), located on 11p14.1, has been proposed as a candidate gene for the ... August 2008). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and obesity in the WAGR syndrome". N. Engl. J. Med. 359 (9): 918-27. doi: ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and obesity in the WAGR syndrome". The New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (9): 918-27. doi: ... Mutations in the PAX6 gene have recently been shown to not only cause ocular abnormalities, but also problems in the brain and ...
NT-3 was the third neurotrophic factor to be characterized, after nerve growth factor (NGF) and BDNF (Brain Derived ... "Nerve Growth Factor") BDNF (for "Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor") NT-4 (for "Neurotrophin-4") While TrkB mediates the ... Ozçelik T, Rosenthal A, Francke U (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 genes in ... Robinson RC, Radziejewski C, Stuart DI, Jones EY (1995). "Structure of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin 3 ...
Such downstream actions of this activation of AMPA receptors include upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ... Castrén E, Kojima M (January 2017). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mood disorders and antidepressant treatments". ... In any case, it has been elucidated that acute blockade of NMDA receptors in the brain results in an increase in the release of ... The Role of Brain Dopamine. Springer Science & Business Media. 6 December 2012. pp. 23-. ISBN 978-3-642-73897-5. Krystal JH, ...
For instance, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is produced by the brain and regulates several functions within the ... June 2007). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates cholesterol metabolism for synapse development". J. Neurosci. 27 (24 ... Cao G, Ko CP (June 2007). "Schwann cell-derived factors modulate synaptic activities at developing neuromuscular synapses". J. ... This brain region contains three main neuronal cell types- Purkinje cells, granule cells and mossy fiber cells. Wnt-3 ...
... including mitogens such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... Yin Y, Edelman GM, Vanderklish PW (2002). "The brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances synthesis of Arc in synaptoneurosomes ... Several transcription factors are known to be involved in regulating the Arc gene (see above), including serum response factor ... "The serum response factor and a putative novel transcription factor regulate expression of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1 ...
The 5-HT1A receptor has been shown to interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which may play a major role in ... February 2008). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-deficient mice exhibit a hippocampal hyperserotonergic phenotype". The ... 5-HT1A is expressed in the brain, spleen, and neonatal kidney. It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), coupled to the Gi ... This autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of serotonin release has been theorized to be a major factor in the therapeutic lag that ...
Adachi M, Barrot M, Autry A, Theobald D, Monteggia LM (2008) Selective loss of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the dentate ... "Essential role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult hippocampal function". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Monteggia and her lab used a novel inducible knockout system to selectively knock out Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in the ... "Selective Loss of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Dentate Gyrus Attenuates Antidepressant Efficacy". Biological ...
BDNF - Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, is another important gene in the study of schizophrenia genetics. BDNF plays a ... DNA methylation can also affect expression of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor). The BDNF protein is important for ... Some postmortem brain studies looking at the gene expression of histone methylation has shown promising results that might be ... One of the most common methods is looking at postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia and analyzing them for ...
Mixed results were found for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the tryptophan ... Research on the brains of people with MDD usually shows disturbed patterns of interaction between multiple parts of the brain. ... Instead of studying one brain region, studying large scale brain networks is another approach to understanding psychiatric and ... Sleep deprivation and light therapy both target the same brain neurotransmitter system and brain areas as antidepressant drugs ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is under investigation as a possible mechanism. There is evidence that sex hormones ... The percentage risk that is estimated to be due to genetics is between 30% and 80%. Other risk factors for the disease include ... Media portrayals of an 'ideal' body shape are widely considered to be a contributing factor to bulimia. In a 1991 study by ... A study dedicated to investigating the thin ideal internalization as a factor of bulimia nervosa is Thompson's and Stice's ...
Another way is through the controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has also been found to ... As will be discussed further, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) is produced by neurons to coordinate nonsynaptic and ... Corner MA, Ramakers GJ (January 1992). "Spontaneous firing as an epigenetic factor in brain development--physiological ... suggesting that this neurotrophic factor may be responsible for the coordination of synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms in ...
Nicotine has been demonstrated to alter the amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in humans. Nicotine could make cancer ... Machaalani R, Chen H (March 2018). "Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) and ... Nicotine has more significant and durable damaging effects on adolescent brains compared to adult brains, the former developing ... the brain continues to develop into the 20s Nicotine exposure during brain development may hamper growth of neurons and brain ...
Nicotine has been demonstrated to alter the amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in humans. Side effects of nicotine ... Machaalani, Rita; Chen, Hui (2018). "Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) and ... Nicotine exposure during brain development may hamper growth of neurons and brain circuits, effecting brain architecture, ... Young people's brains build synapses faster than adult brains. Because addiction is a form of learning, adolescents can get ...
Further research dealt with nerve growth factors, in particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); the functional ... in particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor, play an important role in synaptic plasticity (Korte et al., PNAS 1995 & 1996 ... "Hippocampal long-term potentiation is impaired in mice lacking brain-derived neurotrophic factor". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 92 ... "Virus-mediated gene transfer into hippocampal CA1 region restores long-term potentiation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor ...
... brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BDNF). This pilot examined: (1) ACES history and current EF performance, (2) ACEs history ... the size of the detected coefficients and theoretical implications of ACEs and obesity as neurocognitively toxic for brain ... One possible candidate is neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) [15,16,17,18]. ... 2.2.3. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). Participants provided a fasted blood sample when they arrived in the lab for ...
However, factors influencing plasma storage and subsequent BDNF quantification are incompletely understood. Therefore, the ... Circulating concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been linked to cancer, neuropsychiatric, diabetes, ... Factors affecting stability of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor Jocelyn M Wessels 1 , Ravi K Agarwal 2 , Aamer Somani 1 ... Factors affecting stability of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor Jocelyn M Wessels et al. Sci Rep. 2020. . ...
... is a member of the neurotrophic factor family. Outside the nervous system, BDNF has been shown to be expressed in various ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family. Outside the nervous system, BDNF has ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in chronic periodontitis Jôice Dias Corrêa 1 , Daniele Sirineu Pereira 2 , Mila Fernandes ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in chronic periodontitis Jôice Dias Corrêa et al. Mediators Inflamm. 2014. ...
BackgroundDevelopmental processes in the placenta and the fetal brain are shaped by the same biological signals. Recent ... Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: a role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)? ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the development of structural neuronal connectivity.Dev Neurobiol 70:271-288. 20186709. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor alters cell migration of particular progenitors in the developing mouse cerebral cortex. ...
Your search for BETAINE OR "BRAIN-DERIVED" NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR HUMAN OR BUFO BUFO CUTANEOUS GLAND OR CALCIUM CATION OR CHROMIC ... Did you mean BETAINE OR "BRAIN-DERIVED" NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR HUMAN OR buford buford CUTANEOUS GLAND OR CALCIUM CATION OR CHROMIC ... "neurotrophic-3" OR "neurotrophic-4" OR OXYTOCIN OR SILICON DIOXIDE OR SUS scrotal FRONTAL LOBE OR SUS scrotal TEMPORAL LOBE OR ...
... and a look at pharmacogenetic factors that might influence treatment response. ... Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin which plays an important role in ... Genetic factors have been demonstrated to impact on onset severity of the disease and may influence treatment response. ... Pharmacodynamic Factors Serotonergic Transmitter System. SSRIs share potent inhibition of serotonin reuptake as their mechanism ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates neural plasticity, mood, different behaviours, and stress response. A ... The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism (BDNF Val66Met) and suicide ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF Val66Met) polymorphism ; childhood stressful experience ; Caucasians, suicide ; violent ... The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism (BDNF Val66Met) and suicide. Journal of affective ...
Imipramine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in cultured astrocytes. Katsura Takano, Hiroshi Yamasaki, ... Imipramine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in cultured astrocytes. In: Journal of Pharmacological ... Imipramine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in cultured astrocytes. / Takano, Katsura; Yamasaki, ... Takano K, Yamasaki H, Kawabe K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y. Imipramine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in ...
... derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in K,sub,2,/sub,EDTA, lithium heparin (with and without gel), and sodium ... p,The purpose of this paper was to compare brain‑ ... affecting stability of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... The purpose of this paper was to compare brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in K2EDTA, lithium heparin ( ... Pre-analytical Factors:. Classification. Pre-analytical Factor. Value(s). Biospecimen Acquisition. Type of collection container ...
The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism and migraine: a meta-analysis. The journal of ... The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism and migraine: a meta-analysis ... Sleep bruxism and related risk factors in adults: A systematic literature review. Archives of oral biology 2017 Jul 83 25-32. ... factors.html - 65k - // www.llave.connmed.com.ar/portalnoticias_vernoticia.php?codigonoticia=17715 // www.frusculleda.com.ar/ ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an exercise-induced neurotrophin, is an important factor in memory consolidation and ... N2 - Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an exercise-induced neurotrophin, is an important factor in memory consolidation ... AB - Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an exercise-induced neurotrophin, is an important factor in memory consolidation ... abstract = "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an exercise-induced neurotrophin, is an important factor in memory ...
... treadmill exercise and 4 weeks of bright light exposure change the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ... vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the brain of 5-week old Sprague-Dawley ... which in turn activate CREB-mediated transcription of neurotrophic factors and may stimulate neurogenesis and improve neuronal ... Continuous exercise and bright light affect brain function, particularly in seasonal affective disorders. However, the ...
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Balkowiec, A. ; Katz, D. M. / Activity-dependent release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor from primary sensory ... Balkowiec, A., & Katz, D. M. (2000). Activity-dependent release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor from primary ... Balkowiec, A & Katz, DM 2000, Activity-dependent release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor from primary sensory ... To define activity-dependent release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we developed an in vitro model ...
BDNF: brain derived neurotrophic factor. *BEST1: bestrophin 1. *BICD2: BICD cargo adaptor 2 ...
No Influence of Noradrenaline Manipulation on Acute Exercise-Induced Increase of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. GOEKINT, ... Risk Factors and Mechanisms of Knee Injury in Runners. MESSIER, STEPHEN P.; LEGAULT, CLAUDINE; SCHOENLANK, CASEY R.; More ...
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Brain Disorders: Focus on Neuroinflammation. Mol. Neurobiol. 56, 3295-3312 (2019). ... Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A Key Molecule for Memory in the Healthy and the Pathological Brain. Front Cell Neurosci. 13 ... Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in different neurological diseases. Biomed. Res Int 2013, 901082 (2013). ... Scalzo, P., Kummer, A., Bretas, T. L., Cardoso, F. & Teixeira, A. L. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ...
Cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as markers of emotional distress, increase cardiometabolic risk. We ... Cortisol:brain-derived neurotrophic factor ratio associated with silent ischaemia in a black male cohort: the SA BPA study. ... Cortisol:brain-derived neurotrophic factor ratio associated with silent ischaemia in a bla ...
... increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the brain, and causes reduction of amyloid beta plaques BIBLIOGRAPHIC ... 2015) A novel brain-derived neurotrophic factor-modulating peptide attenuates …. *(2006) Cerebrolysin decreases amyloid-beta ... 2011) Effect of Tong Luo Jiu Nao on Aβ-degrading enzymes in AD rat brains. ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), [14, 15] second-messenger systems, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) ... Increased plasma concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study in patients ... Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) increases serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in drug resistant depressed patients. ... ECT affects multiple central nervous system components, including hormones, neuropeptides, neurotrophic factors, and ...
Recently, research has begun providing evidence on the potential use of certain plant-derived terpenes in modern medicine, ... Linalool and pinene influence multiple neurotransmitter, inflammatory and neurotrophic signals as well as behaviour, ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor; TrkB, Tropomyosin receptor kinase B; DA, dopamine; 5-HT, serotonin; NE, norepinephrine. ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor; TH, tyrosine hydroxylase; ChAT, choline acetyltransferase. ...
blood brain barrier. BDNF. brain derived neurotrophic factor. BFGF. basic fibroblast growth factor. ... NIH Consensus Development Conference on Rehabilitation of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury The content in this publication ... NIH Consensus Development Conference on Rehabilitation of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury ... NIH Consensus Development Conference on Rehabilitation of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury ...
BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR HUMAN (UNII: 7171WSG8A2) (BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR HUMAN - UNII:7171WSG8A2) BRAIN- ... BRAIN DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR 4C HELPS MENTAL ACTIVITY BUFO RANA 12X HELPS MENTAL ACTIVITY CALCAREA CARBONICA 3X IMMUNE ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor human - solution/ drops. Number of versions: 4. Published Date (What is this?). Version. ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor human - solution/ drops. Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm ...
Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in newborn infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome. Front Pediatr. 2017. 5: ... Brain ultrasonography findings in neonates with exposure to cocaine during pregnancy. Pediatr Radiol. 2009 Mar. 39(3):232-8. [ ... Liu AJ, Jones MP, Murray H, Cook CM, Nanan R. Perinatal risk factors for the neonatal abstinence syndrome in infants born to ... Dryden C, Young D, Hepburn M, Mactier H. Maternal methadone use in pregnancy: factors associated with the development of ...
Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in WAGR Syndrome and Non-syndromic Obesity. Joan Han, National Institute of Child Health and ... Imprinting, Brain Development, and Pleiotropy of 15q11-q13 Disorders. Janine M. LaSalle, University of California, Davis, ...
... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, pg/mL)); endothelial markers (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (pg/mL); ... Non-traditional risk factors, such as inflammatory markers, which have been shown to relate to atherosclerosis, endothelial ... Nontraditional risk factors and biomarkers for cardiovascular disease: mechanistic, research, and clinical considerations for ... Waist-to-height ratio, body mass index and waist circumference for screening paediatric cardio-metabolic risk factors: a meta- ...
Previous research implicated a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in extinction learning. BDNF is one of a ... A brain region called the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILC) is known to be critical for extinction memory in rats. Drugs that ... The researchers compared the brains of various rats after extinction training. Rats with lower BDNF levels were less likely to ...
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) 3. Pain-Free 4. Dihydrotachysterol (AT 10) ... stimulation of the dorsal columns or ventral funiculus of the LE is effective in inducing airstepping in the neonatal rat brain ...
It also affects the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are vital neuroproteins for ... Increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Noopept is a fast-acting compound that is metabolized in the ... It immediately crosses the blood-brain barrier carrying more oxygen into the brain. Once in the bloodstream, it interacts with ... In his spare time he invents drugs that will be used to treat neurological disorders or to enhance cognition and the brains ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with age-related decline in hippocampal volume. J Neurosci. 2010 Apr 14;30(15): ... the authors looked at serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood collected from participants at baseline ... Participants had brain scans, as well as fitness and memory assessments, at baseline, six months, and after the 12-month ... "It looked at a biologic endpoint-the size of the part of the brain most important for memory, and one of the parts most ...
  • Circulating concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been linked to cancer, neuropsychiatric, diabetes, and gynecological disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of 10 target genes in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) signaling pathway were quantified in placental tissue of 90 mother-infant pairs from the ENVIR ON AGE birth cohort using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. (nih.gov)
  • Pivac, Nela (2011) The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism (BDNF Val66Met) and suicide . (irb.hr)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates neural plasticity, mood, different behaviours, and stress response. (irb.hr)
  • The combined Met/Met and Met/Val genotypes of the BDNF Val66Met variant could be the risk factor for violent suicide in female subjects and for suicide in victims exposed to childhood trauma. (irb.hr)
  • Recent studies suggest that the neuronal plasticity involved with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the recovery from depression. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effects of imipramine, a classic tricyclic antidepressant drug, on BDNF expression in cultured rat brain astrocytes. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an exercise-induced neurotrophin, is an important factor in memory consolidation and cognitive function. (korea.ac.kr)
  • After adjustment for confounding factors, the significant association between plasma BDNF and frailty was maintained (0.495, 0.281-0.874). (korea.ac.kr)
  • These results suggest that low-intensity treadmill exercise and bright light exposure induce BDNF expression and activate its downstream kinase signaling pathway, which in turn activate CREB-mediated transcription of neurotrophic factors and may stimulate neurogenesis and improve neuronal functions. (sagepub.com)
  • 2009)and mill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis and many neuropeptides, which play important roles in neuronal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in plasticity and memory formation (Suzuki et al. (sagepub.com)
  • and light exposure on expression of BDNF and down- BDNF is a nerve growth factor and critical for survival, stream signaling proteins to support their beneficial effect growth, and differentiation of neurons and thus, is critical to on brain functions. (sagepub.com)
  • To define activity-dependent release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we developed an in vitro model using primary sensory neurons and a modified ELISA, termed ELISA in situ. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ), as markers of emotional distress , increase cardiometabolic risk . (bvsalud.org)
  • Previous research implicated a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in extinction learning. (nih.gov)
  • It also affects the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are vital neuroproteins for cognition. (wholisticresearch.com)
  • To explore possible mechanisms underlying these changes, the authors looked at serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood collected from participants at baseline and 12 months. (alzforum.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates hip- tion and it may reflect a trait characteristic related to hippocam- pocampal plasticity and hippocampal-dependent learning and pal development and morphology. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Neurotrophic Factor BDNF, Physiological Functions and Therapeutic Potential in Depression, Neurodegeneration and Brain Cancer. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Recent Advances on the Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Neurodegenerative Diseases. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Neurogenic and neurotrophic effects of BDNF peptides in mouse hippocampal primary neuronal cell cultures. (nih.gov)
  • The BDNF gene is active (expressed) in the brain and plays a role in the survival of nerve cells ( neurons ). (nih.gov)
  • Ethanol exposure during this vulnerable window induces rapid apoptotic Purkinje cell death that is hypothesized to result from ethanol inhibition in brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF)-TrkB neurotrophic signaling that results in loss of apoptotic suppression. (nih.gov)
  • These results support the hypothesis that ethanol induces a disruption of BDNF-TrkB signaling that results in loss of apoptotic suppression in vulnerable Purkinje cells by growth factor withdrawal. (nih.gov)
  • Association between hippocampal structure and serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in healthy adults: A registered report. (mpg.de)
  • 11. New insights into the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in synaptic plasticity. (nih.gov)
  • Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training. (mpg.de)
  • Here, we show that, in magnetic resonance imaging scans of a large sample of normal individuals, this polymorphism affects the anatomy of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, identifying a genetic mechanism of variation in brain morphology related to learning and memory. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Human Polymorphism Impairs the Beneficial Exercise-Induced Neurobiological Changes in Mice. (nih.gov)
  • 2002). The can regulate hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal cell CREB target genes include neurotrophic factors such as function. (sagepub.com)
  • Furthermore, the team found that, within the control group, people with higher baseline fitness levels had less hippocampal shrinkage than those who were less fit, suggesting that fitness protects against loss of brain tissue. (alzforum.org)
  • 2. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Alzheimer's Disease: Risk, Mechanisms, and Therapy. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease: Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids for Neuroprotection. (nih.gov)
  • GABA also exhibits anti-aging properties and may lower the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and depression through its action on brain derived neurotrophic factor expression. (prweb.com)
  • Moreover, imipramine exposure activated transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. (elsevierpure.com)
  • cortex Introduction signaling pathways of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/ Exercise is known to increase the neurogenesis through 2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or calcium/ induction of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus, calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), and indu- which is associated with improved cognitive function cing phospho-CREB-mediated transcription (Mai et al. (sagepub.com)
  • It immediately crosses the blood-brain barrier carrying more oxygen into the brain. (wholisticresearch.com)
  • Although largely derived in the gut, PPA and related short-chain fatty acids can readily cross the blood-brain barrier and get access to the brain, where they can induce numerous neurophysiological processes causing alteration of brain function and behavior [ 3 ]. (degruyter.com)
  • The benefit seemed specific to the anterior part of this brain structure, which mediates acquisition of spatial memory. (alzforum.org)
  • 5. Role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor at glutamatergic synapses. (nih.gov)
  • Linalool and pinene influence multiple neurotransmitter, inflammatory and neurotrophic signals as well as behaviour, demonstrating psycho-activity (albeit non-intoxicating). (frontiersin.org)
  • It looked at a biologic endpoint-the size of the part of the brain most important for memory, and one of the parts most affected by dementia"-i.e., the hippocampus. (alzforum.org)
  • school- and home-based intervention on children's physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiometabolic risk factor profiles. (bmj.com)
  • Recently, research has begun providing evidence on the potential use of certain plant-derived terpenes in modern medicine, demonstrating anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of these compounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Developmental processes in the placenta and the fetal brain are shaped by the same biological signals. (nih.gov)
  • The signs, symptoms, and cognitive profiles of PDD are similar to those of DLB 7 , and there is no essential difference in the pathology of autopsied cases, but unidentified factor(s) should differentiate DLB and PDD. (nature.com)
  • Among the lifestyle factors proposed to affect cognitive impairment and AD, "the evidence is most persuasive for physical exercise," commented Ron Petersen of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, in an e-mail to ARF. (alzforum.org)
  • Moving back to Europe, Dr Pascal Vrticka further advanced his research programme at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig (Germany), where he held several positions as a Research Scientist, Group Leader, and Senior Scientist. (essex.ac.uk)
  • Long-range functional connections mirror and link microarchitectural and cognitive hierarchies in the human brain. (mpg.de)
  • The levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were investigated to evaluate the neuroinflammatory responses in brain tissues from different animal groups. (degruyter.com)
  • Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in newborn infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • All told, the study "attempted to tie together changes in anatomy with changes in blood chemistry with changes in cognition, in a brain region with a pretty well-defined function (episodic memory)," Kramer said. (alzforum.org)
  • Brain iron redistribution in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: A susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study. (mpg.de)
  • A brain region called the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILC) is known to be critical for extinction memory in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Sulbutiamine is derived from vitamin B that is also proven to enhance memory. (wholisticresearch.com)
  • In a randomized trial of 120 of your sedentary peers, 40 minutes of walking, three times a week for a year, brought measurable benefit in the form of bigger brains and improved spatial memory. (alzforum.org)
  • Participants had brain scans, as well as fitness and memory assessments, at baseline, six months, and after the 12-month intervention. (alzforum.org)
  • accepted 2 February 2014) Continuous exercise and bright light affect brain function, particularly in seasonal affective disorders. (sagepub.com)
  • Investigation of brain function and structure by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI / fMRI). (essex.ac.uk)
  • The product has passed rigorous testing and is produced with premium ingredients to guarantee that it has the maximum potency for boosting brain function. (arhp.org)
  • The PAX6 gene may also affect brain development. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers compared the brains of various rats after extinction training. (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the protective and therapeutic potency of bee pollen and probiotic mixture on brain intoxication caused by propionic acid (PPA) in juvenile rats. (degruyter.com)
  • His group's innovative approaches aim to understand the barriers to functional performance from these vulnerable populations and communities, as well as identify behavioral, social, environmental, and biologic factors that can be used as interventional targets. (nih.gov)
  • Temperamental risk for anxiety: emerging work on the infant brain and later neurocognitive development. (nih.gov)
  • Gut microbiota could be one of the differentiating factors. (nature.com)
  • Human Brain Mapping, 43(1), 83-112. (nih.gov)
  • Human brain mapping. (nih.gov)
  • Selective disruption of sociocognitive structural brain networks in autism and alexithymia. (mpg.de)
  • Overall, our findings demonstrated a new approach to the beneficial use of psychobiotics presenting as bee pollen and probiotic combination in neuroinflammation through cytokine changes as a possible role of glial cells in gut-brain axis. (degruyter.com)
  • Besides, this has been dubbed as the best nootropic for its longer positive effects on the brain. (wholisticresearch.com)
  • At the NIH Rare Disease Day, Uplifting Athletes founder and Executive Director, Scott Shirley (left), and Dr. Stephen Groft, director of the Office of Rare Diseases Research, named Nebraska running back Rex Burkhead the 2012 Uplifting Athletes Rare Disease Champion, for inspiring a young fan battling a rare brain cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Balkowiec, A & Katz, DM 2000, ' Activity-dependent release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor from primary sensory neurons detected by ELISA in situ ', Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 20, no. 19, pp. 7417-7423. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The current study, another randomized trial of dementia-free seniors, offers "much more concrete proof" for the idea that exercise helps the brain, said Eric Larson of Group Health Research Institute in Seattle, Washington. (alzforum.org)