A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries to an extracranial or intracranial blood vessel that supplies the brain. This includes the CAROTID ARTERIES; VERTEBRAL ARTERIES; MENINGEAL ARTERIES; CEREBRAL ARTERIES; veins, and venous sinuses.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Benzenesulfonate derivative used as a systemic hemostatic.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain sanguiin.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Performance of complex motor acts.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.

Unilateral neglect and disambiguation of the Necker cube. (1/706)

Three groups of patients (right brain-damaged patients with or without left neglect, and left brain-damaged patients) and a group of healthy subjects, matched for age and educational level to the three groups of patients, were asked to report which of the two frontal surfaces of Necker cubes oriented in four different ways looked, at first sight, nearer to the viewer. The extent to which, and the way in which, disambiguation of the apparent perspective of Necker cubes occurred was found to vary across the four orientations and to be different in left-neglect patients compared with subjects of the other three groups. With normal subjects, the disambiguating factor is suggested to be a disposition to perceive the upper surface, which is nearly orthogonal to the frontal plane, as external to the cube. This would result from a navigation of the observer's spatial attention towards its target along a particular path that is altered in patients suffering from left neglect. It is suggested that comparison of the paths followed by the attentional vectors of normal subjects and left-neglect patients is potentially fruitful for a better understanding of the brain's normal mechanisms of spatial attention and of unresolved issues concerning the perception of the Necker cube.  (+info)

Space representation in unilateral spatial neglect. (2/706)

Patients with unilateral brain lesions were given a task requiring exploration of space with the hand in order to assess the visual dependency of unilateral spatial neglect. The task was carried out both without visual control and under visual control. Performances were compared with that of normal subjects. Results were :(1) patients with right brain damage with no visual field defect demonstrated left-sided neglect only when the exploration was not controlled visually; (2) patients with left and right brain damage with visual field defect demonstrated contralateral neglect only when the exploration was under visual guidance. The performance of the patients with right brain damage without visual field defect in not clearly understood. The other results suggest that inner spatial representation remains intact in most cases of spatial neglect. The role of parietal lobe damage in the development of this visually induced phenomenon is hypothesised. The dominant position of vision among the senses is indicated.  (+info)

Predictive value of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta concentrations on outcome of full term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. (3/706)

AIM: To determine the predictive value of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) concentrations on the outcome of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in full term infants. METHODS: Thirty term infants with HIE were included in the study. HIE was classified according to the criteria of Sarnat and Sarnat. Blood and CSF were obtained within the first 24 hours of life and stored until assay. Five infants died soon after hypoxic insult. Neurological examinations and Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) were performed at 12 months in the survivors. RESULTS: At the age of 12 months neurological examination and DDST showed that 11 infants were normal; 14 had abnormal neurological findings and/or an abnormal DDST result. Eleven normal infants were classified as group 1 and 19 infants (14 with abnormal neurological findings and/or an abnormal DDST and five who died) as group 2. CSF IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha concentrations in group 2 were significantly higher than those in group 1. Plasma IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. IL-1 beta, but not TNF-alpha concentrations, in group 2 were even higher than those in group 1, although non-survivors were excluded from group 2. When the patients were evaluated according to the stages of Sarnat, the difference in the three groups was again significant. Patients whose CSF samples were taken within 6 hours of the hypoxic insult had higher IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha concentrations than the patients whose samples were taken after 6 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Both cytokines probably contribute to the damage sustained by the central nervous system after hypoxic insult. IL-1 beta seems to be a better predictor of HIE than TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes: incidence and outcomes in the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in unstable angina. Receptor suppression using integrilin therapy (PURSUIT) trial. The PURSUIT Investigators. (4/706)

BACKGROUND: The incidence of stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes has not been clearly defined because few trials in this patient population have been large enough to provide stable estimates of stroke rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the 10 948 patients with acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST-segment elevation who were randomly assigned to placebo or the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor eptifibatide in the Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT) trial to determine stroke rates, stroke types, clinical outcomes in patients with stroke, and independent baseline clinical predictors for nonhemorrhagic stroke. Stroke occurred in 79 (0.7%) patients, with 66 (0.6%) nonhemorrhagic, 6 intracranial hemorrhages, 3 cerebral infarctions with hemorrhagic conversion, and 4 of uncertain cause. There were no differences in stroke rates between patients who received placebo and those assigned high-dose eptifibatide (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 0.82 [0.59, 1.14] and 0.70 [0.49, 0.99], respectively). Of the 79 patients with stroke, 17 (22%) died within 30 days, and another 26 (32%) were disabled by hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever came first. Higher heart rate was the most important baseline clinical predictor of nonhemorrhagic stroke, followed by older age, prior anterior myocardial infarction, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, and diabetes mellitus. These factors were used to develop a simple scoring nomogram that can predict the risk of nonhemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke was an uncommon event in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PURSUIT trial. These strokes are, however, associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates. The majority of strokes were of nonhemorrhagic causes. Eptifibatide was not associated with an increase in intracranial hemorrhage, and no significant effect on nonhemorrhagic stroke was observed. We developed a useful nomogram for assigning baseline nonhemorrhagic stroke risk in this patient population.  (+info)

Postural characteristics of diabetic neuropathy. (5/706)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the posturographic correlates of diabetic neuropathy by comparing the performances of three groups of diabetic patients (severe, moderate, and absent neuropathy) with those of normal subjects and four clinical control groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Interactive Balance System (Tetrax, Ramat Gan, Israel), based on the assessment of the interaction of vertical pressure fluctuations on four independent platforms, one for each heel and toe part, respectively, posturographic examinations were given to 28 diabetic patients (8 with severe, 12 with moderate, and 8 with no peripheral neuropathy), 30 normal control subjects, and a clinical control group of 52 patients (14 with stage II Parkinson's disease, 13 with brain damage, 7 with whiplash, and 19 with peripheral vestibular pathology). The following posturographic parameters were evaluated; 1) general stability; 2) Fourier analysis showing patterns of sway intensity within eight frequency bands between 0.1 and 3 Hz; 3) weight distribution; 4) synchronization of sway; and 5) performance patterns for eight positions, requiring closure of eyes and standing on an elastic surface, as well as left, right, back, and downward head turns. RESULTS: For positions with closed eyes, diabetic patients with severe and moderate neuropathy were significantly less stable than normal subjects and diabetic patients without neuropathy, but diabetic patients with severe and moderate neuropathy turned out to be as equally unstable as clinical control subjects. However, for sway intensity within the band of 0.5 to 1.00 Hz on positions with lateral head turn with occluded vision, neuropathic diabetic patients performed significantly worse than did both normal and clinical control subjects. The same posturographic parameter also differed significantly between normal subjects and diabetic patients without neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: As reported in previous studies, general instability in diabetic neuropathy is not a sufficiently characteristic correlate of the syndrome. On the other hand, spectral analysis of sway on stressful positions involving head turning appears to differentiate diabetic neuropathy from other disorders involving postural disturbances.  (+info)

Language related brain potentials in patients with cortical and subcortical left hemisphere lesions. (6/706)

The role of the basal ganglia in language processing is currently a matter of discussion. Therefore, patients with left frontal cortical and subcortical lesions involving the basal ganglia as well as normal controls were tested in a language comprehension paradigm. Semantically incorrect, syntactically incorrect and correct sentences were presented auditorily. Subjects were required to listen to the sentences and to judge whether the sentence heard was correct or not. Event-related potentials and reaction times were recorded while subjects heard the sentences. Three different components correlated with different language processes were considered: the so-called N400 assumed to reflect processes of semantic integration; the early left anterior negativity hypothesized to reflect processes of initial syntactic structure building; and a late positivity (P600) taken to reflect second-pass processes including re-analysis and repair. Normal participants showed the expected N400 component for semantically incorrect sentences and an early anterior negativity followed by a P600 for syntactically incorrect sentences. Patients with left frontal cortical lesions displayed an attenuated N400 component in the semantic condition. In the syntactic condition only a late positivity was observed. Patients with lesions of the basal ganglia, in contrast, showed an N400 to semantic violations and an early anterior negativity as well as a P600 to syntactic violations, comparable to normal controls. Under the assumption that the early anterior negativity reflects automatic first-pass parsing processes and the P600 component more controlled second-pass parsing processes, the present results suggest that the left frontal cortex might support early parsing processes, and that specific regions of the basal ganglia, in contrast, may not be crucial for early parsing processes during sentence comprehension.  (+info)

Early neurobehavioral outcome after stroke is related to release of neurobiochemical markers of brain damage. (7/706)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study aimed to investigate the predictive value of neurobiochemical markers of brain damage (protein S-100B and neuron-specific enolase [NSE]) with respect to early neurobehavioral outcome after stroke. METHODS: We investigated 58 patients with completed stroke who were admitted to the stroke unit of the Department of Neurology at Magdeburg University. Serial venous blood samples were taken after admission and during the first 4 days, and protein S-100B and NSE were analyzed by the use of immunoluminometric assays. In all patients, lesion topography and vascular supply were analyzed and volume of infarcted brain areas was calculated. The neurological status was evaluated by a standardized neurological examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission, at days 1 and 4 on the stroke unit, at day 10, and at discharge from the hospital. Comprehensive neuropsychological examinations were performed in all patients with first-ever stroke event and supratentorial brain infarctions. Functional outcome was measured with the Barthel score at discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: NSE and protein S-100B concentrations were significantly correlated with both volume of infarcted brain areas and NIHSS scores. Patients with an adverse neurological outcome had a significantly higher and significantly longer release of both markers. Neuropsychological impairment was associated with higher protein S-100B release, but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations and kinetics of protein S-100B and NSE have a high predictive value for early neurobehavioral outcome after acute stroke. Protein S-100B concentrations at days 2 to 4 after acute stroke may provide valuable information for both neurological status and functional impairment at discharge from the acute care hospital.  (+info)

Cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia: problems, prospects, and strategies. (8/706)

Increasing awareness of the importance of neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia has fostered considerable interest in the prospects for cognitive rehabilitation. Nevertheless, optimism has outpaced progress. We first review recent literature on the central assumptions that underlie cognitive rehabilitation, including the hypothesis that cognitive deficits play a central role in social disability and other problems schizophrenia patients experience in daily living, and that these impairments must be rectified if we are to achieve effective rehabilitation. We next discuss developments in knowledge about the neurobiology of schizophrenia that bear on the potential for cognitive rehabilitation and the selection of appropriate targets for intervention. Third, we propose a new research strategy for investigating cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and for examining the relationship of cognitive deficits to role functioning in the community: examining patients who have good vocational outcomes in order to identify strengths or compensatory factors that compensate for core deficits. We present new data that lend support to our proposed approach. We next discuss putative limits to cognitive rehabilitation based on data documenting cognitive deficits in healthy siblings and parents. Finally, we briefly describe an interim rehabilitation strategy that minimizes the load on cognitive processes rather than attempting to improve cognitive functioning.  (+info)

List of 44 causes for Ophthalmoplegia in both eyes and Permanent brain damage, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
In turn-based games, permanent brain (also called pondering) is the act of thinking during the opponents turn. Turn-based games such as chess have a weakness: one of the players can spend too much time thinking. Time control solves this problem: each player receives a certain amount of time for thinking. If a player spends more than the allotted time, he or she loses. When a player thinks on his move, the opponent can relax. However, some players try to use the opponents time for thinking too. Some players use this time for long-term planning (strategy). Other players try to predict the opponents move and think about the next move. Players who are in time trouble use pondering particularly frequently. The strength of chess programs depends very much on the amount of time allocated for calculating. Many chess programs use pondering to improve their strength. Current programs cannot create strategic plans, so a program simply tries to predict the opponents move and begins to calculate its ...
Jaundice can often be quickly resolved in most babies by use phototherapy. In many cases, it clears up after therapy and the child is fine. In cases where it is not dealt with appropriately, however, it can lead to severe brain damage and a life-long injury.
TIA may be related to severe narrowing or blockage or from small pieces of an atherosclerotic plaque breaking off, traveling through the bloodstream, and lodging in small blood vessels in the brain. With TIA, there is rarely permanent brain damage.. Call for medical help immediately if you suspect a person is having a TIA, as it may be a warning sign that a stroke is about to occur. Not all strokes, however, are preceded by TIAs.. Stroke is another indicator of carotid artery disease. The symptoms of a stroke are the same as for a TIA. A stroke is loss of blood flow (ischemia) to the brain that continues long enough to cause permanent brain damage. Brain cells begin to die after just a few minutes without oxygen. The area of dead cells in tissues is called an infarct.. The area of the brain that suffered the loss of blood flow will determine what the physical or mental disability may be. This may include impaired ability with movement, speech, thinking and memory, bowel and bladder function, ...
Fri Jun 27,12:17 AM ET. By Deena Beasley LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - Smoking marijuana will certainly affect perception, but it does not cause permanent brain damage, researchers from the University of California at San Diego say. The findings were kind of a surprise. One might have expected to see more impairment of higher mental function, said Dr. Igor Grant, a UCSD professor of psychiatry and the studys lead author. Other illegal drugs, or even alcohol, can cause brain damage. His team analysed data from 15 previously published, controlled studies into the impact of long-term, recreational cannabis use on the neurocognitive ability of adults. The studies tested the mental functions of routine pot smokers, but not while they were actually high, Grant said. The results, published in the July issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, show that marijuana has only a marginally harmful long-term effect on learning and memory. No effect at all was seen on other functions, ...
Neuroimaging after brain injury, and its importance in the diagnosis of permanent brain damage is discussed. Brought to you by the Brain Injury Law Office.
Stroke most often occurs when blood flow to the brain stops because it is blocked by a blood clot. When a blood clot blocks the blood supply to the brain, parts of the brain may not get enough blood and oxygen to survive. As a result, permanent brain damage can occur, which can affect a persons ability to walk, talk, and function independently. In order to reduce the risk of permanent damage, it is important to restore blood flow to the brain as quickly as possible ...
Preview: At Mass, on the Fourth Sunday of Easter, I thought of my friend, whose recurrent encephalitis left her with permanent brain damage.
aggravated assault, assault with a weapon, break in enter- rendered victim unconcious and them brutally stomped head. Permanent brain damage ...
IziBook.eyrolles.com : Perinatal Brain Damage - From Pathogenesis to Neuroprotection - - De Luca A. Ramenghi, Philippe Evrard et Eugenio Mercuri (EAN13 : 9782742010226)
She has] global and irreversible brain damage, Cissy quoted the doctors.. Asher Taban, MD, neurosurgeon and Neurosurgical Director with Dignity Health Northridge Hospital in Northridge, California clarified the situation. Also known as global ischemia, global brain damage results from oxygen deprivation.. It means the entire brain - upper brain, lower brain, front, back - the whole area shows signs of inadequate oxygenation, explained the neurosurgeon.. But could she be listening to her grandmother or watching her father?. The person could have their eye open but have no communication, Taban said. It is something that we do see, that the people do have open eyes, but beyond that theres no communication.. But theres one person who is longing to communicate with Bobbi Kristina who has been banned from her hospital room, and thats her boyfriend Nick Gordon, as the Inquisitr reported.. Now out of rehab after a stay arranged by Dr. Phil, Gordon has been blocked from his girlfriends room by ...
Featured Brain Damage News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Brain Damage From The latimes (Page 3 of 5)
The Emerson College sophomore who suffered severe brain damage in a late-night fight in Allston Saturday died Wednesday afternoon, according to Daniel Hollis
Technical incompetence of an Indian doctor resulted in severe brain damage of an infant in UK 22 years ago. Damages are to be paid now by the NHS.
Generally speaking, the brain can withstand about three to six minutes without oxygen before brain damage occurs. If it doesnt...
Brain Damage: is an injury that causes the destruction or deterioration of brain cells. In the U.S., every year, about 2.6 million people have some type of
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Injury to the brain that impairs its functions (especially permanently); it can be caused by trauma to the head, infection, accidents etc ...
Johns Hopkins researchers recommend that COVID-19 patients undergo an MRI exam to determine whether they have neurological complications caused by the virus.
The attack by IS against Kurdish interests, an attack which finally made them a target for the neocons (as Khazars looking out for their Kurdish cousins), makes them look much less false-flaggy to me, and more like an independent entity looking for soft spots to build an empire ...
The much anticipated first child for Benish and Danial Khan, Amelia was delivered at Bankstown Hospital on 20 June, 2016. Shortly after her birth, Amelia was given what should have been oxygen, but was many weeks later revealed to have been nitrous oxide.. Its devastating as a parent to be told that your precious daughter has suffered permanent brain damage, Amelias parents said.. Amelia has been diagnosed with an irreversible brain injury which causes constant seizures. She is fed through a tube and requires a high level of constant care.. Benish and Danial Khan wish to express their deepest sympathy to the Ghanem family, whose newborn son, John was also administered nitrous oxide and tragically passed away.. We can only imagine the intense pain this family is going through and our hearts go out to them, Mr and Mrs Khan said.. We remain full of hope for Amelias future but we worry for her and want to do everything we can to make sure she has the best life she possibly can.. Maurice ...
Hospitalized brain-damaged patients were Ss in a study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment technique used with contingent reinforcement to facilitate acquisition and retention of environmentally relevant information. Ss were divided
Dennis E. Coates, PhD, shares insights about how substance abuse can disrupt development of the the brain, which could ultimately result in brain damage.
The research supported by this grant focused on the structure of high-level visual processing. Five types of research were conducted 1 We performed case studies of individual brain-damaged patients. We found evidence that curved edges are processed separately from straight edges and that location information sometimes can be used to encode some characteristics of shape. 2 We tested groups of brain-damaged patients with specific types of lesions. We found evidence that metric information may be used to encode spatial categories such as abovebelow, and that imagery may involve some structures that are intact even when the visual field is disrupted. 3 We developed a computerized visualspatial test battery, and administered it to a group of 19 brain-damaged patients. The results indicate that most of the visualspatial abilities we examined can be impaired independently, suggesting that at least some distinct subsystems carry out each ability. 4 We implemented computer models and found support for the
Traditionally, paediatricians have sought to reassure parents of children who have suffered a devastating brain injury that childrens brains are plastic, unlike adults, and that other areas will take over the function of damaged parts. This view has been challenged, and a group from Melbourne, Australia set out to answer the question (Anderson V, et al. Dev Med Child Neurol 2014;56:329-36). They identified 138 children with unequivocal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of focal brain damage, that might have occurred any time from early pregnancy to adolescence. The primary insult came from a … ...
A 33-year-old woman underwent neurologic and neuropsychological studies 26 years after she sustained damage to the frontal lobe. The findings of the neurologic examination were normal, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion in left prefrontal cortex and deep white matter. Cerebral blood fl …
Every year, around 450,000 Americans suffer a cardiac arrest. Of these, nearly 80% occur outside of the hospital setting, usually while the person is at home or at work. The death rate for these out-of-hospital cardiac arrests is at least 90% and of those who do survive, over half have permanent brain damage to some degree.
A four-year-old Manitoba girl suffered permanent brain damage after receiving a general anesthetic at the dentists office and going into cardiac arrest.
Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death, affecting about 700.000 individuals each year in Europe. Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and primary arrhythmia are the most common causes of CA, whereas respiratory arrest is a leading cause of secondary CA. Patients who have undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) often remain unconscious after hospital admission, either as a result of severe permanent brain damage or a merely reversible metabolic disturbance due to post-ischemic global reperfusion. Early prediction of neurological and cardiac outcome remains a difficult task for physicians. The decision to continue, limit or terminate intensive care therapy carries huge ethical and socioeconomic implications. Optimal emergency cardiovascular care, cardiac failure therapy and CA prevention after hospitalisation also remain difficult issues for cardiologists and intensive care doctors.. In this prospective study running from 2010, both prognostication and in-hospital treatment are studied ...
Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death, affecting about 700.000 individuals each year in Europe. Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and primary arrhythmia are the most common causes of CA, whereas respiratory arrest is a leading cause of secondary CA. Patients who have undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) often remain unconscious after hospital admission, either as a result of severe permanent brain damage or a merely reversible metabolic disturbance due to post-ischemic global reperfusion. Early prediction of neurological and cardiac outcome remains a difficult task for physicians. The decision to continue, limit or terminate intensive care therapy carries huge ethical and socioeconomic implications. Optimal emergency cardiovascular care, cardiac failure therapy and CA prevention after hospitalisation also remain difficult issues for cardiologists and intensive care doctors.. In this prospective study running from 2010, both prognostication and in-hospital treatment are studied ...
And when he returned to Caper′na-um after some days, it was reported that he was at home. And many were gathered together, so that there was no longer room for them, not even about the door; and he was preaching the word to them. And they came, bringing to him a paralytic carried by four men. And when they could not get near him because of the crowd, they removed the roof above him; and when they had made an opening, they let down the pallet on which the paralytic lay. And when Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, My son, your sins are forgiven. Now some of the scribes were sitting there, questioning in their hearts, Why does this man speak thus? It is blasphemy! Who can forgive sins but God alone? And immediately Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they thus questioned within themselves, said to them, Why do you question thus in your hearts? Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, Your sins are forgiven, or to say, Rise, take up your pallet and walk? But that you may ...
The symptoms of blood agent poisoning depend on concentration and duration. Cyanide-based blood agents irritate the eyes and the respiratory tract, while arsine is nonirritating.[2] Hydrogen cyanide has a faint, bitter, almond odor that only about half of all people can smell. Arsine has a very faint garlic odor detectable only at greater than fatal concentrations.[1] Exposure to small amounts of cyanide has no effect.[2] Higher concentrations cause dizziness, weakness and nausea, which cease with the exposure, but long-time exposure can cause mild symptoms followed by permanent brain damage and muscle paralysis.[2] Moderate exposure causes stronger and longer-lasting symptoms, including headache, that can be followed by convulsions and coma. Stronger or longer exposure will also lead to convulsions and coma. Very strong exposure causes severe toxic effects within seconds, and rapid death.[2] The blood of people killed by blood agents is bright red, because the agents inhibit the use of the ...
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THE DANGERS OF MICROWAVE 1. Continually eating food processed from a microwave oven causes long term - permanent - brain damage by shortening out electrical i
Related conditions - A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an ischemic stroke in which the blood flow is restored quickly and the symptoms disappear within 24 hours. In other words, its a mini-stroke that you recover from quickly. For most patients with a TIA, the symptoms last less than one hour. The longer the symptoms last, the more likely that there will be permanent brain tissue injury.
PERTUSSIS - Pertussis (whooping cough) may be mild or serious and is easily passed from person to person. Pertussis can cause spells of coughing and choking that make it hard to eat, drink or breathe. The coughing can last for weeks. Pertussis is most dangerous to babies under one year old. Babies with pertussis are so sick that nearly half must go to the hospital. About one baby in 100 with pertussis either dies or is left with permanent brain injury. Serious illness is less likely in older children and adults ...
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an ischemic stroke in which the blood flow is restored quickly and the symptoms disappear within 24 hours. In other words, its a mini-stroke that you recover from quickly. For most patients with a TIA, the symptoms last less than one hour. The longer the symptoms last, the more likely that there will be permanent brain tissue injury.
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Betty Part Nine - More Frontal Lobe Damage Issues: http://tbivoices.com/blog/uncategorized/particular-frontal-lobe-challenges-after-severe-brain-injury/
Pink Floyd, David Gilmour, Nick Masons Saucerful Of Secrets, and Roger Waters news as it happens, information, exclusive interviews, reviews, pictures, tour news, downloads and more!, The final days of Brain Damage Magazine (sob) when it disappeared, along with Jeff Jensen - if anyo....
Oxygen deprivation can be the worst start to a newborns life, resulting in brain damage, epilepsy, developmental delays and death. It affects millions...
Michael Evans, 28, of Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, suffered serious brain damage after he was hit in the head by Daniel Brzozowski, 21.
A new trial has revealed a simple dab of sugar gel on the inside of a newborns mouth can lower the risk of developmental brain damage.
Former NBA and reality TV star Lamar Odom suffered brain damage and at least one stroke and is on a ventilator after being found unconscious at a brothel.
Ex-MLB great Lenny Dykstra says he may have suffered brain damage from the alleged beating he took at the hands of corrupt cops during his stint in L.A. County jail ... and now he wants $15 MILLION to make things right.
Learn more about Anoxic Brain Damage at Sky Ridge Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Story of my life I get it too late I loose it I dont get it I lost it There is something missing in my brain Lots of frontal lobe damage I am told But I think it has always been so Am I...
Daniel, who suffers from tetraspasticity after infantile brain damage, used STIWELL Electrotherapy to strengthen his muscles and to improve muscle control.
Learn more about Anoxic Brain Damage at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
In contrast with previous studies, individuals with amygdala damage remembered faces looking to the side more than those looking towards them.
A stroke happens when a blood vessel in the brain is blocked or bursts. Without blood and the oxygen it carries, part of the brain starts to die. Then the part of the body controlled by that area of the brain cant work properly.. Brain damage can start within minutes of a stroke. But quick treatment can help limit brain damage and increase the chance of a full recovery. ...
A small protein that could protect the brain from stroke-induced injury has been discovered by researchers from the University of Queensland and Monash University.
What does extreme deprivation do to the brain? Charles Nelson has spent his career studying - and helping - children living in the worst possible circumstances
When he ended his life last year by shooting himself in the chest, Junior Seau had a degenerative brain disease often linked with repeated blows to...
(Please note: the names and locations of all parties have been changed to protect the confidentiality of the proceedings.) RISK OF ALZHEIMERS cont. In Neu - April 23, 2009
I also found out, HIUS to the bottom right of the chest clears diabetes - type 1 with a 3 day delay. HIUS to each side of the chest, throat, nose and glands under your chin clears all infections. Though some of the side effects carry on for 3 days ...
Every time your baby cries, and you dont respond, you break the fragile bond of trust between you. Thats the way I remember a line from a Dr. Sears ...
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A YOUNG man who suffered severe brain damage after he was deprived of oxygen at birth had a €4.25m settlement approved at the High Court yesterday.
Hey guys, just was curious on some tips or advice from other well informed people here. My most recent MRI scan showed some brain damage in my frontal...
We have to find a way to keep people safe while still giving them hope. We also need to try to protect them from the lasting brain damage that results from
What causes brain damage and inflammation in severe cases of Gaucher disease? Little is known about the events that lead to brain pathology in some forms of the disease, and there is currently no treatment available - a bleak outlook for sufferers and their families. Now, scientists at the Weizmann Institute of Science have discovered a new cellular pathway implicated in Gaucher disease.. ...
The official diagnosis - organic brain damage, Alzheimer's disease. Initially, the writer settled in very good conditions: a ... Chronic alcoholism. What did with Titarenko, a little reminiscent of the treatment. Every year, his condition only worsened. ...
... brain damage, and death. Haemophilic arthropathy is characterized by chronic proliferative synovitis and cartilage destruction ... Bleeding into a joint can result in permanent damage while bleeding in the brain can result in long term headaches, seizures, ... Rapid treatment of bleeding episodes decreases damage to the body. Factor VIII is used in haemophilia A and factor IX in ... Bleeding into soft tissues such as muscles and subcutaneous tissues is less severe but can lead to damage and requires ...
Harmful chemicals damage the blood-brain barrier. Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain) occurs due to leakage of large ... Acquired Mitochondropathy-A New Paradigm in Western Medicine Explaining Chronic Diseases). The fact that the ischemic cascade ... This "vasogenic edema" causes compression of and damage to brain tissue (Freye 2011; ... If and when the brain is reperfused, a number of factors lead to reperfusion injury. An inflammatory response is mounted, and ...
It can have a variety of long-term adverse effects on health, for instance liver damage, brain damage, and increased risk of ... Chronic alcohol abusers are at additional risk for brain injury from related causes, such as poor nutrition, liver disease, and ... Prolonged heavy consumption of alcohol can cause significant permanent damage to the brain and other organs. Alcohol can cause ... The brain is a major target for the actions of alcohol, and heavy alcohol consumption has long been associated with brain ...
... his brain was donated to research in sports-related brain damage. His brain, unlike others, showed no evidence of chronic ... Sean Fitz-Gerald (26 July 2011). "Researchers find degenerative disease in brains donated by CFL players". National Post. ... Tony Care (26 July 2011). "Donated CFL brains show concussion-related disease". CBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2012. Tony ...
Olbrich R, Watzl H, Völter M, Siedow H (March 1991). "Lithium in the treatment of chronic alcoholic patients with brain damage ...
An eclamptic convulsion usually does not cause chronic brain damage unless intracranial haemorrhage occurs. The hallmark ... Such disorders include seizure disorders as well as brain tumor, aneurysm of the brain, and medication- or drug-related ... These may be signs that the brain is swelling (cerebral edema) or bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). Eclampsia, like pre- ... and the amount of oxygen reaching the woman's body and brain will be decreased (in a state known as hypoxia). If it becomes ...
"Study: Junior Seau's brain shows chronic brain damage found in other NFL football players". ESPN.com. January 11, 2013. ... it was discovered after his death that he suffered from chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) as a result of the numerous head ...
This delayed neurodegeneration could be associated with chronic brain damage that follows a stroke. Studies have found that ... These areas of the brain that suffer the most damage at these stages. The increase in quinolinic acid correlates with the early ... Brain ischemia is characterized by insufficient blood flow to the brain. Studies with ischaemic gerbils indicate that, after a ... Quinolinic acid has also been found in HAND patients' brains. In fact, the amount of quinolinic acid found in the brain of HAND ...
Relatives would later question if this caused Brian to have brain damage; as a youth Brian suffered severe headaches followed ... Brian was also a chronic bed wetter, a condition his adult father also suffered from. Brian showed classic symptoms of ... Taylor, Matthew (2011-11-14). "Psychopaths: Born Evil or with a Diseased Brain?". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-07-25. Gutowsk, ...
Alcoholism is a chronic problem. However, if managed properly, damage to the brain can be stopped and to some extent reversed. ... Brain. Oxford University Press. 130 (1): 36-47. doi:10.1093/brain/awl303. PMID 17178742. Retrieved 7 Aug 2013. Morse, RM; ... Upon analyzing the brains of these two strains of rats, it was discovered that there were differences in chemical composition ... However, with recent advances in neuroscience, it is clear that dependence is as much a disorder of the brain as any other ...
The reason that chronic sustained alcoholism is thought by some researchers to be less brain damaging than binge drinking is ... regular binge drinking in the long-term is thought to be more likely to result in brain damage than chronic (daily) alcoholism ... "Biochemical and neurotransmitter changes implicated in alcohol-induced brain damage in chronic or 'binge drinking' alcohol ... The findings of kindling in alcoholism is consistent with the mechanism of brain damage due to binge drinking and subsequent ...
Stress can cause acute and chronic changes in certain brain areas which can cause long-term damage. Over-secretion of stress ... Chronic stress can affect the brain structure and cognition. Studies considered the effects of stress on both intrinsic and ... Chronic stress is a stressor that is ongoing for a long period of time. When chronic stress is experienced, our body is in a ... A case of sociopathy". Brain. 123 (6): 1122-1141. doi:10.1093/brain/123.6.1122. Woodson, J. C.; Macintosh, D.; Flesner, M.; ...
... has the propensity to result in brain damage faster as well as more severely than chronic drinking (alcoholism ... Extreme binge drinking can lead to brain damage faster and more severely than chronic drinking (alcoholism). The neurotoxic ... The tolerance that occurs during chronic ('non-stop') drinking delays alcohol-related brain damage compared to binge drinking, ... "Biochemical and neurotransmitter changes implicated in alcohol-induced brain damage in chronic or 'binge drinking' alcohol ...
Lead - can cause damage to the nervous connections as well as blood and brain disorders. Specific diseases include nephropathy ... ISBN 978-0-415-70040-5. Ngim, CH; Foo, SC; Boey, K.W.; Keyaratnam, J (1992). "Chronic neurobehavioral effects of elemental ... and evidence of damage to the lung tissue. Zinc - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that zinc damages ... PCBs - People exposed to high levels of PCBs can exhibit skin conditions, such as rashes and liver damage. Common symptoms ...
These can lead to brain and kidney damage. Chronic exposure can cause losses in bone density, weight loss, and on a more ... It can cause damage to the liver and other major organs as well. Fluoride can cause nausea, vomiting, as well as causing upset ...
... alcohol-related brain damage and cognitive deficits. Chronic alcohol misuse and kindling via multiple alcohol withdrawals may ... Chronic use of alcohol leads to changes in brain chemistry especially in the GABAergic system. Various adaptations occur such ... Thus the acute withdrawal syndrome appears to be the most important factor in causing damage or impairment to brain function. ... It has been proposed that brain damage due to alcohol withdrawal may be prevented by the administration of NMDA antagonists, ...
Reactivation of the JC virus usually results in death or severe brain damage. At least one patient with rheumatoid arthritis ... "Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... Castro-Marrero, J; Sáez-Francàs, N; Santillo, D; Alegre, J (March 2017). "Treatment and management of chronic fatigue syndrome/ ...
Initially a "young chronic sick" unit was set up, mainly dealing with young people suffering from catastrophic brain damage. By ...
Permanent brain damage may occur due to cerebral hypoxia or opioid-induced neurotoxicity. Although opioid overdose accounts for ... Dependence on prescription opioids can occur from their use to treat chronic pain. Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms. ... Prolonged hypoxia from respiratory depression can also lead to detrimental damage to the brain and spinal cord and can leave ... and permanent brain damage. Risk factors for opioid overdose include opioid dependence, injecting opioids, using high doses of ...
This is brought on by a change in the brain caused by brain damage or adaptation from chronic drug use. In humans, addiction is ... The reward pathway, also called the mesolimbic system of the brain, is the part of the brain that registers reward and pleasure ... Excitatory synapses in brain slices from the VTA taken 24 hours after a single cocaine exposure showed an increase in AMPA ... These structural changes only last 7-10 days, however, indicating that the VTA cannot be the only part of the brain that is ...
... and listening and results from brain damage. It is often a chronic condition that creates changes in all areas of one's life. ... High Resolution MR Imaging of the Brains of Leborgne and Lelong". Brain. 130 (Pt 5): 1432-1441. doi:10.1093/brain/awm042. PMID ... The correlation between damage to certain specific brain areas (usually in the left hemisphere) and the development of specific ... high resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong". Brain. 130 (5): 1432-1441. doi:10.1093/brain/awm042. ISSN ...
In addition, high fat diets cause chronic low-grade inflammation in the placenta, adipose, liver, brain, and vascular system. ... This inflammation is also often associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, brain damage, as well as ... This chronic low-grade inflammation is commonly seen in obese individuals on high fat diets. In a mice model, excessive ... However, chronic low-grade inflammation has been linked to long-term consequences such as cardiovascular disease, renal failure ...
The conclusions of the study show that brain damage from chronic uranium intoxication is possible at lower doses than ... One person died; while a few workers with higher exposure experienced short-term kidney damage (e.g., protein in the urine), ... Briner W.; Murray J. (2005). "Effects of short-term and long-term depleted uranium exposure on open-field behavior and brain ... Normal functioning of the kidney, brain, liver, heart, and numerous other systems can be affected by exposure to uranium, a ...
"Ex-Hull City star Alan Jarvis 'has brain damage from heading footballs', family says". Hull Daily Mail. 6 December 2014. ... His daughter was quoted as saying her family believed he was suffering from Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). List of ...
... and brain damage.[12] Effects outside the liver[change , change source]. Hepatitis C can also cause some rare problems ( ... chronic Hepatitis C can sometimes clear up on its own, without treatment.[6] Doctors suggest that people with chronic Hepatitis ... A test called a liver biopsy can show whether a person's liver has been damaged, or how badly it has been damaged, by Hepatitis ... Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Advances in Treatment, Promise for the Future. Springer Verlag. 2011. p. 4. ISBN 9781461411918. .. ...
Retrograde is usually caused by head trauma or brain damage to parts of the brain besides the hippocampus. The hippocampus is ... The damage is usually caused by head trauma, cerebrovascular accident, stroke, tumor, hypoxia, encephalitis, or chronic ... The brain damage can be caused by the effects of long-term alcoholism, severe malnutrition, stroke, head trauma, encephalitis, ... It is caused by brain damage due to a vitamin B1 deficiency and will be progressive if alcohol intake and nutrition pattern are ...
... dyssemia is not an anxiety or phobia when it applies to NLD or specific brain damage, for example to the right hemisphere. ... Chronic dyssemia is a condition that some neurologists term social-emotional processing disorder (SEPD). Dyssemia is considered ... Phillips, M. (2004). "Facial processing deficits and social dysfunction: How are they related?", Brain 127(8) pp. 1691-1692. ...
... is a form of small vessel vascular dementia caused by damage to the white brain matter. White matter atrophy can be caused by ... Chronic hypertension is known to cause changes in the tension of the smooth wall vessels and changes in the vessel diameter. ... The best way to manage the vascular risk factors that contribute to poor perfusion in the brain is to treat the cause, such as ... Many researchers have divided the MRIs of the brain into different sections or quadrants. A score is given to each section ...
The higher levels of the HPA axis in response to chronic stress can also cause damage to the hippocampus region of the brain. ... Chronic stress was found to decrease the levels of a number of HMTs, such as G9a, in the NAc of susceptible mice. Conversely, ... After chronic stress, there are a number of changes that result in the reduction of GDNF levels in the NAc. This decrease is ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic growth factor that is important for the growth and survival of ...
Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J ... Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial ... nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord become sensitized by peripheral tissue damage or inflammation.[10] ... Robinson TE, Berridge KC (1993). "The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction". Brain Res ...
Chronic graft-versus-host disease may also develop after allogeneic transplant. It is the major source of late treatment- ... Unlike other organs, bone marrow cells can be frozen (cryopreserved) for prolonged periods without damaging too many cells. ... Graft versus tumor is mainly beneficial in diseases with slow progress, e.g. chronic leukemia, low-grade lymphoma, and in some ... In addition to inflammation, chronic graft-versus-host disease may lead to the development of fibrosis, or scar tissue, similar ...
Reactivation of the JC virus usually results in death or severe brain damage.[33] ... Chronic fatigue syndromeEdit. Rituximab did not improve symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in a trial published ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. ...
Marchand F, Perretti M, McMahon SB (July 2005). "Role of the immune system in chronic pain". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6 (7): 521-32 ... February 2003). "Cytokine-induced sickness behavior". Brain Behav. 17 (Suppl 1): S112-8. doi:10.1016/S0889-1591(02)00077-6. ... Hyperalgesia is similar to other sorts of pain associated with nerve irritation or damage such as allodynia and neuropathic ... Opioid-induced hyperalgesia may develop as a result of long-term opioid use in the treatment of chronic pain.[3] Various ...
People who survive nerve agent poisoning almost always have chronic damage to the brain and nerves. This damage can also cause ... Basically, the brain loses control over the body's muscles. It cannot make the muscles relax. This leads to many of the unique ... Nerve agents work by blocking communication between the brain and the body. Usually, a neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger) ... They stop messages from the brain from getting sent to the muscles and organs. ...
For him, this was an example of normally suppressed brain functions being released by damage to others".[44] Sacks had a ... For example, a patient with chronic pain may decrease the physiological result of stress and draw attention away from the pain ... trying to understand how the brain works. He concluded that people with some type of frontal lobe damage often "produced not ... J., Levitin, Daniel (2007). This is your brain on music : the science of a human obsession. ISBN 978-0452288522. . OCLC ...
A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.[2] Dislocations can occur in ... the ligaments keeping the bones fixed in the correct position can be damaged or loosened, making it easier for the joint to be ...
BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... Pregnant rats eating BaP were shown to negatively effect the brain function in the late life of their offspring; at a time when ... In experiments with male rats, sub-chronic exposure to inhaled BaP has been shown to generally reduce the function of testicles ... Pfeifer GP, Denissenko MF, Olivier M, Tretyakova N, Hecht SS, Hainaut P. Tobacco smoke carcinogens, DNA damage and p53 ...
Cortisol is a major stress hormone and has effects on many tissues in the body, including the brain. In the brain, cortisol ... The relationship between chronic stress and its concomitant activation of the HPA axis, and dysfunction of the immune system is ... This helps to protect the organism from a lethal overactivation of the immune system, and minimizes tissue damage from ... Anatomical connections between brain areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus facilitate ...
Cortical blindness results from injuries to the occipital lobe of the brain that prevent the brain from correctly receiving or ... which is the damage or loss of vision in one eye.[40] In the best case scenario, which is very rare, properly treated amblyopia ... chronic hyperglycemia, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic nephropathy).[42] Despite the fact that only 8% of adults 40 years and ... This is due to the fact the object needs to be approached and carefully felt until a rough idea can be constructed in the brain ...
They are hepatotoxic and can cause serious damage to the liver in humans.[25] In this way they are similar to the nodularins ( ... Research suggests both acute and chronic mechanisms of toxicity.[50][51] BMAA is being investigated as a potential ... As a result, the muscle cells contract permanently, the communication between the brain and the muscles is disrupted and ... Like the microcystin family (above), nodularins are potent hepatotoxins and can cause serious damage to the liver. They present ...
DNA damage[edit]. Marking sites of DNA damage is an important function for histone modifications. It also protects DNA from ... "Brain Res. 1628 (Pt A): 157-73. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.11.005. PMC 4427550. PMID 25446457.. ... Methamphetamine addiction occurs in about 0.2% of the US population.[111] Chronic methamphetamine use causes methylation of the ... H3S10 phosphorylation has also been linked to DNA damage caused by R-loop formation at highly transcribed sites.[100]. ...
Development of chronic disease has become closely related to the consumption of fruits and vegetables throughout childhood ( ... As a child the body requires iodine for brain and bone development. Fruit and vegetables grown in iodine rich soils provide the ... study suggesting that good nutrition as a child decreases lung damage as an adult as well as having a large influencing factor ... A 2007 study by Boeing et al., explored common chronic lifestyle diseases including diabetes type 2 mellitus, obesity, ...
"Impact of genomic damage and ageing on stem cell function". Nat. Cell Biol. 16 (3): 201-7. 2014. doi:10.1038/ncb2928. PMC ... "Application of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in six patients with advanced chronic critical limb ischemia as a ... ISRAEL21c: Israeli scientists reverse brain birth defects using stem cells December 25, 2008. (Researchers from the Hebrew ...
F06.9) Unspecified mental disorder due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical disease *Organic brain syndrome NOS ... F95.1) Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder. *(F95.2) Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder (Gilles de la Tourette) ... F62) Enduring personality changes, not attributable to brain damage and disease. *(F63) Habit and impulse disorders *(F63.0) ... F06) Other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical disease *(F06.0) Organic hallucinosis ...
BDNF can promote protective pathways and inhibit damaging pathways in the NSCs and NPCs that contribute to the brain's ... Atrophy of the hippocampus and other limbic structures has been shown to take place in humans suffering from chronic depression ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. BDNF was first isolated from pig brain in 1982 by Yves-Alain ...
... and induce their degranulation that can damage endothelial cells. In theory, this phenomenon could cause extensive damage to ... Kidney: rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (75%), leading to chronic kidney failure. *Upper airway, eye and ear disease: * ... Heart, gastrointestinal tract, brain, other organs: rarely affected.. CausesEdit. The cause of GPA is unknown, although ... Kuan, EC; Suh, JD (February 2017). "Systemic and Odontogenic Etiologies in Chronic Rhinosinusitis". Otolaryngologic Clinics of ...
... penetrating ballistic brain injury [PBBI], or blast overpressure wave brain injury [OBI]). (8) The biomarker should be ... Biomarkers for precision oncology are typically utilized in the molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia, colon, ... and synapses are also subjected to TBI-induced damage [18,19]. Similarly, not only are neurons at risk for injury, but also ... Traumatic Brain Injury biomarkersEdit. Investigation of potential copyright issue. Please note this is about the text of this ...
A 2015 review found that moderate to severe traumatic brain injury is a risk factor for ALS, but whether mild traumatic brain ... The parts of the body affected by early symptoms of ALS depend on which motor neurons in the body are damaged first.[39] ... Gardner A, Iverson G, McCrory P (January 2014). "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in sport: a systematic review". British ... doi:10.1093/brain/awq290. PMID 20959307.. *^ Eisen A (2002). "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A review". BCMJ. 44 (7): 362-366. ...
Blood-brain barrier. endothelial cells (via passive diffusion/ osmosis & active selection). P-glycoprotein (mechanism by which ... Bacteria and fungi may form complex biofilms, protecting from immune cells and proteins; biofilms are present in the chronic ... but may also damage tissue during an allergic reaction. Activation and release of toxins by eosinophils are, therefore, tightly ... such as the blood-brain barrier, which protects the extremely vital and highly sensitive nervous system from pathogens that ...
Abel EL, Jacobson S, Sherwin BT (1983). "In utero alcohol exposure: Functional and structural brain damage". Neurobehavioral ... 22.0 22.1 Jones, K.L., Smith, D.W, Ulleland, C.N., Streissguth, A.P. (1973). Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic ... Ratey, J.J. (2001). A User's Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention, and the Four Theaters of the Brain. New York: Vintage ... 52.0 52.1 Buxton, B. (2005). Damaged Angels: An Adoptive Mother Discovers the Tragic Toll of Alcohol in Pregnancy. New York: ...
Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder partially caused by the cell death of brain and brain stem cells in many ... Autophagy degrades damaged organelles, cell membranes and proteins, and the failure of autophagy is thought to be one of the ... Necrosis and chronic inflammation also has been shown to be limited through autophagy which helps protect against the formation ... Macroautophagy is the main pathway, used primarily to eradicate damaged cell organelles or unused proteins.[30] First the ...
"Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 49: 32-42. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.04.001. PMC 4567432. PMID 25911043.. ... chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus. • cellular response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of ... intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage. • positive regulation of protein localization to cell surface ... positive regulation of chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus. • negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host ...
This DNA damage is caused by one of two types of energy, photon or charged particle. This damage is either direct or indirect ... This is a concern during treatment of brain tumors and brain metastases, especially where there is pre-existing raised ... Damage to the epithelial surfaces[11]. Epithelial surfaces may sustain damage from radiation therapy. Depending on the area ... Single-strand DNA damage is then passed on through cell division; damage to the cancer cells' DNA accumulates, causing them to ...
... underscoring the chronic, progressive nature of AD, and the variability of methylation in AD brains. ... The parts of the body affected by early symptoms of ALS depend on which motor neurons in the body are damaged first, usually ... a brain-derived neurotrophic factor that function in nerve growth and maintenance within the brain.[86][20]. *Vorinostat (SAHA) ... in human AD brain, while other studies have shown upregulation or downregulation of miRNA-9 in brain.[61]. DNA methylation. In ...
Virchow skull breaker, a chisel-like device used to separate the calvaria from the rest of the skull to expose the brain in ... They found that the larynx was extensively damaged due to ulcer, and microscopic examination confirmed epidermal carcinoma. Die ... and his theory came to be known as chronic irritation theory. He thought, rather wrongly, that the irritation spread in the ... that surround blood vessels for a short distance as they enter the brain ...
Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 71 (2): 349-53. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(99)00193-X. PMID 10521590.. ... chronic wasting disease (CWD) which affects cervids; and in humans: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), fatal familial insomnia ( ... and are the most damaging to the integrity of a neuron.[54] The precise mechanism of soluble Aβ oligomers directly inducing ... Brain Res. 162 (2): 173-81. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2005.02.003. PMID 15970215.. ...
Taste messages are sent via these cranial nerves to the brain. The brain can distinguish between the chemical qualities of the ... Crohn's disease is a common chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can affect any part of the GI tract,[45] but it ... As these two chemicals would damage the stomach wall, mucus is secreted by innumerable gastric glands in the stomach, to ... The brain has to decide very quickly whether the food should be eaten or not. It was the findings in 1991, describing the first ...
Tomolillo, CM; Crothers, LJ; Aberson, CL (2007). "The damage done: a study of injection drug use, injection related abscesses ... brain, teeth, kidneys, and tonsils. Major complications are spreading of the abscess material to adjacent or remote tissues, ... Chronic lymphangitis. *Recurrent toxin-mediated perineal erythema. *Tick-borne lymphadenopathy. *Tropical ulcer ...
Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Brain Damage From The latimes (Page 3 of 5) ... died of complications from chronic seizures, his family disclosed Friday. Rodecker was 22 when he died June 17. About four ... A race car driver who was injured seriously in a racing accident one week ago has suffered extensive brain damage, a W.A. Foote ... Contrary to popular belief, most brain damage in premature babies is caused by infections, not a lack of oxygen, researchers at ...
... demonstrated that chronic high fat cholesterol diet in rats exhibited pathologies similar to Alzheimers disease. The results ... It needs to be determined in future studies how mild chronic microvascular bleedings, silent strokes and mild blood-brain ... It can be speculated that chronic mild cerebrovascular damage caused and potentiated by different vascular risk factors ( ... A third hypothesis suggests that chronic long-lasting mild cerebrovascular damage, including inflammatory processes and ...
It needs to be determined in future studies how mild chronic microvascular bleedings, silent strokes and mild blood-brain ... It can be speculated that chronic mild cerebrovascular damage caused and potentiated by different vascular risk factors ( ... A third hypothesis suggests that chronic long-lasting mild cerebrovascular damage, including inflammatory processes and ... Alzheimers disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain that is characterized by loss of memory and cognitive ...
Junior Seau suffered from the type of chronic brain damage that also has been found in dozens of deceased former players, three ... suffered from the type of chronic brain damage that has also been found in dozens of deceased former players, five brain ... Junior Seaus family talks exclusivly to ABC News and ESPN about the brain damage their father suffered. (3:04) ... told ABC News and ESPN in an exclusive interview they were informed last week that Seaus brain had tested positive for chronic ...
Repeated Head Hits, Not Just Concussions, May Lead To A Type Of Chronic Brain Damage By Tom Goldman • Jan 18, 2018 ... Weve heard about the possible link between concussion and the degenerative brain disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. A ... the brain rattles around inside the skull and the possible link between concussions and the degenerative brain disease chronic ... and that poor guy cant feel the damage thats happening in his brain right now." ...
Chronic,brain,damage,not,as,prevalent,in,NFL,players,,say,researchers,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical ... Our results indicated that there were brain lesions and cognitive imp...The players in the study had an average of 6.8 years of ... Chronic brain damage not as prevalent in NFL players, say researchers. ...ROSEMONT IL A study published online today in Sports ... Chronic cocaine use triggers changes in brains neuron structure. 4. Chronic Heartburn May Boost Risk for Esophageal Cancer. 5. ...
... * ... Yet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed extensive sub-cortical brain damage. A brain biopsy showed marked vacuolating/ ... It took over seven months before the illness was attributed by his parents, both of whom were physicians, to brain damage. Even ... Four years into this illness, she had an acute exacerbation with coma and massive brain damage (32). Her cerebrospinal fluid ...
Protective effect of Xingnaojia formulation on rats with brain and liver damage caused by chronic alcoholism.. [Shuang Li, S U ... These results indicate that XNJ exhibited a protective effect against brain and liver damage in rats with chronic alcoholism. ... learning ability and memory of rats with chronic alcoholism and to verify the mechanism by which it protects the brain and ... A rat model of chronic alcoholism was used in the study. The spatial learning ability and memory of the rats were tested. The ...
... chronic heavy drinking can cause insidious damage to the brain, even in people who never seem intoxicated or obviously addicted ... Chronic Heavy Drinking Can Cause Insidious Damage To The Brain, 0 votes Author:. 5-HT2A. Category:. Health. Views:. 995. ... Chronic Heavy Drinking Can Cause Insidious Damage To The Brain. By 5-HT2A, Jan 3, 2016 , Updated: Jan 3, 2016 , 1 Comments , ... chronic heavy drinking can cause insidious damage to the brain, even in people who never seem intoxicated or obviously addicted ...
... that people with frequent migraine headaches or a long history of migraines are at an increased risk of progressive brain ... damage, according to research published in the most recent issue of Headache, the journal of t ... Chronic or Frequent Migraines Increase Risk of Brain Damage. By: June Chen, MD ... people with frequent migraine headaches or a long history of migraines are at an increased risk of progressive brain damage, ...
Countless teenage girls suffer paralysis, blood clots, brain damage and chronic pain from force-vaccination of Gardasils HPV " ... That means the aluminum has a heightened chance of crossing the blood/brain barrier. Got brain damage? No wonder. The following ... brain damage and chronic pain from force-vaccination of Gardasils HPV "shot in the dark",/a,. ... www.naturalnews.com/2017-03-17-countless-teenage-girls-suffer-paralysis-blood-clots-brain-damage-and-chronic-pain-from-force- ...
Scientists believe they have solid evidence that repeated direct hits to the head can cause the degenerative brain disease seen ... Repeated Head Hits, Not Just Concussions, May Lead To A Type Of Chronic Brain Damage. This content is provided by National ... the brain rattles around inside the skull and the possible link between concussions and the degenerative brain disease chronic ... and that poor guy cant feel the damage thats happening in his brain right now." ...
Pharmacological Strategies Against Glucocorticoid-mediated Brain Damage During Chronic Disorders. Author(s): Antonio Martocchia ... Pharmacological Strategies Against Glucocorticoid-mediated Brain Damage During Chronic Disorders", Recent Patents on CNS Drug ... The article presented some promising patents on the strategies against glucocorticoid-mediated brain damage. ... The article presented some promising patents on the strategies against glucocorticoid-mediated brain damage. ...
... causes damage to critical brain neurons. Researchers report that mice ... Chronic stress makes us worn-out, anxious, depressed, and according to a new study, ... Home Nutrition News Aging Acetyl L-Carnitine Protects Brain Cells From Damaging Effects of Chronic Stress and... ... Chronic stress makes us worn-out, anxious, depressed, and according to a new study, causes damage to critical brain neurons. ...
... were evaluated in the whole brain. Our data showed that the animals received chronic stress had a raised immobility time versus ... chronic stress diminished the number of crossing in the animals that were subjected to the chronic stress versus the non- ... The current research focused the protective effect of carnosol against the brain injury induced by the restraint stress. The ... Oxidative stress through chronic stress destroys the brain function. There are many documents have shown that carnosol may have ...
Chronic pot smokers beware. A new study found that regularly smoking marijuana may lower cognitive function, especially if the ... Early and Chronic Marijuana Use May Damage Brain Function, Says Study. * By Mikaela Conley ... Study authors from Harvard-affiliated McLean Hospital wanted to examine the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain function ... "The brain is much more vulnerable to insults like this sort while it is developing and they will need to do a bigger study ...
Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with brain disorders / John M. Freeman, editor.. by Freeman, John M , National ...
... published in the New England Journal of Medicine this week offer additional evidence that a new device may help relieve chronic ... In this interview, Professor Paul Tesar and Kevin Allan speak to News-Medical about how low levels of oxygen damage the brain. ... How do low levels of oxygen damage the brain?. Professor Paul Tesar and Kevin Allan ... The magnetic beads interfere with the machine and can cause the device to be damaged and the patient to be injured. ...
The combination of more Americans reporting daily chronic pain and the rapidly increasing prevalence of opioid misuse and ... In this interview, Professor Paul Tesar and Kevin Allan speak to News-Medical about how low levels of oxygen damage the brain. ... How do low levels of oxygen damage the brain?. Professor Paul Tesar and Kevin Allan ... Daily chronic pain, opioid use disorder add to the challenges of relieving pain among patients. *Download PDF Copy ...
Running Sharpens Memory, Offsets Damage To Brain From Chronic Stress From www. .studyfinds. .org - February 23, 7:21 AM ... it also helps the brain preserve memory when its under attack by chronic stress.. ... A new study finds that eating a whole fresh avocado every day could lead to better brain and eye function in healthy older ...
Chronic Trauma Can Cause Long-Term Brain Damage. Research shows that victims of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ... Combat troops are also twice as likely to experience mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) short term loss of consciousness or ... Good Mood is Linked to a Neurotransmitter in the Brain Called Glutamate Mindfulness Meditation can Prevent Major Depression ...
Low Doses of THC Can Halt Brain Damage 31.05.2013 , Health and Medicine , Read more ... Quick search for the keyword chronic ailment. The quick search will display at most 3 articles for the keyword chronic ailment: ... Basal cell carcinoma risk can be chronic 26.07.2012 , Health and Medicine , Read more ...
Cell-damage; Brain-disorders; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Gene-mutation; Genes; Proteins; Genetic-factors; Chronic- ...
Pioneering treatment for chronic bacterial vaginosis Oct 20, 7:00 am Mild traumatic brain injury can damage blood-brain barrier ... Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic disease caused by parasitic worms. The World Health Organization estimates that at ...
Chronic arthritis. *Brain and nerve damage. *Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) resulting in kidney failure ...
The Link Between Nightshades, Chronic Pain and Inflammation. 731,586 views. Frankincense Superior to Chemotherapy in Killing ... gut-brain axis), the concept that gluten-containing grains can damage the human brain is beginning to be taken more seriously ... it is no wonder that gluten-associated damage to the gut - sometimes called the "enteric brain," or "second brain," - could ... But it does add renewed focus to the topic of wheat and glutens brain-damaging and/or mind-altering properties. Here are some ...
... collection of blood and blood breakdown products between the surface of the brain and its outermost covering (the dura). The ... Permanent brain damage. *Persistent symptoms, such as anxiety, confusion, difficulty paying attention, dizziness, headache, and ... A chronic subdural hematoma is an "old" collection of blood and blood breakdown products between the surface of the brain and ... A collection of blood then forms over the surface of the brain. In a chronic subdural collection, blood leaks from the veins ...
... and germs between the outer covering of the brain and spinal cord and the bones of the skull or spine. The abscess causes ... Brain damage. *Bone infection (osteomyelitis). *Chronic back pain. *Meningitis (infection of the membranes covering the brain ... Surgery is also often needed to reduce pressure on the spinal cord or brain, if there is weakness or damage to the nerves. ... An epidural abscess is a collection of pus (infected material) and germs between the outer covering of the brain and spinal ...
How chronic stress changes the brain - and what you can do to reverse the damage * The Conversation ...
How chronic stress changes the brain - and what you can do to reverse the damage * The Conversation ...
... and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. In a subgroup of ... of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. ... Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using ... large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage ...
  • Combat troops are also twice as likely to experience mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) short term loss of consciousness or altered mental state following a head injury or blast explosion as those not deployed in combat. (medindia.net)
  • And microRNAs offer a promising way to assess concussions in adults as well as children, says Bhomia, whose research involves a range of "biomarkers" for traumatic brain injury. (kpbs.org)
  • This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. (springer.com)
  • 2015). Clinical and imaging assessment of acute combat mild traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan. (springer.com)
  • Traumatic brain injury and stroke: does recovery differ? (bioportfolio.com)
  • Symptoms of CTE may begin with persistent symptoms of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) following a documented episode of brain trauma or after a latent period that may range from days to weeks to months and years, up to 40 years following a documented episode of brain trauma or cessation of repetitive TBI. (karger.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain that is characterized by loss of memory and cognitive decline. (elsevier.com)
  • Atypically structured, vacuolating cytopathic stealth viruses exist and can induce multi-system illnesses, including severe brain disease. (prohealth.com)
  • Our studies on animal models and human fetuses have demonstrated clearly that this phenomenon cannot prevent the development of perinatal brain lesions in the case of severe or prolonged hypoxia. (mef.hr)
  • Fetal deterioration in chronic and severe hypoxia is characterized by the disappearance of the physiological cerebral vascular variability (vasoconstriction and vasodilatation), followed by an increase in cerebral vascular resistance. (mef.hr)
  • Chronic alcohol abuse can cause severe brain damage and neurodegeneration. (eurekalert.org)
  • Headaches range from be mild and occasional pain to severe, chronic migraines. (sharecare.com)
  • In "Application of Virtual Body Swapping to Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Pilot Study," Bomyi Jeon and coauthors from Korea evaluated the effectiveness of virtual body swapping therapy in improving pain intensity and "body perception disturbance" in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, a chronic progressive disease characterized by severe pain and disturbed body perception. (healthcanal.com)
  • 1B H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. (americanelements.com)
  • The results showed that chronic hypercholesterolemia caused memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, inflammation, enhanced cortical beta-amyloid and tau and induced microbleedings, all indications, which resemble an Alzheimer's disease-like pathology. (elsevier.com)
  • The first major book (1985, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) to critique safety flaws in the mass vaccination system and expose the dangers of the DPT vaccine, including the link between vaccine induced brain inflammation and autism. (blogspot.com)
  • She said there was no increase in those but there was inflammation and damage to the villi in the duodenum. (celiac.com)
  • Chronic users may also suffer from inflammation of the heart lining. (asu.edu)
  • It also increases your risk for chronic liver inflammation and liver disease. (healthline.com)
  • The aim of this research is to confirm the results of earlier studies and to investigate a correlation between erythrocyte morphology and erythrocyte oxidative damage in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). (ei-resource.org)
  • Within hours of Seau's death, Tyler Seau said he received calls from researchers hoping to secure his father's brain for study. (espn.com)
  • The researchers analyzed human brains - from teenagers and young adults who had been exposed to mild head impact but died from another cause soon after. (wksu.org)
  • Researchers report that mice exposed to prolonged stress develop structural changes in the amygdala, a part of the brain that regulates basic emotions, such as fear and anxiety. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Researchers defined chronic marijuana use as smoking pot at least five of the last seven days and a minimum of 3,000 joints in a lifetime. (go.com)
  • Yale University researchers report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (September 7-11 edition) that damage to the brain caused by chronic stress or lead poisoning can be repaired by blocking a key molecular pathway. (flistnews.com)
  • GALVESTON, Texas -- Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston recently discovered that alcohol killed the stem cells residing in adult mouse brains. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers also found that brain stem cells in key brain regions of adult mice respond differently to alcohol exposure, and they show for the first time that these changes are different for females and males. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers found that the effects of repeated alcohol consumption differed across brain regions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now a re-acknowledgement that exposure to industrial chemicals can damage the developing human brain has been made in a chemical toxicity review published in The Lancet on Nov. 8 by researchers associated with the Harvard School of Public Health and Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. (blogspot.com)
  • Chronic pain may reprogram the way genes work in the immune system, according to a new study by McGill University researchers published in the journal Scientific Reports. (naturalsolutionsradio.com)
  • While some previous research suggests that alcohol may lead to cognitive impairments including a risk of dementia, other studies have linked light or moderate alcohol use to a healthier brain, researchers note in the Lancet Public Health. (reuters.com)
  • Rocio Herrero, PhD and a team of researchers from Spain report significant improvement in multiple factors affecting quality of life for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic musculoskeletal pain condition. (healthcanal.com)
  • Also, among those prescribed opioids for chronic pain management, the hope is that cannabis would help them to reduce the prescription drugs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A study published online Thursday in Brain , a journal of neurology, presents the strongest case yet that repetitive hits to the head that don't lead to concussions -meaning no loss of consciousness or other symptoms that can include headaches, dizziness, vision problems or confusion - cause CTE. (wksu.org)
  • While the study downplays the role of concussions in the ultimate development of CTE, the familiar symptoms - headaches, fogginess or problems with concentration, memory, balance and coordination, even without a loss of consciousness, are still important signs the brain has been hurt. (wksu.org)
  • Clinical trial results published in the New England Journal of Medicine this week offer additional evidence that a new device may help relieve chronic heartburn symptoms that standard treatment cannot. (news-medical.net)
  • The goal of treatment is to control symptoms and reduce or prevent permanent damage to the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chronic subdural hematomas that cause symptoms usually do not heal on their own over time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contact your provider right away if you or a family member has symptoms of chronic subdural hematoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A large study stretching over a 4-year period challenges popular beliefs, as it finds "no evidence" that cannabis use improves the symptoms of chronic pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rather than improving them, cannabis may worsen symptoms of chronic pain, suggests a new study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This happens when you have seizures over and over in your brain, though they may not cause any physical symptoms. (webmd.com)
  • Asymmetry of Brain Excitability: A New Biomarker that Predicts Objective and Subjective Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • I've seen videos that say that prednisone and glucocorticoids like symbicort can cause brain damage, neuron death in the hippocampus. (healingwell.com)
  • But even without a full-blown concussion, studies suggest repetitive blows to the head can cause cognitive problems , likely through microscopic damage to the brain's white matter , the bundles of neuron arms called axons that transmit electrical signals across the brain. (psmag.com)
  • Cerebral perfusion is a measure of the amount of blood flow to brain tissue per unit time. (eurekalert.org)
  • A normal, uninterrupted flow of blood through the brain is necessary to supply brain tissue with sufficient essential compounds and oxygen for normal metabolism, and will also carry away metabolic byproducts. (eurekalert.org)
  • But when they examined the brain tissue, they did not observe the sponge-like holes in and around nerve cells typical of prion disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • CTE can be diagnosed only in the brain tissue of cadavers, and 22 deceased former NFL players have been identified as having had it. (npr.org)
  • The middle layer is the arachnoid mater, and the layer closest to the brain tissue is the pia mater. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The disease can cause brain cell death, cognitive deficits and dementia. (wksu.org)
  • Low levels of alcohol may improve blood flow to the brain - but there's a tension between that and reduced white matter," says Ian Lang, a dementia expert and senior lecturer in public health at the University of Exeter medical school in England. (drugs-forum.com)
  • Moreover, HPA axis hyperactivity is a feature that can be present in chronic diseases, affecting endocrine (abdominal obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus), cardiovascular (atherosclerosis, essential hypertension) and nervous system (dementia, depression), particularly during comorbid conditions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Brain Banking in Low - and Middle - Income Countries: Raison D'être for the Ibadan Brain Ageing, Dementia And Neurodegeneration (IBADAN) Brain Bank Project. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chronic heavy drinking was the most important modifiable risk factor for dementia onset in both genders and remained so after controlling for all known risk factors for dementia onset," said lead study author Dr. Michael Schwarzinger, chief executive officer of Translational Health Economics Network and a researcher at INSERM-Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite in France. (reuters.com)
  • They have dementia or brain damage. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • Moderate exercise may even reverse normal brain shrinkage by 2 percent, effectively reversing age-related hippocampus degeneration, which is associated with dementia and poor memory, by one to two years. (mercola.com)
  • The rats were then sacrificed and their brains and hepatic tissues were isolated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Treatment with XNJ increased the activity of SOD, and decreased the expression levels of NR2B mRNA and NR2B, CB1 and CDK5 proteins in the brain tissues compared with those in the model rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Research shows that rats exposed to chronic stress develop damage to the prefrontal cortex. (flistnews.com)
  • Exceptions do exist, however, in species of three separate taxa, marsupials, naked mole rats, and bats, which break the correlation of neurodevelopmental duration and brain size. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Naked mole rats and bats both have small brains and unusual longevity, coupled with neurodevelopmental periods characteristic of much bigger-brained animals, raising the possibility that developmental duration and lifespan have some genetic or mechanistic control in common. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here we use our well-characterized stroke model in aged female rats subjected to repeated daily sleep restriction (8 h/day) or normal sleep for the 6 days prior to MCAO to better characterize how chronic sleep restriction exposure impacts stroke. (cdc.gov)
  • Upon analyzing the brains of these two strains of rats, it was discovered that there were differences in chemical composition of certain areas of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research indicates chronic sleep deprivation can lead to irreversible brain damage. (aarp.org)
  • This finding supports that chronic heavy drinking leads to irreversible brain damage," Schwarzinger added. (reuters.com)
  • SAN DIEGO -- Junior Seau, who committed suicide in May, two years after retiring as one of the premier linebackers in NFL history, suffered from the type of chronic brain damage that has also been found in dozens of deceased former players, five brain specialists consulted by the National Institutes of Health concluded. (espn.com)
  • We examined the anatomical basis of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies were evaluated based on duration between injury and DTI assessment, categorized as acute, subacute/chronic, remote mTBI, and repetitive brain trauma considerations. (springer.com)
  • During an acute overdose, naloxone rapidly blocks opioid receptors in the brain, throwing the user into instant withdrawal. (foxnews.com)
  • Studies have shown that VR can be an effective adjunct for both chronic and acute pain conditions," says Dr. Wiederhold. (healthcanal.com)
  • The brain's limbic system controls emotions and memory, and is comprised of a number of structures, including the amygdala, which are located deep in the brain. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Continued methamphetamine use can damage the brain's ability to produce dopamine. (asu.edu)
  • Among chronic drinkers, those who were the most physically active had less damaged white matter -- the connective 'wiring' of your brain's communication system -- in their brains compared to those who were less active. (mercola.com)
  • Second impact syndrome can be very serious and actually involve permanent brain damage, brain swelling, and even death," Dr. Lobatz pointed out. (kpbs.org)
  • brain development that affect the corpus callosum, such as Aicardi syndrome, as well as two additional brain malformations, polymicrogyria and Dandy-Walker malformation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Elderly patients in whom mental impairment is associated with organic brain damage (chronic brain syndrome) usually bear a higher mortality risk than do other sick geriatric patients, especially under the stress of relocation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When Ste. Anne's Hospital moved, the patients with chronic brain syndrome had the highest mortality rate during the following year. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, in a stress prevention program adopted when a geriatric institution plans to move, special attention should be paid to the subpopulation with chronic brain syndrome in the period immediately following the relocation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This can lead to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome , a brain disorder that affects memory. (healthline.com)
  • It's intended to analyze blood flow within the brain, detecting the state of blood vessels and helping to triage patients. (medgadget.com)
  • The new mouse model used in the study and the two new human GSS cases, which also lack the usual prion protein cell anchor, are the first to show that in prion diseases, the plaque-associated damage to blood vessels can occur without the sponge-like damage to the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Users who inject methamphetamine may damage their blood vessels, in addition to causing skin abscesses known as "speed bumps" by accidentally injecting the drug under the skin. (asu.edu)
  • In young children, even if the head does not contact a solid surface, the shaking, whiplash movement from some vehicle crashes causes blood vessels to burst in the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, before the new approaches can be developed, we need to understand how alcohol impacts the brain stem cells at different stages in their growth, in different brain regions and in the brains of both males and females. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team tracked those boys and the knocks to their heads, then compared MRI brain scans taken before and after the season to see how the cumulative effect of a season's worth of impacts affected their brains' white matter. (psmag.com)
  • Impacts seemed to have the most effect on an area called the inferior fronto-orbital fasciculus, one of the major bundles of axons connecting the frontal lobe to other parts of the brain. (psmag.com)
  • Scientists from the Netherlands report that people with frequent migraine headaches or a long history of migraines are at an increased risk of progressive brain damage, according to research published in the most recent issue of Headache, the journal of the American Headache Society. (healthandage.com)
  • The scientists identified 28 migraine patients and examined their brains using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (healthandage.com)
  • When the scientists later repeated the stress experiment they treated mice nearing the end of their 21 days of chronic stress with acetyl L-carnitine, a nutritional compound derived from the amino acid, lysine. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Other studies have led scientists to conclude that chemicals secreted during the deeper stages of sleep are crucial for repairing the body - including the brain. (aarp.org)
  • Scientists looked at the brains of 111 former NFL players. (psmag.com)
  • The study suggests birth time has an important and previously unrecognized effect on brain development. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The right- or left-brained myth suggests we're simply fulfilling a version of our genetic destiny and we should accept our strengths and weaknesses as part of who we are. (lifehacker.com.au)
  • The cytopathic changes seen in stealth virus cultures correlate well with the vacuolating cellular damage observed on histological sections of brain tissues obtained on biopsy and on autopsy. (prohealth.com)
  • It appears that Nature made it possible for the unborn offspring of mammals to save their mother's lives by contributing stem cells which are capable of grafting into tissues, including bone marrow, potentially providing a lifelong source of new healthy cells to replace damaged or dysfunctional ones. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Subdural hemotamas range from fatal or life threatening to small with only minor effects, depending on the quantity of blood released and the amount of injury to other brain tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Drinking can damage the tissues in your digestive tract and prevent your intestines from digesting food and absorbing nutrients and vitamins. (healthline.com)
  • And, they noted, the brain pathology was unrelated to signs of concussion in the mice , such as altered arousal and impaired balance. (wksu.org)
  • They knew that, after a concussion, injured brain cells try to heal themselves. (kpbs.org)
  • It is thought to result from concussion and brain injury following repeated blows to the head. (eurekalert.org)
  • A new study confirms the damage of multiple hits to head, even if the player never experiences a concussion. (psmag.com)
  • Following years of pretty much ignoring the problem, the National Football League is finally starting to take concussions seriously -just in time for a new study that hints repeatedly slamming into people can do some serious damage to young brains even if those hits never actually result in a concussion. (psmag.com)
  • Still, it hasn't been entirely clear what such damage would do to the millions of young kids who play football without ever getting a concussion. (psmag.com)
  • The stress response during chronic conditions increases vulnerability to diseases through the activation of adaptive systems, in particular, the HPA axis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, primarily damage the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Recovery of hippocampus-related functions in chronic alcoholics during monitored long-term abstinence. (springer.com)
  • 2006). Hippocampus volume loss due to chronic heavy drinking. (springer.com)
  • Emotional abuse results in damage to the hippocampus, a brain area involved in learning and memory ability. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Intense stress from emotional abuse floods the brain with hormones such as cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and opiates, which results in eventual shrinkage of the hippocampus, according to Pierce J. Howard, PhD in his book, The Owner's Manual for the Brain . (selfgrowth.com)
  • High levels of cortisol may damage or destroy cells in the hippocampus, according to the New York University Medical Center. (selfgrowth.com)
  • It can be speculated that chronic mild cerebrovascular damage caused and potentiated by different vascular risk factors (including cholesterol) may contribute to these pathologies. (elsevier.com)
  • However, our latest study on growth-restricted and hypoxic human fetuses has shown that perinatal brain lesions can develop even before the loss of cerebrovascular variability. (mef.hr)
  • Chronic stress makes us worn-out, anxious, depressed, and according to a new study, causes damage to critical brain neurons. (nutritionreview.org)
  • When we took a closer look at three regions within it, we found that neurons within one, the medial amygdala, retract as a result of chronic stress. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Genetically preventing apoptosis during brain growth allows 'zombie' cells to develop into functioning neurons. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Long-term stress activates excessive activity of a family of enzymes called protein kinase C. As a result, there is damage to the cytoskeleton of neurons that interferes with their ability to transmit information. (flistnews.com)
  • In larger brains with longer neocortical neurogenesis, its organization changes progressively, differentiating the frontal pole from the occipital pole in volume of connectivity and number of neurons per unit column. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chronic stress causes the brain to be flooded with the enzyme kinase C, which breaks down the dendritic spines of neurons in the prefrontal cortex, according to Amy Arnsten, professor of neurobiology at Yale University. (selfgrowth.com)
  • A University of Pennsylvania animal study found that extended wakefulness can injure neurons essential for alertness and cognition - and that the damage might be permanent. (aarp.org)
  • A chronic subdural hematoma is an "old" collection of blood and blood breakdown products between the surface of the brain and its outermost covering (the dura). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The chronic phase of a subdural hematoma begins several weeks after the first bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A subdural hematoma is a collection of blood in the space between the outer and middle layers of the covering of the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Another type of subdural hematoma called a chronic subdural hematoma can occur in people over age 60. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Not all these head injuries involve subdural hematoma, but it is the most common type of bleeding in the brain to result from trauma. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Infants are more prone to subdural hematoma than toddlers and older children, because the brain of infants has more room than the brain of older children to move around in the skull when shaken or hit. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The outcome of subdural hematoma depends on how promptly treatment is received and how much damage the brain has received. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Long-term alcohol abuse also changes how the brain regulates emotion and anxiety and disrupts sleep systems, creating wide-ranging effects on the body. (drugs-forum.com)
  • The loss of connections like these can harm the brain, distorting its ability to adapt to new experiences, leaving it trapped in a state of anxiety or depression. (nutritionreview.org)
  • For people with bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, or chronic depression and anxiety , the brain has no ability to recover from damage caused by the enzyme. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Yet, knowledge about NSC response to chronic poly-drug administration of ethanol and cocaine is minimal. (utmb.edu)
  • Here, we developed a novel chronic poly-drug administration paradigm of ethanol and cocaine using a transgenic mouse model to trace endogenous NSC survival and differentiation in three brain regions from both male and female mice. (utmb.edu)
  • As with many other drugs including cocaine, methamphetamine works by releasing large amounts of dopamine into the section of the brain that controls the feeling of pleasure. (asu.edu)
  • Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using lesion subtraction techniques and voxel-wise comparisons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study used a new lesion subtraction technique, which attempts to identify the brain regions most strongly associated with spatial neglect by subtracting the overlaid lesions of non-neglect patients from the lesions of neglect patients [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two groups of subjects will be constitute: (i) patients with circumscribed brain injury (including stroke, vascular malformations, tumor or circumscribed infectious lesions) or degenerativ. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Imaging studies show that while long-term heavy drinking affects the entire brain, the greatest damage occurs in the frontal lobe that controls executive function, which includes planning, controlling impulses and modifying behaviour. (drugs-forum.com)
  • In a subgroup of neglect patients showing particularly large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage of patients with the reverse pattern was located in the white matter of the TPJ. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Excessive drinking can damage the brain, especially the frontal and parietal cortices. (eurekalert.org)
  • Results showed that even though cerebral perfusion among the ALC individuals, as a whole, improved with abstinence from alcohol, those ALC who were chronic smokers demonstrated significantly less perfusion recovery, particularly in the frontal lobes. (eurekalert.org)
  • These studies show that traumatic or highly stressful experiences can have long-term effects on the structure and function of the brain, at the point where the frontal cortex, the emotional brain and the survival brain converge. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Over time, frontal lobe damage can occur. (healthline.com)
  • The goal of treatment is to cure the infection and reduce the risk for permanent damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infections of the brain , such as encephalitis or meningitis , or in another part of the body, such as a urinary tract infection . (webmd.com)
  • But a few weeks after exposure to LCMV, the mice develop a chronic infection that their immune systems cannot shake off, similar to when humans are infected by viruses like HIV and hepatitis C. (healthcanal.com)
  • Prenatal exposure to drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine, and alcohol causes widespread damage to the developing rat brain. (ncjrs.gov)
  • ROSEMONT, IL A study published online today in Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach provides a different take on previous information regarding the prevalence of chronic brain damage in retired NFL players. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The combination of more Americans reporting daily chronic pain and the rapidly increasing prevalence of opioid misuse and opioid use disorder (OUD) adds to the challenges of relieving patients' pain effectively and safely. (news-medical.net)
  • A study of the complex genetics of brain development will be undertaken with an emphasis on those genes that cause the most common structural brain anomaly in humans called holoprosencepha. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Scanning their brains during and after the students took their medical board exams, a high-stress period, the Cornell team saw that damage to the prefrontal cortex done during the exams was completely reversed a month later. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Permanent nervous system damage or death may occur. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If we can find a way to discover which players are more susceptible to permanent damage from head hits on the field, sports would become more tolerable entertainment, says commentator Frank Deford. (npr.org)
  • But if we can find a way to discover which players are more susceptible to permanent damage from concussions, it will make both sports more tolerable entertainment. (npr.org)
  • It's a serious health problem that, without treatment, can cause temporary or permanent brain damage . (webmd.com)
  • This enlargement increases pressure inside the skull and can compress the brain, possibly resulting in permanent brain damage or death if the blood is not drained away and the pressure relieved through surgical intervention. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most acutely and critically ill patients experience pain during their illness or injury, and pain management is essential to providing optimal care, delivering appropriate relief and preventing chronic pain with its long-term impact on quality of life. (news-medical.net)
  • The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vitamin D levels, brain volume, and genetic architecture in patients with psychosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Relative mortality of chronically ill geriatric patients with organic brain damage, before and after relocation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of Goal Management Training TM (GMT) in improving executive functioning in patients with chronic ABI. (cambridge.org)
  • They report both the patients' subjective ratings of relief and how those compared to physiological measurements to assess pain responses in the article "Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients. (healthcanal.com)
  • Electrophysiology 'brain tests' showed evidence of cortical myoclonus, which is defined as ' as involuntary brief muscle jerks originating from an abnormal discharge of the cerebral cortex. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Here we apply new network analysis methods to cortical interareal connectivity networks for the cat and macaque brains. (nih.gov)
  • The role of duration of development in mediating between the mechanistic levels of construction of retinal and cortical organization, and the different life histories associated with larger brains, such as duration of parental care, learning and overall longevity are discussed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • But what this study says is: No, that hit probably wasn't fine, and that poor guy can't feel the damage that's happening in his brain right now. (wksu.org)
  • however the majority of the individuals in our study had no clinical signs of chronic brain damage to the degree that has been noted in previous studies," said lead author and neurologist, Ira R. Casson, MD of the Long Island Jewish Medical Center, in New Hyde Park, New York and the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Hempstead, New York. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Study authors from Harvard-affiliated McLean Hospital wanted to examine the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain function. (go.com)
  • The brain is much more vulnerable to insults like this sort while it is developing and they will need to do a bigger study where stringent controls are in place to include genetics, parental problems with marijuana, and psychopathology in the teen and the parent," said Leventhal. (go.com)
  • A new study finds that eating a whole fresh avocado every day could lead to better brain and eye function in healthy older adults. (scoop.it)
  • A new study finds that running is not only good for the heart and lungs, it also helps the brain preserve memory when it's under attack by chronic stress. (scoop.it)
  • These conclusions of this study imply that medications that inhibit protein kinase C may aid in restoring prefrontal brain function in children with lingering problems from lead poisoning. (flistnews.com)
  • A new study has used longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain blood flow to show that smoking makes it harder for brain blood flow to recover from long-term heavy drinking. (eurekalert.org)
  • A new study reveals some brain systems in a dish, dubbed circuitoids, exhibit coordinated and spontaneous rhythmic activity that can drive repetitive movements. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • But now, the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment study rectifies this by analyzing the effects of cannabis use over a period of 4 years in a sample of over 1,500 participants with chronic non-cancer pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They often require surgery, especially when there are neurologic problems, seizures, or chronic headaches. (medlineplus.gov)
  • And that it gradually, you know, developed the deterioration of his brain and his ability to think logically. (espn.com)
  • Chronic pain is front and center these days now that the opioid crisis - the wrong way to manage pain - has been exposed and opportunities to prevent and treat pain instead of medication (a key example: chiropractic) jump into the spotlight. (naturalsolutionsradio.com)