A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Cell surface receptors for CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. They are heterotrimeric proteins formed by the association of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with the LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although the receptor regulates neuronal development, it is structurally similar to the cytokine receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6; (RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-6).
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored cell surface receptors that are specific for GLIAL CELL LINE-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS. They form a multi-component receptor complex with PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET and regulate a variety of intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS in conjunction with c-ret protein.
A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit. It is anchored to the cell surface via GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and has specificity for binding to CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. It lacks signal transducing domains which are found on the other two subunits of the receptor.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligand that is specific for the GFRA2 RECEPTOR. Neurturin is essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic NEURONS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A family of closely related nerve growth factors that promote NEURON survival. They bind to GDNF RECEPTORS and stimulate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION through PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.
A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (1/3019)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. (2/3019)

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons undergo sprouting around the margins of a striatal wound. The mechanism of this periwound sprouting has been unclear. In this study, we have examined the role played by the macrophage and microglial response that follows striatal injury. Macrophages and activated microglia quickly accumulate after injury and reach their greatest numbers in the first week. Subsequently, the number of both cell types declines rapidly in the first month and thereafter more slowly. Macrophage numbers eventually cease to decline, and a sizable group of these cells remains at the wound site and forms a long-term, highly activated resident population. This population of macrophages expresses increasing amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA with time. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA is also expressed in and around the wound site. Production of this factor is by both activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. The production of these potent dopaminergic neurotrophic factors occurs in a similar spatial distribution to sprouting dopaminergic fibers. Moreover, dopamine transporter-positive dopaminergic neurites can be seen growing toward and embracing hemosiderin-filled wound macrophages. The dopaminergic sprouting that accompanies striatal injury thus appears to result from neurotrophic factor secretion by activated macrophages and microglia at the wound site.  (+info)

BDNF mediates the effects of testosterone on the survival of new neurons in an adult brain. (3/3019)

New neurons are incorporated into the high vocal center (HVC), a nucleus of the adult canary (Serinus canaria) brain that plays a critical role in the acquisition and production of learned song. Recruitment of new neurons in the HVC is seasonally regulated and depends upon testosterone levels. We show here that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in the HVC of adult males but is not detectable in that of females, though the HVC of both sexes has BDNF receptors (TrkB). Testosterone treatment increases the levels of BDNF protein in the female HVC, and BDNF infused into the HVC of adult females triples the number of new neurons. Infusion of a neutralizing antibody to BDNF blocks the testosterone-induced increase in new neurons. Our results demonstrate that BDNF is involved in the regulation of neuronal replacement in the adult canary brain and suggest that the effects of testosterone are mediated through BDNF.  (+info)

Activated human T cells, B cells, and monocytes produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro and in inflammatory brain lesions: a neuroprotective role of inflammation? (4/3019)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has potent effects on neuronal survival and plasticity during development and after injury. In the nervous system, neurons are considered the major cellular source of BDNF. We demonstrate here that in addition, activated human T cells, B cells, and monocytes secrete bioactive BDNF in vitro. Notably, in T helper (Th)1- and Th2-type CD4(+) T cell lines specific for myelin autoantigens such as myelin basic protein or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, BDNF production is increased upon antigen stimulation. The BDNF secreted by immune cells is bioactive, as it supports neuronal survival in vitro. Using anti-BDNF monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antiserum, BDNF immunoreactivity is demonstrable in inflammatory infiltrates in the brain of patients with acute disseminated encephalitis and multiple sclerosis. The results raise the possibility that in the nervous system, inflammatory infiltrates have a neuroprotective effect, which may limit the success of nonselective immunotherapies.  (+info)

Growth factor-mediated Fyn signaling regulates alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor expression in rodent neocortical neurons. (5/3019)

Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) transduce signals to regulate neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. However, the nature of their activators and molecular mechanisms underlying these neural processes are unknown. Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and platelet-derived growth factor enhance expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor 1 and 2/3 proteins in rodent neocortical neurons via the Src-family PTK(s). The increase in AMPA receptor levels was blocked in cultured neocortical neurons by addition of a Src-family-selective PTK inhibitor. Accordingly, neocortical cultures from Fyn-knockout mice failed to respond to BDNF whereas those from wild-type mice responded. Moreover, the neocortex of young Fyn mutants exhibited a significant in vivo reduction in these AMPA receptor proteins but not in their mRNA levels. In vitro kinase assay revealed that BDNF can indeed activate the Fyn kinase: It enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Fyn as well as that of enolase supplemented exogenously. All of these results suggest that the Src-family kinase Fyn, activated by the growth factors, plays a crucial role in modulating AMPA receptor expression during brain development.  (+info)

Differential sorting of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal neurons. (6/3019)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is released through the constitutive secretory pathway from cells in peripheral tissues and nerves where it can act as a target-derived survival factor. In contrast, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be processed in the regulated secretory pathway of brain neurons and secreted in an activity-dependent manner to play a role in synaptic plasticity. To determine whether sorting differences are intrinsic to the neurotrophins or reflect differences between cell types, we compared NGF and BDNF processing in cultured hippocampal neurons using a Vaccinia virus expression system. Three independent criteria (retention or release from cells after pulse-chase labeling, depolarization-dependent release, and immunocytochemical localization) suggest that the bulk of newly synthesized NGF is sorted into the constitutive pathway, whereas BDNF is primarily sorted into the regulated secretory pathway. Similar results occurred with AtT 20 cells, including those transfected with cDNAs encoding neurotrophin precursor-green fluorescent protein fusions. The NGF precursor, but not the BDNF precursor, is efficiently cleaved by the endoprotease furin in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Blocking furin activity in AtT 20 cells with alpha1-PDX as well as increasing the expression of NGF precursor partially directed NGF into the regulated secretory pathway. Therefore, neurotrophins can be sorted into either the constitutive or regulated secretory pathways, and sorting may be regulated by the efficiency of furin cleavage in the TGN. This mechanism may explain how neuron-generated neurotrophins can act both as survival factors and as neuropeptides.  (+info)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents low-frequency inputs from inducing long-term depression in the developing visual cortex. (7/3019)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reported to enhance synaptic transmission and to play a role in long-term potentiation in hippocampus and neocortex. If so, a shortage or blockade of BDNF might lead to another form of synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD). To test this possibility and to elucidate mechanisms if it is the case, EPSCs evoked by test stimulation of layer IV were recorded from layer II/III neurons in visual cortical slices of young rats in the whole-cell voltage-clamp mode. LTD was induced by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) at 1 Hz for 10-15 min if each pulse of the LFS was paired with depolarization of neurons to -30 mV but was not induced if their membrane potentials were kept at -70 mV. Such an LTD was blocked by exogenously applied BDNF, probably through presynaptic mechanisms. Suppression of endogenous BDNF activity by the anti-BDNF antibody or an inhibitor for BDNF receptors made otherwise ineffective stimuli (LFS without postsynaptic depolarization) effective for LTD induction, suggesting that endogenous BDNF may prevent low-frequency inputs from inducing LTD in the developing visual cortex.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (8/3019)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are specifically associated with memory performance among Alzheimers disease cases. AU - OBryant, Sid E.. AU - Hobson, Valerie L.. AU - Hall, James R.. AU - Barber, Robert C.. AU - Zhang, Song. AU - Johnson, Leigh. AU - Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - Aims: Our purpose was to study the link between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and neuropsychological functioning through the Texas Alzheimers Research Consortium cohort. Methods: A total of 399 participants [probable Alzheimers disease (AD) n = 198, controls n = 201] were available for analysis. The BDNF levels were assayed via multiplex immunoassay. Regression analyses were utilized to examine the relation between BDNF levels and neuropsychological functioning. Results: There were no significant mean differences in BDNF levels between cases and controls. In the AD group, the BDNF levels were significantly negatively associated with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tooth pulp inflammation increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rodent trigeminal ganglion neurons. AU - Tarsa, L.. AU - Bałkowiec-Iskra, E.. AU - Kratochvil, F. J.. AU - Jenkins, V. K.. AU - McLean, A.. AU - Brown, A. L.. AU - Smith, J. A.. AU - Baumgartner, J. C.. AU - Balkowiec, A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Nociceptive pathways with first-order neurons located in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) provide sensory innervation to the head, and are responsible for a number of common chronic pain conditions, including migraines, temporomandibular disorders and trigeminal neuralgias. Many of those conditions are associated with inflammation. Yet, the mechanisms of chronic inflammatory pain remain poorly understood. Our previous studies show that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed by adult rat TG neurons, and released from cultured newborn rat TG neurons by ...
Researchers have reported that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sBDNF) of drug-free depressed patients are lower than those of healthy controls and proposed that low sBDNF levels might reflect
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repeated electroconvulsive stimuli increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor in ACTH-treated rats. AU - Li, Bingjin. AU - Suemaru, Katsuya. AU - Cui, Ranji. AU - Kitamura, Yoshihisa. AU - Gomita, Yutaka. AU - Araki, Hiroaki. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by the Japanese Health Science Foundation and a Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research (No. 17590127) from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in Japan, and the Uehara Memorial Foundation.. PY - 2006/1/4. Y1 - 2006/1/4. N2 - Electroconvulsive therapy is considered to be an effective treatment for severe depression. We have already shown that the antidepressant-like effects of tricyclic antidepressants in the rat forced swim test are blocked by repeated treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated electroconvulsive stimuli on the forced swim test and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in ...
Experimental evidence in mice indicates that environmental conditions affect females and males differently. However, in a recent study analyzing the heterozygous mutation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), both sexes presented a similar emotional phenotype, which became obvious only under impoverished, but not in enriched conditions suggesting an enrichment-induced rescue. To investigate the basis of this behavioral rescue effect, we analyzed neurochemical changes (BDNF expression, serotonergic changes, and corticosterone) in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus of animals housed under respective conditions. In male mice, enrichment induced an increase of BDNF expression in the hippocampus of both BDNF heterozygous (BDNF(+/-)) and wild-types. Notably, in enriched-reared BDNF(+/-) mice BDNF mRNA and protein increased to levels comparable to those of wild-types in impoverished environment. In the frontal cortex of males, only wild-types presented an enrichment-induced increase of
Exercise is recognized as a promising approach to counteract aging-associated declines in cognitive functions. However, the exact molecular pathways involved remain unclear. Aerobic training interventions and improvements in peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) have been associated with increases in the peripheral concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and better cognitive performances. However, other training interventions such as resistance training and gross motor skills programs were also linked with improvements in cognitive functions. Thus far, few studies have compared different types of physical exercise training protocols and their impact on BDNF concentrations, especially in participants over 60 years old. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of three exercise protocols on plasma BDNF concentrations at rest in healthy older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomized into three interventions: (1) lower body strength and aerobic training (LBS-A), (2) upper
Fig. 6 HSP105-siRNA in HT22 cells or stressed mouse brain decreased BDNF levels and abolished antidepressant effects.. (A) Level of HSP105 mRNA in HT22 cells (ANOVA, F2,13 = 544.1, n = 5 to 6). (B) Level of BDNF mRNA in HT22 cells (ANOVA, F2,13 = 10.74, n = 5 to 6). (C) The level of HSP105 protein in the hippocampus was detected by Western blotting (n = 3). (D) Immobility times in the forced swim test (ANOVA, F2,11 = 6.03). (E) Immobility times in the tail suspension test (ANOVA, F2,11 = 15.02). (F) Social interaction rate in the interaction test (ANOVA, F2,11 = 5.00). (G) Sucrose preference and total fluid intake in the sucrose preference test. (H) Level of BDNF mRNA and protein in the mouse hippocampus (ANOVA, F2,11 = 4.54 and F2,12 = 5.41, respectively) (n = 4 to 5 animals per group). Each bar indicates the mean ± SEM. GGA + NTC, GGA with nontargeting control; GGA + HSP105-siRNA, GGA with HSP105-siRNA treatment. Statistically different groups are indicated by letters. ...
Executive Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Minerva. In addition, the BDNF findings are paving the way to explore roluperidones therapeutic potential beyond schizophrenia.. BDNF is a member of a family of proteins called neurotrophins that play an important role in the formation and function of neural connections. An emerging body of evidence has pointed to a link between BDNF and CNS disorders. Epigenetic changes in the BDNF gene have been shown to be related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and the reduced expression of BDNF has been identified in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the brain in patients with schizophrenia.4. Researchers believe that lower than normal levels of BDNF may affect the pathogenesis of schizophrenia by contributing to altered brain development and abnormalities in neuroplasticity and synaptic function. These disturbances may explain certain morphological and neurochemical characteristics in the brains of patients with schizophrenia.5. Furthermore, ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has neuroprotective, proangiogenic and myogenic effects and, therefore, possibly acts as a psychosomatic mediator. Here, we measured serum BDNF (seBDNF) level in hypertensive patients (HT) and healthy controls (CONT) and its relation to affective temperaments, depression and anxiety scales, and arterial stiffness parameters. In this cross-sectional study, affective temperaments, anxiety, and depression were studied with questionnaires (TEMPS-A, HAM-A, and BDI, respectively). SeBDNF level and routine laboratory parameters were measured as well. Arterial stiffness was evaluated with a tonometric method. Allover, 151 HT, and 32 CONT subjects were involved in the study. SeBDNF level was significantly higher in HT compared to CONT (24880 ± 8279 vs 21202.6 ± 6045.5 pg/mL, p | 0.05). In the final model of regression analysis, hyperthymic temperament score (Beta = 405.8, p = 0.004) and the presence of hypertension (Beta = 6121.2, p = 0.001) were independent
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mutant mice show hyperphagia and hyperleptinemia. Animal and cell-culture experiments suggest multiple interrelations between BDNF and the serotonin (5-HT) system. We studied serum BDNF in patients with anorexia nervosa and its associations with peripheral indicators of the 5-HT system. To control for secondary effects of acute malnutrition, we assessed acutely underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (acAN) in comparison to long-term weight-recovered patients with the disorder (recAN) and healthy controls.. Methods: We determined serum BDNF, platelet 5-HT content and platelet 5-HT uptake in 33 patients in the acAN group, 20 patients in the recAN group and 33 controls. Plasma leptin served as an indicator of malnutrition.. Results: Patients in the acAN group were aged 14-29 years and had a mean body mass index (BMI) of 14.9 (standard deviation [SD] 1.4) kg/m2. Those in the recAN group were aged 15-29 years and had a mean BMI of 20.5 (SD 1.3) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent neural crest-derived sensory neurons in neurotrophin-4 mutant mice. AU - Liebl, Daniel J.. AU - Klesse, Laura J.. AU - Tessarollo, Lino. AU - Wohlman, Todd. AU - Parada, Luis F.. PY - 2000/2/29. Y1 - 2000/2/29. N2 - Peripheral ganglion neurons confer sensory information including touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception. Sensory modality is linked to specific neurotrophin (NTF) requirements. NT-3 supports survival of neurons that differentiate primarily into proprioceptors whereas nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) support subpopulations that transmit nociception and mechanoreception, respectively. We examined sensory neurons of gene-targeted mouse mutants at the NT-4, BDNF, NT-3, and TrkA loci. We show that NT-4 functions early in gangliogenesis, upstream of BDNF. In the absence of NT-4 function, BDNF-dependent, TrkB-expressing neurons fail to appear. The results are consistent with the model ...
Objective It is important to predict a response to an antidepressant in early time after starting the antidepressant. We previously reported that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in responders to treatment with antidepressants were increased, whereas, those in nonresponders were not. Therefore, we hypothesized that the changes in serum levels of BDNF from baseline (TO) to 4 weeks (T4) after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) predict the response to the treatment at 8 weeks (T8) in depressed patients. To confirm the hypothesis, we measured serum BDNF at TO, T4, and T8 during the treatment with SSRIs (paroxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine). Methods One hundred fifty patients (M/F; 51/99, age; 50.4 +/- 15.1 years) met major depressive disorder (MDD) using by DSM-IV-TR enrolled in the present study. We measured serum BDNF concentrations at TO, T4, and T8 in patients with MDD treated with SSRIs. Results The changes in serum BDNF, age, sex, dose of SSRIs, and
BDNF and VEGF were analyzed as continuous variables. VEGF values were log-transformed to normalize the skewed distribution of VEGF. We used Cox-proportional hazards models to relate baseline serum BDNF and logVEGF levels (separately) to risk of incident stroke/TIA in Study Sample 1. We first examined the linear effect of a 1-SD unit increase/decrease in BDNF and logVEGF on risk of stroke/TIA. We also explored threshold effects comparing the risk across quartiles of BDNF and VEGF. We observed a threshold effect with BDNF only. Therefore, we ran threshold models for BDNF using the lowest quartile, Q1, as the reference and also assessed a threshold model comparing risk for persons in Q1 with persons in Q2 to Q4. We performed a similar set of analyses on a Study Sample 1b with stroke alone as the outcome. Using multivariable linear and logistic regression models, we examined the cross-sectional associations between BDNF and logVEGF and markers of brain aging (WMHV, and VR-d and Trails B-A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transient changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in hippocampus during moderate ischemia induced by chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusions in the rat. AU - Schmidt-Kastner, Rainald. AU - Truettner, Jessie. AU - Lin, Baowan. AU - Zhao, Weizhao. AU - Saul, Isabel. AU - Busto, Raul. AU - Ginsberg, Myron D.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Ms Yolanda Loor for meticulous work. These studies were supported by US Public Health Service grant NS 05820.. PY - 2001/8/15. Y1 - 2001/8/15. N2 - Chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induces moderate ischemia (oligemia) in the rat forebrain in the absence of overt neuronal damage. In situ hybridization for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA was used to search for a molecular response to moderate ischemia. BDNF mRNA was significantly increased in the hippocampal granule cells at 6 h of occlusion (ANOVA, Tukey test P,0.05). At 1, 7 and 14 days BDNF mRNA levels returned to ...
Objective(s): The aim of current study was to evaluate improving effects of pioglitazone as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cytokines as well as tissue oxidative damage criteria in the hippocampus in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced memory impairment.Materials and Methods: The rats were classified and treated as follows (10 rats per group): (1) vehicle, (2) vehicle before LPS (1 mg/kg, 120 min before memory tests), (3-5) pioglitazone 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg 30 min before LPS. Finally, the hippocampal tissues were collected for biomedical analyses.Results: In the Morris water maze test, the LPS group, had a longer latency to find the platform while they spent a shorter time in the target quadrant in the probe trial. In the passive avoidance test, the animals of the LPS group had shorter delay times to enter the dark compartment than those of the control group. Treatment with 20 and 30 mg of pioglitazone
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter methylation and cortical thickness in recurrent major depressive disorder. AU - Na, Kyoung Sae. AU - Won, Eunsoo. AU - Kang, June. AU - Chang, Hun Soo. AU - Yoon, Ho-Kyoung. AU - Tae, Woo Suk. AU - Kim, Yong Ku. AU - Lee, Min-Soo. AU - Joe, Sook Haeng. AU - Kim, Hyun. AU - Ham, Byung-Joo. PY - 2016/2/15. Y1 - 2016/2/15. N2 - Recent studies have reported that methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the association between cortical thickness and methylation of BDNF promoters as well as serum BDNF levels in MDD. The participants consisted of 65 patients with recurrent MDD and 65 age-and gender-matched healthy controls. Methylation of BDNF promoters and cortical thickness were compared between the groups. The right medial orbitofrontal, right lingual, right lateral occipital, left lateral orbitofrontal, left pars ...
Recent epidemiological studies showed that daily coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for several neurological disorders such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the protective effect of coffee against neurological disorders have not been elucidated. As brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes neuronal survival and protects against neuronal damage, we investigated the effects of coffee on BDNF signaling using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that brewed coffee exerted an inhibitory effect on the autophosphorylation of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), a BDNF receptor. Additionally, coffee reduced the phosphorylation of Akt in BDNF-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment with coffee did not affect the TrkB receptor on the cell surface. The major constituents of coffee, such as caffeine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline had no effect on TrkB phosphorylation induced by BDNF. In addition, coffee
One of the heavy progressive vascular complications of type 2 diabetes is a central nervous system, manifesting cognitive dysfunction due to metabolic changes. Goal. Defining the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods. The study involved 83 patients with type 2 diabetes at the age of 40 - 70 years. Complex examination included clinical and laboratory examination, neuropsychological testing. To screen for cognitive impairment used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MOS test). To identify early markers of cognitive impairment was determined the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results. The study found a negative correlation between the level of BDNF and the HbA1c (r = - 0,494, p = 0.01), fasting glucose (r = - 0,499, p = 0.01), and a positive relationship between the level of BDNF and cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. In patients with ...
One of the heavy progressive vascular complications of type 2 diabetes is a central nervous system, manifesting cognitive dysfunction due to metabolic changes. Goal. Defining the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods. The study involved 83 patients with type 2 diabetes at the age of 40 - 70 years. Complex examination included clinical and laboratory examination, neuropsychological testing. To screen for cognitive impairment used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MOS test). To identify early markers of cognitive impairment was determined the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results. The study found a negative correlation between the level of BDNF and the HbA1c (r = - 0,494, p = 0.01), fasting glucose (r = - 0,499, p = 0.01), and a positive relationship between the level of BDNF and cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. In patients with ...
Background Following voxel-based morphometry (VBM), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been shown to affect human brain morphology in Caucasians. However, little is known about the specific role of the Met/Met genotype on brain structure. Moreover, the relationship between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and Chinese brain morphology has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study investigated brain structural differences among three genotypes of BDNF (rs6265) for the first time in healthy young Chinese adults via cortical thickness analysis and VBM. Brain differences in Met carriers using another grouping method (combining Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes into a group of Met carriers as in most previous studies) were also investigated using VBM. Dual-approach analysis revealed less gray matter (GM) in the frontal, temporal, cingulate and insular cortices in the Met/Met group compared with the Val/Val group (corrected, P|0.05). Areas with less GM
Citation: Khundakar, A.A. and Zetterström, T.S.C. (2011) Effects of GABAB ligands alone and in combination with paroxetine on hippocampal BDNF gene expression. European Journal of Pharmacology, 671 (1-3) pp. 33-38 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for normal development of the central respiratory rhythm in mice. AU - Balkowiec, Agnieszka. AU - Katz, David M.. PY - 1998/7/15. Y1 - 1998/7/15. N2 - 1. Molecular mechanisms underlying maturation of the central respiratory rhythm are largely unknown. Previously, we found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for expression of normal breathing behaviour in newborn mice, raising the possibility that maturation of central respiratory output is dependent on BDNF. 2. Respiratory activity was recorded in vitro from cervical ventral roots (C1 or C4) using the isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation from postnatal day (P) 0.5-2.0 and P4.5 wild-type mice and mice lacking functional bdnf alleles. 3. Loss of one or both bdnf alleles resulted in an approximately 50% depression of central respiratory frequency compared with wild-type controls. In addition, respiratory cycle length variability was 214% higher in bdnf null ...
A Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene impairs activity-dependent BDNF release in cultured hippocampal neurons and predicts impaired memory and exaggerated basal hippocampal activity in healthy humans. Several clinical genetic association studies along with multi-modal evidence for hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia indirectly suggest a relationship between schizophrenia and genetically determined BDNF function in the hippocampus. To directly test this hypothesized relationship, we studied 47 medication-free patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 74 healthy comparison individuals with genotyping for the Val66Met SNP and [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) to measure resting and working memory-related hippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In patients, harboring a Met allele was associated with significantly less hippocampal rCBF. This finding was opposite to the genotype effect seen in healthy
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, in part due to changes in local protein synthesis. Activation of TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B) receptors for BDNF triggers several parallel signaling pathways, including the Ras/ERK, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and the phospholipase C-γ pathways. Recent studies have elucidated some of the signaling mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of translation activity by BDNF, through modulation of initiation and elongation phases, but the resulting changes in the proteome are not yet fully characterized. The proteins synthesized in response to activation of TrkB receptors by BDNF depend on the mRNAs that are available locally, after delivery and transport along dendrites. Recent studies have shown that BDNF may also play a regulatory role at this level. Furthermore, BDNF regulates transcription activity, thereby affecting the array of mRNAs available to be transported along dendrites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/Neurotrophin 3 Heterodimer. AU - Robinson, Robert C.. AU - Stuart, David I.. AU - Jones, E. Yvonne. AU - Radziejewski, Czeslaw. PY - 1995/9/1. Y1 - 1995/9/1. N2 - The development and sustenance of specific neuronal populations in the peripheral and central nervous systems are controlled through the binding of neurotrophic factors to high-affinity cell surface receptors. The neurotrophins (nerve growth factor, NGF; brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF; neurotrophin 3, NT3; and neurotrophin 4, NT4) are dimeric molecules which share approximately 50% sequence identity. The crystal structure of the murine NGF homodimer [McDonald et al. (1991) Nature 354, 411-414] indicated that the dimer interface corresponds to regions of high sequence conservation throughout the neurotrophin family. This potential compatibility was duly exploited for the production in vitro of noncovalent heterodimers between the different neurotrophins ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurotrophin-mediated dendrite-to-nucleus signaling revealed by microfluidic compartmentalization of dendrites. AU - Cohen, Michael S.. AU - Orth, Carlos Bas. AU - Kim, Hyung Joon. AU - Jeon, Noo Li. AU - Jaffrey, Samie R.. PY - 2011/7/5. Y1 - 2011/7/5. N2 - Signaling from dendritic synapses to the nucleus regulates important aspects of neuronal function, including synaptic plasticity. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can induce long-lasting strengthening of synapses in vivo and this effect is dependent on transcription. However, the mechanism of signaling to the nucleus is not well understood. Here we describe a microfluidic culture device to investigate dendrite-to-nucleus signaling. Using these microfluidic devices, we demonstrate that BDNF can act directly on dendrites to elicit an anterograde signal that induces transcription of the immediate early genes, Arc and c-Fos. Induction of Arc is dependent on dendrite- and cell body-derived calcium, whereas ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes several functions in neurons and modulates neurotransmissions, especially in hippocampal regions. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) has a strong genetic background, but genetic risk factors ass
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates immune reaction in mice with peripheral nerve xenotransplantation Xin Yu,1 Laijin Lu,1 Zhigang Liu,1 Teng Yang,2 Xu Gong,1 Yubo Ning,3 Yanfang Jiang4 1Department of Hand Surgery, 2Department of Orthopedics, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 3Department of Orthopedics, Ningshi Orthopedics Hospital of Tonghua, Tonghua, 4Department of Central Laboratory, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Peoples Republic of China Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been demonstrated to play an important role in survival, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth for many types of neurons. This study was designed to identify the role of BDNF during peripheral nerve xenotransplantation. Materials and methods: A peripheral nerve xenotransplantation from rats to mice was performed. Intracellular cytokines were stained for natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, T cells, and B cells and analyzed by flow cytometry
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that is important in nervous system development and function. BDNF also appears to function downstream of the leptin-melanocortin signaling pathway to control appetite. In both animals and humans, diminished BDNF function is associated with hyperphagia, obesity, and neurocognitive deficits. We propose to study BDNF in two hyperphagic disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome and MC4R function-altering mutations. We hypothesize that patients with PWS may have increased BDNF during infancy, followed by a decline in BDNF that precedes the onset of hyperphagia and persists after the onset of obesity. We hypothesize that patients with MC4R mutations will have decreased BDNF, the severity of which will be associated with the degree of MC4R functional loss caused by the specific mutation(s) in each individual. To test these hypotheses, we wish to conduct cross-sectional studies to evaluate serum BDNF concentrations, metabolism, body composition, and ...
Context: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a pleiotropic peptide also involved in maintaining endothelial integrity. It is unknown if circulating BDNF levels are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).. Objective: To investigate the association of circulating BDNF with CVD risk Design, Setting and Participants: First, we prospectively investigated the association of circulating BDNF levels with cardiovascular events and mortality in the 3,687 participants (mean age 65 years, 2,068 women) from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Next, we evaluated the association of a common nonsynonymous SNP in the BDNF gene (rs6265) with circulating BDNF concentrations in FHS. Finally, we performed a Mendelian randomization experiment in the CARDIoGRAM consortium (,22,000 coronary artery disease [CAD] cases, ,60,000 controls) to investigate whether the same SNP was associated with CAD risk in CARDioGRAM and if so, whether the direction and effect size differed from that predicted based on ...
Author(s): Bamji, Shernaz X; Rico, Beatriz; Kimes, Nikole; Reichardt, Louis F | Abstract: Neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system have the capacity to modify synapse number, morphology, and efficacy in response to activity. Some of these functions can be attributed to activity-induced synthesis and secretion of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); however, the molecular mechanisms by which BDNF mediates these events are still not well understood. Using time-lapse confocal analysis, we show that BDNF mobilizes synaptic vesicles at existing synapses, resulting in small clusters of synaptic vesicles splitting away from synaptic sites. We demonstrate that BDNFs ability to mobilize synaptic vesicle clusters depends on the dissociation of cadherin-beta-catenin adhesion complexes that occurs after tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin. Artificially maintaining cadherin-beta-catenin complexes in the presence of BDNF abolishes the BDNF-mediated enhancement of synaptic vesicle
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that is important in nervous system development and function. BDNF also appears to function downstream of the leptin-melanocortin signaling pathway to control appetite. In both animals and humans, diminished BDNF function is associated with hyperphagia, obesity, and neurocognitive deficits. We propose to study BDNF in two hyperphagic disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome and MC4R function-altering mutations. We hypothesize that patients with PWS may have increased BDNF during infancy, followed by a decline in BDNF that precedes the onset of hyperphagia and persists after the onset of obesity. We hypothesize that patients with MC4R mutations will have decreased BDNF, the severity of which will be associated with the degree of MC4R functional loss caused by the specific mutation(s) in each individual. To test these hypotheses, we wish to conduct cross-sectional studies to evaluate serum BDNF concentrations, metabolism, body composition, and ...
The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are significantly decreased in patients with schizophrenia and correlate with impairments in cognitive function. However, no study has investigated the relationship between the serum BDNF levels and decision-making. We compared patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls with respect to their decision-making ability and serum BDNF levels. Eighty-six chronic schizophrenia patients and 51 healthy controls participated in this study. We controlled for gender, age, and estimated intelligence quotient (IQ), and we investigated the differences in decision-making performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) between the schizophrenia patient and control groups. We also compared the IGT scores, the serum BDNF levels, and the clinical symptoms between the groups. The IGT scores of the schizophrenia patients were lower than those of the controls. A negative correlation was detected between the mean net scores on the trials in the final two blocks and the
Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression & secretion after treatment with advanced glycation endproducts in brain microvascular endothelial cells ...
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Figure 4. Hippocampus and Perirhinal cortex in Human Brain (Figure Source). Some studies measured serum BDNF levels instead of specifically measuring brain BDNF concentration.[21][31][32][13] Serum BDNF is measured instead of brain levels because it can be measured without sacrificing the animal and is also acceptable for human studies. Acute changes in serum BDNF levels are thought to directly reflect changes in brain BDNF concentration[21][24]. There are several reasons for this: rat studies show correlations between serum and brain BDNF levels,[21] BDNF easily travels in both directions across the blood-brain barrier,[21][24] and both serum and brain BDNF levels are significantly reduced in AD.[24] There is conflicting evidence concerning exercise and its impact on serum BDNF.[24] Acute bouts of exercise have been found to increase serum BDNF levels,[21][24] but several studies have concluded that regular (chronic) exercise may lead to decreased serum BDNF levels compared to sedentary ...
The Effects of Voluntary, Involuntary, and Forced Exercises on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Motor Function Recovery: A Rat Brain Ischemia Model - free full-text /PMC3035657/ - Feb 2011 I was happy to find that what I have personally experienced has been proven to be true: forced exercise is not as beneficial as voluntary. Sometimes science…
Degeneration of neurons, such as the inner ear spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), may be decelerated or even stopped by neurotrophic factor treatment, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as electrical stimulation (ES). In a clinical setting, drug treatment of the SGN could start directly during implantation of a cochlear implant, whereas electrical stimulation begins days to weeks later. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of consecutive BDNF and ES treatments on SGN density and electrical responsiveness. An electrode drug delivery device was implanted in guinea pigs 3 weeks after deafening and five experimental groups were established: two groups received intracochlear infusion of artificial perilymph (AP) or BDNF; two groups were treated with AP respectively BDNF in addition to ES (AP + ES, BDNF + ES); and one group received BDNF from the day of implantation until day 34 followed by ES (BDNF ⇨ ES). Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses were recorded.
PC7 belongs to the proprotein convertase family, whose members are implicated in the cleavage of secretory precursors. The in vivo function of PC7 is unknown. Herein, we find that the precursor proBDNF is processed into mature BDNF in COS-1 cells coexpressing proBDNF with either PC7 or Furin. Conversely, the processing of proBDNF into BDNF is markedly reduced in the absence of either Furin or PC7 in mouse primary hepatocytes. In vivo we observe that BDNF and PC7 mRNAs are colocalized in mouse hippocampus and amygdala and that mature BDNF protein levels are reduced in these brain areas in PC7 KO mice but not in the hippocampus of PC1/3 KO mice. Various behavioral tests reveal that in PC7 KO mice spatial memory is intact and plasticity of responding is mildly abnormal. Episodic and emotional memories are severely impaired, but both are rescued with the tyrosine receptor kinase B agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. Altogether, these results support an in vivo role for PC7 in the regulation of certain ...
Environmental enrichment (EE) refers to the provision of a complex and stimulating housing condition which improves well-being, behaviour and brain function of laboratory animals. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of EE are only partially understood. In the current report, we describe a link between EE and neuropeptide Y (NPY), based on findings from NPY knockout (KO) mice exposed to EE. Relative to EE-housed wildtype (WT) animals, NPY KO mice displayed altered behaviour as well as molecular and morphological changes in amygdala and hippocampus. Exposure of WT mice to EE reduced anxiety and decreased central glucocorticoid receptor expression, effects which were absent in NPY KO mice. In addition, NPY deletion altered the preference of EE items, and EE-housed NPY KO mice responded to stress with exaggerated hyperthermia, displayed impaired spatial memory, had higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, effects which were not
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Erica D Smith, G Aleph Prieto, Liqi Tong, Ilse Sears-Kraxberger, Jeffrey D Rice, Oswald Steward, Carl W Cotman].
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are molecules which regulate the development and maintenance of specific functions in dif
Perhaps no other brain nutrient is receiving as much attention lately as DHA, especially after it was found to be a great way to increase BDNF. Scientists have been aggressively studying this critical brain fat for the past several decades for at least three reasons.. First, more than two-thirds of the dry weight of the human brain is fat, and one-quarter of that fat is DHA. From a structural point of view, DHA is an important building block for the membranes that surround healthy brain cells. These membranes include the areas where one brain cell connects to another, the synapses. This means that DHA is involved in the transmission of information from one neuron to the next and thus is fundamental for efficient brain function.. Second, DHA is one of natures important regulators of inflammation. Inflammation is responsible for a large number of brain maladies, including Alzheimers, Parkinsons, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and multiple sclerosis. DHA naturally reduces the ...
Purpose : The concept that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major trophic factor for retinal neurons is well-established. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing BNDF production and its neuroprotective effect remain largely unknown. To determine the role of BDNF in neuroprotection in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we investigated the mechanism of BDNF production/secretion by Müller cells (MCs) and of BDNF-mediated MC viability under diabetic and hypoxic conditions using both in vivo and in vitro models. Methods : BDNF production and expression were quantified with immunoblotting and ELISA analysis using a rat MC line (rMC1) and condtional gene knockout (KO) mice. MC viability was measured by live cell quantification. MG and neuronal density in mice was analyzed with immunohistochemistry and retinal morphology was examined with light microscopy. Results : In high glucose media, MC secreted a high level of BDNF which was ...
Abstract Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be as a molecular candidate for the development of bipolar disorder. We tried t..
Exercise induces beneficial responses in the brain, which is accompanied by an increase in BDNF, a trophic factor associated with cognitive improvement and the alleviation of depression and anxiety. However, the exact mechanisms whereby physical exercise produces an induction in brain Bdnf gene expression are not well understood. While pharmacological doses of HDAC inhibitors exert positive effects on Bdnf gene transcription, the inhibitors represent small molecules that do not occur in vivo. Here, we report that an endogenous molecule released after exercise is capable of inducing key promoters of the Mus musculus Bdnf gene. The metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate, which increases after prolonged exercise, induces the activities of Bdnf promoters, particularly promoter I, which is activity-dependent. We have discovered that the action of β-hydroxybutyrate is specifically upon HDAC2 and HDAC3, which act upon selective Bdnf promoters. Moreover, the effects upon hippocampal Bdnf expression were ...
Keywords: SKF 83959 brain-derived neurotrophic aspect tropomyosin receptor kinase B juvenile prefrontal cortex nucleus accumbens Launch Adolescence is an interval of maturation in the corticolimbic parts of the mind and proof shows that this stage of advancement may coincide with the original manifestation of symptoms connected with neuropsychiatric disease. Symptoms of despair and schizophrenia for instance show significant boosts during adolescence [1 2 a developmental period also connected with elevated awareness to psychostimulant-induced praise [3-6]. Brain-derived neurotrophic aspect (BDNF) an associate from the neurotrophin category of development factors MLN518 acts inside the central anxious program via the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) to aid the success of existing neurons [7 8 maintain neuronal synapse integrity [9] and promote neuronal development and differentiation [8 10 Because of these important activities on neuronal plasticity BDNF continues to be postulated to become ...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
J Neuroinflammation. 2017 Aug 4;14(1):156. doi: 10.1186/s12974-017-0930-6.. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor reduces inflammation and hippocampal apoptosis in experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis.. Xu D1, Lian D1, Wu J1, Liu Y2, Zhu M3, Sun J3, He D1, Li L4.. Author information. Abstract. BACKGROUND:. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis is a serious inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The inflammatory processes initiated by recognition of bacterial components contribute to apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has long been recommended for the treatment of CNS diseases due to its powerful neuro-survival properties, as well as its recently reported anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in vitro and in vivo.. METHODS:. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDNF-related signaling on the inflammatory response and hippocampal apoptosis in ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the biochemical and morphological differentiation of selective populations of neurons during development. In this study we examined the energy requirements associated with the effects of BDNF on neuronal differentiation. Because glucose is the preferred energy substrate in the brain, the effect of BDNF on glucose utilization was investigated in developing cortical neurons via biochemical and imaging studies. Results revealed that BDNF increases glucose utilization and the expression of the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3. Stimulation of glucose utilization by BDNF was shown to result from the activation of Na+/K+-ATPase via an increase in Na+ influx that is mediated, at least in part, by the stimulation of Na+-dependent amino acid transport. The increased Na+-dependent amino acid uptake by BDNF is followed by an enhancement of overall protein synthesis associated with the differentiation of cortical neurons. Together, these data demonstrate the
Antiepileptic drugs provide neuroprotection in several animal models of brain damage, including those induced by status epilepticus (SE). The mechanisms involved in this action are unknown, but neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a role. In this study we investigated the changes in BDNF levels in rats in which SE had been induced by pilocarpine injection (400 mg/kg i.p.) and continued for several hours (unprotected group). In other animals (protected groups), SE was suppressed after 30 min by intraperitoneal injection of either diazepam (10 mg/kg) + pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) or paraldehyde (0.3 mg/kg). In diazepam + pentobarbital-treated rats the hippocampal damage caused by SE was significantly lower (p , 0.05) than in unprotected animals. In addition, 2 and 24 h after pilocarpine injection, the levels of BDNF mRNA were moderately increased in the unprotected group, but super-induced in protected animals, especially in the neocortex and hippocampus. A ...
The mind‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)‐tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) (BDNF‐TrkB) signalling pathway plays a crucial part in regulating learning and memory. offspring hippocampus cells using actual‐time PCR (RT‐PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively. The levels of phosphorylated‐TrkB (phospho‐TrkB) and synaptophysin were measured by western blot. It was discovered that maternal exposure NSC-207895 to propofol on day time E18 impaired spatial learning and memory space of rat offspring decreased mRNA and protein levels of BDNF and TrkB and decreased the levels of both phospho‐TrkB and synaptophysin in the hippocampus. Furthermore the TrkB agonist 7 8 (7 8 reversed all the observed changes. Treatment with 7 8 experienced no significant effects within the offspring that were not exposed to propofol. The results herein indicate that maternal exposure to propofol during the late stages of pregnancy impairs spatial learning and memory space of offspring by disturbing the ...
Up-regulation of nestin expression was significantly induced in the caudate-putamen of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice in our previous observation [Brain Res 925 (2002) 9]. We hypothesized that the nestin-expressing cells might play an important role in the pathogenesis of parkinsonian model, and characterization of these nestin-expressing cells was studied by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative analysis for various markers of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), S-100, neuronal nuclear specific protein (NeuN), β-tubulin, Ki-67 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in MPTP-treated C57/BL mice. Firstly, significant increasing in both nestin protein and mRNA was found in MPTP-treated mice. Up-regulation of nestin expression started at day 1, peaked at day 3, and gradually went down at days 7-21 in the neostriatum after MPTP treatment. Secondly, double immunofluorescence indicated that almost all of nestin-positive cells exhibited ...
Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17 β -estradiol (E2) on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i) nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii) stressed sham-operated control, (iii) nonstressed OVX, (iv) stressed OVX, (v) stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μ g daily, sc), and (vi) stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally). Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration ...
Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17 β -estradiol (E2) on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i) nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii) stressed sham-operated control, (iii) nonstressed OVX, (iv) stressed OVX, (v) stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μ g daily, sc), and (vi) stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally). Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration ...
Alveolar epithelial regeneration is essential for recovery from devastating lung diseases. This process occurs when type II alveolar pneumocytes (AT2 cells) proliferate and transdifferentiate into type I alveolar pneumocytes (AT1 cells). We used genome-wide analysis of chromatin accessibility and gene expression following acute lung injury to elucidate repair mechanisms. AT2 chromatin accessibility changed substantially following injury to reveal STAT3 binding motifs adjacent to genes that regulate essential regenerative pathways. Single-cell transcriptome analysis identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) as a STAT3 target gene with newly accessible chromatin in a unique population of regenerating AT2 cells. Furthermore, the BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) was enriched on mesenchymal alveolar niche cells (MANCs). Loss or blockade of AT2-specific Stat3, Bdnf or mesenchyme-specific TrkB compromised repair and reduced Fgf7 expression by niche cells. A TrkB agonist improved
We investigated whether δ-opioid receptor (DOR)-induced neuroprotection involves the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. We studied the effect of DOR activation on the expression of BDNF and other proteins in the cortex of C57BL/6 mice exposed to hypoxia (10% of oxygen) for 1-10 days. The results showed that: (1) 1-day hypoxia had no appreciable effect on BDNF expression, while 3- and 10-day hypoxia progressively decreased BDNF expression, resulting in 37.3% reduction (p < 0.05) after 10-day exposure; (2) DOR activation with UFP-512 (1 mg/kg, i.p., daily) partially reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction of BDNF expression in the 3- or 10-day exposed cortex; (3) DOR activation partially reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction in functional TrkB (140-kDa) and attenuated hypoxia-induced increase in truncated TrkB (90-kDa) in the 3- or 10-day hypoxic cortex; and (4) prolonged hypoxia (10 days) significantly increased TNF-α level and decreased CD11b expression in the cortex, which was
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Neuronal injury and oxidative stress in AD increases the level of inflammatory cytokines. Curcumin has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of curcumin on hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic ...
Depression is a prevalent and debilitating psychiatric illnesses. However, currently prescribed antidepressant drugs are only efficacious in a limited group of patients. Studies on Balb/c mice suggested that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition may enhance the efficacy of the widely-prescribed antidepressant drug fluoxetine. This study shows that reducing HDAC activity in fluoxetine-treated Balb/c mice leads to robust antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. While reducing the activity of class I HDACs 1 and 3 led to antidepressant effects, additional class II HDAC inhibition was necessary to exert anxiolytic effects. In fluoxetine-treated mice, HDAC inhibitors increased enrichment of acetylated histone H4 protein and RNA polymerase II at promotor 3 of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene and increased Bdnf transcription from this promotor. Reducing Bdnf-stimulated tropomyosin kinase B receptor activation in fluoxetine-treated mice with low HDAC activity abolished the behavioral effects of
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has long been known as a trophic factor involved in survival, differentiation, and maintenance of neuronal populations in the central nervous system. In addition to these effects, BDNF has emerged as a major activity-dependent regulator of synaptic transmission and plasticity in many brain areas, most notably the neocortex and hippocampus. Pre- and postsynaptic localization of BDNF and its cognate receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) at glutamate synapses in particular, make it an ideal candidate for rapidly fine-tuning excitatory transmission and modulating the ability of synapses to undergo activity-dependent plasticity. Furthermore, N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptors, which play an important role in some forms of plasticity, are a primary target of BDNF-TrkB receptor signaling. Although BDNF appears to have pre- and postsynaptic effects on glutamatergic transmission, consistent with localization of TrkB receptors to axon terminals and dendritic
Background: Antidepressant drugs (ADs) have been shown to activate BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) receptor TrkB in the rodent brain but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. ADs act as monoamine reuptake inhibitors and after prolonged treatments regulate brain bdnf mRNA levels indicating that monoamine-BDNF signaling regulate AD-induced TrkB activation in vivo. However, recent findings demonstrate that Trk receptors can be transactivated independently of their neurotrophin ligands. Methodology: In this study we examined the role of BDNF, TrkB kinase activity and monoamine reuptake in the AD-induced TrkB activation in vivo and in vitro by employing several transgenic mouse models, cultured neurons and TrkB-expressing cell lines. Principal Findings: Using a chemical-genetic TrkB(F616A) mutant and TrkB overexpressing mice, we demonstrate that ADs specifically activate both the maturely and immaturely glycosylated forms of TrkB receptors in the brain in a TrkB kinase ...
Could an alternative version of your brain-derived neurotropic factor be an excuse for your failed road test?. According to research published in the Journal, Cerebral Cortex, by Stephanie McHughen et.al., a key SNP in BDNF (valine 66 mutated to methionine) impacts learning and memory functions, cognitive tools which happen to be crucial for operating an automobile.. During one of the described experiments, subjects were seated at a computer, with attached steering wheel as they had to keep the virtual car on a black line in the center of the screen. Subjects got to learn the driving circuit by following the car on 15, 60 second trials. While both groups of subjects (those who had the normal valine allele, and those with the val66met SNP) started at similar levels of ability, and showed short term learning. During the trials however, val66met subjects showed less learning, and made more mistakes while learning. By day 5 of training, those with the val66met allele showed less ability to retain ...
Human brain derived neurotrophic element (BDNF) acting through the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) enhances neuromuscular transmission in the diaphragm muscle mass of adult mice, reflecting presynaptic effects. vehicle treatment. In early old age (18 months), presynaptic terminal volume decreased compared to 6 month older diaphragm NMJs (~20 %). Inhibition of TrkB kinase activity significantly decreased the presynaptic terminal volume (~20 %) and engine end-plate 2D planar area (~10 %), self-employed of age group. Inhibition of TrkB kinase activity in early old age significantly reduced overlap of pre- and post-synaptic constructions and improved the proportion of denervated NMJs (to ~20 %). Collectively these results support a period of susceptibility in early old age when BDNF/TrkB signaling at diaphragm NMJs helps the maintenance of NMJs structure and muscle mass innervation. software of 1118460-77-7 IC50 BDNF enhanced neuromuscular transmission in 18 month older mice, similar to ...
Neurotrophic factors have an established developmental role in regulating the survival and specification of sensory neurons. However, these factors continue to exert an important influence on sensory neurons throughout the postnatal period and into adult life. In adulthood, approximately one-half of nociceptors are dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) for trophic support, whereas the other half are sensitive to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). It is now known that many chronic pain states are maintained by widespread changes in the anatomy, neurochemistry, and function of the sensory nervous system both at the level of the primary sensory neuron and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Trophic factors appear to orchestrate many of these dynamic changes. This review highlights some of the key roles played by these molecules and in particular the role of NGF in the peripheral sensitization of nociceptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a central pain modulator.
Endocytosis of Trk (tropomyosin-related kinase) receptors is critical for neurotrophin signal transduction and biological functions. However, the mechanism governing endocytosis of TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B) and the specific contributions of TrkB endocytosis to downstream signaling are unknown. In this study, we report that blocking clathrin, dynamin, or AP2 in cultured neurons of the central nervous system inhibited brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced activation of Akt but not ERK. Treating neurons with the clathrin inhibitor monodansylcadaverine or a peptide that blocks dynamin function specifically abrogated Akt pathway activation in response to BDNF but did not affect the response of other downstream effectors or the up-regulation of immediate early genes neuropeptide Y and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein. Similar effects were found in neurons expressing small interfering RNA to silence AP2 or a dominant negative form of dynamin that inhibits ...
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules - nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins - that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.[1][2][3] Most NTFs exert their trophic effects on neurons by signaling through tyrosine kinases,[2] usually a receptor tyrosine kinase. In the mature nervous system, they promote neuronal survival, induce synaptic plasticity, and modulate the formation of long-term memories.[2] Neurotrophic factors also promote the initial growth and development of neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, and they are capable of regrowing damaged neurons in test tubes and animal models.[1][4] Some neurotrophic factors are also released by the target tissue in order to guide the growth of developing axons. Most neurotrophic factors belong to one of three families: (1) neurotrophins, (2) glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs), and (3) neuropoietic ...
Jusen Tsuru,1 Yoshihiro Tanaka,1 Yoshinobu Ishitobi,1 Yoshihiro Maruyama,1 Ayako Inoue,1 Aimi Kawano,1 Rie Ikeda,1 Tomoko Ando,1 Harumi Oshita,2 Saeko Aizawa,1 Koji Masuda,1 Haruka Higuma,1 Masayuki Kanehisa,1 Taiga Ninomiya,1 Jotaro Akiyoshi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan Background: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder.Methods: To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men) using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary &alpha;
Purpose: : During NMDA-induced cell death in the neural retina, there is an elevation of the nuclear isoform of CaMKIIα (CaMKIIαB). This result leads to the question of how CaMKIIαB might be involved in either a cell death or cell survival pathway, for example, in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The purpose of this study is to investigate if CaMKIIα regulates BDNF expression in RGCs. Methods: : Highly purified RGCs or dissociated retinal cells were obtained from P6-8 SD rat eyes and treated with glutamate (200-1000uM) for the indicated times. Glutamate cytotoxicity on RGCs and localization of CaMKIIα was determined by cell counting and immunostaining, respectively. To identify the role of CaMKIIα in regulating BDNF expression, CaMKIIαB expression vector was constructed and over-expressed in cells of the RGC-5 cell line, and cell viability was assayed. Specific siRNAs to knock down CaMKIIαB or CaMKIIα were then tested in CaMKIIαB-transfected or non-transfected RGC-5 cells. The siRNAs ...
Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory synaptic transmission in mammalian brain, and play important roles in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. In particular, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are generally considered to represent cellular mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. Calpain is a calcium-dependent neutral protease that plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, cell motility, as well as in various forms of neurodegeneration. We compared the rates of calpain-mediated truncation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits with those of GluR1 phosphorylated at serine 831 or serine 845, and GluR2 phosphorylated at serine 880. Rat brain membranes were treated with calpain and calcium and levels of total and phosphorylated GluR1 and GluR2 subunits were analyzed by western blots. Rates of calpain-mediated truncation of phosphorylated GluR1 (either at serine 831 or 845) were much slower than for total GluR1. On the other hand, ...
Genetic and pharmacological perturbations suggest that tyrosine receptor kinase B (trkB) receptor activation promotes limbic epileptogenesis, but whether or where trkB activation occurs during epileptogenesis is uncertain. Because activation of trk receptors involves phosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues (Segal et al., 1996), the availability of antibodies that selectively recognize the phosphorylated form of trk receptors at the Shc site permits an immunohistochemical assessment of trk receptor activation. We reported previously increased phospho-specific trk (p-trk) immunoreactivity in the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus during epileptogenesis in rats (Binder et al., 1999b). Because the p-trk antibody does not distinguish among trkA, trkB, and trkC, the identity of the neurotrophin receptor(s) undergoing phosphorylation was uncertain. The development of mice carrying a point mutation of the Shc binding site (Y515F) in the trkB gene (trkB(shc)) provided an opportunity to test the
Nicotine exposure enhances Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA), or the learned approach to reward-predictive cues. While females show elevated approach to conditioned stimuli compared to males, potentially indicating heightened addiction vulnerability, it is unknown how sex may interact with nicotine to influence approach behavior. Additionally, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels can be altered significantly after repeated nicotine exposure, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to nicotine-induced behavioral phenotypes. The present study investigated the role of sex on nicotine-induced changes to stimulus-response behavior and associated BDNF protein levels. Male and female rats were exposed to nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or saline 15 min prior to each PCA session. PCA training consisted of 29 sessions of 15 trials, in which a 30-s cue presentation ended concurrently with a sucrose reward (20% w/v in water, 100 μL), and a 120-s variable intertrial interval occurred
Neurotrophin signaling impacts development and health of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been of particular interest. BDNF increases DNA synthesis in cultured basal forebrain oligodendrocyte progenitors (Vant Veer et al., 2009) and enhances oligodendrocyte differentiation to myelin protein-expressing cells (Du et al., 2006). Moreover, BDNF deficient mice exhibit deficits in progenitors and myelin protein expression (Vondran et al., 2010) and the conditional knock-out of the BDNF receptor TrkB from mature, MBP+ oligodendrocytes results in reduced myelin thickness in both the spinal cord and the corpus callosum (Wong et al., 2013).. These effects may be relevant to in vivo demyelination. For example, in the cuprizone demyelination model expression of BDNF is decreased in the corpus callosum, and animals deficient in BDNF exhibit a more severe loss of myelin protein in the lesioned corpus callosum than do their wild-type littermates (VonDran et al., ...
Fig. 7. Protein expression levels of BDNF, TrkB, p-CREB and p-ERK in the brain of rats after different treatments. 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats with ovariectomy underwent intraperitoneal administration of estrogen or its vehicle. 12 rats of sham-operated group only underwent the resection of a bit of fat around bilateral ovaries. All these rats were injected with 10 mg/kg NTG once a week and the injection was repeated five times. The rats were sacrificed during the migraine attacks (4 h after the fifth injection) or the headache-free intervals (24 h after the fifth injection). After rats were anaesthetized with ketamine and xylazine (i.p.), the whole brain was removed and subjected to RT-PCR assay. *P,0.05, **P,0.01 between each group (n=12, ANOVA followed by a Tukeys post hoc test for multiple comparisons). BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; TrkB, tropomyosin receptor kinases; p-ERK, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase; p-CREB, phosphorylated c-AMP-responsive element ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lisa M McFadden, Paula L Vieira-Brock, Glen R Hanson, Annette E Fleckenstein].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small molecules activating TrkB receptor for treating a variety of CNS disorders. AU - Zeng, Yan. AU - Wang, Xiaonan. AU - Wang, Qiang. AU - Liu, Shumin. AU - Hu, Xiamin. AU - Mcclintock, Shawn M.. PY - 2013/11/1. Y1 - 2013/11/1. N2 - The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high affinity receptor tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B (TrkB) play a critical role in neuronal differentiation and survival, synapse plasticity, and memory. Indeed, both have been implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. Although the remarkable therapeutic potential of BDNF has generated much research over the past decade, the poor pharmacokinetics and adverse side effect profile have limited its clinical usefulness of BDNF. Small compounds that mimic BDNFs neurotrophic signaling and overcome the pharmacokinetic and side effect barriers may have greater therapeutic potential. The purpose of this review is to provide a survey of the various strategies taken towards the development of ...
Infusing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into the infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex is capable of inducing extinction. Little is known, however, about the circuits mediating BDNF effects on extinction or the extent to which extinction requires BDNF in IL. Using local pharmacological infusion of BDNF protein, or an antibody against BDNF, we found that BDNF in the IL, but not prelimbic (PL) prefrontal cortex, is both necessary and sufficient for fear extinction. Furthermore, we report that BDNF in IL can induce extinction of older fear memories (14 days) as well as recent fear memories (1 day). Using immunocytochemistry, we show that BDNF is increased in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), but not IL or PL, following extinction training. Finally, we observed that infusing BDNF into the vHPC increased the firing rate of IL, but not PL neurons in fear conditioned rats. These findings indicate that an extinction-induced increase in BDNF within the vHPC enhances excitability in IL targets, ...
Author: Mueller, Karsten et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2016-02; Keywords: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); Brain connectivity; Motor cortex; Eigenvector centrality (EC); Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); Resting-state fMRI; Title: Serum BDNF correlates with connectivity in the (pre)motor hub in the aging human brain: A resting-state fMRI pilot study
From a treatment standpoint, methods of increasing neuroplasticity can include physical exercise, which has been found to increase neurotrophic factors, a kind of fertilizer for the brain, in addition to stimulating angiogenesis. Cognitive exercise can also increase a specific type of fertilizer called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increases synaptogenesis. The question then arises, What if these therapy activities were combined? For example, what if you had someone walking on a treadmill while performing some type of cognitive activity so that you stimulate neurotrophic factors on two fronts? One study actually did find that such a combination of activities can exponentially enhance the production of neurotrophic factors. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoid regulates TrkB protein levels via c-Cbl dependent ubiquitination. T2 - A decrease in c-Cbl mRNA in the prefrontal cortex of suicide subjects. AU - Pandya, Chirayu. AU - Kutiyanawalla, Ammar. AU - Turecki, Gustavo. AU - Pillai, Anilkumar. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its receptor TrkB plays a crucial role in neurodevelopment and plasticity. Stress and glucocorticoids have been shown to alter TrkB signaling in neurons, and defects in TrkB expression have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of suicide subjects. Glucocorticoid treatment has been shown to induce deleterious effects on the neuronal maturation. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of TrkB by glucocorticoid during neurodevelopment are not clear. Here we show that acute corticosterone exposure induced posttranslational upregulation of TrkB in primary cortical neurons (days in vitro 4, DIV4), which was blocked by the proteasome ...
Background: Huntingtons disease (HD) is a genetically inherited, fatal neuropsychiatric disorder which strikes 1/10,000 people. The cause is a repeat expansion in the Huntingtin gene which leads to progressive brain degeneration, ultimately resulting in death after 15-20 years. HD passes from generation to generation. Each child of a parent with HD has a 50% chance of inheriting the HD mutation. There is currently no treatment, therapy or medication that will delay the onset of the disease or slow its progression. All currently available treatments are palliative, which focus on symptom management alone. There is currently no cure for HD. Proposed therapy: We propose a novel therapy for HD: implantation of mesenchymal stem cells engineered to secrete Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (MSC/BDNF). BDNF levels are reduced in the brains of HD patients. BDNF has been shown in numerous transgenic HD mouse studies to prevent cell death and to stimulate the growth and migration of new neurons in the ...
Introduction To investigate the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) and its downstream signalling pathway after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. Material and methods...
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairment and a high rate of autism. AS is caused by disrupted neuronal expression of the maternally inherited Ube3A ubiquitin protein ligase, required for the proteasomal degradation of proteins implicated in synaptic plasticity, such as the activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Mice deficient in maternal Ube3A express elevated levels of Arc in response to synaptic activity, which coincides with severely impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and deficits in learning behaviors. In this study, we sought to test whether elevated levels of Arc interfere with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) TrkB receptor signaling, which is known to be essential for both the induction and maintenance of LTP. We report that TrkB signaling in the AS mouse is defective, and show that reduction of Arc expression to control levels rescues the signaling deficits. Moreover, the association
Research Summary. Research in my laboratory is centered around signalling events, particularly those that involve intracellular Ca2+ and the major Ca2+ -binding regulatory protein calmodulin. Two systems we are investigating are the regulation of protein synthesis and the control of endocytosis by Ca2+, both of which involve (different) calmodulin-regulated events. We are also interested in the mechanism of action of neurotrophic factors like nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as they relate to the effects of these proteins on CNS neurons. Part of the action of these factors also involves Ca2+. Current projects. Neurotrophic factors and CNS neurons We have shown that primary cultures of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons can be used for biochemical investigations of the signal transduction pathways activated by BDNF and neurotrophin-3. These cells homogeneously express the receptors for these neurotrophins (receptor tyrosine kinases called TrkB and TrkC), and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BDNF plasma levels variations in major depressed patients receiving duloxetine. AU - Fornaro, Michele. AU - Escelsior, Andrea. AU - Rocchi, Giulio. AU - Conio, Benedetta. AU - Magioncalda, Paola. AU - Marozzi, Valentina. AU - Presta, Andrea. AU - Sterlini, Bruno. AU - Contini, Paola. AU - Amore, Mario. AU - Fornaro, Pantaleo. AU - Martino, Matteo. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - It has been frequently reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Objective of the study was to investigate BDNF levels variations in MDD patients during antidepressant treatment with duloxetine. 30 MDD patients and 32 healthy controls were assessed using Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and monitored for BDNF plasma levels at baseline, week 6 and week 12 of duloxetine treatment (60 mg/day) and at baseline, respectively. According to early clinical response to duloxetine (defined at week 6 by reduction ,50 % ...
The development of cerebellar cortex is strongly impaired by thyroid hormone (T3) deficiency, leading to altered migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and survival of neurons. To determine whether alteration in the expression of neurotrophins and/or their receptors may contribute to these impairments, we first analyzed their expression using a sensitive RNAse protection assay and in situ hybridization; second, we administered the deficient neurotrophins to hypothyroid animals. We found that early hypothyroidism disrupted the developmental pattern of expression of the four neurotrophins, leading to relatively higher levels of NGF and neurotrophin 4/5 mRNAs and to a severe deficit in NT-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression, without alteration in the levels of the full-length tyrosine kinase (trk) B and trkC receptor mRNAs. Grafting of P3 hypothyroid rats with cell lines expressing high levels of neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) or BDNF prevented hypothyroidism-induced cell ...
Wong, J. & Garner, B. (2012). Evidence that truncated TrkB isoform, TrkB-Shc can regulate phosphorylated TrkB protein levels. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 420 (2), 331-335 ...
Given that both clinical and preclinical studies suggest that BDNF may be involved in the therapeutic action of antidepressants, BDNF appears to be a good candidate gene for the pharmacogenetic study of antidepressants. In our 2003 study on 110 MDD outpatients, we examined the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and response to 4-week antidepressant (fluoxetine) treatment.17 A trend (p=0.086) to higher total HAM-D-score percentage change was noted for the Val/Met-heterozygote patients in comparison to those bearing the homozygote (Val/Val or Met/Met). While similar findings have been reported in some of the subsequent studies of this polymorphism and the antidepressant response23,24, other studies demonstrated a better response in subjects with the Met variant25-27 or they found no association at all (Table 1).28,29 The inconsistencies in these findings might be due to the small sample sizes used in some of the studies. They could also have arisen as the result of differences in ...
phdthesis{e6a24cb9-3a1a-4b11-91f1-3152114bb8fb, abstract = {Enriched environment (EE) housing significantly ameliorates neurological deficits induced by cortical brain ischemia without changing infarction size, suggesting that EE-related functional benefits are associated with neuronal plasticity events in the remaining tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor-induced gene A (NGFI-A) and corticosteroid receptors (mineralocorticoid receptor, MR; glucocorticoid receptor, GR) have been demonstrated to be involved in brain plasticity. The purpose of this thesis was to determine if post-ischemic housing conditions had a significant effect on transcription and/or translation of BDNF, NGFI-A and corticosteroid receptors. We found that BDNF gene was down regulated in EE-housed rats when compared to the rats housed in standard cages at 2~12 days after cortical brain ischemia in peri-infarct cortex, contralateral cortex and bilateral hippocampus. The protein level of BDNF in ...
Objective To investigate the association between chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behavior in rats and expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100ß in the hippocampal and prefrontal cortex. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to three groups:saline control group,saline+CUMS group,and citalopram +CUMS group. CUMS was used for depression modeling in rats. Depressive-like behavior in rats were evaluated by open-field test,sucrose preference test,and novel object recognition test. S100ß and BDNF expressions were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Rats in the saline+CUMS group had significantly lower score in sucrose preference [(52.48±13.14)%],basic motor tasks [(845.8±371.4)s],fine motor tasks [(565.6±211.9)s],and longer resting time [(282.6±11.8)s] compared to the control group [(84.30±6.15)% (t=7.49,P=0.000),(1239.1±281.6)s (t=2.83,P=0.008),(801.8±150.9)s (t=3.05,P=0.003),(268.2±12.8)s (t=2.72,P=0.001)]. Compared ...
Full Text - Retinal ischemia emerges in many ocular diseases and is a leading cause of neuronal death and dysfunction, resulting in irreversible visual impairment. We previously reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-expressing human 293T cells could steadily express BDNF and play a protective role in ARPE-19 cells, a human retinal epithelial cell line. Thus, we hypothesized that exosomes might be essential in the interaction between BDNF-expressing 293T cells and recipient cells. The study investigated whether exosomes derived from BDNF-expressing 293T cells (293T-Exo) can be internalized by ischemic retinal cells and exert neuroprotective roles. The results demonstrated that 293T-Exo significantly attenuated the loss of cell proliferation and cell death in R28 cells in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation treatment. Mechanistic studies revealed that the endocytosis of 293T-Exo by R28 cells displayed dose- and temperature-dependent patterns and may be mediated by the caveolar
Title:Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Neurotrophic Factors and Depression: Possible Therapeutic Targets?. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Gianluca Serafini, Shawn Hayley, Maurizio Pompili, Yogesh Dwivedi, Goutam Brahmachari, Paolo Girardi and Mario Amore. Affiliation:Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, IRCCS San Martino, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16100, Genoa, Italy.. Keywords:Antidepressant drugs, hippocampal neurogenesis, major depression, neurotrophic factors, therapeutic targets.. Abstract:Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability and psychosocial impairment worldwide. Although many advances have been made in the neurobiology of this complex disorder, the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Among the proposed theories, impaired neuroplasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis have received considerable attention. The possible association between hippocampal ...
Although previous studies of Huntingtons disease (HD) have addressed many potential mechanisms of striatal neuron dysfunction and death, it is also known based on clinical findings that cortical function is dramatically disrupted in HD. With respect to disease etiology, however, the specific molecular and neuronal circuit bases for the cortical effects of mutant huntingtin (htt) have remained largely unknown. In the present work we studied the relation between the molecular effects of mutant htt fragments in cortical cells and the corresponding behavior of cortical neuron microcircuits using a novel cellular model of HD. We observed that a transcript-selective diminution in activity-dependent BDNF expression preceded the onset of a synaptic connectivity deficit in ex vivo cortical networks, which manifested as decreased spontaneous collective burst-firing behavior measured by multi-electrode array substrates. Decreased BDNF expression was determined to be a significant contributor to ...
Additionally, experience of an enriched environment brings about cellular changes in neurons, including synapse creation in the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory, and an increase in neurotrophins essential for neural function such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the mechanism of these cellular and behavioral changes remained unknown.. Professor Nobutaka Hirokawa and his colleagues at the University of Tokyos Graduate School of Medicine have shown for the first time that the motor protein KIF1A, known to be involved in the transport of compounds essential for neural signaling, has a vital role in memory and learning enhancement due to an enriched environment.. The research group determined that the quantity of BDNF and KIF1A was elevated in the hippocampi of mice raised in an enriched environment. However, even when raised in an enriched environment, a genetically-engineered mouse with a reduced ability to express KIF1A showed no increase in hippocampal synapse ...
BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor". Growth Factors. 22 (3): 123-31. doi:10.1080/08977190410001723308. PMC 2504526. PMID ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P23560 (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) at the ...
Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are both directly associated with suicide and indirectly associated ... Sher L (May 2011). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and suicidal behavior". QJM. 104 (5): 455-8. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcq207. ... Sher L (2011). "The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathophysiology of adolescent suicidal behavior". ... Simpson G, Tate R (December 2007). "Suicidality in people surviving a traumatic brain injury: prevalence, risk factors and ...
... a brain-derived neurotrophic factor that function in nerve growth and maintenance within the brain.[86][20]. *Vorinostat (SAHA) ... a neurotrophic factor important for long-term memory.[66] Expression of CREB, an activity-dependent transcription factor ... but are reduced in PD brain.[89]. DNA methylation. Neurons of PD patients show hypomethylation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ... in human AD brain, while other studies have shown upregulation or downregulation of miRNA-9 in brain.[61]. DNA methylation. In ...
This gene interacts with brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cadps2 has been linked to autism and is in the 7q autism ... French, L.; Pavlidis, P. (6 January 2011). "Relationships between gene expression and brain wiring in the adult rodent brain". ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ... CADPS2 has been linked to human and mouse brain structure in two large genomic studies. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Lauterborn JC, Truong GS, Baudry M, Bi X, Lynch G, Gall CM (Oct 2003). "Chronic elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... Chronic CX-614 treatments produce rapid increases in the synthesis of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF which has very ...
2003 Yves Barde, Discovery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. 2004 Roger Tsien, Development of Tools for Monitoring ... 2006 Solomon H. Snyder, Identification of Opiate Receptors in the Brain. 2007 Huda Zoghbi, Discovery of the Genetic Basis of ... 2017 Doris Tsao and Winrich Freiwald, Discovery of brain mechanisms of face recognition. 2018 S. Lawrence Zipursky and Joshua R ... 2013 Marcus Raichle, Discoveries Relating to the "Default Mode Network" of Brain Function. 2014 David W. Tank, Discovery of ...
"Sortilin controls intracellular sorting of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to the regulated secretory pathway". J. Neurosci. ... Götz R, Schartl M (1994). "The conservation of neurotrophic factors during vertebrate evolution". Comp Biochem Physiol ... 2008). "Association study of 10 genes encoding neurotrophic factors and their receptors in adult and child attention-deficit/ ... It is a neurotrophic factor that signals predominantly through the TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase. ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4).[6] The term neurotrophic factor ... "Regional distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the adult mouse brain". EMBO J. 9 (8): 2459-2464. PMC 552273 ... Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4).[6] The term neurotrophic factor ... "Regional distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the adult mouse brain". The EMBO Journal. 9 (8): 2459-64. ... Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ...
... brain derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and its receptor, amyloid precursor protein (APP), and tropomyosin receptor kinase A ( ... "Interactions between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the TRKB receptor. Identification of two ligand binding domains in ... Traumatic brain injury involves the necrotic and apoptotic death of brain cells in vulnerable and delicate areas such as the ... Both myelination and neurite outgrowth occur during brain maturation, and it is during this late period of brain development ( ...
"The neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 are ligands for the trkB tyrosine kinase receptor ... "trkB encodes a functional receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 but not nerve growth factor". Cell ... "trkB encodes a functional receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 but not nerve growth factor". Cell ... Suzuki S, Mizutani M, Suzuki K, Yamada M, Kojima M, Hatanaka H, Koizumi S (June 2002). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression of DARPP-32. The Akt and CDK5/p35 intracelular pathway is suggested ... "AKT and CDK5/p35 mediate brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction of DARPP-32 in medium size spiny neurons in vitro". The ... "AKT and CDK5/p35 mediate brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction of DARPP-32 in medium size spiny neurons in vitro". The ... "Role of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced DARPP-32 expression in medium size spiny ...
... the main receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. It has been found to possess poor blood-brain-barrier penetration when ... Lewin G, Carter BD (25 March 2014). Neurotrophic Factors. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 490-491. ISBN 978-3-642-45106- ... 189-. ISBN 978-1-4398-2708-6. Numakawa T (August 2014). "Possible protective action of neurotrophic factors and natural ...
The gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), located on 11p14.1, has been proposed as a candidate gene for the ... August 2008). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and obesity in the WAGR syndrome". N. Engl. J. Med. 359 (9): 918-27. doi: ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and obesity in the WAGR syndrome". The New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (9): 918-27. doi: ... Mutations in the PAX6 gene have recently been shown to not only cause ocular abnormalities, but also problems in the brain and ...
NT-3 was the third neurotrophic factor to be characterized, after nerve growth factor (NGF) and BDNF (Brain Derived ... "Nerve Growth Factor") BDNF (for "Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor") NT-4 (for "Neurotrophin-4") While TrkB mediates the ... Ozçelik T, Rosenthal A, Francke U (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 genes in ... Robinson RC, Radziejewski C, Stuart DI, Jones EY (1995). "Structure of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin 3 ...
Such downstream actions of this activation of AMPA receptors include upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ... Castrén E, Kojima M (January 2017). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mood disorders and antidepressant treatments". ... In any case, it has been elucidated that acute blockade of NMDA receptors in the brain results in an activation of α-amino-3- ... The Role of Brain Dopamine. Springer Science & Business Media. 6 December 2012. pp. 23-. ISBN 978-3-642-73897-5. Krystal JH, ...
For instance, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is produced by the brain and regulates several functions within the ... June 2007). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates cholesterol metabolism for synapse development". J. Neurosci. 27 (24 ... Cao G, Ko CP (June 2007). "Schwann cell-derived factors modulate synaptic activities at developing neuromuscular synapses". J. ... This brain region contains three main neuronal cell types- Purkinje cells, granule cells and mossy fiber cells. Wnt-3 ...
... including mitogens such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... Yin Y, Edelman GM, Vanderklish PW (2002). "The brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances synthesis of Arc in synaptoneurosomes ... Several transcription factors are known to be involved in regulating the Arc gene (see above), including serum response factor ... "The serum response factor and a putative novel transcription factor regulate expression of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1 ...
The 5-HT1A receptor has been shown to interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which may play a major role in ... February 2008). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-deficient mice exhibit a hippocampal hyperserotonergic phenotype". The ... 5-HT1A is expressed in the brain, spleen, and neonatal kidney. It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), coupled to the Gi ... This autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of serotonin release has been theorized to be a major factor in the therapeutic lag that ...
Adachi M, Barrot M, Autry A, Theobald D, Monteggia LM (2008) Selective loss of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the dentate ... "Essential role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult hippocampal function". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Monteggia and her lab used a novel inducible knockout system to selectively knock out Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in the ... "Selective Loss of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Dentate Gyrus Attenuates Antidepressant Efficacy". Biological ...
BDNF - Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, is another important gene in the study of schizophrenia genetics. BDNF plays a ... DNA methylation can also affect expression of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor). The BDNF protein is important for ... Some postmortem brain studies looking at the gene expression of histone methylation has shown promising results that might be ... One of the most common methods is looking at postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia and analyzing them for ...
Mixed results were found for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the tryptophan ... Research on the brains of people with MDD usually shows disturbed patterns of interaction between multiple parts of the brain. ... Instead of studying one brain region, studying large scale brain networks is another approach to understanding psychiatric and ... Sleep deprivation and light therapy both target the same brain neurotransmitter system and brain areas as antidepressant drugs ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is under investigation as a possible mechanism. There is evidence that sex hormones ... The percentage risk that is estimated to be due to genetics is between 30% and 80%. Other risk factors for the disease include ... Media portrayals of an 'ideal' body shape are widely considered to be a contributing factor to bulimia. In a 1991 study by ... A study dedicated to investigating the thin ideal internalization as a factor of bulimia nervosa is Thompson's and Stice's ...
Another way is through the controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has also been found to ... As will be discussed further, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) is produced by neurons to coordinate nonsynaptic and ... Corner MA, Ramakers GJ (January 1992). "Spontaneous firing as an epigenetic factor in brain development--physiological ... suggesting that this neurotrophic factor may be responsible for the coordination of synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms in ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic growth factor that plays an important role in memory, learning, and ... Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to be associated with depression. Research suggests that increasing ... Duclot F, Kabbaj M (2015). "Epigenetic mechanisms underlying the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in depression and ... Rogóz Z, Skuza G, Legutko B (December 2005). "Repeated treatment with mirtazepine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor ...
E. Zintzaras E; G. M. Hadjigeorgiou (2005). "The role of G196A polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene in ... "Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene Val66Met and -270C/T polymorphisms and personality traits predisposing to anorexia ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met and psychiatric disorders: meta-analysis of case-control studies confirm association ... in the BDNF gene that codes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Well over a hundred research studies have examined the ...
Nicotine has been demonstrated to alter the amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in humans. Nicotine could make cancer ... Machaalani, Rita; Chen, Hui (2018). "Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) and ... Nicotine has more significant and durable damaging effects on adolescent brains compared to adult brains, the former suffering ... It also attaches to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the fetus brain. When the brain is being developed, activating ...
Licinio, J.; Dong, C.; Wong, M.-L. (February 2011). "Novel sequence variations in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene ... "The brain-derived neurotrophic factor rs6265 (Val66Met) polymorphism and depression in Mexican-Americans". NeuroReport. 18 (12 ... "The brain and mental health: increasing awareness and reducing stigma". The Brain Forum. Retrieved 26 July 2020. "SUNY Board of ... Presenter at The Brain Forum, SwissTech Convention Center, Lausanne, Switzerland: The brain and mental health: increasing ...
Gomez-Pinilla, F.; Zhuang, Y.; Feng, J.; Ying, Z.; Fan, G. (2011). "Exercise impacts brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... Pedersen writes, "Neurotrophins are a family of structurally related growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also a myokine, though BDNF produced by contracting muscle is not released into ... Insulin growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while M2 macrophages mainly secrete IGF-1, ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor found originally in the brain, but also found in the ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The term neurotrophic factor ... "Regional distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the adult mouse brain". The EMBO Journal. 9 (8): 2459-64. ... Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. Neurotrophic ...
... the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and substance P". The British Journal of Dermatology. 157 (5): 922-5. doi:10.1111 ... Donkin JJ, Turner RJ, Hassan I, Vink R (2007). "Substance P in traumatic brain injury". Progress in Brain Research. 161: 97-109 ... Substance P and the NK1 receptor are widely distributed in the brain and are found in brain regions that are specific to ... "Neurotrophic and anhidrotic keratopathy treated with substance P and insulinlike growth factor 1". Archives of Ophthalmology. ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Receptors. *5-HT1Dβ. *5-HT2A ... Factors influencing health status and contact with health ... F06.9) Unspecified mental disorder due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical disease *Organic brain syndrome NOS ... F50-F59) Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors[edit]. *(F50) Eating disorders * ... F62) Enduring personality changes, not attributable to brain damage and disease. *(F63) Habit and impulse disorders *(F63.0) ...
... and secrete many neurotrophic factors.[3]. OECs express glial markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, s100, and p75, ... Ramón-Cueto A, Avila J (June 1998). "Olfactory ensheathing glia: properties and function". Brain Research Bulletin. 46 (3): 175 ... The gellan gum was modified with several fibronectin-derived peptide sequences so the transplantation cells have closely ... with high or low cell surface expression of low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75). ...
... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).[22] They may also directly provide ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).. ... oligodendrocytes can provide trophic support for neurons by the production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF ... interact closely with nerve cells and provide trophic support by the production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ...
... captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in ... This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF ...
Agonists: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). *Liatermin. *Kinase inhibitors: Vandetanib ... Pham NV, Nguyen MT, Hu JF, Vu TH, Hoffman AR (Nov 1998). "Dissociation of IGF2 and H19 imprinting in human brain". Brain ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults."[5] ...
BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein[5] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[6][7] BDNF ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor". Growth Factors. 22 (3): 123-31. doi:10.1080/08977190410001723308. PMC 2504526. PMID ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • synapse ...
Agonists: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). *Liatermin. *Kinase inhibitors: Vandetanib ... "Cancer drug prevents build-up of toxic brain protein". MedicalXpress.com. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2017.. ...
... neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides.[5] ... Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from ... A peptidergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the peptide systems in the body or brain. An ... "Extraction and identification of collagen-derived peptides with hematopoietic activity from Colla Corii Asini". Journal of ... brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, ...
AAV encoding neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members and GDNF either protected ... such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibitors of angiogenesis, such as pigment epithelium-derived factor ( ... Shepherd, Gordon (2004). The Synaptic Organization of the Brain. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 217-225. ISBN 978-0-19- ... there is a major interest in developing a more generally applicable survival factor therapy. Neurotrophic factors have the ...
Furthermore, disruption of TrkB, a receptor for brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), did not affect cell death. It has ... Experiments that further supported this theory led to the identification of the first neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor ... Therefore, it is speculated that PCD in the PNS is dependent on the release of neurotrophic factors and thus follows the ... An atrophic factor is a force that causes a cell to die. Only natural forces on the cell are considered to be atrophic factors ...
insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)[23], ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)[24], pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)[25] ... Brain Res 12: 181-186, 1992. *↑ . Walsh N, Valter K, and Stone J. Cellular and subcellular patterns of expression of bFGF and ... 0. Ogata N, Wada M, Otsuji T, Jo N, Tombran-Tink J, and Matsumura M. Expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor in normal ... vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)[26], 등 각자 다양한 역할을 수행한다. . 면역조절 작용[편집]. 앞에서 말했듯이, 망막 안쪽 부분은 신체 내부의 면역 반응으로부터 분리되었으며, ...
... a process regulated in part by neurotrophic factors released by target muscle fibers. Neurotrophic factors also ensure that ... The corticospinal tract is one of the major descending pathways from the brain to the α-MNs of the spinal cord. ... Alpha motor neurons are derived from the basal plate (basal lamina) of the developing embryo. ... In addition to receiving neurotrophic factors from muscles, α-MNs also secrete a number of trophic factors to support the ...
"Brain. 139 (Pt 2): 431-443. doi:10.1093/brain/awv325. PMC 4805082 . PMID 26608744.. ... Its name is derived from its ability to be activated by the artificial glutamate analog AMPA. The receptor was first named the ... Song I, Kamboj S, Xia J, Dong H, Liao D, Huganir RL (August 1998). "Interaction of the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor with ... neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects in rodent models of Parkinson's disease". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 306 (2): 752-62. ...
The effect has been shown to be linked to increases in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).[78] It has been shown that ... On the brain[edit]. One study suggested, based on neuroimaging, that 35 hours of total sleep deprivation in healthy controls ... a b National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Archived 11 October 2007 at the ... I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity". Journal of Sleep Research. 9 (4): 335-52. doi ...
... brain derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-o-methyl transferase, SK3 and opioid receptor delta-1.[44] Epigenetic modifications ... Risk factors. Family history, high-level athletics, modelling, dancing[3][2][4]. ... A main factor differentiating binge-purge anorexia from bulimia is the gap in physical weight. Someone with bulimia nervosa is ... "Factors That May Contribute to Eating Disorders , National Eating Disorders Association". www.nationaleatingdisorders.org. ...
... brain-derived neurotrophic factor) er blevet beskrevet i AD.[83][84] ... Neurotrophic factors in Alzheimer's disease: role of axonal transport. Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 2008;7(Suppl 1):43-56. doi: ... New insights into brain BDNF function in normal aging and Alzheimer disease. Brain Research Reviews. 2008;59(1):201-20. doi: ... Brain. august 2009;132(Pt 8):2048-57. doi:10.1093/brain/awp123. PMID 19460794. ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) er et protein som regulerer den nevrologiske utviklingen. BDNF spiller også en rolle i ... Ferris LT, Williams JS, Shen CL (2007). «The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and ... Monteleone P, Fabrazzo M, Martiadis V, Serritella C, Pannuto M, Maj M (2005). «Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor is ... Wang C, Bomberg E, Billington C, Levine A, Kotz CM (2007). «Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hypothalamic ...
Agonists: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). *Liatermin. *Kinase inhibitors: Vandetanib ... a ligand of the Eph-related kinases is developmentally regulated in the brain". Cytokine. 9 (8): 540-9. doi:10.1006/cyto. ...
... increases brain neurotrophic proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and prevents cognitive diseases [76-78 ... "A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor". J Psychiatr Res. 60C: 56-64. doi: ... with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the ... and increases neurotrophic factors in different areas of the brain, possibly providing reserve against later cognitive decline ...
Sen S, Duman R, Sanacora G. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, depression, and antidepressant medications: Meta-analyses ... பெறப்பட்டும் ஊட்டச்சத்துக் காரணியானது brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), திசு உருவாக்கத்திற்குப் பொறுப்பான ... "Deep Brain Stimulation". பார்த்த நாள் 2010-07-02. *↑ National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Management of ... Mayberg H. Brain pathway may underlie depression. சயன்டிஃபிக் அமெரிக்கன். July 6, 2007 [cited 2008-09-13];17(4):26-31. ...
G-CSF can also act on neuronal cells as a neurotrophic factor. Indeed, its receptor is expressed by neurons in the brain and ... stromal cell-derived factor) directly to the heart.[23]. G-CSF has been shown to reduce inflammation, reduce amyloid beta ... Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein ... growth factor activity. • granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor binding. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • ...
Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are both directly associated with suicide[150] and indirectly associated ... Sher L (2011). "The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathophysiology of adolescent suicidal behavior". ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and suicidal behavior". QJM. 104 (5): 455-8. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcq207. PMID 21051476.. ... Other factors. Trauma is a risk factor for suicidality in both children[120] and adults.[80] Some may take their own lives to ...
Sen S, Duman R, Sanacora G. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, depression, and antidepressant medications: Meta-analyses ... Ang isa sa mga neutrophin na responsable para sa neurohenesis ang brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Ang lebel ng BDNF ... Mayberg H. Brain pathway may underlie depression. Scientific American. 6 Hulyo 2007 [cited 2008-09-13];17(4):26-31. ... Oestrogen, brain function, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2003;74(7):837-40 ...
Agonists: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). *Liatermin. *Kinase inhibitors: Vandetanib ... A formulation of imatinib with a cyclodextrin (Captisol) as a carrier to overcome the blood-brain barrier is also currently[ ... Imatinib is specific for the TK domain in abl (the Abelson proto-oncogene), c-kit and PDGF-R (platelet-derived growth factor ... In laboratory settings, imatinib is being used as an experimental agent to suppress platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) by ...
GABA can influence the development of neural progenitor cells via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression.[22] GABA ... Brain Res. Progress in Brain Research. 160. pp. 9-19. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)60002-2. ISBN 978-0-444-52184-2. . PMID ... Brain development[edit]. While GABA is an inhibitory transmitter in the mature brain, its actions were thought to be primarily ... In general, GABA does not cross the blood-brain barrier,[2] although certain areas of the brain that have no effective blood- ...
... increases brain neurotrophic proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and prevents cognitive diseases [76-78 ... "Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor". Growth Factors 22 (3): 123-31. doi:10.1080/08977190410001723308. PMC 2504526. PMID 15518235 ... Yamada K, Nabeshima T (April 2003). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB signaling in memory processes". J. Pharmacol. Sci. ... and Mature Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Human Saliva". Arch. Oral Biol. 54 (7): 689-95. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio. ...
BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor". Growth Factors. 22 (3): 123-31. doi:10.1080/08977190410001723308. PMC 2504526. PMID ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P23560 (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) at the ...
BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein[5] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[6][7] BDNF ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor". Growth Factors. 22 (3): 123-31. doi:10.1080/08977190410001723308. PMC 2504526. PMID ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • synapse ...
"Brain-derived neurotrophic factor". Growth Factors. 22 (3): 123-31. doi:10.1080/08977190410001723308. PMC 2504526. PMID ... also known as chemo brain) and fatigue. Epigenetics of depression § Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Epigenetics of ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF is a ... Wu K, Len GW, McAuliffe G, Ma C, Tai JP, Xu F, Black IB (November 2004). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor acutely enhances ...
Mus musculus brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor transcript variant IIA ... Mus musculus brain-derived neurotrophic ... Mus musculus brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor transcript variant IIA (Bdnf) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the nerve growth factor family. It is involved in the growth, differentiation ... Delta-secretase-cleaved Tau antagonizes TrkB neurotrophic signalings, mediating Alzheimers disease pathologies. [Proc Natl ...
Brain Res. 2010 Feb 16;1314:183-93. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.08.078. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... The effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cocaine-seeking are brain region-specific. Infusion of BDNF into ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cocaine addiction.. McGinty JF1, Whitfield TW Jr, Berglind WJ. ... Brain Res. 2010 Feb 16;1314:183-93. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.08.078. Epub 2009 Sep 2. ...
Among neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly expressed in brain and mediates multiple effects on CNS ... Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulates Cholesterol Metabolism for Synapse Development. Shingo Suzuki, Kazuyuki Kiyosue, ... Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulates Cholesterol Metabolism for Synapse Development. Shingo Suzuki, Kazuyuki Kiyosue, ... Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulates Cholesterol Metabolism for Synapse Development Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Tan et al reported an inverse correlation of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and dyskinetic movements in ... people with schizophrenia who had TD.{ref8} Thus, brain-derived neurotrophic... more ... 8] Thus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor appears to have a protective effect in the nervous system against TD with people ... What is the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia (TD)?. Updated: Oct 17, 2018 ...
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Obesity and Brain Function. This study has been completed. ... These problems may be related to Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a protein that is important for brain development. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that is important in nervous system development and function. BDNF also ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor. Nat Neurosci. 2003 Jul;6(7): ...
BDNF expression is highly sensitive to developmental and environmental factors, and increased BDNF signaling enhances ... model for how the potentially deleterious consequences of BDNF plasticity may be modulated by other endogenous factors. The ... The present paper examines the nature and function of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampal formation and ... 1. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Overview. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family ...
2001) Changes in the pattern of brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in the rat brain after acute and subchronic ... Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Produces Antidepressant Effects in Behavioral Models of Depression. Yukihiko Shirayama, ... 1995) Stress alters the express of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the hippocampus. J Neurosci 15 ... 2000) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor causes cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in absence of calcium ...
... and for growth factors (18, 19). Among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is certainly one interesting candidate ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor;. PSA,. polysialic acid;. LTP,. long-term potentiation;. TBS,. theta burst stimulation;. EPSP ... can be rescued by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This effect is not reproduced by nerve growth factor, but can be ... Increased Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Induces Formation of Basal Dendrites and Axonal Branching in Dentate ...
Epileptic seizures increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. Since this neurotrophin ... the effects of chronic infusions of recombinant brain-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor delays hippocampal kindling in the rat Neuroscience. 2000;100(4):777-88. doi: 10.1016/s0306- ... Infusion with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (6-24 microg/day) significantly delayed the progression of standard hippocampal ...
... such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is associated with vitiligo. Patients and methods: This study was conducted ... Reduced serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with first onset vitiligo M Emin Yanik,1 Gamze Erfan,1 Yakup ... Reduced serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with first onset vitiligo. ... such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is associated with vitiligo. Patients and methods: This study was conducted ...
Methamphetamine self-administration attenuates hippocampal serotonergic deficits: role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.. [ ... Previous work also demonstrates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exposure increases SERT function. The current ...
... Rickman D ... the high-affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the postnatal rat retina results in the alteration ... and it is likely that diffusible neurotrophic factors contribute to this development and to the subsequent formation of ... BDNF or nerve growth factor (NGF)]. We then examined histological sections of cultures for PV immunoreactivity. In control ...
What is brain-derived neurotrophic factor? Meaning of brain-derived neurotrophic factor medical term. What does brain-derived ... Looking for online definition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the Medical Dictionary? brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. brain-derived neurotrophic factor. A small nerve growth ... medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/brain-derived+neurotrophic+factor,brain-derived neurotrophic factor,/a,. *Facebook ...
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, ... BDNF; Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor; Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic; Neurotrophic Factor, Brain-Derived ... Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). Subscribe to New Research on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor ... Nerve Growth Factors: 1961*Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: 4612*brain-derived growth factor: 17 ...
Hamed Fanaei, Samira Khayat, Amir Kasaeian, Mani Javadimehr, Effect of curcumin on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... Kutlumbetova, R. Kanzafarova, S. Malykh, M. Lobaskova, E. Khusnutdinova, Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and ... Emotional fronto-cingulate cortex activation and brain derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism in premenstrual dysphoric ... and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The 5-HTT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms ...
Modulatory effect of coffee fruit extract on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects - Volume ... 24Pan, W, Banks, WA, Fasold, MB, et al. (1998) Transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood-brain barrier. ... 15Bifrare, Y-D, Kummer, J, Joss, P, et al. (2005) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects against multiple forms of brain ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulates survival and neuronal differentiation in cultured avian neural crest. Brain Res ...
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, B-cell lymphoma 2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, hippocampus, rapamycin, valproic acid ... and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) analyzed was decreased with great ... Rapamycin modulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and B-cell lymphoma 2 to mitigate autism spectrum disorder in rats Jie ... Rapamycin modulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and B-cell lymphoma 2 to mitigate autism spectrum disorder in rats. ...
To address that question, we investigated the effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism that ... To address that question, we investigated the effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism that ... Although several genetic variants and vascular risk factors have been linked to mnemonic performance in general and age ... affects secretion of BDNF, and fasting blood glucose level (a vascular risk factor) on episodic memory in a sample of healthy ...
Treatment with laquinimod is associated with a significant increase in the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in ... Laquinimod Ups Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in MS. This article originally appeared here. ... in mice with brain-derived neurotrophic factor deficiency vs. wild-type mice, according to a study published online December 8 ... Treatment with laquinimod is associated with a significant increase in the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ...
The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) protein promotes and maintains the survival of nerve cells and helps regulate ... 2013). Decreased peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are a biomarker of disease activity in major psychiatric ... 2011). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in schizophrenia: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry ... 2015). Human Obesity Associated with an Intronic SNP in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Locus. Cell Reports. 13(6), 1073- ...
PubMed journal article Coupling energy metabolism with a mechanism to support brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated ... Insulin-like growth factor I interfaces with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity to modulate aspects ... Voluntary exercise following traumatic brain injury: brain-derived neurotrophic factor upregulation and recovery of function. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a central player for the effects of exercise on synaptic and cognitive plasticity. We ...
In this review, we describe the existing approaches for delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the most ... but beneficial clinical treatment with neurotrophic factors has not been established yet. The therapeutic use of neurotrophins ... a BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDNF: glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; NGF: nerve growth factor; CNTF: ... Neuroprotection mediated via neurotrophic factors and induction of neurotrophic factors. Brain Res.Brain Res. Rev. 1999, 30, ...
Investigating the Interactive Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on ... "Investigating the Interactive Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on ...
... may be decelerated or even stopped by neurotrophic factor treatment, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well ... may be decelerated or even stopped by neurotrophic factor treatment, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well ... Consecutive Treatment with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Electrical Stimulation Has a Protective Effect on Primary ... "Consecutive Treatment with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Electrical Stimulation Has a Protective Effect on Primary ...
... ... Imaging brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated calcium signaling and plasticity in developing neurons ... Lang, Susanne (2007): Imaging brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated calcium signaling and plasticity in developing neurons ...
Context: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a pleiotropic peptide also involved in maintaining endothelial integrity. ... Abstract 15062: Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Concentrations and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the ... Abstract 15062: Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Concentrations and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the ... Abstract 15062: Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Concentrations and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a widely studied brain neurotrophin responsible for synaptic plasticity, dendritic ... is a widely studied brain neurotrophin responsible for synaptic plasticity, dendritic and neuronal fiber growth, and neuronal ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most widely studied brain neurotrophins (4). BDNF influences synaptic ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a widely studied brain neurotrophin responsible for synaptic plasticity, dendritic ...
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ), or abrineurin , [5] is a protein [6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] [8] BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor . (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF was first isolated from pig brain in 1982 by Yves-Alain Barde and Hans Thoenen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain types of physical exercise have been shown to markedly (threefold) increase BDNF synthesis in the human brain, a phenomenon which is partly responsible for exercise-induced neurogenesis and improvements in cognitive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF binds at least two receptors on the surface of cells that are capable of responding to this growth factor, TrkB (pronounced "Track B") and the LNGFR (for low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor , also known as p75). (wikipedia.org)
  • TrkB autophosphorylation is dependent upon its ligand-specific association with BDNF, a widely expressed activity-dependent neurotic factor that regulates plasticity and is unregulated following hypoxic injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cocaine-seeking are brain region-specific. (nih.gov)
  • Over the past several years, studies of the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of suicidality have attracted significant interest of researchers. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple lines of evidence including studies of levels of BDNF in blood cells and plasma of suicidal patients, postmortem brain studies in suicidal subjects with or without depression, and genetic association studies linking BDNF to suicide suggest that suicidal behavior may be associated with a decrease in BDNF functioning. (nih.gov)
  • Brain -derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein capable of regulating the development of neurons. (wisegeek.com)
  • Without BDNF, the brain cannot perform a number of important functions. (wisegeek.com)
  • Understanding the role of BDNF in disease processes in the brain may be important for research on how to prevent, treat, and potentially cure some diseases involving the brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition to season, the presence of new neurons in HVC has been shown to depend on variables such as amount of singing ( 7 , 8 ), auditory experience ( 9 ), blood testosterone levels ( 8 , 10 ), and the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in HVC ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts multiple biological functions in the CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • Among neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly expressed in brain and mediates multiple effects on CNS neurons ( Bibel and Barde, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • These problems may be related to Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a protein that is important for brain development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To study how BDNF affects body weight and brain function in people with PWS and MC4R mutations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that is important in nervous system development and function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the developing and adult nervous system. (jneurosci.org)
  • There is substantial evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in both types of retrograde signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present paper examines the nature and function of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampal formation and the consequences of changes in its expression. (hindawi.com)
  • BDNF expression is highly sensitive to developmental and environmental factors, and increased BDNF signaling enhances neurogenesis, neurite sprouting, electrophysiological activity, and other processes reflective of a general enhancement of hippocampal function. (hindawi.com)
  • In analyzing the literature regarding exercise-induced regulation of BDNF, this paper provides a theoretical model for how the potentially deleterious consequences of BDNF plasticity may be modulated by other endogenous factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family, a group of structurally related polypeptide growth factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Infusion of BDNF into the adult brain promotes neurogenesis [ 9 , 10 ], and dendritic spine reorganization in the rat hippocampal formation [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the brain Bdnf has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (jove.com)
  • RTKs are also called neurotrophin (NT) receptors because they bind nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), NT-3, NT-4/5, NT-6, and NT-7. (jove.com)
  • Here we report that the deficient LTP found in slices prepared from NCAM knockout mice and in organotypic slice cultures treated with Endo-N, an enzyme that cleaves the PSA moiety of NCAM, can be rescued by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). (pnas.org)
  • Among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is certainly one interesting candidate for contributing to synaptic plasticity. (pnas.org)
  • It is proposed that the role of PSA-NCAM could be to sensitize pyramidal cells to the action of BDNF, and thus promote an activity-dependent regulation of the action of the growth factor on synaptic plasticity ( 29 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating whether a psychiatric biomarker, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is associated with vitiligo. (dovepress.com)
  • Previous work also demonstrates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exposure increases SERT function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present studies we have built upon our previous observation that suppression of expression of trk(B), the high-affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the postnatal rat retina results in the alteration of a specific interneuron in the rod pathway-the parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive AII amacrine cell. (uniprot.org)
  • The neurotrophic factors secreted by the company's patented cells include Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF), Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), known to support the neural cell network by protection of existing motor neurons, promotion of motor neuron growth, and re-establishment of nerve-muscle interaction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present single-dose study was performed to assess the effect of whole coffee fruit concentrate powder (WCFC), green coffee caffeine powder (N677), grape seed extract powder (N31) and green coffee bean extract powder (N625) on blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). (cambridge.org)
  • 1993). Quantitative PCR analysis of BDNF mRNA containing these five upstream exons indicates that each of the alternative transcripts is most abundant in the hippocampus, intermediate in the substantia nigra and cerebellum and least abundant in the striatum, although the magnitude of these differences in expression varies indicating that BDNF gene transcription in the mature brain is regulated by alternate promoters that are differentially active across these regions (Bishop et al. (springer.com)
  • 1994). Thus the BDNF gene possesses differential exon regulation and usage with different subcellular distributions as well as different distributions in different parts of the brain. (springer.com)
  • It is the variety of transcripts made possible by this arrangement of the BDNF gene that allows for specificity to different regions of the brain (Aid et al. (springer.com)
  • The flexibility provided by different splice variants of BDNF mRNA, with differences in their 50 or 30 extremities, together with epigenetic modulation of transcription of the BDNF gene, provides for a wide variety of regulatory processes in determining the formation and regression of dendritic spines in different brain regions in response to stress. (springer.com)
  • Abuhatzira L, Makedonski K, Kaufman Y, Razin A, Shemer R (2007) MeCP2 deficiency in the brain decreases BDNF levels by REST/CoREST-mediated repression and increases TRKB production. (springer.com)
  • To address that question, we investigated the effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism that affects secretion of BDNF, and fasting blood glucose level (a vascular risk factor) on episodic memory in a sample of healthy volunteers (age 19-77). (frontiersin.org)
  • One such SNP is a variant in a gene that controls secretion of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the central nervous system (CNS). (frontiersin.org)
  • Aging is associated with a reduction of BDNF expression during learning-related plasticity ( Sohrabji and Lewis, 2006 ), and therefore factors that affect BDNF secretion may explain some of the age-related variability in memory. (frontiersin.org)
  • HealthDay News) - Treatment with laquinimod is associated with a significant increase in the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and increases the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice with brain-derived neurotrophic factor deficiency vs. wild-type mice, according to a study published online December 8, 2011 in The American Journal of Pathology . (empr.com)
  • The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) protein promotes and maintains the survival of nerve cells and helps regulate synaptic plasticity, which is important for learning and memory. (salimetrics.com)
  • 2010). Population genetic study of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. (salimetrics.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for growth, differentiation, plasticity, and survival of neurons. (wikipathways.org)
  • In this review, we describe the existing approaches for delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the most abundant neurotrophin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). (mdpi.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a pleiotropic peptide also involved in maintaining endothelial integrity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of mTOR is necessary for the many beneficial effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), including dendritic translation and memory formation in the hippocampus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a widely studied brain neurotrophin responsible for synaptic plasticity, dendritic and neuronal fiber growth, and neuronal survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most widely studied brain neurotrophins ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • BDNF influences synaptic plasticity and dendritic and neuronal fiber growth, promotes neuronal survival ( 4 ), and has been proposed as a biological marker of brain neuroplasticity ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, or BDNF, is a nerve growth factor that supports neuron growth and survival. (cellsciences.com)
  • BDNF shares identical domains with two other neurotrophic factors known as, β-NGF and NT-3 (neurotrophin-3). (cellsciences.com)
  • Exercise induces beneficial responses in the brain, which is accompanied by an increase in BDNF, a trophic factor associated with cognitive improvement and the alleviation of depression and anxiety. (mit.edu)
  • However, the exact mechanisms whereby physical exercise produces an induction in brain Bdnf gene expression are not well understood. (mit.edu)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the biochemical and morphological differentiation of selective populations of neurons during development. (epfl.ch)
  • Because glucose is the preferred energy substrate in the brain, the effect of BDNF on glucose utilization was investigated in developing cortical neurons via biochemical and imaging studies. (epfl.ch)
  • We aimed to investigate the effects of NTP on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated signaling and gene expression in chronic pain. (springer.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein belonging to the neurotrophin family, is expressed in retinal ganglion cells and Muller cells [6] and is important for the survival of retinal ganglion cells [7]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Little is known regarding the relationships among circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and glucose or insulin in children and adolescents. (degruyter.com)
  • Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a member of the NGF family of neurotrophic factors. (neuromics.com)
  • Brain Derived Growth Factor (BDNF) promotes the survival of neuronal populations that are all located either in the central nervous system or directly connected to it. (neuromics.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity of the central and peripheral nervous system. (prohealth.com)
  • In a previous study we have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in a subpopulation of small to medium sized sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and is anterogradely transported in both the peripheral and central processes. (brillonline.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in serum and aqueous humor (AH) and to assess the relationship between BDNF levels and retinal layer thicknesses in age-related macular deg. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study has examined the relationships and interactions between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and self-reported risk-taking behaviour in individu. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of the study was to determine aqueous humor and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been shown to be lower in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) than in patients with non-dilated chagasic cardiomyopathy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation(TMS) on Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Depressed Patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To investigate the change in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) between pre and post treatment for patients with depression with either ECT or TMS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), originally known to be a member of the nerve growth factor family, has aroused attention as a modulator in visceral hyperalgesia recently. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic unpredictable mild stress is able to downregulate the expression of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and methyl‑CpG‑binding protein 2 (MeCP2), and alter the expression levels of certain microRNAs (miR). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • PURPOSE: To examine the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an animal model of retinal detachment. (arvojournals.org)
  • The antisense RNA of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF‑AS) is transcribed from the opposite strand of the BDNF gene. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR) assays indicated that BDNF‑AS expression was significantly upregulated in HI‑injured neonatal brains and hippocampal neurons. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, BDNF expression was downregulated in HI‑injured neonatal brains and hippocampal neurons. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays, Hoechst staining, calcein‑AM/PI staining, immunostaining, water maze tests and rotarod tests demonstrated that BDNF‑AS silencing protected against hypoxia‑induced primary hippocampal neuron injury in vitro and HI‑induced brain injury in vivo. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to play a role in experience-dependent plasticity of the developing visual cortex. (sid.ir)
  • Neurons derived from the former mice have endogenous BDNF as well as GFP. (sid.ir)
  • We found that neurons derived from the latter mice, BDNF (-/-) neurons, have relatively poor dendrites if they were not contacted by GFP-positive terminals, whereas BDNF (-/-) neurons had complex dendritic morphology if they were directly contacted by GFP-positive terminals and thus supplied with endogenous BDNF. (sid.ir)
  • In particular peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in BD. (eur.nl)
  • We examined the expression of 44 inflammation-related genes in monocytes, the cytokines pentraxin 3 (PTX3), chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) in the serum of bipolar offspring and healthy controls. (eur.nl)
  • In this ambitious study, investigators sought to determine the role of sensory neuron - brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - in the genesis of chronic pain. (aanem.org)
  • This article in Brain demonstrates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ablated mice had less nocioceptive behavior and decreased mechanical hypersensitivity but that this substance may have a role in mediating chronic pain, possibly even in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. (aanem.org)
  • The aim of our research was to investigate the potential role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Measurement of serum circulating levels of BDNF and analysis of polymorphism of BDNF gene (Val66Met) were applied and compared with diabetic patients without DR. (ovid.com)
  • Background and Purpose- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a major neurotrophin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have a documented role in neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuronal survival. (ahajournals.org)
  • and (ii) if the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is a factor that predicts pain catastrophizing in FM. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors that promote the growth and survival of neurons. (curehunter.com)
  • Accumulating evidence supports a role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depression. (epfl.ch)
  • To investigate the diagnostic performance of urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) as potential biomarkers for overactive bladder (OAB). (springermedizin.de)
  • Growing evidences suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role to preserve vision in eye diseases. (arvojournals.org)
  • Given the well-known effects of physical activity and sex hormones on cognitive functions and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the present study examined the effects of treadmill exercise, sex hormones, and the combined treatment on learning and memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in transient congenital hypothyroid rats. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Acute exercise benefits cognition, and some evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in this effect. (uncg.edu)
  • Mikkelsen, Jens D. 2011-06-25 00:00:00 The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) mRNA levels in primary neuronal cultures of rat frontal cortex was characterized pharmacologically and compared to the effect on expression of c- fos, bdnf, neuritin, cox-2 as examples of other immediate early genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results demonstrate BDNF to be a highly potent and efficient inducer of arc gene expression in vitro , emphasizing the role of this growth factor in synaptic plasticity in the frontal cortex. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, we investigated whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway is involved in the neuroprotection induced by EA at acupoints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To identify early markers of cognitive impairment was determined the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). (fao.org)
  • There is accumulating evidence for the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of depression. (springermedizin.de)
  • While BDNF is receiving considerable attention for its role in synaptic plasticity and in nervous system dysfunction, identifying brain circuits involving BDNF-expressing neurons has been challenging. (eneuro.org)
  • BDNF levels are very low in most brain areas, except for the large mossy fiber terminals in the hippocampus where BDNF accumulates at readily detectable levels. (eneuro.org)
  • This report describes the generation of a mouse line allowing the detection of single brain cells synthesizing BDNF. (eneuro.org)
  • BDNF is a highly conserved growth factor known to be essential for the function of the nervous system. (eneuro.org)
  • Its very low abundance in the brain has retarded the development of drugs targeting BDNF-expressing neurons in disease-relevant brain areas. (eneuro.org)
  • The present report describes a novel approach allowing the localization of single cells in the adult mouse brain actively translating Bdnf mRNAs using GFP as a surrogate marker. (eneuro.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting through its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), regulates the development, differentiation and survival of neurons. (fpwr.org)
  • BDNF plays a key role in energy balance in mice and humans and is expressed in areas of the brain that are important in regulating energy homeostasis. (fpwr.org)
  • Furthermore, BDNF is expressed in the prefrontal cortex, a key brain area implicated in executive function. (fpwr.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes several functions in neurons and modulates neurotransmissions, especially in hippocampal regions. (iospress.com)
  • The effect of BDNF polymorphisms on brain perfusion was analyzed. (iospress.com)
  • BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may play a role as a modulator of the FTLD expression and may drive a selective damage in specific brain region affected by the disease. (iospress.com)
  • Enhanced synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the lesioned peripheral nerve: different mechanisms are responsible for the regulation of BDNF and NGF mRNA. (rupress.org)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are molecules which regulate the development and maintenance of specific functions in different populations of peripheral and central neurons, amongst them sensory neurons of neural crest and placode origin. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, using bioassays and specific antibodies we showed that cultured Schwann cells are a rich source of BDNF- and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-like neurotrophic activity in addition to NGF. (rupress.org)
  • Antisera raised against a BDNF-peptide demonstrated BDNF-immunoreactivity in pure cultured Schwann cells, but not in fibroblasts derived from sciatic nerve. (rupress.org)
  • Aim: The study aims at evaluating the association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms and heroin-dependent patients in the Chinese population. (edu.au)
  • BDNF endosomal transport is a key signaling system facilitating many aspects of healthy brain function and synaptic plasticity. (escholarship.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) specifically elevated cellular GABA content in striatal culture without altering neuronal survival. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BDNF enhances the differentiation but not the survival of CNS stem cell-derived neuronal precursors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this thesis the roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endocannabinoids, critical regulators of synaptic plasticity, were studied for their functions in corticogenesis. (ki.se)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a growth factor critical to neuron development and survival, is implicated in the development of several neuropathic pain states but has not been examined as a potential mechanism responsible for the pain and sensory complaints that follow paclitaxel treatment. (umaryland.edu)
  • Genetic variants in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, predominantly the functional Val66Met polymorphism, have been associated with risk of bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Substantial variation was detected in BDNF coding region single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele and haplotype frequencies between 58 global populations, with the derived Met allele of Val66Met ranging in frequency from 0 to 72% across populations. (cdc.gov)
  • As the BDNF population genetic differences may be due to local selection, we performed the long-range haplotype test for selection using 68 SNPs spanning the BDNF genomic region in 12 European-derived pedigrees. (cdc.gov)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor found in the brain and the periphery. (chemeurope.com)
  • BDNF was the second neurotrophic factor to be characterized, after nerve growth factor ( NGF ) and neurotrophin three ( NT-3 ). (chemeurope.com)
  • Despite its name, BDNF is actually found in a range of tissue and cell types, not just in the brain. (chemeurope.com)
  • On the other hand, the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, voluntary exercise, caloric restriction, intellectual stimulation, and various treatments for depression (such as antidepressants and electroconvulsive therapy) strongly increase expression of BDNF in the brain, and have been shown to protect against this atrophy. (chemeurope.com)
  • Also, there are other neurotrophic factors structurally related to BDNF: NGF (for Nerve Growth Factor), NT-3 (for Neurotrophin-3) and NT-4 (for Neurotrophin-4). (chemeurope.com)
  • A substantial amount of evidence describes the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the development, regeneration, survival and maintenance of neurons in the brain and its possible relevance in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. (cpn.or.kr)
  • Cell biology of BDNF, recent association findings and association of BDNF with neurotransmitter systems, brain changes, stress, cognition, inflammation, metabolic disturbances and estrogen implicated in schizophrenia will be comprehensively examined. (cpn.or.kr)
  • 7) Mature form of human BDNF is mapped to chromosome 11 and shares about 50% amino acid homology with other members of the neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor, neurotrophins-3 and neurotrophins 4/5. (cpn.or.kr)
  • 11 , 12) In mouse brain, BDNF mRNA becomes detectable during embryonic development, peaks by 10-14 days in the postnatal period and becomes widely distributed throughout the brain in adulthood with the highest concentration in the hippocampus. (cpn.or.kr)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin involved in angiogenesis and maintenance of endothelial integrity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whether circulating BDNF levels are associated with von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels, which are indicators of endothelial dysfunction is not known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction is an important factor for low circulating levels of BDNF in patients with CAD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate a neurotrophic effect in humans, we examined whether plasma concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increases in patients receiving ECT for major depression. (elsevier.com)
  • The neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) influences nigral dopaminergic neurons via autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we have tested the hypothesis that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and also investigated the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and the performance on tests measuring executive functions in a sample of patients with OCD. (cdc.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not appear to be a risk factor for OCD. (cdc.gov)
  • Levels of mature BDNF and BDNF propeptide are approximately ten times higher than proBDNF levels in the brain. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • Although the majority of BDNF is produced in the brain, the degree to which it traverses the blood brain barrier is a subject of some controversy. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • As brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes neuronal survival and protects against neuronal damage, we investigated the effects of coffee on BDNF signaling using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. (scirp.org)
  • Kakio, S. , Nakazawa, Y. , Funakoshi-Tago, M. and Tamura, H. (2015) Coffee Modulates the Function of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells. (scirp.org)
  • [15] Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain retain the ability to grow new neurons from neural stem cells in a process known as neurogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • NF- κ B-dependent regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal neurons by X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein," European Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 958-966, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • In the case of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the protein is capable of stimulating germ cells to develop and differentiate new neurons and axons. (wisegeek.com)
  • While people are born with most of their neurons already in place, as are many other mammals, brain-derived neurotrophic factor plays a role in neurological development. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition, the brain is capable of growing some new neurons over the course of a lifetime, with the assistance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. (wisegeek.com)
  • We suggest that there is, in the adult HVC, a subset of neurons whose life expectancy is determined by brain-derived neurotrophic factor during a sensitive period soon after these neurons reach destination and start forming connections. (pnas.org)
  • New neurons are born in the adult canary brain in the ventricular zone lining the wall of the lateral ventricles ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sikandar S, Minett MS, Q, Santana-Varela S, Lau J, Wood JN, Zhao J. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor derived from sensory neurons plays a critical role in chronic pain . (aanem.org)
  • It is induced by cortical neurons, and is necessary for survival of striatal neurons in the brain. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein gene expression in primary frontal cortical neurons. (deepdyve.com)
  • Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was present in the mature olfactory neurons and also their synaptic target cells in the olfactory bulb. (garvan.org.au)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor was present throughout the olfactory neuronal lineage with strongest immunoreactivity in the horizontal basal cells and mature olfactory neurons as well as several cell types in the olfactory bulb. (garvan.org.au)
  • Postbulbectomy, there was loss of strong ciliary neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in olfactory neurons, however, low levels persisted in the remaining neuronal population. (garvan.org.au)
  • Our results would be consistent with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression in mature olfactory neurons being dependent upon functional synaptic contact with the olfactory bulb. (garvan.org.au)
  • Alternatively, this factor may be acting as target-derived growth factor for olfactory neurons, a role in keeping with its function in spinal motoneurons and in the nigrostriatal system. (garvan.org.au)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is implicated in the trophic support of immature neurons. (garvan.org.au)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes differentiation of striatal GABAergic neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Researchers have reported that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sBDNF) of drug-free depressed patients are lower than those of healthy controls and proposed that low sBDNF levels might reflect failure of neuronal plasticity in depression. (springer.com)
  • Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in lean and overweight children and adolescents. (degruyter.com)
  • Reduced Serum Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Are Related to Mild Cognitive Impairment in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Increased Risk-Taking Behaviour and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Correlates to Decreased Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Level in Heroin Users. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Prognostic value of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are associated with dyssomnia in females, but not males, among Japanese workers. (curehunter.com)
  • [10] [11] In the brain, it is active in the hippocampus , cortex , and basal forebrain -areas vital to learning , memory , and higher thinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found primarily in the brain, although it also occurs in other regions of the body, and is most highly concentrated in the cortex, hippocampus , and basal forebrain. (wisegeek.com)
  • Berchtold NC, Kesslak JP, Pike CJ, Adlard PA, Cotman CW (2001) Estrogen and exercise interact to regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • Chao HM, Sakai RR, Ma LY, McEwen BS (1998) Adrenal steroid regulation of neurotrophic factor expression in the rat hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • Epileptic seizures increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • This question was addressed by studying the effects of chronic infusions of recombinant brain-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense in the hippocampus during the first seven days of hippocampal kindling. (nih.gov)
  • They also appeared to be specific to the hippocampus, as infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (48 microg/day) in the amygdala only resulted in a slight and transient delay of amygdala kindling. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely to the protective effects of exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor, chronic hippocampal infusion of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (12 nmol/day), resulting in reduced expression of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus, aggravated seizures during hippocampal kindling. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our results lead us to suggest that the seizure-induced increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the hippocampus may constitute an endogenous regulatory mechanism able to restrain hippocampal epileptogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • 5-HT2A receptor-mediated regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the hippocampus and the neocortex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We infused 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a modulator of energy metabolism, directly into the hippocampus during 3 days of voluntary wheel running and measured its effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We found that 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 decreased exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor but had no significant effect on neurotrophin-3 levels, thereby suggesting a level of specificity for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Effect of propofol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus of aged rats with chronic cerebral ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • A low-dose of propofol promoted the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein, and cAMP in the hippocampus of aged rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, but a high-dose of propofol inhibited their expression. (nih.gov)
  • Results indicated that the protective effect of propofol against cerebral ischemia in aged rats is related to changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus, and that the cAMP-cAMP responsive element binding protein pathway is involved in the regulatory effect of propofol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. (nih.gov)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the hippocampus of aged rats (western blot analysis).Data were expressed as the mean ± SD of five rats in each group. (nih.gov)
  • Fig. 4 Effects of GGA administration on mRNA levels of neurotrophic factors in the stressed mouse hippocampus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stress is a major factor in depression, which impairs the structural and functional plasticity of the hippocampus. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These suppressive effects were dose dependent, long lasting, not secondary to neuronal toxicity and specific to this neurotrophin, as nerve growth factor accelerated hippocampal kindling progression. (nih.gov)
  • A small nerve growth factor encoded on chromosome 11p13, which promotes the survival, migration and differentiation of neuronal precursors in the peripheral and central nervous system, and supports survival of primary sensory neurones originating from the neural crest and ectodermal placodes that do not respond to nerve growth factor (NGF). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents neuronal death and glial activation after global ischemia in the rat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neuronal growth factors play an important role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. (garvan.org.au)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor is clearly important in this unique neuronal system but elucidation of its role awaits further investigation. (garvan.org.au)
  • Both Aβ and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been linked to poor cognitive function, likely owing to impaired neuronal signaling and attenuation of neurotrophic factor signaling. (escholarship.org)
  • They focus on the effects of GA on histone acetyltransferase activity of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and the histone-3 acetylation status in the promoters of the target genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cellular Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine sarcoma virus osteosarcoma oncogene (c-Fos) known to regulate the development of neuronal morphology and function. (ovid.com)
  • However, the cellular and molecular factors that coordinate the establishment of specialized neuronal subnetworks remain unclear. (ki.se)
  • 2013). Decreased peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are a biomarker of disease activity in major psychiatric disorders: a comparative meta-analysis. (salimetrics.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a biomarker for obsessive-compulsive disorder? (meta.org)
  • Pain catastrophizing is associated with the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromyalgia. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • No effect of G11757C polymorphism on brain perfusion was found. (iospress.com)
  • A brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism Val66Met identifies fibromyalgia syndrome subgroup with higher body mass index and C-reactive protein. (painresearchforum.org)
  • Cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging brain morphometric correlates of brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met gene polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. (cdc.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the nerve growth factor family. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, certain neurological diseases are paired with a suppression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor production, showing how this protein plays a role in these disorders as well. (wisegeek.com)
  • 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 injection also abolished the effects of exercise on the consummate end-products of brain-derived neurotrophic factor action, i.e. cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and synapsin I, and modulated phosphorylated calmodulin protein kinase II, a signal transduction cascade downstream to brain-derived neurotrophic factor action that is important for learning and memory. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We also found that exercise significantly increased the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2, an energy-balancing factor concerned with ATP production and free radical management. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In addition, it was reported that extracellularly released HMGB1 protein mediates postischemic damage of the brain and retina and that inhibiting or knockdown of HMGB1 attenuated postischemic neurodegeneration [18-21]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a central player for the effects of exercise on synaptic and cognitive plasticity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We have examined the expression of three neurotrophic factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the normal rat olfactory system and following synaptic target ablation (olfactory bulbectomy). (garvan.org.au)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents the death of motoneurons3-6, but its gene is not expressed during development7. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • [30] Thus, neurotrophic signaling may trigger apoptosis rather than survival pathways in cells expressing the p75 receptor in the absence of Trk receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapamycin and interleukin-1β impair brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent neuron survival by modulating autophagy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We report here that brainderived neurotrophic factor can prevent the death of axotomized motoneurons in newborn rats, suggesting a role for this neurotrophin for motoneuron survival in vivo. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • 2] Middlemas, D.S., Kihl, B.K., Zhou, J. and Zhu, X. (1999) Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Promotes Survival and Chemoprotection of Human Neuroblastoma Cells. (scirp.org)
  • Delta-secretase-cleaved Tau antagonizes TrkB neurotrophic signalings, mediating Alzheimer's disease pathologies. (nih.gov)
  • Relationship of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB to altered inhibitory prefrontal circuitry in schizophrenia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Neuroprotection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against hypoxic injury in vitro requires activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase," International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience , vol. 26, no. 3-4, pp. 363-370, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • High-mobility group box-1 induces decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated neuroprotection in the diabetic retina. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Post-traumatic application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glia-derived neurotrophic factor on the rat spinal cord enhances neuroprotection and improves motor function. (diva-portal.org)
  • Interaction between neuropeptide Y (NPY) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in NPY-mediated neuroprotection against excitotoxicity: a role for microglia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Zhao F, Qu Y, Liu J, Liu H, Zhang L, Feng Y, Wang H, Gan J, Lu R and Mu D: Microarray profiling and co-expression network analysis of LncRNAs and mRNAs in neonatal rats following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Effects of treadmill exercise and sex hormones on learning, memory and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in transient congenital hypothyroid rats. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • High-dose dietary supplementation of vitamin A induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor production in mice with simultaneous deficiency of vitamin A and zinc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-deficient mice develop aggressiveness and hyperphagia in conjunction with brain serotonergic abnormalities. (degruyter.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates glucose metabolism by modulating energy balance in diabetic mice. (degruyter.com)
  • The results further confirmed that high fat diet-fed mice which exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, showed lower levels of oestradiol and decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the ventromedial hypothalamus. (garvan.org.au)
  • Exposure of 2-week-old slice cultures, derived from 7-day-old C57BL/6 mice, to 8 microm AMPA, for 24 h, induced degeneration of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells, as measured by cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Anti-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Antibody detects level of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor & has been published & validated for use in ELISA, WB, IH. (emdmillipore.com)
  • This effect is not reproduced by nerve growth factor, but can be obtained with high concentrations of NT4/5. (pnas.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits osmotic swelling of rat retinal glial (Muller) and bipolar cells by activation of basic fibroblast growth factor signaling. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This review focuses on the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its application, in combination with other factors and cell transplantations, for repairing the injured spinal cord. (mdpi.com)
  • Xu, X.-M. History of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) and Its Use for Spinal Cord Injury Repair. (mdpi.com)
  • Following bulbectomy, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was abolished from the neuroepithelium. (garvan.org.au)
  • Neurological research on humans is hampered by the fact that experimentation on the brain is deemed unethical, forcing researchers to rely on observation and retrospective evaluation to collect data on the role of various compounds in the human brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • Zhang J, Yuan L, Zhang X, Hamblin MH, Zhu T, Meng F, Li Y, Chen YE and Yin KJ: Altered long non-coding RNA transcriptomic profiles in brain microvascular endothelium after cerebral ischemia. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Mehta SL, Kim T and Vemuganti R: Long noncoding RNA FosDT promotes ischemic brain injury by interacting with REST-associated chromatin-modifying proteins. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To activate the receptor, a single growth factor molecule either binds two monomeric receptors, causing them to dimerize, or it binds both sites on a pre-dimerized receptor. (jove.com)
  • Adzic M, Djordjevic J, Djordjevic A, Niciforovic A, Demonacos C, Radojcic M, Krstic-Demonacos M (2009) Acute or chronic stress induce cell compartment-specific phosphorylation of glucocorticoid receptor and alter its transcriptional activity in Wistar rat brain. (springer.com)
  • Dias BG, Banerjee SB, Duman RS, Vaidya VA (2003) Differential regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor transcripts by antidepressant treatments in the adult rat brain. (springer.com)
  • Differential brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in limbic brain regions following social defeat or territorial aggression. (harvard.edu)
  • Nociceptor-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates acute and inflammatory but not neuropathic pain. (painresearchforum.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor selectively regulates dendritogenesis of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb through the PLCgamma pathway. (ki.se)
  • Variations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels have been linked with neurological diseases, mental illness, and delays in cognitive development. (wisegeek.com)
  • Tan et al reported an inverse correlation of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and dyskinetic movements in people with schizophrenia who had TD. (medscape.com)
  • Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia: association with dyskinetic movements. (medscape.com)
  • 2011). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in schizophrenia: a systematic review with meta-analysis. (salimetrics.com)
  • Bullo M, Peeraully MR, Trayhurn P, Folch J, Salas-Salvado J. Circulating nerve growth factor levels in relation to obesity and the metabolic syndrome in women. (degruyter.com)
  • Araki S, Yamamoto Y, Dobashi K, Asayama K, Kusuhara K. Decreased plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its relationship with obesity and birth weight in obese Japanese children. (degruyter.com)
  • Plasma Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Patients with Parkinson Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The estrogen levels in the pre and post menstrual phases interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a complex manner, which influences the overall state of the body. (garvan.org.au)
  • The fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipids, estrogen, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured through clinical tests. (garvan.org.au)
  • In most of these studies, patients ingest a tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixture that transiently decreases serotonin levels in the brain, because serotonin is derived from tryptophan ( Figure 1 ). (cmaj.ca)
  • Neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health problem, but beneficial clinical treatment with neurotrophic factors has not been established yet. (mdpi.com)
  • 9] Zuccato, C. and Cattaneo, E. (2009) Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Neurodegenerative Diseases. (scirp.org)
  • The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor reduced on condition that the level of oestradiol is sufficiently low, such as women in postmenopausal period, which aggravates diabetes through feeding-related pathways. (garvan.org.au)
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Its Correlation With Retinal Layer Thicknesses. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Reduced GM volumes in BD patients compared to HC were observed in several brain areas, encompassing the caudate head, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. (eur.nl)
  • In spite of our better understanding of several neurobiological alterations in brain structure, physiology and neurochemistry in patients in schizophrenia, there is currently no objective laboratory tool that can be used in the diagnosis, management and prognostication of schizophrenia. (cpn.or.kr)
  • However, individuals without a personal or family history of major depressive disorder tend to not show any mood changes following tryptophan depletion, 8 despite the fact that tryptophan depletion alters the activity of mood-regulating regions of the brain, such as the amygdala, in these individuals as it does in patients with major depressive disorder. (cmaj.ca)
  • Methamphetamine self-administration attenuates hippocampal serotonergic deficits: role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hypoxic/ischemic (HI) brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of acute neonatal brain injury, leading to high mortality and serious neurological deficits. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The family also includes nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4/5) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. (jove.com)
  • The Trk receptors have a single transmembrane domain, with a growth factor binding site on the extracellular portion and an enzyme activation site intracellularly. (jove.com)
  • It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Neurotrophin-5 produced a similar effect on GABA, but nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 had no effect. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 9) in 1982 from pig's brain following neurotrophic growth factor. (cpn.or.kr)
  • [ 8 ] Thus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor appears to have a protective effect in the nervous system against TD with people with schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
  • Mental disorders (including depression, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders), physical disorders (such as chronic fatigue syndrome) and substance use disorders (including alcohol use disorder and the use of and withdrawal from benzodiazepines) are risk factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a state-marker of mood episodes in bipolar disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Johnston MV, Trescher WH, Ishida A and Nakajima W: Neurobiology of hypoxic-ischemic injury in the developing brain. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Infusion with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (6-24 microg/day) significantly delayed the progression of standard hippocampal kindling and strongly suppressed seizures induced by rapid hippocampal kindling. (nih.gov)
  • Its pathogenesis is characterized by a complex relationship between biological and psychosocial factors not fully understood yet. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 2015). Human Obesity Associated with an Intronic SNP in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Locus. (salimetrics.com)
  • To study the role of oestradiol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in modulating obesity related type 2 diabetes and the interactions between two factors, we enrolled 15 diabetic premenopausal women and 15 diabetic postmenopausal women respectively, the same number of healthy pre and postmenopausal women were recruited as two control groups. (garvan.org.au)
  • One type is primarily trophic and involves long-distance transport of target-derived signals from distal terminals to the nucleus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Putative roles of soluble trophic factors in facial nerve regeneration, target reinnervation, and recovery of vibrissal whisking. (sickkids.ca)
  • Comparison of trophic factors' expression between paralyzed and recovering muscles after facial nerve injury. (sickkids.ca)
  • 2007) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor conditional knockouts show gender differences in depression-related behaviors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 7] Dwivedi, Y. (2009) Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: Role in Depression and Suicide. (scirp.org)
  • 7 A reduction in serotonin synthesis may result in depression, depression may result in a reduction in serotonin synthesis, or a third factor may be responsible for both lowering serotonin synthesis rates and triggering depression. (cmaj.ca)
  • Early postnatal exposure to general anesthesia (GA) may be detrimental to brain development, resulting in long-term cognitive impairments. (ovid.com)
  • Polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor associated with heroin dependence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When interpreting data from your current study or planning for the future, consider the polymorphisms that influence brain function. (salimetrics.com)
  • Influence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor genetic polymorphisms o" by Chao Meng, Jie Lan et al. (edu.au)
  • Biosynthesis and post-translational processing of the precursor to brain-derived neurotrophic factor. (degruyter.com)
  • The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factors in mPBMC from children with cerebral palsy was significantly higher than that in cord blood or mPBMCs from healthy adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rocha-Ferreira E and Hristova M: Antimicrobial peptides and complement in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induced brain damage. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Zhao RB, Zhu LH, Shu JP, Qiao LX and Xia ZK: GAS5 silencing protects against hypoxia/ischemia-induced neonatal brain injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Parvalbumin immunoreactivity is enhanced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in organotypic cultures of rat retina. (uniprot.org)
  • We found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was confined to the horizontal basal cells of the olfactory neuroepithelium and was unaltered by bulbectomy. (garvan.org.au)
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Human Recombinant produced in E.coli is a homodimer, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 2×119 amino acids and having a total molecular mass of 26,984 Dalton. (biovendor.com)