A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.
Elicitation of a rotatory nystagmus by stimulating the semicircular canals with water or air which is above or below body temperature. In warm caloric stimulation a rotatory nystagmus is developed toward the side of the stimulated ear; in cold, away from the stimulated side. Absence of nystagmus indicates the labyrinth is not functioning.
The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.
Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Services provided by an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS) or an ethics team or committee (ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL) to address the ethical issues involved in a specific clinical case. The central purpose is to improve the process and outcomes of patients' care by helping to identify, analyze, and resolve ethical problems.
The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.

The case for a statutory 'definition of death'. (1/411)

Karen Quinlan, the American girl who has lain in deep coma for many months, is still 'alive', that is to say, her heart is still beating and brain death has not occurred. However, several other cases have raised difficult issues about the time of death. Dr Skegg argues that there is a case for a legal definition of death enshrined in statutory form. He suggests that many of the objections to a statutory provision on death are misplaced, and that a statute concerning the occurrence of death could remove all doubts in the minds of both doctors and public as to whether a 'beating heart cadaver' was dead or alive for legal purposes.  (+info)

A matter of life and death: what every anesthesiologist should know about the medical, legal, and ethical aspects of declaring brain death. (2/411)

Accurate criteria for death are increasingly important as it becomes more difficult for the public to distinguish between patients who are still alive from those who, through the aid of medical technology, merely look like they are alive even though they are dead. Patients and their families need to know that a clear line can be drawn between life and death, and that patients who are alive will not be unintentionally treated as though they are dead. For the public to trust the pronouncements of medical doctors as to whether a patient is dead or alive, the criteria must be unambiguous, understandable, and infallible. It is equally important to physicians that accurate, infallible criteria define death. Physicians need to know that a clear line can be drawn between life and death so that patients who are dead are not treated as though they are alive. Such criteria enable us to terminate expensive medical care to corpses. Clear criteria for death also allow us to ethically request the gift of vital organs. Clear, infallible criteria allow us to assure families and society that one living person will not be intentionally or unintentionally killed for the sake of another. The pressure of organ scarcity must not lead physicians to allow the criteria for life and death to become blurred because of the irreparable harm this would cause to the patient-physician relationship and the devastating impact it could have on organ transplantation. As the cases presented here illustrate, anesthesiologists have an important responsibility in the process of assuring that some living patients are not sacrificed to benefit others. Criteria for declaring death should be familiar to every anesthesiologist participating in organ retrieval. Before accepting the responsibility of maintaining a donor for vital organ collection, the anesthesiologist should review data supplied in the chart supporting the diagnosis of brain death and seriously question inconsistencies and inadequate testing conditions. Knowledge of brain death criteria and proper application of these criteria could have changed the course of each of the cases presented.  (+info)

Donor catecholamine use reduces acute allograft rejection and improves graft survival after cadaveric renal transplantation. (3/411)

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data implicate that renal transplants from living unrelated donors result in superior survival rates as compared with cadaveric grafts, despite a higher degree of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching. We undertook a center-based case control study to identify donor-specific determinants affecting early outcome in cadaveric transplantation. METHODS: The study database consisted of 152 consecutive cadaveric renal transplants performed at our center between June 1989 and September 1998. Of these, 24 patients received a retransplant. Donor kidneys were allocated on the basis of prospective HLA matching according to the Eurotransplant rules of organ sharing. Immunosuppressive therapy consisted of a cyclosporine-based triple-drug regimen. In 67 recipients, at least one acute rejection episode occurred during the first month after transplantation. They were taken as cases, and the remaining 85 patients were the controls. Stepwise logistic regression was done on donor-specific explanatory variables obtained from standardized Eurotransplant Necrokidney reports. In a secondary evaluation, the impact on graft survival in long-term follow-up was further measured by applying a Cox regression model. The mean follow-up of all transplant recipients was 3.8 years (SD 2.7 years). RESULTS: Donor age [odds ratio (OR) 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.08], traumatic brain injury as cause of death (OR 2.75; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6. 52), and mismatch on HLA-DR (OR 3.0; 95% CI, 1.47 to 6.12) were associated with an increased risk of acute rejection, whereas donor use of dopamine (OR 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.51) and/or noradrenaline (OR 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.60) independently resulted in a significant beneficial effect. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, both donor treatment with dopamine (HR 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.84) and noradrenaline (HR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.87) remained a significant predictor of superior graft survival in long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that the use of catecholamines in postmortal organ donors during intensive care results in immunomodulating effects and improves graft survival in long-term follow-up. These findings may at least partially be explained by down-regulating effects of adrenergic substances on the expression of adhesion molecules (VCAM, E-selectin) in the vessel walls of the graft.  (+info)

N18 in median somatosensory evoked potentials: a new indicator of medullary function useful for the diagnosis of brain death. (4/411)

OBJECTIVES: To record N18 in median somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) for deeply comatose or brain dead patients and to demonstrate the usefulness of N18 for the diagnosis of brain death in comparison with auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) and P13/14 in median SEPs, which have been conventionally used as complementary tests for the diagnosis of brain death. METHODS: Subjects were 19 deeply comatose or brain dead patients. Thirteen recordings were performed in deeply comatose but not brain dead conditions, and 12 recordings were performed in brain death. N18 was evaluated in the CPi-C2S lead (or other scalp-C2S leads) to obtain a flat baseline. RESULTS: N18 was preserved in 12 of 13 non-brain dead comatose recordings whereas it was completely lost for all of the 12 brain death recordings. P13/14 in median SEPs was preserved for all the comatose recordings, whereas apparent P13/14-like potentials, usually of low amplitude, were seen in nine of 12 brain death recordings-that is, frequent false positives. The ABRs already showed features which were characteristic for brain death (loss of components other than wave 1 or small wave 2) for four comatose recordings, in three of which N18 was preserved. The last result not only corresponds with the fact that ABRs can evaluate pontine and midbrain functions and not medullary function, but further supports the medullary origin of N18. In the four patients followed up for the course of progression from coma to brain death, N18s preserved in normal size during the comatose state were completely lost after brain death was established. CONCLUSIONS: The N18 potential is generated by the cuneate nucleus in the medulla oblongata in the preceding studies. N18 is suggested to be a promising tool for the diagnosis of brain death because there were no false positives and rare false negatives in the present series for detecting the remaining brain stem function.  (+info)

The ambiguity about death in Japan: an ethical implication for organ procurement. (5/411)

In the latter half of the twentieth century, developed countries of the world have made tremendous strides in organ donation and transplantation. However, in this area of medicine, Japan has been slow to follow. Japanese ethics, deeply rooted in religion and tradition, have affected their outlook on life and death. Because the Japanese have only recently started to acknowledge the concept of brain death, transplantation of major organs has been hindered in that country. Currently, there is a dual definition of death in Japan, intended to satisfy both sides of the issue. This interesting paradox, which still stands to be fully resolved, illustrates the contentious conflict between medical ethics and medical progress in Japan.  (+info)

Implications of ischemic penumbra for the diagnosis of brain death. (6/411)

The data reviewed here suggest the possibility that a global reduction of blood supply to the whole brain or solely to the infratentorial structures down to the range of ischemic penumbra for several hours or a few days may lead to misdiagnosis of irreversible brain or brain stem damage in a subset of deeply comatose patients with cephalic areflexia. The following proposals are advanced: 1) the lack of any set of clinically detectable brain functions does not provide a safe diagnosis of brain or brain stem death; 2) apnea testing may induce irreversible brain damage and should be abandoned; 3) moderate hypothermia, antipyresis, prevention of arterial hypotension, and occasionally intra-arterial thrombolysis may contribute to good recovery of a possibly large subset of cases of brain injury currently regarded as irreversible; 4) confirmatory tests for brain death should not replace or delay the administration of potentially effective therapeutic measures; 5) in order to validate confirmatory tests, further research is needed to relate their results to specific levels of blood supply to the brain. The current criteria for the diagnosis of brain death should be revised.  (+info)

Brain death diagnosis in misleading conditions. (7/411)

The necessity of defining brain death (BD) arose from technological development in medical science. The definition of this concept had practical consequences and opened the way to organ donation from BD patients. Nowadays, the imbalance between the number of organs available for transplantation and the size of the demand is becoming critical. In most laboratories, a BD diagnosis is made according to precise criteria and in a well-defined process. BD diagnosis should be improved, not only to assure the safety and to preserve the human dignity of the patient, but also in order to increase the rate of organ donation. By analysing some epidemiological parameters in BD diagnosis and organ donation, it appears that BD diagnoses can be made more often and more rapidly if one has a reliable, accurate, and safe confirmatory test, especially under misleading conditions (hypothermia, drugs, metabolic disturbances). In our experience, the use of multimodality evoked potentials (MEPs) to confirm a BD diagnosis has many advantages: MEPs can be rapidly performed at the patient's bedside, assess the brain stem as well as the cerebral cortex, and are innocuous for the patient. Moreover, their insensitivity to the aforementioned misleading factors is sufficient to distinguish BD from clinical and EEG states that mimic BD. They give an immediate diagnosis, and no delay is required in BD confirmation if there is sufficient cause to account for BD. MEPs are a safe, accurate, and reliable tool for confirming a BD diagnosis, and their use can improve the organ donation rate while preserving the safety of the patient.  (+info)

Re-examining death: against a higher brain criterion. (8/411)

While there is increasing pressure on scarce health care resources, advances in medical science have blurred the boundary between life and death. Individuals can survive for decades without consciousness and individuals whose whole brains are dead can be supported for extended periods. One suggested response is to redefine death, justifying a higher brain criterion for death. This argument fails because it conflates two distinct notions about the demise of human beings--the one, biological and the other, ontological. Death is a biological phenomenon. This view entails the rejection of a higher brain criterion of death. Moreover, I claim that the justification of the whole brain (or brain stem) criterion of death is also cast into doubt by these advances in medical science. I proceed to argue that there is no need to redefine death in order to identify which treatments ought to be provided for the permanently and irreversibly unconscious. There are already clear treatment guidelines.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma Metabolomic Profile of Human Brain-Dead Organ Donors. AU - Dhaygude, K.. AU - Suominen, T.. AU - Krebs, R.. AU - Joo, S.. AU - Rouvinen, E.. AU - Velagapudi, V.. AU - Holmström, E.. AU - Nykänen, A.. AU - Syrjälä, S.. AU - Lemström, K.. PY - 2020/4. Y1 - 2020/4. N2 - PURPOSE: Profound metabolic and molecular changes triggered by solid organ donor brain death may significantly affect posttransplant graft function. However, the effects of brain death on transplanted organs are poorly understood and no clinical biomarker or targeted therapy is available to predict or prevent primary or late graft dysfunction, respectively. This study elaborates the plasma metabolomic profile of human brain-dead organ donors. METHODS: We compared plasma samples from 119 human brain-dead multi-organ donors, taken immediately before organ procurement, to samples from 48 healthy volunteers. We employed targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to profile over ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Donor brain death reduces survival after transplantation in rat livers preserved for 20 hr. AU - Van der Hoeven, JAB. AU - Lindell, S. AU - Van Schilfgaarde, R. AU - Molema, G. AU - Ter Horst, GJ. AU - Southard, JH. AU - Ploeg, RJ. PY - 2001/11/27. Y1 - 2001/11/27. N2 - Background. Eighty percent of donor organs come from donors who have suffered brain trauma (brain-dead donors). This unphysiological state alters the hemodynamic and hormonal status of the organ donor. This can cause organ injury, which has been suggested to alter the immunological or inflammatory status of the organ after transplantation, and may lead to increased sensitivity of the organ to preservation/transplantation injury. In this study we asked the question: does brain death cause injury to the liver that decreases successful liver preservation?Methods. The rat liver transplant model was used to compare survival in rats receiving a liver from a brain-dead donor versus a non-brain-dead donor. Brain death was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - EEG and brain death determination in children. AU - Alvarez, L. A.. AU - Moshé, S. L.. AU - Belman, A. L.. AU - Maytal, J.. AU - Resnick, T. J.. AU - Keilson, M.. PY - 1988/2. Y1 - 1988/2. N2 - In a retrospective study involving several medical centers we identified 52 patients under age 5 yeare who met the adult clinical criteria for brain death and had at least one EEG with electrocerebral silence. Of the 52 patients, 31 died spontaneously and 21 were disconnected from the respirator. Repeat EEGs were obtained in 28 patients, and in all electrocerebral silence persisted. The study suggests that clinical criteria similar to those used for adults in the determination of brain death can also be applied to children above age 3 months and that a single EEG with electrocerebral silence is sufficient to confirm brain death in this age group.. AB - In a retrospective study involving several medical centers we identified 52 patients under age 5 yeare who met the adult clinical criteria ...
The shortage of suitable donor hearts for cardiac transplantation is exacerbated by the exclusion of those that exhibit contractile malfunction during the period after brain death but before excision. We have replicated the phenomenon of brain death-induced hemodynamic deterioration in the rat in vivo. After 60 minutes of brain death (defined as the absence of electrical activity in the brain), a variety of indicators of cardiac contractile function fell by approximately 50% (thus cardiac index fell from 21 +/- 2 to 11 +/- 1 ml/min per 100 g body weight). However, once excised and perfused ex vivo, the hearts recovered a level of cardiac function that was identical to that from control animals that had not been subjected to brain death. Similarly, when hearts were excised, stored (6 hours at 4 degrees C), and reperfused ex vivo with blood, they also recovered a functional capability identical to that of normal hearts from animals that had not been subjected to brain death. Our results question ...
INTRODUCTION: Conventional apnea testing in patients with severe hypoxemia or hemodynamic instability with removal from the ventilator support is unsafe. We describe an alternative approach to apnea testing, which may be used in patients with hypoxia unable to undergo conventional apnea testing. METHODS: Case Report. A 42-year-old man had a severe traumatic brain injury resulting in diffuse cerebral edema and subarachnoid hemorrhage with herniation. His presentation was complicated by hypoxic respiratory failure from pulmonary contusions and hemorrhagic shock. On hospital day 2, the patient lost brain stem reflexes. Brain death testing with conventional apnea testing was attempted but aborted due to hypoxia. RESULTS: A modified apnea test was applied, which had been approved by appropriate hospital committees including critical care operations, ethics, and the brain death protocol council. Minute ventilation was gradually decreased by | /=50% to attain a PaCo2 level | /=20 mm Hg above baseline. The
Looking for brain dead? Find out information about brain dead. irreversible cessation of respiration due to irreparable brain damage, even though the heart may continue beating with the aid of a mechanical ventilator:... Explanation of brain dead
BACKGROUND: Consistent difference in graft survival after renal transplantation has been shown when cadaveric transplants are compared to the living related donor situation, in favor of the latter. Recently, evidence has been put forward that brain death has significant effects on the donor organ quality. In this study, we aimed to assess the relation between brain death-induced hemodynamic instability in combination with the duration of brain death on the function and immunogenicity status of potential donor kidneys. METHODS: In Wistar rats, short-term (1 hour) or long-term (6 hours) brain death in the presence or absence of hemodynamic stability was applied. Sham-operated rats served as controls (1 hour and 6 hours). Organ function was studied by monitoring serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactate, and total protein content. Expression of cell adhesion molecules [intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)] and the influx of leukocytes in the
Almost fifty years since the concept of brain death was first introduced, some individuals and whole nations still struggle with its concept and justification. Many controversies continue to surround brain death, although there is broad consensus that human death is ultimately death of the brain. This crucially involves the irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness combined with the irreversible loss of the capacity to breathe since, taken together, these elements represent the most basic manner in which a human being can interact with their environment. Confusingly brain death is defined in two different ways based on whole brain and brainstem formulations, although the clinical determination of both is identical. It is not widely appreciated that death is a process, and this leads to misunderstanding by both the public and professionals; reports of brain dead patients being kept alive on a ventilator are familiar. Pragmatically, once a threshold of irreversibility in the dying
In view of the increasing need for organ transplants( possibly because of the greater ability of the surgeons and physicians to both execute the transplant, prevent a rejection, and/or diagnose the need to transplant) how could one minimize the Type I statistical error (the possibility that while the patient is not brain dead he is diagnosed as such) when testing for brain death?. It is a waste of resources to wait for metabolic death clinging to a life that cannot be saved thence omitting the duty to save people.. Nonetheless the duty to omit killing people actively/intently is even greater. This is exactly what we are doing when we remove the life support of someone in a chronic vegetative state( we will not go to jail only because at that time as medical standards mandate we wrongly assumed/believed they were brain dead, i.e We acted according to the medical standards but nonetheless came to a wrong conclusion/diagnosis).. Being a layman( I studied(partialy, uncomplete course) medicine ...
While the concept of brain death is widely accepted, no universal criteria exist for its determination. This study compared guidelines from 80 countries finding that all standards specified exclusion of confounders, irreversible coma, absent motor response, and lack of brain-stem reflexes (see Wijdicks, The Diagnosis of Brain Death for more information). The majority of countries had medical practice standards (88%), legal standards (69%), utilized some form of apnea testing (59%), and required more than one physicians declaration (50%). Specifics varied widely on the qualifications of the physician, methods of apnea testing, and observation time before pronouncement of death. Regional differences were also noted, such as mandatory laboratory tests in Europe and Asia. Within the United States, brain death determination has been left to each state to decide (44 states and the District of Columbia have guidelines) whereas most African countries do not. Even if guidelines are not standardized, ...
TY - GEN. T1 - The influence of donor heart retransplantation and brain death on intramyocardial electrograms. AU - Grasser, B.. AU - Iberer, F.. AU - Schreier, G.. AU - Kastner, P.. AU - Schaffellner, S.. AU - Hipmair, G.. AU - Prenner, G.. AU - Wasler, A.. AU - Petutschnigg, B.. AU - Müller, H.. AU - Hutten, Helmut. AU - Schaldach, M.. AU - Tscheliessnigg, K.-H.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 24. EP - 24. BT - Giornalo Italiano di Aritmologia e Cardiostimolazione, VIII International Symposium on Progress in Clinical Pacing. PB - .. ER - ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of acute brain death on release of atrium and B-type natriuretic peptides in an animal model. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Conventional cerebral angiography has long been considered the gold standard as a confirmatory test in assessing intracranial blood flow in brain death determin
To address the urgent and growing problems of organ sales, transplant tourism and trafficking in organ donors in the context of the global shortage of organs, a Summit Meeting of more than 150 representatives of scientific and medical bodies from around the world, government officials, social scientists, and ethicists, was held in Istanbul from April 30 to May 2, 2008.
This guest post is part of The Bioethics Programs Online Symposium on the Munoz and McMath cases. To see all symposium contributions, click here. by James Zisfein, M.D. Chief, Division of Neurology, and Chair, Ethics Committee, Lincoln Medical Center Is the objection to determination of brain death by Jahi McMaths parents based on religious principle,…
ANOTHER BRAIN DEATH MISDIAGNOSIS: A 19 year-old woman in Denmark was pronounced brain dead and her parents consented to having her organs donated. The respirator was removed. She didnt die. She is now undergoing rehab and may make a full recovery.. Think this is a one-off? Its not, as I explore in my book, The Law of Life & Death (Harvard 2011) [shameless plug, I know, but its relevant!]. As with the vegetative state, misdiagnosis is more common than the medical community admits-exactly how common is not known. There is far more about the human brain that medical science just does not presently know. For this reason, after researching my book, I am not an organ donor.. ...
In an era where we are becoming more reliant on vulnerable kidneys for transplantation from older donors, there is an urgent need to understand how brain death leads to kidney dysfunction and, hence, how this can be prevented. Using a rodent model of hemorrhagic stroke and next-generation proteomic and metabolomic technologies, we aimed to delineate which key cellular processes are perturbed in the kidney after brain death. Pathway analysis of the proteomic signature of kidneys from brain-dead donors revealed large-scale changes in mitochondrial proteins that were associated with altered mitochondrial activity and morphological evidence of mitochondrial injury. We identified an increase in a number of glycolytic proteins and lactate production, suggesting a shift toward anaerobic metabolism. Higher amounts of succinate were found in the brain death group, in conjunction with increased markers of oxidative stress. We characterized the responsiveness of hypoxia inducible factors and found this correlated
Dimitri Novitzky ,. Introduction 31. Histological Changes 35. Endocrine Changes 38. The Impact of Brain Death on the Hemodynamic and Metabolic Functions, the Role of Hormonal Replacement 39. Hormonal Therapy in the Brain Dead Organ Donors 43. Discussion 43. Was this article helpful?. ...
Twenty-eight participants returned the questionnaire (85%). Every country has either specific law (93%) or guidelines issued by the scientific society (89%). Clinical examination, essential to the diagnosis, is the only requirement in 50% of countries. Coma, apnea, absence of corneal and cough reflexes are always necessary. Blood pressure and electrolytes are checked in 64% as mandatory prerequisites. The apnea test is legally defined in 86% of countries. Eighty-two percent of countries require achievement of a target paCO2 level while the Netherlands law states target apnea duration. Number of physicians (median 2, range 1 to 4), number of clinical examinations (median 2, 1 to 3), and minimum observation time (median 3 hours, 0 to 12) are variable requisites in different countries. In 50% of nations, additional tests are required. Hypothermia (4%), anoxic injury (7%), inability to complete clinical examination (61%), toxic drug levels (57%), and inconclusive apnea test (54%) are legal ...
An arterial blood gas and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) were measured at baseline and hemodynamic monitoring and pulse oximetry were monitored throughout. Using the formula: PaCO2 of 10 mmHg = pH of 0.8, it was predicted what EtCO2 was required to achieve a PaCO2 sufficient to cause a pH 7.20. A gas mixture of 3% CO2:97% O2 was then administered through the ventilator adjusting an IMV rate of 2-4 according to the rise in EtCO2. Once the predicted EtCO2 was reached, an blood gas was repeated. The PaCO2-EtCO2 gradient was also calculated pre and post testing. Respiratory movements were monitored by both the respiratory flow loops and by direct visualization by a physician. ...
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2. Meaning of brain death. Brain stem death, determined by clinical examination with or without instrumental confirmation, should remain the mainstay of death definition. Brain function is not insufficient, it must be accompanied by evidence of irreversibility the author and planners have no... Be reversed of patients with acute severe brain injury, synonyms and more of death! Will not regain consciousness or be able to breathe without support is brain dead may appear be! Developed in many countries in the world and physicians usually work through a set of.! And more may appear to be resting developed in many countries in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions on... Researchers have sought a universal definition of brain death is total, irreversible cessation of function. Dead is legally confirmed as dead of life-its inevitable end minority of patients with acute brain! Means they will not return inevitable end breathe without support comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on web. ...
Deceased donor (brain dead, cadaveric) transplant:. This kind of transplant involves taking liver from a person who is brain dead. The persons family must first give consent if organs are to be used for transplantation. This type of transplant requires waiting on a list until a suitable liver is available.. Brain death is sudden death following a road traffic accident or a brain haemorrhage, with irreversible brain damage that is not compatible with life. Brain dead patients may be artificially maintained on a ventilator and supportive medicines for a short duration, and may be able to donate their livers for transplantation, if their family so desires.. Living donor transplant:. This type of transplant occurs when a living person wishes to donate his liver to someone in need. Living donors are usually family members or spouses. All living donors must meet basic medical criteria and undergo a very thorough medical evaluation before being accepted as a suitable donor.. Human organ transplant act ...
Brain death as the modern medical criterion of death while a welcoming development for the twin purposes of saving medical cost and serving the demand for organ procurement is still a controversial subject in the field of Bioethics. The reason is that its scientific credibility in terms of conclusiveness of the termination of life of the whole body system is far from settled. Similarly, its compatibility with Islamic notion of death and its unique metaphysical criterion of the separation of the soul from human body is a debatable topic among the Muslim legists. In the Muslim debate what concerns us is the question of equating brain death to legal death. The most central issue during the juristic discourse was as to whether brain death is a definitive indicator that the soul has left the body. The answer was divergent but with minimum discourse on both theological and scientific dimensions of the issue. Accordingly, this paper argues that interrogating the issue from scientific dimension would ...
Graphic long sleeve t-shirt. Logo Head purple front graphic. Back Brain Dead Research graphic. Brain Dead Assisted Living™Product Information: Product Code: BDS20T01001075WH03 Color: Cement Material: Cotton Model Specifications: Height: 58 / Top: Medium / Bottoms: Medium Styled with:
Brain Dead 13 is an Interactive movie game produced by ReadySoft that was released for MS-DOS in 1995 and later ported to consoles in 1996. Unlike Dragons Lair and Space Ace, which began as laserdiscs, it was released for PCs and game consoles only. On October 8, 2010, Brain Dead 13 was ported to the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch via the App Store, and later upgraded to Version 1.1 on December 1, which added support for iOS 3.0 and 4.2 and fixed various bugs. Lance, a young computer expert, is called to fix a computer at a scary, dilapidated castle. After repairing a large super-computer, Lance learns that his client, the disembodied brain of Dr. Nero Neurosis, has a diabolical plan to take over the world. He quickly finds himself in trouble, being chased around the castle by Dr. Nero Neurosiss psychotic servant Fritz. The player must guide Lance through the castle in order to defeat Dr. Neurosis and escape with his life. The game consists entirely of quick time events. During gameplay ...
Brain Dead Slime Starch DIY : Homemade Halloween Slime with No Borax, how to make brain dead slime for Halloween games, awesome DIY slime recipe tutorial
Brain Death is not death September 11, 2008 In a recent edition of her e-newsletter update, Julie Grimstad, executive director of Life is Worth Living, Inc., a pro-life lay apostolate, discusses a recent medical journal article that was originally brought to our attention by LifeSiteNews.com. A person is considered brain-dead when he or she no longer has any neurological activity in the brain or brain stem - meaning no electrical impulses are being sent between brain cells. What this means is that the reticular activating system -the diffuse network of nerve connecting the spinal cord and brain-has been irreversibly damaged. Confusingly brain death is defined in two different ways based on whole brain and brainstem formulations, although the clinical determination of both is identical. A person who is brain dead cannot blink, flinch or try to move away if the doctor touches their eye with a fuzzy piece of cotton. Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary ...
Ive been meaning to post on this subject for a few weeks now. Abortion politics has bleed over into end of life decisions, clouding the issue of what life is or isnt as established by science and medical practice.. There is a medical phrase which communicates when a human body no longer has the capability of generating human consciousness. That phrase is brain death. Experiencing brain death is to cease to exist even though the physical form is still present. It doesnt even take brain death to alter a person into someone else, as numerous articles on the subject have discussed, and destroying someones brain in order to control them or alter them is rightly considered a crime unless engaged in for reasons of justice or life-saving intervention. Should even those instances be outlawed, because they kill a person, creating a new person? The brain is the seat of consciousness, the basis upon which human life is generated.. As Arthur Caplan discusses with Lindsay Beyerstein on Point of Inquiry, ...
Deceased donor (brain dead donor). Its the most common source of liver. Brain death is usually due to a large stroke or massive trauma to the head from blunt injury (impact to the head from accident) or penetrating injury (a gun shot wound). The trauma has stopped all brain function although other organs including the liver may continue to function normally. We can get liver only if the family of patient wishes to donate the persons organs before discontinuing life support.. Deceased donor (heart dead donor). Sometimes a patient suffers a serious brain injury and carries a poor neurological outcome but fails to meet the strict criteria defining brain death in that there is still detectible brain function. In these circumstances, the patients family may decide to withdraw life-sustaining medical support with the intention of allowing the patient to die. In this scenario, death is not defined by brain death but rather cardiac death. An urgent operation is then performed to preserve and remove ...
The Organ Donation Taskforce recommended that potential organ donors should be identified in the ED and embedded specialist nurses employed to facilitate organ donation from these donors.1. The process of organ donation has traditionally been seen as the remit of the critical care complex and neurosurgical intensive care unit as the majority of organs were donated by patients deemed brainstem dead on formal neurological testing (heart beating donors now classified as donor after brain death; DBD). However, the use of kidneys from non-heart-beating donors (now classified as donor after cardiac death; DCD) has increased from 3% in 2000 to 34% by September 2010.7. Moreover, recent research suggests that recipient outcome after transplantation of kidneys from DCD is good compared with kidneys donated by DBD, although further studies are indicated.8 9. To date, no formal brainstem testing of potential donors is undertaken in our ED, mainly due to the fact that many intubated ED patients have been ...
Working through these tests rules out if there are other causes of the coma.. For a person to be declared brain dead they must not show any response to each and every one of these tests.. Some Patients may not be able to have all of these tests performed, depending on the nature of the injuries sustained. Spinal injuries, eye or facial injuries mean that nerves cannot be adequately tested. Special x-rays such as CTs or MRIs are done to check if there is any blood flow to the brain. The Patients time of death will be recorded at the time brain death was confirmed.. Why does your loved one still appear alive? During this time in Intensive Care, while your loved one is kept alive by the equipment in Intensive Care he or she will be warm and pink and their chest will be moving.. After brain death has been confirmed your loved one will remain connected to the ventilator until decided when ventilation is to be discontinued. Your loved one will have a heart beat as it has a natural pacemaker that ...
Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kayseri, Turkey We investigated the value of transcranial Doppler (TCD) examinations of intracranial arteries as a diagnostic test for the confirmation of brain death. Twenty nine patients with intracranial hypertension who subsequently developed brain death according to clinical criteria were evaluated by TCD ultrasonography during a 16-month period. Typical TCD findings in the arteries of brain-dead patients consisted of either absent or reversed diastolic flow or small early systolic spikes in at least 2 intracranial arteries. This waveform abnormality was found in 26 (89.7 %) of the 29 patients confirmed to be brain dead by clinical criteria, and was absent in 3 (10.3 %). This abnormality does not appear in other patients with coma. All patients with waveform abnormality in TCD examination died. TCD, a practical, noninvasive, early and reliable method for the confirmation of brain death, can be a rapid and convenient ...
You searched for: Genre Official reports Remove constraint Genre: Official reports Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Brain Death Remove constraint Subject: Brain Death Subject Tissue and Organ Procurement Remove constraint Subject: Tissue and Organ Procurement ...
Year on year with improvement in road safety and improvement in neurosurgery the number of ideal young brain dead donors have been declining whilst the number of more marginal donors have been increasing. The consequence of this is the number of heart transplants being performed have steadily declined.. At present there are 600 hearts from brain dead donors offered for transplant every year in the United Kingdom (UK). Of these 200 have anatomical reasons why they cannot be used for transplant such as ischaemic heart disease. 100 are transplanted and the remaining 300 hearts are judged to have inferior function which probably occurs as a direct result of brain death (Dark).. Ex vivo rig testing has been developed for lungs that were judged unsuitable for transplantation. As a result several donor lungs have been improved by warm perfusion on the rig to the extent that they became suitable for transplantation and so national lung transplant rates are increasing (Dark). The aim would be to ...
Since the body of a brain dead person can still have a heartbeat, can still produce urine, and can still accomplish oxygen exchange with the help of a breathing machine, those who have not dealt with brain death may conclude that at least a part of the patient is still alive and perhaps the other parts are on the mend ...
Usher (Alberto E. Rodriguez/Getty Images)Ushers in the headlines again, but this time not for his messy divorce with Tameka Foster. Hes actually helping Foster, whose 11-year-old son Kyle (called Kile by some reports) was in an accident on Atlantas Lake Lanier at about 3:25 p.m. ET Friday that left him brain dead. Ushers stepson was one of two kids sitting in an inner tube being pulled by a boat that were hit by family friend Jeffrey S. Hubbard, 38, on a Jet Ski, according to MTV News. After being struck in the head and knocked unconscious, Glover was pulled from the water by a bystander. Both victims were flown to Childrens Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, where, according to TMZ, the boy did not have any brain activity when he arrived at the hospital and is still on life support. Brain death, USA Today reports, occurs when all brain activity has stopped permanently, the person is in a coma, and the person is no longer breathing. The girls injuries are serious. Alcohol was not a ...
George Pickerings heart was certainly turned to his son. May all fathers defend their children like this man did. I doubt he ever intended to use that gun against anyone and gave it to his other son long before the standoff ended, but he gained enough time to save his sons life. May God use his sacrifice to save many others. There isnt a single person declared brain dead who isnt alive. Jahi is alive even though California has considered her dead for TWO YEARS! Who are they kidding ...
You searched for: Exhibit Tags conceptn Remove constraint Exhibit Tags: conceptn Genre Articles Remove constraint Genre: Articles Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Brain Death Remove constraint Subject: Brain Death Subject Organ Transplantation Remove constraint Subject: Organ Transplantation ...
Brain Death Committee performed the first brain death exam and confirmatory apnea test. The girl was brain dead. The family was consoled. What brain death really means (the brain is dead, there is no longer any blood flow to the brain, she can never get better because brain death is different from coma) was compassionately explained to the family.. Bhavna Jagwani and Dilip Jain of MFJCF then joined Kamlesh Verma, the SMS Transplant Coordinator, to speak with the family about the notion of organ donation. As is usual with such sensitive and intense discussions, the decision to consent to organ donation by the entire family took several hours. But they said yes. They said yes we consent to donating life saving organs from our deceased daughter in order to save the lives of others even at a time of extreme emotional duress. This decision continuously impresses on me the miraculous kindness and Daan of the Indian people and donor families all over the world.. We started organizing the immunologic ...
The below are quotes from the article Are You Sure He is Dead?: Doctors Struggle with Families Lack of Understanding of HOTA featured on 5 May 2019 at https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/human-organ-transplant-act-doctors-families-understanding-11459284 with notes on them.. Singaporeans and Permanent Residents aged 21 and above are deemed donors, unless they chose to opt out. It allows for their heart, kidneys, liver and corneas to be harvested for transplantation when they are declared brain dead.. Note 1: If choosing to opting out, use this form: https://www.moh.gov.sg/policies-and-legislation/human-organ-transplant-act. They [i.e. family members] either cannot come to terms with the death of the family member or doubt that their family member is really brain dead.. Note 2: There is no worldwide agreement on what brain death really is, and that being brain dead is being completely dead. This 3 Jan 2019 article shows that the definition of brain death is not even agreed upon ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beyond the Apnea Test. T2 - An Argument to Broaden the Requirement for Consent to the Entire Brain Death Evaluation. AU - Paquette, Erin. AU - Frader, Joel E. AU - Shah, Seema. AU - C. Tasker, Robert. AU - Truog, Robert. PY - 2020/6/2. Y1 - 2020/6/2. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85085285617&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85085285617&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1080/15265161.2020.1754523. DO - 10.1080/15265161.2020.1754523. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 32441597. AN - SCOPUS:85085285617. VL - 20. SP - 17. EP - 19. JO - American Journal of Bioethics. JF - American Journal of Bioethics. SN - 1526-5161. IS - 6. ER - ...
Brain-dead donor organ transplantation has been available to children in Japan since the 2010 revision of the Organ Transplant Law. Of the 50-60 brain-dead donor organ transplants performed annually in Japan, however, very few (0-4 per year) are performed in children. Again, while those receiving liver, heart, and kidney transplants are reported to fare better than their counterparts in the rest of the world, organ shortage is becoming a matter of great concern. Very few organs become available from brain-dead donors or are transplanted to adults if made available at all, with some children dying while on the brain-dead organ waiting list. Against this background, living-donor transplants, split-liver transplants, domino transplants, and hepatocyte transplants represent alternative modalities, each of which is shown to be associated with favorable outcomes. Challenges exist, include streamlining the existing framework for promoting organ donation for children and between children.
AIM: Increased intracranial pressure following trauma and subsequent possible development of brain death are important factors for morbidity and mortality due to ischemic changes. We aimed to establish the role of ischemic modified albumin (IMA) in the early diagnosis of the process, starting with increased intracranial pressure and ending with brain death. ...
The medical and legal aspects of determining brain death have evolved over the past 3 decades. The need for special criteria for the determination of brain death in infants and children was clear as early as 1967, when the first US committee met to form a consensus opinion.
Unfortunately, the cause of brain death is indeterminant. It can result from a number of actions, including force trauma to the head (but also diseases, which dont really effect zombies). In all of my research (which does expand beyond Wikipedia), I couldnt find the minimum amount of damage necessary to cause brain death, and all of these results were human-based, as zombie research is seriously underfunded ...
Looking for online definition of apnea test in the Medical Dictionary? apnea test explanation free. What is apnea test? Meaning of apnea test medical term. What does apnea test mean?
Brain stem death is when a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for consciousness and the capacity to breathe. Brain stem death is a complex state of inactivity defined by the loss of reflexes of the pathways that pass through the brain stem, the shaft of the brain which links the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum where there is apnoea, loss of eye movement and pain sensation. The injury can cause a person to be dazed, confused, and disoriented. Also, there are some legal and ethical implications that have to be considered in cases of disagreement in diagnosis among the panel of doctors, time of death in cases when patients relatives disagree or request more time for organ donation or to disconnect the life support system. The concept of total brain death as an alternative to the older definition of irreversible circulatory-respiratory failure was first introduced in a 1968 report authored by a special committee of the ...
This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain. SPECT/CT confirmed absence of tracer accumulation, and was deemed helpful for evaluation of the brain stem. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT is a valuable tool enabling imaging-based confirmation of BD. ...
University of Maryland School of Medicine Background: A full facial procurement should allow concurrent procurement of all solid organs and ensure their integrity. Procurement of facial vascularized composite allografts (VCA) challenges the surgical teams with complex defects potentially requiring far greater time than solid organ procurement. Simultaneous-start procurement in these cases could entail cold ischemia times over 12 hours, risking post-reperfusion bleeding and reperfusion injury.. Methods: A VCA including all facial skin, mimetic muscles, multiple sensory and motor nerve branches, anterior tongue, and maxillary and mandibular segments was procured from a brain dead donor. Solid organ recovery included heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Bedside tracheostomy and facial mask impression were performed the day before procurement.. Results: Facial VCA dissection time was 12 hours, spaced over a 15 hour period to diminish ischemia while the recipient was being prepared (Fig 1). ...
Analysis of brain samples obtained postmortem remains a standard approach in neuroscience, despite often being suboptimal for inferring roles of small molecules in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Sample collection and preservation further hinders conclusive interpretation of biomarker analysis in autopsy samples. We investigate purely death-induced changes affecting rat hippocampus in the first hour of postmortem interval (PMI) by means of untargeted liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. The unique possibility of sampling the same brain area of each animal both in vivo and postmortem was enabled by employing solid phase microextraction (SPME) probes. Four millimeter probes coated with mixed mode extraction phase were used to sample awake, freely roaming animals, with 2 more sampling events performed after death. Significant changes in brain neurochemistry were found to occur as soon as 30 min after death, further progressing with increasing PMI, evidenced by ...
OAKLAND, Calif. - Legal counsel for a California hospital and the family of a 13-year-old girl declared brain dead after sleep apnea surgery began discussing the possibility of moving her to another facility, after a judge laid out the conditions for such a transfer.. The judge said Friday that the mother of the child may remove her from an Oakland hospital if she assumes full responsibility for the consequences.. Later Friday, lawyers for Childrens Hospital Oakland and the mother of Jahi McMath emerged from a settlement conference with a federal magistrate offering few details about the daylong talks that followed the developments in state court. But Christopher Dolan, who represents Jahis mother, said he was pleased with the progress that was made.. Today has been about clarity. Its been about knowing exactly what path we have to walk down, what doors are now open, and what obstacles have been removed, Dolan said. We know how to get from here to where we want to be, which is Jahi in ...
BUENOS AIRES, Argentina - Terminally ill patients and their families would have more power to decide how they die in Argentina under a
UPDATE! Former world champion boxer Hector Camacho is now brain dead after suffering cardiac arrest, following a gun shot wound to the face on Nov. 20 -- so sad. Hector Macho Camacho was tragically shot in the face on Tuesday Nov. 20 while sitting in a car outside the Puerto Rican capital.
A Little Miami High School football player injured in a crash last weekend has been pronounced brain dead. The school district said in a release to students and parents Friday that Brayden Thornbury, 17, had been found to have no brain activity at Miami Valley Hospital.
PHILIP MORRIS SHRAGA-FIVEL ROTHBERG Temple University (Deborah Augsburger).. Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. Brain Death and Organ Transplantation. Current Anthropology June, 1994 Vol 35(3):233-254. This article explores cross-cultural approaches on organ transplantation and the moral implications involved in the process. Japan is the cultural opposite to Western societies like the United States and the United Kingdom regarding cultural definitions of brain death. Ohnuki-Tierney explores the differences in the cultural definitions of brain death to create a viewpoint for the reader to understand both societies. Brain death is a legal term used by doctors throughout the Western world to justify the harvesting of organs from vegetative patients. Ohnuki-Tierney reveals that in many dying patients, a persons brain will shut down before the body does. The body is still warm and the heart is still beating (235). It is shocking to learn about the reality of brain death, but Tierneys description and ...
Friday 24 October 2014. OTA congratulates St Vincents Hospital Sydney on Australias first Donation after Circulatory Death heart transplant. The Organ and Tissue Authority acknowledges and congratulates the team at St Vincents Hospital, Sydney, on performing a world first in organ donation and transplantation history.. The St Vincents Hospitals Heart Transplant Unit recently performed Australias first heart transplant surgeries with two people with end-stage heart failure receiving heart transplants from donors after circulatory death (DCD). Until now, transplant units have relied solely on donated hearts from brain death patients. Both heart transplant recipients have recovered extremely well.. The DCD heart transplants were carried out following pioneering basic and translational research undertaken by the Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute and St Vincents Hospital. This surgery is the culmination of an extensive research project undertaken by Professor Peter MacDonald, Medical ...
Donation After Circulatory Death (DCD) is an alternative to Donation after Brain Death (DBD), and is a growing strategy for organ procurement in the United States (US). The purpose of this analysis was to review the number and quality of hearts in one United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Region that were not utilized as a potential consequence of non-heart DCD donation. We retrospectively identified all successful US DCD solid organ donors from 1/2011 - 3/1/2017, defined an ideal heart donor by age and left ventricular ejection fraction, and then reviewed the donor charts of unused hearts in New York and Vermont (UNOS Region 9). Of 8302 successful DCD donors across the US, 5033 (61%) were between 18-49 years of age, 872 had a screening echocardiogram, with 573 (66%) measuring an EF | 50%. Of these 573 potential donors, 44 (7.7%) were from Region 9. Detailed donor chart review identified 36 ideal heart donors, 24 (66.7%) with anoxic brain injury. Trends in Region 9 DCD donation increased from 4 unused
There are at least five ongoing US court cases involving brain death.  They can be grouped into three categories: Is Family Consent Required...
Bioquark Inc. and Revita Life Sciences Receive IRB Approval for First-In-Human Brain Death Study Bioquark, Inc., (http://www.bioquark.com) a company focused on the development of novel biologics fo...
Overweight Prom Queen Candidate Loses Crown! Housewife Keeps Severed Head On Cake Plate! Bambi Goes Haywire in Forest With Uzi! To the expiring mind of a modern American woman, life can read like a tabloid headline. Six Women With Brain Death is a wild and very left-of-center view of the world from an entirely feminine standpoint.. In a series of bizarre but hysterical songs and sketches, the authors explore TV soap operas, genuine press-on nails, Barbie and Kens secret fantasy life, divas, a unique and new way of recycling, and what is and is not feminine - with an unforgettable detour through a forest where Bambi meets Rambo. ...
The Lazarus sign or Lazarus reflex is a reflex movement in brain-dead or brainstem failure patients, which causes them to briefly raise their arms and drop them crossed on their chests (in a position similar to some Egyptian mummies). The phenomenon is named after the Biblical figure Lazarus of Bethany, whom Jesus raised from the dead in the Gospel of John. Like the knee jerk reflex, the Lazarus sign is an example of a reflex mediated by a reflex arc-a neural pathway which passes via the spinal column but not through the brain. As a consequence, the movement is possible in brain-dead patients whose organs have been kept functioning by life-support machines, precluding the use of complex involuntary motions as a test for brain activity. It has been suggested by neurologists studying the phenomenon that increased awareness of this and similar reflexes may prevent delays in brain-dead diagnosis and misinterpretations. The reflex is often preceded by slight shivering motions of the patients arms, ...
Purpose: Scarcity of donor organs in liver transplantation (LT) has necessitated consideration of donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Complications following LT and disease recurrence are common causes of graft failure, necessitating consideration of liver re-transplantation (re-LT). However, re-LT remains controversial due to inferior outcomes compared to primary LT. There is very limited data regarding the role of DCD grafts in tre-LT. Our aim was to compare the outcome of patients undergoing liver re-LT using DCD with donation after brain death (DBD) grafts and determine predictors of outcome.. *Methods: Using data from SRTR, a retrospective cohort was constructed of recipients who underwent liver re-LT over a 15 year period (Jan 2005 - Aug 2019). Those undergoing DCD re-LT were compared to DBD re-LT. Simultaneous liver-kidney recipients were excluded. Primary outcome measures evaluated were graft and patient survival. Graft failure was defined as the earlier of re-LT or death. ...
Jahi McMath, the Oakland teenager who was declared brain-dead after a tonsillectomy, was quietly released to her family Sunday night, two days before the expiration of a court order preventing Childrens Hospital Oakland from disconnecting her from a ventilator. In a statement, Dr. David Durand, the hospitals chief of pediatrics, said the hospital had released Jahis body to the Alameda County coroner, which in turn released the body to the custody of Jahis mother, Nailah Winkfield, per court order, for a destination unknown. At a news conference Sunday night, Omari Sealey, the girls uncle, and family attorney Christopher Dolan declined to say where the girl was being taken, citing privacy and security concerns. Jahi, 13, had been at Childrens Hospital Oakland since Dec. 9, when she went in for surgery on her tonsils, adenoids, uvula and palate tissue to treat sleep apnea. After surgery she suffered cardiac arrest, her family said, and two doctors pronounced her brain-dead, meaning that her
Posted on 12/30/2013 8:55:21 AM PST by Morgana. FULL TITLE: Jahi McMath: Mom and lawyer say only remaining option for brain-dead girl is a New York care facility OAKLAND -- A Los Angeles-area long-term care facility that had been willing to accept Jahi McMath has withdrawn its offer, leaving a New York hospital as the only apparent option for the brain-dead girl as a 5 p.m. Monday deadline to remove her from a ventilator approaches, her mother and attorney said Sunday. I just found out that the facility my daughter was supposed to be going to has backed out, Jahis mother, Nailah Winkfield, wrote on the familys fundraising website early Sunday. My family and I are still striving to find a location that will accept her in her current condition. That leaves an unnamed New York hospital as our last, last hope, Jahis lawyer, Christopher Dolan, said. The facility is run by an organization that believes in life, Dolan told The Associated Press. But in a statement issued Sunday, a spokeswoman ...
Gharavi, M and Taghai Gilani, M and Razavi, M (2007) Comparision of Recovery Time and Complications in General Anesthesia with Remifentanyl and Propofol and Topical Anesthesia with Conscious Sedation in Non �complicated Cataract Phaco Surgery. medical journal of mashhad university of medical sciences, 50 (4). pp. 433-438. Gharavi, M and Zabihian, S (2007) Evaluation of Apnea Test in Brain-Dead Patients. medical journal of mashhad university of medical sciences, 50 (3). pp. 295-300. ...
Video created by University of Cape Town for the course Organ Donation: From Death to Life . Welcome to the first week of Organ Donation - From Death to Life. In our first lesson we cover the two absolute prerequisites for deceased organ ...
A Home Sleep Apnea Test (HSAT) is a test that uses a small portable sleep recorder to be worn overnight while you sleep in the comfort of your own home. The portable home sleep recorder will record your oxygen levels, your breathing, your heart rate, chest movements and show if you were snoring and what position you slept in. The results of an overnight Home Sleep Apnea Test will be interpreted by a board-certified sleep physician to diagnose sleep apnea.. ...
Apnea Test on ECMO can be challenging for several reasons. This report provides good information on how to accomplish the Apnea test on ECMO successfully.
All four branches of Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionalist) support and encourage donation. According to Orthodox Rabbi Moses Tendler, Chairman of the Biology Department of Yeshiva University in New York City and Chairman of the Bioethics Commission of the Rabbinical Council of America, If one is in the position to donate an organ to save anothers life, its obligatory to do so, even if the donor never knows who the beneficiary will be. The basic principle of Jewish ethics - the infinite worth of the human being - also includes donation of corneas, since eyesight restoration is considered a life-saving operation. In 1991, the Rabbinical Council of America (Orthodox) approved organ donation as permissible, and even required, from brain-dead patients. The Reform movement looks upon the transplant program favorably and Rabbi Richard Address, Director of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations Bio-Ethics Committee and Committee on Older Adults, states that Judaic ...
The above-mentioned three articles were published with incorrect issue information. These articles have now been corrected to show the correct issue information.The above-mentioned three articles were published with incorrect issue information. These articles have now been corrected to show the correct issue information ...
Disparity exists in the literature with regards to the beneficial effects of prednisolone administration to the donor on the outcomes of solid organ transplantation. Multiple large randomized control trials (RCT) have evaluated the effects on steroid administration on the outcomes of lung, kidney and liver transplant [35-37]. In a RCT, Bonser et al. evaluated the effects of 1g of methylprednisolone administration to BD organ donors 7 hours prior to lung explantation, demonstrating no effect on increasing lung yields [29]. Others in the realms of kidney transplantation have also failed to detect a significant improvement in the kidney survival at three months when 5g of methylprednisolone is administered to donors 2-4 hours prior to explantation. The only clinical trial to suggest a positive outcome was performed by Kotsch et al. demonstrating a significant effect on down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced incidence of acute rejection [28]. In contrast, an Austrian study failed ...
The Satmar Bikur Cholim director says that the policy change had to do with our advocacy in the hospital. Because were very big in patient care management and advocacy, the hospital did not like that were watching them so closely. NYU Hospitals policies have changed and have become more difficult for the Jewish community.. Our advocacy has gotten more intense, she said. Were very much pro-life and life being respected. Currently the hospital has initiated hospice and end-of-life care which goes against our communitys halachic perspective. It comes up very often, weekly and sometimes daily where people call us with feeding tube issues or ventilator care.. Although halacha, or Jewish law, is complex when it comes to end-of-life issues, it essentially includes the premise that as long as the heart continues beating, a patient is considered alive. That brings Jewish law into conflict with medical professionals who want to remove brain-dead patients from life support or to not introduce a ...
Postmortem organ donations seem like a thoroughly altruistic act. However, from a Jewish perspective, there are certain other issues that must be taken into consideration:. 1) Is the donor dead? This may seem like a bizarre question. But, by whose definition of death has the person been declared dead? Organs are often harvested from the brain-dead donor - when the donors brain shows no signs of activity - because many of the organs that are sought for donation must be removed from the donor while the heart is still pumping. Many Jewish authorities, however, define clinical death as cessation of respiration. According to these authorities, the doctor might be killing a living donor in order to harvest the organ.. 2) How is the organ going to be used? Is there an immediate need for the organ to save a life? If so, then there is no question that an organ may be used (assuming the donor is halachically deceased). Often, however, organs are harvested and kept for organ banks (waiting for a donor) ...
Organ Donation essay is usually given to classes 7, 8, 9, and 10.. Organ donation is defined as the removal of organs from a body and transplanting it to a new body, by surgical means. Organ donation happens in a lot of ways. Unless it is consensual, it is not legal.. The requirement for new organs usually arises when a person loses an organ to some accident or stops functioning. For example, patients with acute liver cirrhosis may require a liver transplant. A liver transplant is usually done by removing a small part of the liver from a healthy persons body and transplanting it.. Likewise, organs like the retina of the eye, and kidneys can be donated. These organs remain functional for a few hours after removing them from the patients body. In the case of a heart transplant, it must be done immediately after removing it from the dead persons body. However, a heart transplant can be done only when the donor is declared brain dead by doctors.. Organ transplant dramatically depends on the ...
In a paper published in the official journal of the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies, German scientists have made out a detailed analysis of the 700 head injuries suffered by characters in the 34 Asterix comic books. In the paper, the two gauls; Asterix and his sidekick Obelix are reported to have caused half of those damages and…
During the examination, she said she found a depressed skull fracture, bruising on his eyes and some missing upper teeth. She saw different stages and ages of bruising and scars, small circular cuts and that he had a deep lash on the base of his penis and a burn mark ...
A VERY SATISFIED MCDONALDS EMPLOYEE. Huh??? Wow, this has got to be the dumbest post on this whole site. Sorry, I just cant contain myself. Are there really people this stupid in the world? Im having some sort dark spriritual awakening just thinking about this guy. Im scared and need to be held. If this is satire then its pure genious. Anon, dude, you are seriously confused. Your post is INTENSLY judgemental and negative. And aimed at what? People expressing their opinions about important social issues? How is it that no one on this site has a right to an opinion about ANYTHING, but YOU have a right to your opinion about THEM? Are you like special or somethin? What is it about this word judge that gets christians so excited anyway? If I said that I think the Bible is a really great book, isnt that a judgement? What if my stomach is growling and feeling empty and I think to myself or say to someone else Gee, I must be hungry. Isnt that a judgement? Get a grip man. Ive just read ...
A Michigan man reportedly went from perfectly healthy to brain dead in nine days after he contracted the rare, mosquito-borne virus Eastern equine encephalitis during an uptick in cases this year.
VANCOUVER - A 32-year-old Canadian woman who had been declared brain dead in December and kept on life support for six weeks died on Sunday soon after giving birth to a baby boy. Robyn Benson was just 22 weeks pregnant when she collapsed from a cerebral…. Maine news, sports, politics, election results, and obituaries from the Bangor Daily News.
Whether and when donors in DCD cases are dead is important because cadaveric organ transplantation operates under the dead donor rule. This rule can be characterized in 2 different ways, each with its own ethical justification. One version is that organ recovery must not cause the donors death. This version is justified by the prohibition against the direct killing of innocent persons. The other version is that the donor must be dead before the recovery of vital organs. This version is based on preventing potential negative outcomes, such as the mistreatment of potential donors and the erosion of public confidence in transplantation.18. Some commentators have recommended abandoning the dead donor rule. Miller and Truog,19 for example, argue that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment causes patients death and that there is no ethical bright line between withdrawing life-sustaining treatment and active euthanasia. They contend that patients or their surrogates, who have previously decided to ...
In a major achievement in the organ transplantation history in the country, kidneys of a brain-dead person have been successfully transplanted to two people in Bhaktapur.
A Joint Statement by Pro-Life Leaders. Recently some environmentalists have portrayed certain of their causes as intrinsic to the pro-life movement. The tactic often involves appealing to a seamless garment of support for life, or to being consistently pro-life or completely pro-life.. As leaders of the pro-life movement, we reject that portrayal as disingenuous and dangerous to our efforts to protect the lives of unborn children.. The term pro-life originated historically in the struggle to end abortion on demand and continues to be used in public discourse overwhelmingly in that sense. To ignore that is at best sloppy communication and at worst intentional deception. The life in pro-life denotes not quality of life but life itself. The term denotes opposition to a procedure that intentionally results in dead babies.. In stark contrast, most environmental causes promoted as pro-life involve little threat to human life itself, and no intent to kill anyone. For example, even if one grants ...
01. On the one hand the Church recognizes, consistent with her tradition, that the sanctity of all human life from conception to natural end must absolutely be respected and upheld. On the other hand, a secular society tends to place greater emphasis on the quality of living. 02. The Catholic Church has always opposed the destruction of human life before being born through abortion and she equally condemns the premature ending of the life of an innocent donor in order to extend the life of another through unpaired vital organ transplantation. It is morally inadmissible directly to bring about the disabling mutilation or death of a human being, even in order to delay the death of other persons. It is never licit to kill one human being in order to save another. 03. Nor can we remain silent in the face of other more furtive, but no less serious and real forms of euthanasia. These could occur for example when, in order to increase the availability of organs for transplants, organs are removed ...
01. On the one hand the Church recognizes, consistent with her tradition, that the sanctity of all human life from conception to natural end must absolutely be respected and upheld. On the other hand, a secular society tends to place greater emphasis on the quality of living. 02. The Catholic Church has always opposed the destruction of human life before being born through abortion and she equally condemns the premature ending of the life of an innocent donor in order to extend the life of another through unpaired vital organ transplantation. It is morally inadmissible directly to bring about the disabling mutilation or death of a human being, even in order to delay the death of other persons. It is never licit to kill one human being in order to save another. 03. Nor can we remain silent in the face of other more furtive, but no less serious and real forms of euthanasia. These could occur for example when, in order to increase the availability of organs for transplants, organs are removed ...
would like your opinion on sleep apnea test. I have emphysema and use 02 at night. I had a all night test and they did not put O2 on me at all and never put a Capp on during test. Everyone I talked to that had sleep apnea said, they put cpap on after couple hours to see improvement. My concern is my pulmo (she also heads sleep study) called and said I have mild speed apnea. I should come in and get fitted with cpap. My 02 dropped 77. When I told her they never put 02 on she was not happy as she ordered test to be done with 02. I told her they never put Cpap on and she said that s how she does test. My problem is I don t want to use it if I don t have to and kind feel she is pushing it on me. How do I know if it was just lack of 02. I go in next week and will ask for copy test. Did you wear you 02 and did they put cpap on when you got tested? Please any help on this would be appreciated. ...
Background. Studies and statistics worldwide have shown that the demand for organs is greater than the supply. Evaluates how the intensive care nurses interaction with relatives can affect the statistics on organ donation. Aim. To explore and identify factors potentially affecting relativesdecision regarding organ donation in interaction with the intensive care nurses.Method. A systematic review of qualitative research using meta-ethnography. It included research from 2005-2015. Ten research articles were included and synthesised. Results.Four main factors were identified as affecting organ donation decision-making: Comprehension of Brain Death, Decedents Wishes, Organisational Factors and Perceptions and Attitudes. A major contributing factor appeared to be intensive care nurses lack of education, continuous training and exposure to donor patients. Conclusion. The meta-synthesis gave a clear picture of the main factors affecting relatives decision. In addition, the educational needs of ...
Death and life are not primarily objects of science. Our primary access to the phenomenon of life is self-awareness and the perception of other humans and other living beings. Life is the being of the living. Vivere viventibus est esse, says Aristotle. For a living being, not to live means ceasing to exist. Being, however, is never an object of natural science. It is in fact the primum notum of reason and as such secondarily an object of metaphysical reflection. Because life is the being of the living, then life cannot be defined. According to the classical adage ens et unum convertuntur, it holds true for every living organism that it is alive precisely as long as it possesses internal unity.. Unlike the unity of atom and molecule, the unity of the living organism is constituted by an anti-entropic process of integration. Death is the end of this integration. With death, the reign of entropy begins-hence, the reign of destructuring, of decay. Decomposition can be stopped by means of chemical ...
The materials on this World Wide Web site are provided purely for informational purposes and are not legal advice. These materials are intended, but not promised or guaranteed, to be correct, complete, and current. This web site is not intended to be a source of advertising, solicitation or legal advice. Therefore, the reader should not consider this information an invitation for an attorney-client relationship. Readers should not act or rely upon any information contained in this World Wide Web site and should always seek the advice of competent counsel.. The owner of this web site is a law firm, the Johnson Law Office which organized the Brain Injury Law Group. The Johnson Law Office is licensed to practice in the States of Wisconsin , Illinois and Michigan. The Brain Injury Law Group does not wish to represent anyone desiring representation based upon their viewing any portion of this World Wide Web site that fails to comply with all legal and ethical rules in such individuals state. While ...
Organ Harvesting in Africa If I hadnt read this, I would have NOT believed it. President Barack Obama told a group of young African leaders on Monday that harvesting organs from humans that are killed as part of an African ritual was
Small subdural hematoma right convexity Massive cerebral hemisphere edema on CT Marked degree of downward transtentorial herniation. Hemorrhage in brain stem seen on DWI images. Marked white matter-gray matter contrast on ADC map indicating severe brain injury.
The results of this study in Clinical Transplantation should come as no surprise.  Mainstream media provides poor education to the public on br...
Missing or empty ,title= (help) Langford, David (June 1984). "Brain Death". White Dwarf (54). also in Langford, David (2002). ... It is discovered that all Psychlos have a deep brain stimulation device implanted in their brains to make them controllable. ... Depressed by the recent death of his father and both the lethargy and sickness of most of the surviving adults in his tribe, ... The word "Psychlo" is revealed to have originally meant "brain" in its language, signifying that the Catrists feel (or in any ...
Krasnova IN, Cadet JL (May 2009). "Methamphetamine toxicity and messengers of death". Brain Res. Rev. 60 (2): 379-407. doi: ... Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 17 (2): 139-170. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012-b. PMID 1356551. S2CID 14277779. ... this damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in gray matter volume in several brain ... Neuroimaging studies have revealed that METH can indeed cause neurodegenerative changes in the brains of human addicts (Aron ...
Krasnova IN, Cadet JL (May 2009). "Methamphetamine toxicity and messengers of death". Brain Res. Rev. 60 (2): 379-407. doi: ... They are present in the organs that mediate the actions of METH (e.g. brain, heart, lungs) [5]. In the brain, METH acts ... "Why the Myth of the Meth-Damaged Brain May Hinder Recovery". Time.com. Time USA, LLC. Hart CL, Marvin CB, Silver R, Smith EE ( ... Overdose Death Rates Archived 13 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). "US overdose ...
Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ... In 2013 PD resulted in about 103,000 deaths globally, up from 44,000 deaths in 1990.[106] The death rate increased from an ... The main pathological characteristics of PD are cell death in the brain's basal ganglia (affecting up to 70% of the dopamine ... "Brain. 135 (Pt 4): 1141-53. doi:10.1093/brain/aws038. PMC 3326257. PMID 22396397.. ...
Donation after brain death. A person is declared brain dead if there is complete loss of all brain function Donation after ... Brain death is also controversial for Buddhists as they believe the spirit remains in the body days after death and interfering ... Brain stem death (brain dead) is controversial in Islamic religion. This, along with burial customs of Muslims being they have ... The body must also be buried within 24 hours of death. It is custom in Judaism to not interfere with death; organ donation ...
Hendry, Robert; Crippen, David (2014). "Brain Failure and Brain Death". ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice critical care. ... "Brain Freeze: Can putting faith in cryonics deliver life after death?". Toronto Sun. 6 October 2015. Archived from the original ... won the Small Animal Brain Preservation Prize of the Brain Preservation Foundation by demonstrating to the satisfaction of ... but he changed his mind shortly before his death and was not cryopreserved. Brain in a vat Cryogenics Cryptobiosis Extropianism ...
"Brain Death Really Is Death". TIME.com. Retrieved 2016-11-30. "Researchers customize stem-cell lines". The Today Show. NBC News ...
... is more common in this group compared to other causes of death. Brain death may result in legal death, but still ... and if brain death is acceptable, whether the person's whole brain needs to have died, or if the death of a certain part of the ... Brain death may result in legal death, but still with the heart beating and with mechanical ventilation, keeping all other ... However, in Japan this is a fraught point, and prospective donors may designate either brain death or cardiac death - see organ ...
"Denial of Death - Brain Surgeons". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-07-06. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). ... and originally appear on the Brain Surgeons 2006 album, "Denial of Death". "I.L.H (0:49)" "Blood of Knives (3:22)" "I Got The ... Two tracks, "Plague of Lies" and "Constantine's Sword" were co-written by Ross for the Brain Surgeons, with Albert Bouchard ( ... Right (5:43)" "Death and Glory (3:54)" "Plaque of Lies (4:30)" "God of Dying (5:27)" "May the Gods Be with You (4:10)" " ...
The Case of Brain Death. In: C. Rehmann-Sutter, M. Düwell, D. Mieth (Eds) Bioethics in Cultural Contexts. Springer, Heidelberg ... Wiesemann C. (2000) Defining Brain Death: The German Debate in Historical Perspective. In: J. Woodward, R. Jütte (Eds) Coping ... the history and ethics of organ transplantation and the determination of death. Wiesemann C.: Moral Equality, Bioethics, and ...
Munoz subsequently died from brain death. Prior to her death, Munoz had indicated that she would not like to be kept ... "Why the Dad Has No Say in Tragic Texas Brain Death Case". Time. Retrieved 25 January 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ... "Brain-Dead Marlise Munoz's Fetus Is "Distinctly Abnormal." Please, Texas, Let This Nightmare End". Slate.com. Retrieved 25 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Dart, Tom (24 January 2014). "Texas hospital acknowledges brain-dead status of pregnant ...
The wound caused immediate brain death. Her organs continued to function through the use of life support until her uncle, who ... So before jury selection was completed, a plea bargain was drawn up in which the death penalty was taken off the table if the ... Karen Howell has stated for the record that she "wanted to fight it in court, even though I was not subject to the death ... Six young people from Kentucky, including two minors, were convicted of felony murder for the deaths of Vidar, Delfina, and ...
... especially regarding the evaluation of brain death. The Shinto religion regards death as impure, and has tainted connotations ... Wada's evaluation of brain death was inappropriate, and even though an investigation of possible criminal liability was ... The first transplant after the Organ Transplant Law had defined "brain death" took place in February 1999. Due to cultural ... Newsome Wicks, Mona (2000-04-25). "Brain Death and Transplantation: The Japanese". Medscape. Retrieved 2010-02-17. Ota, K. ( ...
Lipton P (October 1999). "Ischemic cell death in brain neurons". Physiol. Rev. 79 (4): 1431-568. doi:10.1152/physrev.1999.79. ... Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been ... Hook, Gregory; Hook, Vivian; Kindy, Mark (2011-01-01). "The cysteine protease inhibitor, E64d, reduces brain amyloid-β and ... "Inhibition of cathepsin S produces neuroprotective effects after traumatic brain injury in mice". Mediators of Inflammation. ...
"Brain Failure and Brain Death: Introduction". Scientific American Surgery, Critical Care, April 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-09. ... Similar failure processes are involved in brain failure following reversal of cardiac arrest; control of these processes is the ... Reperfusion leads to biochemical imbalances within the cell that lead to cell death and increased infarct size. More ... Javadov S.; Karmazyn M. (2007). "Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening as an Endpoint to Initiate Cell Death and ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Shigeko Segawa (2008-02-25). "Death-row inmate had brain damage". Asahi Shimbun. ... The defense claimed that statute of limitations for his death penalty ran out in 1985. The death penalty has a 30-year statute ... Successive Ministers of Justice in Japan did not sign his death warrant, so the death sentence was never carried out. Even ... Even after Hirasawa's death, his son by adoption, Takehiko Hirasawa, tried to clear his name. Takehiko was the son of one of ...
... death of Máel Muad mac Brain. 980 Death of Domnall ua Néill, overking of the Uí Néill, who had reigned since 956: he is ... 936 Death of Sochlachan mac Diarmata, 32nd King of Uí Maine. 944 Death of Donnchad Donn mac Flainn, King of Mide; he is ... 909 Death of Sochlachan mac Diarmata, 31st King of Uí Maine. Death of Cerball mac Muirecáin, King of Leinster 911 Drogheda is ... 985 Death of Muirgus mac Domnaill, 35th King of Uí Maine. 986 Death of Mór ingen Donnchadha, Queen of Ireland 989 Sigtrygg ...
Heart transplantation Organ donation Transplant surgery Brain stem death Non-heart-beating donation Legal death Clinical death ... The ambiguity around brain death and true death has followed it to present day. In an effort to clarify some of these gray ... Brain death is defined loosely as the inability to breathe on one's own, with irreversible brain damage. The use of the term " ... Organs from brain deaths, however, have a better success rate, and currently most organ donation is from these deaths. How long ...
Brain - Beaten to death by Gorilla Grodd. Monsieur Mallah - Beaten to death by Gorilla Grodd using the remains of Brain's jar. ... Thinking better of it, Grodd picks Brain up and beats Mallah to death with Brain, smashing Brain's protective hull in the ... Psimon - Bludgeoned to death by a rock used by the Joker. Iron Cross (of the Aryan Brigade) - Shot through the head by the ... Brain and Monsieur Mallah arrive at Joker's camp, and Monsieur Mallah asks Grodd to speak with him away from the others. Mallah ...
Near-Death Experiences and the Brain. In Craig Murray. Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Out-of-Body and Near-Death ... In 1991, at the age of 35, she stated that she had a near-death experience (NDE) during a brain operation performed by Robert F ... Within the field of near-death studies and among those who believe in life after death, the case has been cited as well- ... During part of the operation she had no brain-wave activity and no blood flowing in her brain, which rendered her clinically ...
... it deals with the questions whether brain death is a convincing criterion for a person's death and whether brain death should ... "Brain Death and Decisions Regarding Organ Donation". Deutscher Ethikrat. Retrieved 20 April 2020. "Embryo Donation, Embryo ... An Opinion, published 24 February 2015, addresses the ethical and legal aspects concerning brain death and their implications ... and the transfer of human cells into the brains of fetal or adult animals (brain chimeras). The Opinion presents ...
Van Lommel, P. (2006). Near-Death Experience, Consciousness and the Brain. A new concept about the continuity of our ... Consciousness Beyond Life: The Science of the Near-Death Experience (2010, 2011) Van Lommel, P. (2011). Near-death experiences ... "Near Death Experiences: The Dying Brain" Archived 2014-03-12 at the Wayback Machine. Skeptic. Volume 21, Number 2. Retrieved ... So the concept we had leaned should be discussed again and my opinion now is that consciuousness is not localized in the brain ...
The cause of death was brain fever; he was fifty-nine years old. He was buried from the Kaumakapili Church and a memorial ... p. 3.; "Death of Mr. Pilipo". The Daily Herald. Honolulu. March 26, 1887. p. 3.; "By the death of George W. Pilipo". The ... During the 1874 election, following the death of Lunalilo, Pilipō, although not serving on the legislature at the time, ... p. 1.; "Death of George W. Pilipo". The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Honolulu. March 26, 1887. ...
It was in Pedder's interview with Emmanuel Macron for The Economist on 7 November 2019 that he declared the "brain death" of ... "Nato alliance experiencing brain death, says Macron". BBC News. 2019-11-07. Retrieved 2020-09-18. Broughton, Philip Delves ( ...
Krasnova IN, Cadet JL (May 2009). "Methamphetamine toxicity and messengers of death". Brain Res Rev. 60 (2): 379-407. doi: ... resulted in an estimated 3,788 deaths worldwide (3,425-4,145 deaths, 95% confidence). Pérez-Mañá, C; Castells X; Torrens M; ... Neuroimaging studies have revealed that METH can indeed cause neurodegenerative changes in the brains of human addicts (Aron ... Long-term use of certain substituted amphetamines, particularly methamphetamine, can reduce dopamine activity in the brain. ...
To preclude that, brain death is required. The exact interval at which that occurs is likewise not known, but it is known to be ... In particular, he faults the IOM for not telling them that donors will be declared dead before brain death is known to have ... Prior to the introduction of brain death into law in the mid to late 1970s, all organ transplants from cadaveric donors came ... Truog, R. D (1997). "Is it time to abandon brain death?". The Hastings Center Report. 27 (1): 29-37. doi:10.2307/3528024. JSTOR ...
Brain death: a reappraisal. Springer. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-387-38975-2. "Practice Parameters: Determining Brain Death in Adults" ( ... Lazarus syndrome "Brain death and brainstem failure". The Egyptian Society of Medical Ethics. 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2011. ... 2006). "Reflex Movements in Patients with Brain Death: A Prospective Study in A Tertiary Medical Center". Journal of Korean ... suspension of external breathing and motion of the lung muscles-which is one of the criteria for determining brain death used ...
Near-death experiences and the brain. In Craig Murray, ed. Psychological scientific perspectives on out-of-body and death-near ... When the body is injured, or if the heart stops, even if only for a short period, the brain is deprived of oxygen. A short ... The physician William Barrett, author of the book Death-Bed Visions (1926), collected anecdotes of people who had claimed to ... Another study found that DBPs are commonly associated with peaceful death and are generally under-reported by patients and ...
"Methamphetamine toxicity and messengers of death". Brain Res. Rev. 60 (2): 379-407. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2009.03.002. PMC ... Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 17 (2): 139-170. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012-b. PMID 1356551.. ... this damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in gray matter volume in several brain ... Chapter 2-How Stimulants Affect the Brain and Behavior. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US). ...
Progress in Brain Research. Volume 122. pp. 393-412. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)62153-6. ISBN 9780444500496. . PMID 10737073.. ... Lack of evidence for effectiveness.[77] Unwanted outcomes, such as death and disability, "have occurred when faith healing was ... Australia regarding a patient who almost bled to death on the operating table after neglecting to mention that she had been ... failure to use or delay in using conventional science-based medicine has caused deaths.[171][172] ...
The brain behind this movement was said to be V D Savarkar. Krishnaverma also published a monthly "Indian Sociologist", where ... Mookherjee's death later compelled Nehru to remove Permit system, post of Sadar-e-Riayasat and of Prime Minister of Jammu & ... His death led the revolutionaries like Chandrashekar Azad and Bhagat Singh to kill the British officer J. P. Saunders, who they ... they were further inflamed when Gandhi conducted a fast-unto-death for the Indian government to give Rs. 550 million which were ...
In Scotland, a magpie near the window of the house is said to foretell death.[50] An English tradition holds that a single ... their total brain-to-body mass ratio is equal to most great apes and cetaceans.[42] A 2004 review suggests that the ... The expansion of its nidopallium is approximately the same in its relative size as the brain of chimpanzees, orangutans and ...
He lingered until his death on May 13, 1975. In addition to being inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1968,[52] ... "Brain Cloudy Blues" "Rose of Old Pawnee" Columbia 37357 / "Bob Wills Boogie" 4 ... He was recording an album with fan Merle Haggard in 1973 when a stroke left him comatose until his death in 1975. The Rock and ... From 1974 until his 2002 death, Waylon Jennings performed a song he had written called "Bob Wills Is Still The King". Released ...
And, of course, reflex actions involving sight and sound are done by the brain. With invertebrate animals, the brain is not so ... Reflexes may take place even after death. The bite of a poisonous snake can be triggered up to several hours after it has died. ... The nerve cells responsible for reflexes are not always in the brain, but often in the spinal cord. This way, reflexes are ... Nerve cells in the brain still get feedback that the reflex action occurred. ...
Sepsis is caused by overwhelming response to an infection and leads to tissue damage, organ failure, and even death. The ... Pneumococcal meningitis is an infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include stiff neck, fever, ...
Cushing Dead; Brain Surgeon, 70. A Pioneer Who Won Fame as Founder of New School of Neuro-Surgery. Discovered Malady Affecting ... The reason behind this survival remains a mystery, since an autopsy of Minnie was refused after her death.[3] However, the most ... with the majority of deaths due to vascular disease[8][19] Women aged 45-70 years have a significantly higher mortality rate ...
Progress in Brain Research. Progress in Brain Research. 165: 201-20. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)65013-9. ISBN 978-0-444-52823-0 ... it has been used as a model to study pathological conditions such as apnea of prematurity and sudden infant death syndrome. The ... Gargaglioni LH, Bícegoa KC, Branco LG (December 2008). "Brain monoaminergic neurons and ventilatory control in vertebrates". ... Progress in brain research. 188: 31-50. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53825-3.00008-5. PMID 21333801. Ramirez JM, Doi A, Garcia AJ, ...
Reactivation of the JC virus usually results in death or severe brain damage.[32] ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. ... When it binds to this protein it triggers cell death.[2] ... Serious adverse events, which can cause death and disability, ... "Popular Cancer Drug Linked to Often Fatal 'Brain Eating' Virus". Northwestern University News and Information. Archived from ...
"Behavioral and Brain Functions. 9 (24). doi:10.1186/1744-9081-9-24. PMC 3685526.. ... they are vulnerable to death. ...
It is the major source of late treatment-related complications, although it less often results in death. In addition to ...
Is electrical brain stimulation used (like drugs) to produce pleasures in humans in other settings than scientific experiments? ... risk of death, risk of sequelae after infection resolves, (decrease in) viral load, "transmissibility", and many more. This is ... 1.1 Is electrical brain stimulation used (like drugs) to produce pleasures in humans in other settings than scientific ...
This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... More than 60% of RNA transcripts for coleoid brains are recoded by editing, compared to less than 1% for a human or fruit fly. ... The head includes the mouth and brain. The foot has evolved into a set of flexible, prehensile appendages, known as arms, that ... The octopus (along with cuttlefish) has the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all invertebrates, and is also greater than ...
Michael W. Dols (1977). The Black Death in the Middle East. Princeton. pp. 119, 285-290. OCLC 2296964.. ). ... A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord. Some related clinical ... Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death, type of ... The major shift in medical thinking was the gradual rejection, especially during the Black Death in the 14th and 15th centuries ...
Only in death does duty end (talk) 11:17, 29 November 2017 (UTC). I see. So pairs like MOS:LEAD and WP:LEAD, which both point ... I'm on "template and category brain" right now. When I get back into policy-wonk mode, I'll try a redraft. PS: ""XAir Flight ... Only in death does duty end (talk) 08:06, 29 November 2017 (UTC) That definitely doesn't make any sense. We should pick one ...
DeathEdit. On 1 January 2010, Basu was admitted to AMRI hospital (Bidhannagar, Kolkata) after he was diagnosed with pneumonia.[ ... "Doctors mull preserving Basu's brain". sify.com. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 24 January 2010. Retrieved 7 ... "In his death, I have lost a great well-wisher, and the country has lost an able administrator, an outstanding parliamentarian ... After Basanti's death, he deepened his involvement, virtually giving up the pretense of earning a living as a lawyer. His legal ...
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. *Todd's paresis. *Landau-Kleffner syndrome. *Epilepsy in animals ...
DeMarse TB, Wagenaar DA, Blau AW, Potter SM (2001). "The Neurally Controlled Animat: Biological Brains Acting with Simulated ... and continuing until culture death. They gathered network burst profiles (BPs) through a mathematical observation of array-wide ... Artificial life Artificial neural networks Brain-computer interface CoDi Cybernetics Neural ensemble Neural engineering ... especially the brain. Often, cultured neuronal networks are connected to an input/output device such as a multi-electrode array ...
Valenstein, Elliot S. (2002). Blaming the Brain : The Truth About Drugs and Mental Health. New York: Free Press. pp. 173-174. ... including sudden death[5]) will outweigh the risks of not treating the symptom of short stature. Although short children ...
brain. Of processes. *Aging *Death. *Programmed cell death. *Avian flight. *Biological complexity ...
Rothman, Sheila M. (1994). Living in the Shadow of Death: Tuberculosis and the Social Experience of Illness in American History ... Thomas Wolfe (1900-1938), American author, died of tuberculosis of the brain. His 1929 novel, Look Homeward, Angel, makes ... Charlotte Brontë's death in 1855 was stated at the time as having been due to TB, but there is some controversy over this today ... John Henry "Doc" Holliday, famous gambler and gunslinger, suffered from tuberculosis until his death in 1887 ...
November 10 - Wayne Goss, 63, Australian politician, Premier of Queensland (1989-1996), brain tumour.[39] ... The following is a list of notable deaths in November 2014. For notable deaths before the current month, please see "Previous ... November 11 - Carol Ann Susi, 62, American actress (The Big Bang Theory, Cats & Dogs, Death Becomes Her), cancer.[45] ... November 16 - Peter Kassig, 26, American humanitarian aid worker and ISIS hostage, beheading.[64] (death announced on this date ...
Markel H (20 December 2012). "'I Have Seen My Death': How the World Discovered the X-Ray". PBS NewsHour. PBS. Retrieved 27 ... There are conflicting accounts of his discovery because Röntgen had his lab notes burned after his death, but this is a likely ... When she saw the picture, she said, "I have seen my death."[28] ...
Tall Tales About the Mind & Brain: Separating Fact From Fiction. Oxford University Press. pp. 411-424 ...
Brain[edit]. Circulating levels of androgens can influence human behavior because some neurons are sensitive to steroid ... Whereas DHT was equally potent as testosterone at preventing prostate cell death after castration.[18] ... Numerous reports have shown androgens alone are capable of altering the structure of the brain,[11] but identification of which ... Evidence from neurogenesis (formation of new neurons) studies on male rats has shown that the hippocampus is a useful brain ...
Personal life and death[edit]. Between 1975 and 1978 Snow was married to Phil Kearns (who later came out as gay).[17] She had a ... "If I Only Had a Brain; a Heart; the Nerve". In addition, the concert featured performances by Jewel, Joel Grey, Roger Daltrey, ... Her death, at a hospital in Edison, was caused by complications of a stroke she suffered in January 2010, her manager, Sue ... daughter, Valerie Rose, who was born with severe brain damage.[7][8] Snow resolved not to institutionalize Valerie, and cared ...
... including deep-brain stimulators, can incorporate the ability to transmit vital health information from a patient's body to ... "serious health problems or death" had been previously approved by the FDA using the less stringent, and cheaper, 510(k) process ...
Deaths. 229,000 (2015)[6]. The cause of most brain tumors is unknown.[2] Uncommon risk factors include inherited ... Secondary brain tumorsEdit. Secondary tumors of the brain are metastatic and have invaded the brain from cancers originating in ... A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.[2] There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous ... "Brain Tumour Facts 2011" (PDF). Brain Tumour Alliance Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2014. Retrieved ...
His last writings were memoirs on the convolutions of the human brain, on the weight of brains, and on the brains of idiots ( ... He remained at the Hanoverian university until his death, being much occupied with administrative work as pro-rector for a ... "suffering from an atrophy of the brain." His quarrel with Carl Vogt and other materialists began with his oration at the ...
Manipulations of brain activity can be performed with direct electrical brain stimulation, magnetic brain stimulation using ... Richard Marius Martin Luther: the Christian between God and death 1999 p. 429 "Luther, believing in soul sleep at death, held ... If manipulation of brain activity changes consciousness, then a causal role for that brain activity can be inferred.[105][106] ... The evidence from brain imaging indicates that all processes of the mind have physical correlates in brain function.[104] ...
"Brain-dead" redirects here. For other uses, see Brain Dead.. Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including ... "Understanding Brain Death". What is the legal time of death for a brain dead patient? The legal time of death is the date and ... "Diagnosis of brain death". UpToDate. Retrieved 25 March 2014.. *^ Goila, A.; Pawar, M. (2009). "The diagnosis of brain death". ... For example, although one major medical dictionary[7] considers "brain death" to be synonymous with "cerebral death" (death of ...
Brain death implies the permanent absence of cerebral and brainstem functions. criteria for dx clinically confirmatory dx ... Brain death presentation * 1. Brain death 24 May 2016 brain death * 2. Brain Death Out line  What is brain death?  Causes of ... Causes: Brain Death 24 May 2016 brain death Normal Cerebral Anoxia * 11. Causes: Brain Death 24 May 2016 brain death Normal ... Causes: Brain Death 24 May 2016 brain death Normal Cerebral Trauma * 13. Brain Death : Mechanism 24 May 2016 brain death ...
... brain death always led quickly to death of the body. Ethical considerations are crucial to defining criteria for brain death, ... State of irreversible destruction of the brain. Before the invention of life-support systems, ... Brain death, State of irreversible destruction of the brain. Before the invention of life-support systems, brain death always ... nervous system disease: Brain death. Brain death is synonymous with brainstem death, since the control centres for essential ...
Brain stem death is where a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for ... After brain death, its not possible for someone to remain conscious. How brain death occurs. Brain death can occur when the ... Read more about confirming brain death.. Organ donation. After brain death has occurred, it may be possible for the persons ... a brain tumour Vegetative state. Theres a difference between brain death and a vegetative state, which can occur after ...
American Life League has published an article on the use of the ventilator when caring for "brain dead" patients. You can find ... Dear Judie, My question is about those sustained on life support that are declared "brain dead". When someone suffers a serious ... "brain dead"? Can the family morally remove the ventilator and see if the person can breathe on their own in which case if they ... trauma and are put on life support and doctors later declare the person "brain dead" with no hope of recovery, is it morally ...
After brain death modern medicine can keep the body functioning in a near-physiological state for some time. In the medical ... It is difficult to predict, however more than half of pregnancies supported through brain death will likely result in a viable ... When a person is brain dead they are no longer a living person-medically or legally. Parts of their body, like the heart and ... One of the most dramatic successful cases is that of a 35 year-old woman in the United Arab Emirates declared brain dead in her ...
Diagnosis of brain death.. Br Med J 1980; 281 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.281.6253.1491-d (Published 29 November 1980) ...
Points: Diagnosis of brain death. Br Med J 1980; 281 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.281.6255.1644-f (Published 13 December ...
"What we are currently experiencing is the brain death of NATO," Macron said. Asked whether he still believed in the Article ...
Macron: NATO experiencing brain death. Friday, November 08, 2019 - 02:13. Frances president warned fellow European countries ... in.reuters.com/video/2019/11/08/macron-nato-experiencing-brain-death?videoId=622554759&videoChannel=13423. ...
... speaks to MNT about his teams controversial plans to restore life to people who have been declared brain dead. ... What is brain death?. Defined as the "irreversible loss of all functions of the brain, including the brainstem," brain death ... Brain death is a legal definition of death; once brain function ceases, the body is no longer able to perform activities that ... Other tests may also be required to confirm brain death.. Brain death should not be confused with coma. While a person in a ...
Parts of the brain may still be active after a commonly used brain activity reading goes to a flat line, according to a ... or maybe brain dead people arent so dead. ... Brain activity found after brain death. September 18, 2013,By ... Scientists have been steadily probing the nature of brain activity at the border of death. Evidence of a sharp burst in brain ... Parts of the brain may still be active after a commonly used brain activity reading goes to a flat line, according to a study ...
1. brain death, cerebral death, death. usage: death when respiration and other reflexes are absent; consciousness is gone; ...
Find out about the injured brain, comas vs. brain death, the checklist for confirming brain death and organ donation. ... In this article, youll learn about the diagnosis of brain death and how it compares with coma and cardiac death. ... brain. These patients are brain dead without any hope of recovery or survival. ... possible to separately and artificially maintain tissue viability without the impulses being transmitted by the brainor brain ...
Researchers at Johns Hopkins have pinpointed the protein that is responsible for brain cell death in stroke, injuries, and ... "Brain cell death mechanism for stroke, Alzheimers identified." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 7 Oct. 2016. Web.. 24 ... Dementia: Study helps to unravel the cause of brain cell death Researchers suggest that the loss of a gene called LSD1 plays a ... The new research builds on a growing body of knowledge of a distinct form of programmed brain cell death dubbed "parthanatos" ...
Ischemic cell death in brain neurons.. Lipton P1.. Author information. 1. Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin ... Death may also occur by autophagocytosis. The cell death process has four major stages. The first, the induction stage, ... Death also occurs via an apoptotic-like pathway that is characterized, minimally, by DNA laddering and a dependence on caspase ... Cell death occurs by a necrotic pathway characterized by either ischemic/homogenizing cell change or edematous cell change. ...
"What we are currently experiencing is the brain death of NATO".. The president also expressed doubts about the effectiveness of ... There Are Things Worth Fighting For, and Fates Far Worse Than Death ...
Cot death strikes infants mysteriously and without warning. Now at least we might be moving closer to understanding why. A new ... Parkinsons disease may spread from brain to gut and vice versa * Grey hairs sometimes regain their colour when we feel less ... While the discovery doesnt offer a cure or even a test for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), a robust mouse model of the ... His team found that mice with a gene mutation that made their brains less responsive to serotonin showed some - but not all - ...
Brain injury experts said there is a possibility that people who suffered from a traumatic brain injury can die from a related ... to the brain could signal a seizure death, evidence of blood in the brain could signal a death from a blow to the head or ... While the cause of Whalens death is yet to be determined,brain injury experts said it is possible that people who suffered ... Flanagan said doctors do know, "The longer you survive after traumatic brain injury, the more that risk of early death ...
Alcohol, pregnancy and brain cell death NIH $3.5 million award enables Rutgers researcher to continue exploring the damaging ... These problems stem from the alcohol-induced destruction of neurons in the part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. (A ... "One thing we cannot reverse is the death of these cells, but maybe we can reverse those epigenic alterations that are ... graphic will show its location in the brain) These beta-endorphin neurons produce the endorphin hormone and are particularly ...
Brain death definition is - final cessation of activity in the central nervous system especially as indicated by a flat ... Post the Definition of brain death to Facebook Share the Definition of brain death on Twitter ... Examples of brain death in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web Doctors cannot take a medical history from a patient who ... 2021 The organ donor, a woman from the Upper Midwest who suffered brain death following an auto accident, also had a negative ...
... brain death, there is still hope for recovery. An ethicist offers a compassionate alternative. ... "brain death." Brain death is something that families often do not understand, and when they learn that their child has brain ... loss of consciousness but not death). Brain death means total and irreversible loss of all organized brain function. Your brain ... Brain death is one way to die. Cardiopulmonary death is another way to die. But in both instances, they are death. Legally and ...
... brain death, whole brain death or brain-stem death (and, sometimes, inaccurately-termed cerebral death) has gained ... I. WHAT IS BRAIN DEATH AND HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? The concept of total brain death as an alternative to the older definition ... brain-stem death. The steps taken in a clinical diagnosis of brain-death vary from medical center to medical center and ... brain-stem destruction. The time lag between brain death and circulatory death is on the average only two to ten days, though ...
Brain death occurs in one out of every 200 hospital deaths (CDC study, 1986). It is a fairly rare event. These patients are ... science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/brain-death.htm, 17 April 2021 ... For more information on brain death and related topics, check out the links below. ... It is the brain-dead patient who is the source of viable organs for transplantation. If a family member knows that the patient ...
"Understanding Brain Death". What is the legal time of death for a brain dead patient? The legal time of death is the date and ... "Diagnosis of brain death". UpToDate. Retrieved 25 March 2014.. *^ Goila, A.; Pawar, M. (2009). "The diagnosis of brain death". ... For example, although one major medical dictionary[6] considers "brain death" to be synonymous with "cerebral death" (death of ... whereas in whole-brain death (which includes brain stem death), only life support equipment would keep those functions going. ...
"Brain-dead" redirects here. For other uses, see Brain Dead.. Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including ... "Understanding Brain Death". What is the legal time of death for a brain dead patient? The legal time of death is the date and ... Brain death. Brain death is used as an indicator of legal death in many jurisdictions, but it is defined inconsistently and ... "Diagnosis of brain death". UpToDate. Retrieved 25 March 2014.. *^ Goila, A.; Pawar, M. (2009). "The diagnosis of brain death". ...
A Queens man was charged Tuesday for allegedly stabbing his wife to death and bashing her with a cutting board -- and tried to ... Man blamed brain surgery after allegedly stabbing wife to death By Tina Moore and Lee Brown ... A Queens man was arrested Tuesday for allegedly stabbing his wife to death and bashing her with a cutting board - and tried to ... After turning himself in to cops, Pacheco allegedly told them he attacked her "because I had brain surgery," sources said. ...
Modern death requires irreversible loss of brain function. When the brain is starved of blood flow (ischemia) and oxygen ( ... What Near-Death Experiences Reveal about the Brain. A close brush can leave a lasting mental legacy-and may tell us about how ... Ive looked at death, and really I know. If I should have died it would have been very easy for me. Quite the easiest thing I ... When the entire brain has shut down because of complete power loss, the mind is extinguished, along with consciousness. If and ...
... twice on a Sunday to convince a family to donate the organs of their 53-year old mother who was brain-dead after suffering a ... Hard for families to accept brain death Last May, Sharon Gracias, transplant coordinator at Andheris BSES Hospital was called ... "People do not want to accept that their loved one is brain dead. They even feed the patient prasad from the temple. Sometimes, ... The roles of a coordinator, who has to convince families of brain dead patients to donate the patients organs, and doctors, ...
Complete your Brain Death (2) collection. Shop Vinyl and CDs. ... Find a Brain Death (2) - Personal Affair first pressing or ... Brain Death (2). Personal Affair ‎(7, EP) Selfish Records, Low-Brow. AMI-7024, PLATE-04. Japan. 1987. Sell This Version ...
  • What we are currently experiencing is the brain death of NATO," Macron said. (yahoo.com)
  • French President Emmanuel Macron said in late 2019 that NATO was 'experiencing brain death' after alliance member Turkey launched an offensive on U.S.-backed rebels in Syria. (yahoo.com)
  • In an interview with the Economist published on Thursday, Macron said U.S. strategic absence was leading to what he called NATO's "brain death", also pointing to the U.S. withdrawal from Syria as a sign that Washington was no longer interested in its allies or the world. (reuters.com)
  • What we are currently experiencing is the brain death of NATO," Macron was quoted as saying in an interview with British weekly The Economist , published on Thursday (7 November). (euractiv.com)
  • In particular, there must be definite clinical or neuro-imaging evidence of acute brain pathology (e.g. traumatic brain injury, intracranial haemorrhage, hypoxic encephalopathy) consistent with the irreversible loss of neurological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to begin later this year, the trial will recruit 20 individuals who have suffered brain death as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but whose bodies are biologically alive as a result of cardiopulmonary and trophic support - a model referred to as a "living cadaver. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Brain injury experts said there is a possibility that people who suffered from a traumatic brain injury can die from a related seizure years later. (go.com)
  • While the cause of Whalen's death is yet to be determined, brain injury experts said it is possible that people who suffered from a traumatic brain injury can die from a related seizure years later. (go.com)
  • A 2007 study in the Oxford journal Brain showed 767 people admitted to a United Kingdom hospital with a traumatic brain injury were twice as likely to die as the general population in seven years following the injury. (go.com)
  • A larger 2004 study of 2,178 patients cited in an Institute of Medicine report last year showed that people with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries had a reduced Life expectancy by five to nine years. (go.com)
  • Flanagan said doctors do know, "The longer you survive after traumatic brain injury, the more that risk of early death decreases. (go.com)
  • Brain injury experts said seizures may affect upwards from 30 to 40 percent of people treated in the Intensive Care Unit with a traumatic brain injury. (go.com)
  • While the animal study examined asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death can also follow fatal cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, brain hemorrhage and epilepsy. (newswise.com)
  • Data indicate that approximately 50,000 U.S. residents die as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually. (cdc.gov)
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States ( 1-- 18 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In 1989, the Federal Interagency Head Injury Task Force identified traumatic brain injury as a critical public health problem ( 24 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In 1995, CDC developed guidelines for surveillance of TBI ( 25 ) and, with funding authorized under Public Law 104-166 (the Traumatic Brain Injury Act of 1996), supported development of a multistate TBI surveillance system ( 26,27 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Research into these highly publicized cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) among athletes suggests that trauma may have had a role in the neurodegeneration experienced by the earlier NFL players, and that some deaths may have been misclassified because of the similarity of symptoms. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Other risk factors for neurodegenerative disease weren't looked at in the study," said Murtaza Akhter, MD, of Emory University in Atlanta, who was not involved in the study but has an interest in traumatic brain injury. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Falls can cause serious injuries, including a traumatic brain injury (TBI). (cdc.gov)
  • Among all age groups, falls can cause serious injury and are the second leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related deaths ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Jose Baez, Hernandez's family attorney, said Thursday that the family wanted Hernandez's brain donated to Boston University, where researchers are studying chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a degenerative disease found in people who have suffered concussions or repeated blows to the head. (wmur.com)
  • Chris Henry , the Cincinnati Bengals wide receiver who died in a traffic accident last year, had chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) -- a form of degenerative brain damage caused by multiple hits to the head -- at the time of his death, according to scientists at the Brain Injury Research Institute, a research center affiliated with West Virginia University. (espn.com)
  • From our study, we estimate that craniectomies can almost halve the risk of death for patients with a severe traumatic brain injury and significant swelling. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Researchers recruited more than 400 people who had suffered a traumatic brain injury from car accidents, assaults or falls, across 19 countries. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Peter Hutchinson, Professor of Neurosurgery at the Department of Clinical Neurosciences at Cambridge, says: "Traumatic brain injury is an incredibly serious and life-threatening condition. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Football season brings with it a lot of excitement, but also the specter of concussions and traumatic brain injury (TBI) that are endemic to contact sports. (jax.org)
  • This delivery route was used to administer GSH to therapeutically ameliorate the brain injury, as described above, and represents a novel delivery route for testing new therapeutics for traumatic brain injury. (jax.org)
  • Brain diseases in the data included Alzheimer's disease and other dementias but there was no information on chronic traumatic encephalopathy, the degenerative disease that has been found in brain autopsies of some former NFL players. (deseretnews.com)
  • And now, researchers have turned their attention to another extraordinary mission: reversing brain death. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using this "combinatorial approach," the researchers hope to move subjects from a brain dead state into a coma state, effectively bringing them back to life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers at the Universite de Montreal put 26 cats under deep anesthesia and recorded their brain activity in the upper cortical regions and hippocampus. (latimes.com)
  • Researchers said their findings suggest that the brain can survive an extremely deep coma and that inducing such a state could help preserve some brain function that otherwise might cease, causing the brain to atrophy. (latimes.com)
  • A 2017 study by two researchers at the University of Virginia raised the question of whether the paradox of enhanced cognition occurring alongside compromised brain function during an NDE could be written off as a flight of imagination. (scientificamerican.com)
  • For the study, performed in rats, researchers simultaneously examined the heart and brain during experimental asphyxiation and documented an immediate release of more than a dozen neurochemicals, along with an activation of brain-heart connectivity. (newswise.com)
  • BOSTON, Jan. 18 -- A person declared brain dead in one hospital might, in another institution, be considered still alive, researchers here said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Similar results in terms of brain activity were seen in rats that were asphyxiated, the researchers said. (newsmax.com)
  • Although the results of our study do not establish a cause-effect relationship between football-related concussion and death from neurodegenerative disorders, they do provide additional support for the finding that professional football players are at an increased risk of death from neurodegenerative causes," the researchers stated. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Additional studies to quantify the cumulative effects of brain injuries, in particular the relative effects of concussive-level injuries, will be of particular importance in understanding the underlying disease mechanisms," the researchers concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Researchers seeking to find the cause of many deaths of people climbing Mount Everest have made a connection to a brain-swelling condition caused by low oxygen levels in high altitudes. (redorbit.com)
  • Paul Firth, of Massachusetts General Hospital, lead the team of researchers who studied 212 reported deaths on the world's highest mountain between 1921 and 2006. (redorbit.com)
  • In climbers who reached above 8,000 meters (26,000 feet), researchers noted cognitive impairment and cerebral oedema (swelling of the brain) were often present, whereas pulmonary oedema (lung problems) was not. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers have now discovered CTE in the brains of more than 50 deceased former athletes, including more than a dozen NFL and college players, pro wrestler Chris Benoit and NHL player Reggie Fleming. (espn.com)
  • That's because, researchers say, our brains do their best to keep us from dwelling on our inevitable demise. (metafilter.com)
  • A brain swelling condition related to low oxygen levels in the air may be the cause of most Mount Everest deaths, say researchers. (abc.net.au)
  • The researchers speculate that many of the deaths attributed to falls or the person vanishing during the climb may have been due to high-altitude cerebral oedema. (abc.net.au)
  • British researchers writing in the journal Nature said they had found a major pathway leading to brain cell death in mice with prion disease, the mouse equivalent of a form of brain damage known as Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (CJD). (lifescript.com)
  • The researchers conclude that near-death experience " represents a biological paradox that challenges our understanding of the brain and has been advocated as evidence for life after death and for a noncorporeal basis of human consciousness, based on the unsupported belief that the brain cannot possibly be the source of highly vivid and lucid conscious experiences during clinical death. (bigthink.com)
  • The NIH researchers next investigated the inflammatory responses to TBI in B6.129P- Cx3cr1 tm1Litt /J ( 005582 ) mice, which express EGFP in monocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells and brain microglia, and in a LysM gfp strain that expresses EGFP in neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. (jax.org)
  • But the researchers emphasized that they lacked information on family history, genetics and lifestyle that all affect risks for specific diseases and death. (deseretnews.com)
  • In the UK, the Royal College of Physicians reported in 1995, abandoning the 1979 claim that the tests published in 1976 sufficed for the diagnosis of brain death and suggesting a new definition of death based on the irreversible loss of brain stem function alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis of brain death. (bmj.com)
  • Pallis C . Diagnosis of brain death. (bmj.com)
  • In this article, you'll learn about the diagnosis of 'brain death' and how it compares with coma and cardiac death. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As I recently noted , treatment disputes after diagnosis of brain death do seem to be on the rise. (bioethics.net)
  • We review the ethical, cultural, religious and legal issues surrounding brain death and outline an approach to establishing a diagnosis of brain death in clinical practice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Children's Hospital Oakland stands by its original diagnosis of brain death and that the videos do not meet the diagnostic criteria for brain death. (speroforum.com)
  • Barbiturate therapy or hypothermia precludes proper diagnosis of brain death either clinically or by EEG. (springer.com)
  • [15] [16] The Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) states that the "determination of brain death requires that there is unresponsive coma, the absence of brain-stem reflexes and the absence of respiratory centre function, in the clinical setting in which these findings are irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain death should not be confused with coma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While a person in a coma is unconscious, parts of their brain are still functioning, and there is a possibility that their condition may improve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • First, the media commonly confuse people about brain death and coma. (medscape.com)
  • They mix it up with coma (being unconscious but with the possibility of recovery) and permanent vegetative state (loss of consciousness but not death). (medscape.com)
  • They mix it up with things like coma, where people can get better-but that is not brain death. (medscape.com)
  • Anahita Meshkin, who has been in a coma for eight years and had been declared brain dead, lies in bed and is hooked up to machines at her care facility in Walnut Creek, Calif., on May 10. (seattletimes.com)
  • Also last year, Mohammad Meshkin reached out to Dolan about his daughter, Anahita Meshkin, who had been in a coma for eight years before being declared brain-dead. (seattletimes.com)
  • Unlike a coma, brain death is the loss of all brain function, an irreversible and nationally accepted form of death. (seattletimes.com)
  • 1] The diagnostic criteria for "brain death," when correctly applied, demonstrate definitively the presence of an irreversible coma without the capacity to breathe spontaneously. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • After her heart stopped and she suffered brain damage, Schiavo entered what doctors refer to as a 'persistent vegetative state,' or prolonged coma. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • It is important to understand the similarities and differences between brain death and two other conditions: persistent vegetative state and coma. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, although one major medical dictionary [7] considers "brain death" to be synonymous with "cerebral death" (death of the cerebrum ), the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) system defines brain death as including the brainstem . (wikipedia.org)
  • The distinctions are medically significant because, for example, in someone with a dead cerebrum but a living brainstem , spontaneous breathing may continue unaided, whereas in whole-brain death (which includes brainstem death ), only life support equipment would maintain ventilation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain death implies the permanent absence of cerebral and brainstem functions. (slideshare.net)
  • Defined as the "irreversible loss of all functions of the brain, including the brainstem," brain death occurs as a result of brain injury. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Brain, the Brainstem and the Critical System 5. (routledge.com)
  • The difference between the two states is that brain death means "death of the brainstem" which can be clinically diagnosed and vegetative state means "permanent and total loss of forebrain function" which needs further investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence of a sharp burst in brain activity after cardiac arrest suggest a neural explanation for anecdotes from patients who have recovered from near-death experiences, including a sensation of leaving the body, and deep memories flickering in dream-like fashion. (latimes.com)
  • A recent study using mice showed that brain activity after complete cardiac arrest does not gradually wane to zero but is distinguished by phases that include a burst of activity -- a phenomenon noted also by the Montreal team. (latimes.com)
  • This near-death brain signaling may be targeted to help cardiac arrest patients survive. (newswise.com)
  • In previous work, Borjigin and her colleagues demonstrated significant organized activation of the brain in animals undergoing cardiac arrest. (newswise.com)
  • This study tells us that reduction of oxygen or both oxygen and glucose during cardiac arrest can stimulate brain activity that is characteristic of conscious processing,' said lead author Jimo Borjigin. (newsmax.com)
  • It also provides the first scientific framework for the near-death experiences reported by many cardiac arrest survivors. (newsmax.com)
  • About 20 percent of people who survive cardiac arrest report having had visions during a period known to doctors as clinical death. (newsmax.com)
  • Borjigin said she hopes her team's latest study 'will form the foundation for future human studies investigating mental experiences occurring in the dying brain, including seeing light during cardiac arrest. (newsmax.com)
  • She was declared brain-dead three days later after going into cardiac arrest and suffering extensive hemorrhaging in her brain. (latimes.com)
  • In a recent case, doctors at Kaiser Permanente Roseville Medical Center in California declared 2-year-old Israel Stinson brain-dead when he went into cardiac arrest after an asthma attack, according to court records. (seattletimes.com)
  • Within the first 30 seconds after cardiac arrest, there is a widespread, transient surge of highly synchronized brain activity that had features associated with a highly aroused brain. (bigthink.com)
  • According to study published Friday, May 24, 2019, NFL players may be more likely to die from brain diseases and heart problems than MLB players but the reasons are unclear. (deseretnews.com)
  • Patients classified as brain-dead can have their organs surgically removed for organ donation . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this course you will learn about the science behind death determination and when it is possible for deceased organ donation take place. (coursera.org)
  • Welcome to the first week of Organ Donation - From Death to Life. (coursera.org)
  • An article in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), questioning the criteria of "brain death" and "cardiac death" especially in relation to organ donation, could affect the validity of ethical arguments approving the practice of organ donation at a person's apparent death. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • The NEJM article's authors, Harvard Medical School professor Dr. Robert D. Truog and National Institutes of Health bioethics department faculty member Dr. Franklin G. Miller, argue that "as an ethical requirement for organ donation, the dead donor rule has required unnecessary and unsupportable revisions of the definition of death," LifeSiteNews.com reports. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • In 1981 a Presidential commission issued a landmark report - Defining Death: Medical, Legal, and Ethical Issues in the Determination of Death [11] - that rejected the "higher brain" approach to death in favor of a "whole brain" definition. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report was the basis for the Uniform Determination of Death Act , which has been enacted in 39 states of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • [12] The Uniform Determination of Death Act in the United States attempts to standardize criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The court cannot envision an issue more novel and important than a state's policies surrounding a determination of death," Gilliam wrote in his 12-page ruling . (courthousenews.com)
  • Since the 1960s, laws governing the determination of death have been implemented in all countries that have active organ transplantation programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report formed the basis for the Uniform Determination of Death Act, since enacted in thirty-nine states. (wikipedia.org)
  • These statements are misleading because they have ignored the long-standing controversy and debate in the professional literature over the determination of death: specifically, whether individuals diagnosed as "brain dead" should be considered dead and, if so, why they are dead. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • Guidelines for the determination of death (1981) Report of the medical consultants on the diagnosis of death to the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. (springer.com)
  • Jahi McMath was declared brain dead on Dec. 12, 2013, at the age of 13, after suffering complications from a routine surgery for sleep apnea at Children's Hospital Oakland three days earlier. (courthousenews.com)
  • It continues to be UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland's position that Jahi McMath fulfills the diagnostic criteria for brain death and that she is deceased," he added. (courthousenews.com)
  • The lawyer for the family of Jahi McMath said this week the 13-year-old girl's body had deteriorated badly since she was declared brain-dead at an Oakland hospital. (latimes.com)
  • Attorney Chris Dolan said Thursday that doctors at the nonprofit International Brain Research Foundation made the findings after running a series of tests on the 13-year-old Jahi McMath at Rutgers University last week. (ksl.com)
  • Since taking on the case of Jahi McMath, an Oakland, Calif., teen declared brain-dead in 2013 after complications from tonsil surgery, Dolan has became an unlikely leader in a growing resistance to the medical establishment's long-standing determination that the loss of brain activity equals death. (seattletimes.com)
  • June 29 (UPI) - Jahi McMath, a California teen who became brain-dead five years ago after a routine tonsilectomy, has died from complications from another operation, her family said. (breitbart.com)
  • Jahi McMath, whose family had refused to accept a ruling on her brain death so as to keep her on a hospital ventilator, died on June 22, according to the family's attorney. (speroforum.com)
  • Doctors, outside specialists and a judge have all agreed that 13-year-old Jahi McMath is brain dead. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • This decline in mortality was accompanied by changes in distribution of the major external causes (i.e., the circumstance or environmental event that caused the injury) of TBI-related death, such that firearm-related injury surpassed motor-vehicle--related injury as the leading cause of TBI-related deaths in 1990. (cdc.gov)
  • Unintentional falls represent the second leading cause of TBI-related death. (cdc.gov)
  • Can Brain Injury Lead to Death Years Later? (go.com)
  • There are a couple of lines of evidence to suggest that after a particularly acute brain injury that you have shorter life expectancy, even if you survive the acute injury phase," said Dr. Steven Flanagan, director of The Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine at the New York University Langone Medical Center in New York City. (go.com)
  • However, neither study could specify whether the premature death was related to the brain injury or not. (go.com)
  • Sometimes seizures occur when you don't see their body shake," said Dr. David Hovda, professor of neurosurgery and Director of the University of California Los Angeles brain injury research center. (go.com)
  • 33% of all injury-related deaths. (cdc.gov)
  • She had to take anti-seizure drugs as a precaution due to the brain injury but has been fine. (thesun.co.uk)
  • This demonstrated the scientists' theory that the death of oligodendrocytes can initiate MS. In humans, the scientists posit, the disease develops years after the initial injury to the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • TBI is a head injury caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body or a penetrating head injury that results in disruption of normal brain function. (cdc.gov)
  • Raul Chavez-Valdez, Lee J. Martin, and Frances J. Northington, "Programmed Necrosis: A Prominent Mechanism of Cell Death following Neonatal Brain Injury," Neurology Research International , vol. 2012, Article ID 257563, 12 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • A mum-of-nine and her boyfriend have been convicted of causing the death of her baby boy who suffered a 'catastrophic' brain injury. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • M iss Knight said: 'It was the actions of one of them that resulted in the catastrophic brain injury that Eli Cox suffered that day. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • N ow a study by Cambridge University has found that it significantly reduces the chance of death following a brain injury. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The authors used TPM to monitor progression and pathology immediately following compression brain injury in laboratory mice. (jax.org)
  • Cell death in the meninges increased over time (up to 12 hours after injury), but was not seen in the parenchyma until 9-12 hours after injury. (jax.org)
  • Astrocyte cell death in the glial limitans of FVB/N-Tg(GFAPGFP)14Mes/J ( 003257 ), which displays astrocyte -specific GFP fluorescence, occurs 5 minutes after injury. (jax.org)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear in the meninges within 30 minutes of injury and are a primary mediator of cell death following compression injury. (jax.org)
  • Administration of a reduced form of glutathione (GSH), a ROS scavenger, prior to injury resulted in a 50% reduction of meningeal cell death, whereas post-injury application had no effect. (jax.org)
  • Post-injury GSH application resulted in reduced parenchymal cell death, survival of meningeal macrophages, and glial limitans preservation. (jax.org)
  • Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. (mdpi.com)
  • DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. (mdpi.com)
  • Nair S, Hagberg H, Krishnamurthy R, Thornton C, Mallard C. Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury. (mdpi.com)
  • An Alameda County judge ruled on Christmas Eve 2013 that McMath met the legal criteria for brain death. (courthousenews.com)
  • Winkfield filed a new federal lawsuit in December 2015 against the state, Alameda County and the hospital seeking a declaration that McMath is not and was never brain dead. (courthousenews.com)
  • Gilliam also ruled that McMath cannot file a federal appeal of Alameda County Superior Court Judge Evello Grillo's December 2013 ruling that McMath suffered brain death. (courthousenews.com)
  • The discovery came months after three doctors, including one appointed by a judge, declared McMath brain-dead, and Alameda County issued a death certificate after her Dec. 9 sleep apnea surgery went awry. (ksl.com)
  • The McMath family's malpractice attorney, Bruce Brusavich, argues that because Jahi was not brain dead, the California state limit of $250,000 on medical malpractice lawsuits involving children who die does not apply. (speroforum.com)
  • This review is directed at understanding how neuronal death occurs in two distinct insults, global ischemia and focal ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • Cell death occurs by a necrotic pathway characterized by either ischemic/homogenizing cell change or edematous cell change. (nih.gov)
  • Death also occurs via an apoptotic-like pathway that is characterized, minimally, by DNA laddering and a dependence on caspase activity and, optimally, by those properties, additional characteristic protein and phospholipid changes, and morphological attributes of apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Brain death occurs in one out of every 200 hospital deaths (CDC study, 1986). (howstuffworks.com)
  • argues for) the clear separation of the medical question of when death occurs and the ethical question of when we should stop trying to keep a person alive. (routledge.com)
  • Maternal somatic support after brain death occurs when a brain dead patient is pregnant and their body is kept alive to deliver a fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the brain becomes damaged irreversibly and infarction occurs, the symptoms may be permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural movements also known as the Lazarus sign or Lazarus reflex can occur on a brain-dead person whose organs have been kept functioning by life support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organ donors must be declared brain-dead before their organs may be removed for transplant . (britannica.com)
  • After brain death has occurred, it may be possible for the person's organs to be used in transplantations, which can often save the lives of others. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Benjamin Mazer, The Atlantic , 11 May 2021 The organ donor, a woman from the Upper Midwest who suffered brain death following an auto accident, also had a negative PCR test using a nasopharyngeal swab within 48 hours of when her organs were procured. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Washington Post , 26 Mar. 2021 The organ donor, a woman from the Upper Midwest who suffered brain death following an auto accident, also had a negative PCR test using a nasopharyngeal swab within 48 hours of when her organs were procured. (merriam-webster.com)
  • of sustaining 'brain dead' patients on respirators, there is a natural temptation to redefine death so that organs become available to serve higher ends. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • It is the brain-dead patient who is the source of viable organs for transplantation. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Of the half with medically acceptable organs, half of the families refuse donation, resulting in one organ donor out of 800 hospital deaths. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Last May, Sharon Gracias, transplant coordinator at Andheri's BSES Hospital was called to Suchak Hospital, Malad, twice on a Sunday to convince a family to donate the organs of their 53-year old mother who was brain-dead after suffering a stroke. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The roles of a coordinator, who has to convince families of brain dead patients to donate the patient's organs, and doctors, who retrieve the organs, are not easy. (hindustantimes.com)
  • During the committee session April 15, Taro Nakayama called it "political responsibility" to pass a bill that stipulates brain death as legal death, allowing for the removal of organs for donation from those declared brain dead. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Both bills propose that the removal of organs from brain-dead patients be allowed if written consent for the procedure has been given by the donor in advance. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • If we wait for a person's heart and lungs to cease functioning (the traditional way of determining death), the organs become unusable for most transplants. (cjnews.com)
  • Saying that the scientific literature does not support the criteria which consider "brain death" and "cardiac death" to be actual death, the authors argue that the donation of vital organs taken from living human beings should not be considered unethical. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • The uncomfortable conclusion to be drawn from this literature is that although it may be perfectly ethical to remove vital organs for transplantation from patients who satisfy the diagnostic criteria of brain death, the reason it is ethical cannot be that we are convinced they are really dead," they write. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Unlike Troug and Miller, most moral ethicists consider the death of the donor as the event making it ethical to remove vital organs for transplant. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • In an August 29, 2000 address to the 18th International Congress of the Transplantation Society, Pope John Paul II emphasized that unpaired vital organs can be removed only after death, "from the body of someone who is certainly dead. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • How one defines death affects decisions such as when to declare a patient dead, when to remove them from artificial respiration, and at what point a person's organs may be retrieved. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • Untreated heart attacks may slow blood flow enough that blood may start to clot and prevent the flow of blood to the brain or other major organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past 20 or so years, the concept of 'neurological death' commonly called 'brain death,' 'whole brain death' or 'brain-stem death' (and, sometimes, inaccurately-termed 'cerebral death') has gained increasing acceptance within the medical profession and among the vast majority of state legislatures and courts in the United States. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • Silverman D, Saunders MG, Schwab RS, Masland RL (1969) Cerebral death and the electroencephalogram. (springer.com)
  • Report of the ad hoc committee of the American Electroencephalographic Society on EEG Criteria for determination of cerebral death. (springer.com)
  • Guideline three: minimum technical standards for EEG recording in suspected cerebral death (1994) American Electroencephalographic Society. (springer.com)
  • The deterioration of Jahi's body is now the only possible course and "became inevitable the moment she died," according to a court declaration from Dr. Heidi Flori, a critical care physician at Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland, which had sought to remove the teen from the ventilator after she was declared brain dead Dec. 12. (latimes.com)
  • However, the family's attorney, Christopher Dolan, told the San Jose Mercury News this week Jahi's body has deteriorated badly in the weeks since she was declared brain-dead. (latimes.com)
  • Experts say there is a small but noticeable increase in the number of families fighting brain-death diagnoses since Jahi's family won the legal right to remove their daughter from UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland so she could be taken to a facility in New Jersey, where she now resides on a feeding tube and ventilator. (seattletimes.com)
  • After Jahi's case, two families rejected a brain-death diagnosis at San Francisco General Hospital, citing her case, he said. (seattletimes.com)
  • The family sought to have Jahi's death declaration reversed in October 2014 after Dolan showed a video suggesting Jahi was able to move her hands and feet. (breitbart.com)
  • Dr. Alan Shewmon, a retired UCLA neurologist and critic of brain death diagnoses, said last year in court documents Jahi's body had not deteriorated as expected. (breitbart.com)
  • Jahi's body will be taken back to Oakland, Calif., next week, her family said, and her brain will be preserved for scientific study. (breitbart.com)
  • Dolan said he plans to keep fighting to have Jahi's death certificate changed to reflect her clinical death on June 22. (breitbart.com)
  • Over the years, Jahi's family provided updates on Jahi while also fighting to revoke her death certificate and thus declare that she was alive. (speroforum.com)
  • Dr. Paul Byrne, a pediatrician who has questioned the definition of brain death, says in court documents that he visited Jahi's bedside and observed her responding to her grandmother's voice and touch with a squirming movement. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • A: Two doctors at Children's Hospital and an independent pediatric neurologist from Stanford University have concluded that because there is no neurological activity in Jahi's brain or brain stem, she is dead. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Children's Hospital spokesman Sam Singer said Jahi's family also could be mistaking the movements they say she has made to an involuntary muscle reflex sometimes seen in brain-dead patients that doctors call the "Lazarus effect. (pjstar.com)
  • Brain-dead" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
  • For other uses, see Brain Dead . (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, both the legal and medical communities in the US use "brain death" as a legal definition of death, allowing a person to be declared legally dead even if life support equipment keeps the body's metabolic processes working. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person is confirmed as being dead when their brain stem function is permanently lost. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A person who is brain dead has no chance of recovery, because their body is unable to survive without artificial support. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Although rare, a few things can make it appear as though someone is brain dead. (www.nhs.uk)
  • When someone suffers a serious trauma and are put on life support and doctors later declare the person "brain dead" with no hope of recovery, is it morally acceptable for the family to discontinue a ventilator but maintain artificial food and hydration? (ewtn.com)
  • American Life League has published an article on the use of the ventilator when caring for "brain dead" patients. (ewtn.com)
  • For the past two months we have watched an agonizing struggle between a Texas family, their doctors, and state law that prevents the withdrawal of medical care for a brain dead-but pregnant-woman. (thedailybeast.com)
  • She was discovered on her kitchen floor by her husband and transported to John Peter Smith Hospital in Fort Worth, Texas, where she was declared brain dead. (thedailybeast.com)
  • When a person is brain dead they are no longer a living person-medically or legally. (thedailybeast.com)
  • In previous cases where the decision was made to continue support, the goal has been to prolong care of the brain dead woman until this time, and the average baby is delivered at around 30 weeks. (thedailybeast.com)
  • One of the most dramatic successful cases is that of a 35 year-old woman in the United Arab Emirates declared brain dead in her 16th week of pregnancy. (thedailybeast.com)
  • A controversial phase I trial will aim to restore life to 20 people who have been declared brain dead. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Though it sounds similar to the makings of fiction, scientists have received approval for the first ever trial that aims to restore neuronal activity in humans who have been declared brain dead. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To declare a person as brain dead , a physician must confirm a complete absence of brain reflexes - such as pupillary response to light and facial muscle movement - and the inability to breathe without ventilatory support. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Maybe cats have nine lives, or maybe brain dead people aren't so dead. (latimes.com)
  • The findings could revive debate over the criteria for declaring a person "brain dead. (latimes.com)
  • Due to the continual medical advancements, there will be more and more patients who are being maintained by ventilation support systems -- their body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, nutrition and fluid requirements are being artificially maintained, but they have a non-viable (dead) brain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • These patients are brain dead without any hope of recovery or survival. (howstuffworks.com)
  • It is extraordinarily expensive (in terms of equipment and labor) to maintain patients on respirators and other life support and using these resources for 'brain dead' patients prevents their deployment for those who stand a better chance of recovery. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • People do not want to accept that their loved one is brain dead. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Kaneta and 27 other lawmakers from the DPJ, Shinshinto and the Social Democratic Party of Japan submitted to the Diet earlier this month a bill proposing that brain-dead people be considered good-will donors for organ transplants even though their condition does not constitute legal death. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • A rare public battle has erupted between the family of a 13-year-old California girl who was declared brain dead and the hospital that would like to take her off life support. (wsj.com)
  • SAN FRANCISCO (CN) - In the case of a girl whose family says she was wrongly declared dead three years ago, a federal judge ruled Monday that California courts must decide whether a declaration of brain death can be overturned under state law. (courthousenews.com)
  • Brain death is considered a legal definition of death, and inappropriately labeling a patient as dead by brain criteria could subject them to inappropriate treatment, including withdrawal of care in theoretical circumstances," they warned. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Bodies of the brain-dead have been maintained on respirators for months or, in rare cases, years. (latimes.com)
  • But if people are legally and halachically dead when their brain function ceases, even though their cardio-pulmonary function continues to be maintained by a machine, transplants are possible and legitimate. (cjnews.com)
  • Decades ago, the RCA executive declared that brain dead patients are dead. (cjnews.com)
  • SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - An attorney for the family of a California teenager who was declared brain-dead says doctors have found signs of brain functions and is seeking an unprecedented court order declaring her alive. (ksl.com)
  • She was declared brain-dead Dec. 12. (ksl.com)
  • In mid-August, they delivered a healthy baby girl 117 days after her mother was declared brain dead after suffering a brain haemorrhage. (czech.cz)
  • It is the longest artificially sustained pregnancy in a brain-dead mother ever recorded in medical history. (czech.cz)
  • They managed to do so for 117 days, which is a record for the longest artificially sustained pregnancy in a brain-dead mother. (czech.cz)
  • Although the woman was declared brain-dead shortly after reaching the hospital, examinations showed that the brain haemorrhage had caused no damage to the baby. (czech.cz)
  • But the most important thing, Mr Janků explains, was the cooperation with the husband and other relatives of the brain-dead mother. (czech.cz)
  • Doctors now say she is not brain dead. (seattletimes.com)
  • It was from a Vacaville, Calif., family who said their 2-year-old son was declared brain-dead. (seattletimes.com)
  • He was contacted by the Orange County family of Lisa Avila, a mother of seven who was declared brain-dead and taken off her ventilator in March 2015. (seattletimes.com)
  • A Contra Costa Superior Court judge ordered two University of California, San Francisco neurologists to test the woman May 4, 2015, and both agreed that she was not brain-dead, a difference of opinion that is rare in most of these types of cases. (seattletimes.com)
  • Experts say a ventilator can keep a heart beating, and a person declared brain-dead can appear lifelike, but there is no chance the person will ever regain brain activity. (seattletimes.com)
  • Many deaths occurred above 26,000 feet in an area dubbed "the dead zone," particularly among people who already reached the summit and were climbing back down. (redorbit.com)
  • The question of determining death arises in the Talmud (Yoma 85a) in the context of a discussion about what to do when a building collapses on Shabbat and it is uncertain if anyone is trapped in the rubble or whether the person is alive or dead. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • But it would not have happened without a brain dead consented donor. (coursera.org)
  • But despite maximum support, it became clear that she was brain-dead. (coursera.org)
  • Doctors said she was brain-dead, which led to a months-long legal fight with McMath's family to keep the hospital from removing life support. (breitbart.com)
  • Medical personnel declared her brain-dead. (speroforum.com)
  • McMath's mother continuously referred to her daughter as "still asleep," refusing to refer to her as "brain dead. (speroforum.com)
  • While the New Jersey death certificate obviates the 2017 court ruling as to whether Jahi is dead, attorney Dolan and the Winkfield family are hoping that their court fight will set a precedent so that others will not have to endure their situation in the future. (speroforum.com)
  • In commenting on these cases the bioethicists have stated, in no uncertain terms, that an individual correctly diagnosed as "brain dead" is dead, pure and simple. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • Contrary to appearances of being alive, in reality the "brain dead" individual is a corpse. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • In the other case a hospital, appealing to state law, continued life-sustaining treatment for a Marlise Munoz, a pregnant "brain dead" woman, over the objection of her family. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • While brain death is legally recognized as death in all 50 states, we are not alone in arguing that the "brain dead" remain alive in view of the biological conception of death established within medicine: the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • But does that mean that the "brain dead" are known to be dead? (thehastingscenter.org)
  • Indeed, relevant to one of the two recent cases in the news, "brain dead" pregnant women with intensive care support have been able to gestate viable fetuses over a period of a few months. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • The upshot, we have argued, is that the "brain dead" remain alive, although without any chance of recovering consciousness or breathing spontaneously. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • How, then, should we evaluate recent bioethics commentary in the new media endorsing the dogma that the "brain dead" are known to be dead? (thehastingscenter.org)
  • But today, we can sustain brain dead bodies for prolonged periods of time. (georgetown.edu)
  • So, a human being still has integrative functions despite being determined brain dead. (georgetown.edu)
  • Doctors declared her brain dead three days later. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Hospital officials said that parents do not have a constitutional right to determine when to remove ventilation from a brain-dead patient and that a California law provides only for a reasonably brief period for a family to gather at a patient's bedside before ventilation can be removed. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Darby JM, Stein K, Grenvik A, Stuart SA (1989) Approach to management of the heartbeating "brain dead" organ donor. (springer.com)
  • Even among brain dead patients, in a U.S. study of 252 brain dead patients from 1990-96, only 5 (2.8%) cases involved pregnant women between 15 and 45 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • there is no widely accepted protocol to manage a brain dead mother "since only a few reported cases are found in the medical literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • a]t present, it seems that there is no clear lower limit to the gestational age which would restrict the physician's efforts to support the brain dead mother and her fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the older a fetus is when its mother becomes brain dead, the greater its chance for survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absent from the legislation are specifics as to how the law should be applied depending on how far along a woman is in her pregnancy, as well as the definition of terminally ill versus brain dead. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Texas law does not specifically detail a hospital's obligation in the case when a pregnant woman is brain dead, thus leading to the long-drawn legal battle that ensued in the weeks following Marlise Muñoz's pulmonary embolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cost of maintaining a brain dead mother on life support depends on the number of days spent in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurodegenerative disease was classified as an underlying cause of death for 10 players -- two from Alzheimer's disease, 6 from ALS, and 2 from Parkinson's disease -- and as a contributing cause in 17 player deaths. (medpagetoday.com)
  • LONDON (Reuters) - Scientists have figured out how to stop brain cell death in mice with brain disease and say their discovery deepens understanding of the mechanisms of human neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (lifescript.com)
  • The finding, described by one expert as "a major breakthrough in understanding what kills neurons", points to a common mechanism by which brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and CJD damage the nerve cells. (lifescript.com)
  • These misshapen proteins form the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's and the Lewy bodies found in Parkinson's disease. (lifescript.com)
  • It's something that we have to talk about with patients and families, and we are often confused when it comes to the pronouncement of death. (medscape.com)
  • Herst says brain cancer patients have a poor prognosis because these tumours are aggressive and very resistant to radiation therapy. (thaindian.com)
  • What should doctors tell families of patients who fulfill neurological criteria for brain death? (bioethics.net)
  • Explain to interested patients that the study found substantial variability in brain-death declaration protocols among institutions as well as deviation from established national guidelines. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Like Colagrossi, patients who suffer from brain aneurysms often seem perfectly healthy and don't show warning signs prior to a rupture. (cbsnews.com)
  • Rapid emergency medical treatment is essential, but the Brain Aneurysm Foundation estimates that up to 25 percent of patients encounter a delay or are initially misdiagnosed, potentially costing lives. (cbsnews.com)
  • None of the patients met criteria for brain death at baseline. (discovermagazine.com)
  • In this study, we assessed autonomic function in patients prior to brain death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Officials will examine death certificates from the past five years and collect information from doctors' surgeries to determine, among other things, whether any of the CJD patients died before they were 50. (newscientist.com)
  • Dr. Russell Lonser -- who led the study of Seau's brain -- told ABC News patients with CTE display symptoms "such as impulsivity, forgetfulness, depression, [and] sometimes suicidal ideation. (tmz.com)
  • His love for brain surgery and his patients shines through, but the specialty--shrouded in secrecy and mystique when he entered it--has now firmly had the rug pulled out from under it. (indiebound.org)
  • however, in both patients brain-stem function did show brain death shortly thereafter. (springer.com)
  • Further research is needed to demonstrate that CCA by TCD on repeated examination can also predict brain death in all patients. (springer.com)
  • Attorney Dolan intends to continue his pro bono work on behalf of the family "to have her hastily prepared death certificate reversed, and her date of death established as June 22, 2018. (speroforum.com)
  • After brain-eating amoeba death, what water is safe in a neti pot? (usatoday.com)
  • The case of a woman who died from a brain-eating amoeba after using filtered tap water to clear her sinuses has some wondering how to safely use neti pots. (usatoday.com)
  • She died of died from Balamuthia mandrillaris, an amoeba that might live in water and can travel to the brain, causing deadly infection. (usatoday.com)
  • In 2013, a Louisiana man in his 20s died from another type of brain-eating amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, after using tap water in his neti pot. (usatoday.com)
  • The use of tap water in a nasal-flushing Neti pot likely led to a Seattle woman's death from a brain-eating amoeba , doctors write in a case study. (medicinenet.com)
  • The amoeba got into her upper nasal cavity and then into her bloodstream, eventually reaching her brain, according to the study in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases . (medicinenet.com)
  • Following the deaths of two people from Louisiana who contracted brain-eating amoeba infections from their own home water systems last year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are warning people to follow appropriate guidelines when using a popular home remedy for sinus infections. (foxnews.com)
  • The amoeba enters the body through the nose and migrates through the olfactory nerve to the brain. (foxnews.com)
  • [9] [10] The Harvard criteria gradually gained consensus toward what is now known as brain death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethical considerations are crucial to defining criteria for brain death, which in most countries must be met before efforts to extend life may be ended. (britannica.com)
  • The rapid, and near universal, acceptance of neurological criteria of death is probably attributable to three factors. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • The core of the text combines the theory and practice of brain death determination, history, and the development of clinical criteria of what brain death is. (ovid.com)
  • It examines traditional criteria for death and various formulations of the concept of death in both medical literature and philosophical texts. (routledge.com)
  • Death: Concept and Criteria 3. (routledge.com)
  • Criteria for Death 7. (routledge.com)
  • In 2020, an international panel of experts, the World Brain Death Project, published a guideline that "provides recommendations for the minimum clinical standards for determination of brain death/death by neurologic criteria (BD/DNC) in adults and children with clear guidance for various clinical circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Norepinephrine was reduced to 0.2-0.5 mg/h within 2 h before brain death was diagnosed according to the criteria of the German Medical Association. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The advent of neurologic or brain death criteria to establish the death of a person was a significant departure from the traditional way of defining death and remains ethically challenging to some. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on this foundation, widely divergent conclusions have been drawn about the Jewish definition of death and the correlating criteria. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • Rabbinic authorities in the second category, such as the Israeli Chief Rabbinate, many Modern Orthodox rabbis and most non-Orthodox denominations, understand the simple reading of the Talmud to be determining death solely based upon respiratory criteria. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • Incontrovertible evidence has been developed over the past two decades that those individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for "brain death" can continue to maintain, with the aid of mechanical ventilation, a wide array of biological functions of the organism as a whole, [2] including respiration, circulation, digestion, temperature control, wound healing, and fighting infections. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • Traditionally, both the legal and medical communities determined death through the permanent end of certain bodily functions in clinical death , especially respiration and heartbeat . (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, at near-death, many known electrical signatures of consciousness exceeded levels found in the waking state, suggesting that the brain is capable of well-organized electrical activity during the early stage of clinical death. (newsmax.com)
  • Time 0 represents the moment of clinical death, namely when arterial blood pressure (ABP) became constant, indicating that the heart had stopped. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Near-death experience, in which visions occur after clinical death takes place (defined by the loss of blood flow to the brain), is likely a result of normal brain function rather than evidence of an afterlife, say University of Michigan scientists who have simulated the condition in the brains of lab rats. (bigthink.com)
  • The description embraces elements of a classic near-death experience: the darkness, the cessation of pain, the emerging into the light and then a feeling of peacefulness. (scientificamerican.com)
  • However, once cessation of all brain activity is confirmed, there is no recovery, Rebecca S. Dresser, professor of law and ethics in medicine at Washington University in St. Louis, told The Times . (latimes.com)
  • Those who conclude from this source that irreversible cessation of breathing is what determines death. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • Rabbinic authorities in the first category, such as many Orthodox thinkers including Rabbi J.David Bleich of Yeshiva University, require complete cessation of bodily motion, including cessation of both cardiac and respiratory functions, to define death. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • They read this Talmudic ruling as teaching that the criterion for death is actually the irreversible cessation of heartbeat, and that checking for breathing is not as the definition or criterion for death, but merely as one indication of death. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • Brain death is legally defined as the COMPLETE cessation of ALL functions of the ENTIRE brain. (georgetown.edu)
  • Scientists have been steadily probing the nature of brain activity at the border of death. (latimes.com)
  • While the discovery doesn't offer a cure or even a test for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), a robust mouse model of the disease will help scientists search for biological clues to this bewildering condition, say experts. (newscientist.com)
  • There may be a scientific explanation for the vivid near-death experiences, such as seeing a shining light, that some people report after surviving a heart attack, U.S. scientists said Monday. (newsmax.com)
  • But it's only been the last few years that scientists have finally realized that the human brain can build new neurons. (typepad.com)
  • MS can be initiated when damage to the brain destroys the cells that make myelin, the scientists showed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Once the brain stem has permanently stopped functioning, there's no way of reversing it and the heart will eventually stop beating, even if a ventilator continues to be used. (www.nhs.uk)
  • To save a person's family and friends from unnecessary suffering, once there's clear evidence that brain death has occurred, the person will be disconnected from the ventilator. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Experts say there is an increase in the number of families fighting brain-death diagnoses since an Oakland, Calif., family won the legal right to move their daughter to a facility in New Jersey, where she now resides on a feeding tube and ventilator. (seattletimes.com)
  • Although brain death is defined by the medical community to mean a total loss of brain function, McMath's family fought to keep her on a ventilator, saying she showed signs of life. (breitbart.com)
  • Unlike Jahi, whose heart doctors say would stop beating if she were removed from the machines helping her breath because her brain stem is not functioning, Schiavo maintained signs of limited brain activity and was able to breathe without a ventilator. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • CHICAGO - Pro football players may be more likely to die from degenerative brain diseases and heart problems than baseball players but the reasons are unclear, a new study suggests. (deseretnews.com)
  • Brain Pickings has a free Sunday digest of the week's most interesting and inspiring articles across art, science, philosophy, creativity, children's books, and other strands of our search for truth, beauty, and meaning. (brainpickings.org)
  • Those claims will be stayed pending a decision by the California court on whether a brain-death diagnosis can be overturned. (courthousenews.com)
  • In this unique and novel situation, this court cannot predict with any confidence how the California Supreme Court would interpret the finality of a brain death diagnosis under Health and Safety Code sections 7180 and 7181," Gilliam declared in his ruling. (courthousenews.com)
  • In that case, the California Court of Appeals ruled this past July that the question of whether collateral estoppel applies to a determination of brain death should not be decided at the pleading stage. (courthousenews.com)
  • Winkfield and her lawyers have been trying to rescind the California death certificate as part of a medical malpractice lawsuit filed against Children's Hospital in Oakland. (speroforum.com)
  • A California hospital and family are embroiled in a harrowing legal and medical fight that has reignited the debate about when machines keeping a severely brain-damaged person alive should be turned off. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • OAKLAND, Calif. - A California hospital and family are embroiled in a harrowing legal and medical fight that has reignited the debate about when machines keeping a severely brain-damaged person alive should be turned off. (pjstar.com)
  • Although debate at the Lower House Health and Welfare Committee has nearly come to an end, committee legislators are still divided over whether brain death should be legally recognized as death. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Our second lesson takes a look at the history of, and the actual mechanism of brain death as well as the story behind the first heart donor. (coursera.org)
  • What's exciting is the emergence of a common mechanism of brain cell death, across a range of different neurodegenerative disorders, activated by the different mis-folded proteins in each disease," said Giovanna Mallucci, who led the research at the University of Leicester's toxicology unit. (lifescript.com)
  • The fact that in mice with prion disease we were able to manipulate this mechanism and protect the brain cells means we may have a way forward in how we treat other disorders," she said in a statement about the work. (lifescript.com)
  • Mallucci's team found that the build up of mis-folded proteins in the brains of mice with prion disease activated a natural defense mechanism in cells, which switches off the production of new proteins. (lifescript.com)
  • Ischemic cell death in brain neurons. (nih.gov)
  • These problems stem from the alcohol-induced destruction of neurons in the part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. (eurekalert.org)
  • A graphic will show its location in the brain) These beta-endorphin neurons produce the endorphin hormone and are particularly vulnerable during the early development of the fetus. (eurekalert.org)
  • What the research suggests is that in unstimulating, unenriched, stressful environments, the brain STOPS producing new neurons (more on that later). (typepad.com)
  • In these diseases, neurons in the brain die, destroying the brain from the inside. (lifescript.com)
  • However, comas can result in brain death, or recovery or even a persistent vegetative state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Brazil, the Federal Council of Medicine revised its regulations in 2017, including "a requirement for the patient to meet specific physiological prerequisites and for the physician to provide optimized care to the patient before starting the procedures for diagnosing brain death and to perform complementary tests, as well as the need for specific training for physicians who make this diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC estimated national and state-specific rates and trends for TBI-related deaths (TBI deaths) caused by unintentional falls (fall-related TBI deaths) among U.S. residents during 2008-2017, by selected decedent characteristics. (cdc.gov)
  • During 2008-2017, the national age-adjusted rate of fall-related TBI deaths increased by 17%, from 3.86 per 100,000 persons to 4.52 ( Table 1 ), representing 17,408 fall-related TBI deaths in 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • Considering only the study endpoint years (2008 and 2017), the number of fall-related TBI deaths increased in 49 of 51 jurisdictions (50 states and DC), and corresponding age-adjusted rates increased in 45 of these 49 jurisdictions (Supplementary Table, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/85245 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The 7th International Symposium on Brain Death will be held in Havana, Cuba, from December 5 to 8, 2017. (georgetown.edu)
  • Medical Study Gives New Life to Proving Near-Death. (latimes.com)
  • A new study in mice lays some of the blame on a brain chemical called serotonin. (newscientist.com)
  • I recently did a study [ 1 ] with a couple of colleagues of mine at NYU on how brain death is presented in the media. (medscape.com)
  • But a new laboratory study by the University of Michigan Medical School reveals a storm of brain activity that erupts as the heart deteriorates and plays a surprising destabilizing role in heart function. (newswise.com)
  • Despite the loss of consciousness and absence of signs of life, internally the brain exhibits sustained, organized activity and increased communication with the heart, which one may guess is an effort to save the heart," says senior study author Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., associate professor of neurology and associate professor of molecular and integrative physiology. (newswise.com)
  • However the brain signaling at near-death may, in fact, accelerate cardiac demise, according to the study published in this week's PNAS Early Edition . (newswise.com)
  • This new study provides a neurochemical foundation for the surge in brain activity and a brain-heart connectivity that may be targeted to lengthen detectable brain activity. (newswise.com)
  • Apparently, the brain keeps on working for up to 30 seconds after blood flow stops, according to a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (newsmax.com)
  • Mainstream science has long considered the brain to be inactive during this period, and some experts questioned how much a study on rats can truly reveal about the human brain. (newsmax.com)
  • The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Multiple Cause of Death public use data were analyzed for this study. (cdc.gov)
  • Catching the mosquito-borne virus chikungunya usually leads to fever and severe pain, but a new study shows it may also lead to inflammation in the brain, and even death in some people. (livescience.com)
  • CHICAGO --- Multiple sclerosis (MS) may be triggered by the death of brain cells that make the insulation around nerve fibers, a surprising new view of the disease reported in a study from Northwestern Medicine and The University of Chicago. (eurekalert.org)
  • And a specially developed nanoparticle prevented MS even after the death of those brain cells, an experiment in the study showed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Football players appear to have an increased risk of dying from neurodegenerative causes, although whether that's a result of repetitive brain trauma is uncertain, a retrospective study suggested. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Limitations of the study included the small number of deaths and the study population of exclusively professional players. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Analysis of state-specific rate trends determined that rates of fall-related TBI deaths increased significantly in 29 states over the 10-year study period. (cdc.gov)
  • That amounts to a nearly three times greater risk for NFL players, results that echo an earlier study comparing brain disease deaths in NFL players with the general population. (deseretnews.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the validity of TCD in confirming brain death. (springer.com)
  • An international team led by Dr Paul Firth of Massachusetts General Hospital studied the 212 reported deaths from 1921 to 2006 on Mount Everest, the highest on earth. (abc.net.au)
  • The findings - published in the journal Science - could pave the way for new therapies to stop the process in its tracks and potentially prevent brain cell death. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The key pathogenetic processes and causes of death are unknown, but a combination of clinical observations and pathological findings suggests that increased brain volume leading to raised intracranial pressure may play a role. (nih.gov)
  • They said the findings may call into question the accuracy of brain-death determinations across institutions. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Kirkham FJ, Levin SD, Padayachee TS, Kyme MC, Neville BG, Gosling RG (1987) Transcranial pulsed Doppler ultrasound findings in brain stem death. (springer.com)
  • With the increasing ability of the medical community to resuscitate people with no respiration, heartbeat, or other external signs of life, the need for another definition of death occurred, raising questions of legal death . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first European country to adopt brain death as a legal definition (or indicator) of death was Finland in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • [14] This new definition, the irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness and for spontaneous breathing, and the essentially unchanged 1976 tests held to establish that state, have been adopted as a basis of death certification for organ transplant purposes in subsequent Codes of Practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first European country to adopt brain death as a legal definition (or indicator) of death was France , in 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • I said "almost", because it depends on your definition of brain damage. (typepad.com)
  • Thus, although the Talmud does not directly address contemporary definitions of death, it provides the principles that help contemporary rabbinic thinkers determine a Jewish definition of death. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • Arthur Caplan, head of medical ethics at New York University's Langone Medical Center, said he knows of no cases of a brain-death determination being reversed. (ksl.com)
  • I worry that the more these cases begin to appear, the more pressure will come from other parents who say I don't accept brain death, either," said Arthur Caplan, the founding director of the Division of Medical Ethics at New York University School of Medicine. (seattletimes.com)
  • Many recent advancements in modern medicine and breakthroughs in the understanding of human physiology have made it possible to separately and artificially maintain tissue viability without the impulses being transmitted by the brain or brain stem. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As a result, the blood vessel may begin to bulge and put stress on nerves or surrounding brain tissue. (cbsnews.com)
  • One problem is that CJD can only be definitively diagnosed by examining the brain tissue after death. (newscientist.com)
  • Concussive hits can trigger a buildup of toxic tau protein within the brain, which in turn can create damaging tangles and threads in the neural fibers that connect brain tissue. (espn.com)
  • In this condition, low oxygen levels cause cerebral blood vessels to leak fluid into surrounding brain tissue, triggering swelling. (abc.net.au)
  • This leads to poor oxygen supply or cerebral hypoxia and thus leads to the death of brain tissue or cerebral infarction / ischemic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • and global ischemia, which encompasses wide areas of brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cite this: Calling It Like It Is: 'Brain Death' Is Death - Medscape - Oct 04, 2016. (medscape.com)
  • This is demonstrated by three brain-death evaluations and a ruling by Judge Grillo in December 2013, as well as the declaration of Sanford Schneider M.D., filed in Alameda County Superior Court on Nov. 14, 2016, in support of the motion to unseal reporter's transcripts. (courthousenews.com)
  • Brain stem death is when a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for consciousness and the capacity to breathe. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The modern and entirely secular concept of brain-stem death can, perhaps rather surprisingly, find both a conceptual and a topographical foundation in the writings of René Descartes (1596-1650), the great French philosopher and mathematician who sought to bring analytical geometry, physics, physiology , cosmology, and religion into an integrated conceptual framework. (britannica.com)
  • Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life). (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the invention of life-support systems, brain death always led quickly to death of the body. (britannica.com)
  • The brain stem is responsible for regulating most of the body's automatic functions that are essential for life. (www.nhs.uk)
  • And though the term "life" support, perhaps a misnomer, is often applied to this situation, it does not change the fact that a person's life ends when their brain goes forever quiet. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Near-death experiences are triggered during singular life-threatening episodes when the body is injured by a heart attack, shock, or blunt trauma such as an explosion or a fall. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Any close brush with death reminds us of the precariousness and fragility of life and can strip away the layers of psychological suppression that shield us from uncomfortable thoughts of existential oblivion. (scientificamerican.com)
  • No doubt some people will presumptuously claim that this is further evidence for life after death, which is doubly silly. (newsmax.com)
  • I was disappointed to see this newsletter article from the Life Issues Institute and the Terri Schiavo Life & Hope Network titled "The Market for Brain Death. (bioethics.net)
  • But both the title and the article go on to suggest that unilateral judgments regarding life-sustaining treatment or aid in dying, "may lie behind what seems to be an increase in the 'brain death' diagnosis. (bioethics.net)
  • But five years ago, the RCA published a long position paper (www.rabbis.org) that, while refraining from taking a definitive stand, unmistakably leaned toward rejecting brain death as a halachically acceptable way to distinguish life and death. (cjnews.com)
  • One of the experiences commonly reported near death is seeing one's life suddenly appear before one's eyes in toto. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Revita Life Sciences, ( http://revitalife.co.in ) a biotechnology company focused on translational regenerative therapeutic applications, has announced that it is continuing to advance their novel, multi-modality clinical intervention in the state of brain death in humans. (lifeboat.com)
  • We have proactively continued to advance our multi-modality protocol, as an extended treatment before extubation, in an attempt to reverse the state of brain death" said Mr.Pranjal Agrawal, CEO Revita Life Sciences. (lifeboat.com)
  • She links caged environments with stress, and stimulating natural environments as less stressful, so there is a big assumption here that a dull, boring, unstimulating cube life is also stressful (for the brain, anyway--it doesn't mean the work itself is stressful). (typepad.com)
  • The boundary between life and death is more complex than ever before and it falls to medical professionals to help clarify a situation at an often confusing and emotionally stressful time. (coursera.org)
  • The lectures will cover medical standards at the end of life - from brain death testing, to requesting informed consent from a grieving family. (coursera.org)
  • With astonishing compassion and candor, Marsh reveals the fierce joy of operating, the profoundly moving triumphs, the harrowing disasters, the haunting regrets, and the moments of black humor that characterize a brain surgeon's life. (indiebound.org)
  • Terror management theory (TMT) is both a social and evolutionary psychology theory originally proposed by Jeff Greenberg, Sheldon Solomon, and Tom Pyszczynski[1] and codified in their book The Worm at the Core: On the Role of Death in Life (2015). (metafilter.com)
  • Is there life after death? (bigthink.com)
  • This Texas law served as a point of contention in the Death of Marlise Muñoz-a situation in which end-of-life care became entangled with abortion laws and politics. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been a series of cases around the United States in which families who have had a child who has died have been reluctant to accept it because clinicians use the term "brain death. (medscape.com)
  • Dresser also served on a presidential bioethics council that in 2008 reaffirmed "whole- brain death " as legal death. (latimes.com)
  • What is unmistakable, however, is that there is no consensus in the bioethics literature that "brain death" constitutes death. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • Embracing the dogma that "brain death" constitutes death, put forward as the uncontested truth, flies in the face of a minimal standard for bioethics commentary. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • Kristen Jordan Shamus, USA TODAY , 24 Feb. 2021 Humans, for example, can sometimes go on breathing, metabolizing food and physically maturing even after clinical brain death , undercutting our medical and legal concepts of vitality. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The lack of oxygen, which occurred as a result of no blood flow, quickly led to the permanent loss of brain stem function. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In the case of Marlise Munoz, the child was thought to have a condition known as hydrocephalus, in which there is excessive brain fluid interfering with normal function. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Brain death is defined as the complete, irreversible loss of all brain function. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • once brain function ceases, the body is no longer able to perform activities that are crucial for our survival, such as breathing, regulation of heartbeat, and swallowing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the U.S., two such flat-line readings 24 hours apart are necessary, along with other tests of brain function. (latimes.com)
  • Brain death means total and irreversible loss of all organized brain function. (medscape.com)
  • The reason is because their brain has totally and irreversibly ceased to function. (medscape.com)
  • whether it's a child or an adult-you can say, "It's because their heart has stopped" or "Sadly, their brain has ceased to function. (medscape.com)
  • Although not included in the International Classification of Diseases as a cause of death, CTE is now considered a distinct condition in which neural function deteriorates, usually many years after repetitive concussions sustained during contact sports. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Once upon a time, there were three little piggies (in fact, more than 100) who had no idea they would achieve worldwide fame because some of their brain function was resurrected hours after their death. (haaretz.com)
  • If she gets treatment, she will have a chance to recover brain function. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • NEW DELHI, July 25 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Almost 570 people in India have died after contracting encephalitis, commonly known as "brain fever", health authorities said on Friday, warning the death toll may rise with more people still at risk. (reuters.com)
  • In an email, the hospital's attorney G. Patrick Galloway said Gilliam acknowledged an ability to predict how California's high court would interpret the finality of a declaration of brain death under state law. (courthousenews.com)
  • Other health conditions commonly linked to higher risk for aneurysm include high blood pressure, infection, brain tumors, disease of the blood vessels. (cbsnews.com)
  • Oregon's death records show that the state had 16 cases of CJD between the beginning of 1991 and October 1995. (newscientist.com)
  • Wijdicks EF (1995) Determining brain death in adults. (springer.com)
  • Practice parameters for determining brain death in adults (summary statement) (1995) The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (springer.com)
  • Brain Death is a new, ambitious, and thoroughly researched work that draws heavily upon original research data but also is interspersed throughout with practical information for the practicing neurologist, neurointensivist, neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, trauma surgeon and organ procurement organizations. (ovid.com)
  • But it doesn't take a collision with another player for brain trauma to occur. (espn.com)
  • With millions of new dollars being allocated for brain trauma research, new animal models are needed to provide insights into the pathology of TBI and as a platform for testing new therapeutics and treatments. (jax.org)
  • The authors found no evidence of the large "delta blip" (the so-called " death wave "), an electrical phenomena which has been observed in rats following decapitation. (discovermagazine.com)
  • As a result of their infections, 24 people developed encephalitis, which is inflammation of the brain, and four of these people died from their infection. (livescience.com)
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain, caused by any one of a number of viruses, says the World Health Organisation. (reuters.com)
  • There were 1,273 deaths due to encephalitis in 2013 compared to 440 deaths from malaria and 193 from dengue, according to government statistics. (reuters.com)
  • Their argument is that although the Talmud seems to be concerned with respiration, breathing is merely the necessary test, but not the criterion for death. (myjewishlearning.com)
  • Brain death can occur when the blood and/or oxygen supply to the brain is stopped. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Jennifer Knight, prosecuting, said Eli suffered extensive brain damage consistent with shaking and caused by a prolonged period of insufficient oxygen to the brain. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The symptoms of brain ischemia reflect the anatomical region undergoing blood and oxygen deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Compression of blood vessels may also lead to brain ischemia, by blocking the arteries that carry oxygen to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Procedures for determining brain death in 41 U.S. hospitals vary widely and most deviate significantly from practice guidelines issued by the American Academy of Neurology, reported David M. Greer, M.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital, and colleagues online in Neurology . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Research partners Dr. Ted Dawson, Ph.D., now director of the Institute for Cell Engineering at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Valina Dawson, Ph.D., professor of neurology, and their research group conducted experiments on laboratory-grown cells to determine the culprit in the event chain that ultimately causes cell death. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'brain death. (merriam-webster.com)
  • According to ABC News, the photos are pretty damn gruesome -- with one report stating, "[Osama] has a massive head wound above his left eye where he took bullet, with brains and blood visible. (tmz.com)
  • We know that climbing Mount Everest is dangerous because more than 200 people have died trying to scale it, but never before has anyone studied these deaths with such a collaborative or fine-tooth approach," said University of Toronto Mississauga Physics professor Kent Moore, a co-author on the report. (redorbit.com)
  • Use these social-bookmarking links to share Brain swelling causes most Everest deaths . (abc.net.au)