Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Optogenetics: The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Mice, Inbred C57BLCognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Repression, Psychology: The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Theta Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Autobiography as Topic: The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
... particularly those that underlie short-term memory of motor activity in animal models. The group also develops laboratory ... He received the Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize - often known as the Brain Prize - in 2015, along with Winfried ... Tank's research interests at Princeton have recently focused on the physical mechanisms of neural circuit dynamics, ... "Biography: David W. Tank". The Brain Prize. Retrieved 11 April 2017. "Princeton's David Tank wins Perl-UNC Neuroscience Prize ...
NICE found that short-term TMS is safe but there is insufficient evidence to evaluate safety for long-term and frequent uses. ... TMS can be used clinically to measure activity and function of specific brain circuits in humans. The most robust and widely ... transient impairment of working memory, and induced currents in electrical circuits in implanted devices. During a transcranial ... Other adverse short-term effects of TMS include discomfort or pain, transient induction of hypomania, transient cognitive ...
"What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?". Prog. Brain Res. 169: 323-38. doi:10.1016/S0079- ... and long-term memory to account for different ways of storing memory. The memory it can be defined as the circuit or a device ... The model uses both short-term memory, termed short-term store (STS), and long-term memory, termed long-term store (LTS) or ... Short-term memory, is closely related to working memory. Baddeley suggested that information stored in short-term memory is ...
Consequently, this loop is shown to be the pathway responsible for conversion of short term memory to long term memory. The ... Brain. 132: 1022-1037. doi:10.1093/brain/awn351. PMC 3792079 . PMID 19297507. Buzsáki, György (2006). Rhythms of the brain. New ... is also the circuit producing SWRs. This circuit provides the pathway by which SWRs affect the cortical areas, and also receive ... Studies conducted on HM have clearly proven the role of the hippocampus in shaping the long-term memory. Investigations also ...
Short-term memory. The input invariably creates a representation that persists in short-term memory-long enough to allow time ... Furthermore, modern functional brain imaging has increasingly suggested that the memory of an experience is processed in ... A study of circuits involved in attention, therefore, will shed much light on the riddle of qualia. They proposed that the ... Since it is possible for qualia to have a different relationship with physical brain-states, they cannot be identical to brain ...
... memory consolidation, as well as long-term potentiation. The human brain has a limited short-term memory capacity to process ... The changes are potentially long-lasting as meditation may have the ability to strengthen neuronal circuits as selective ... of short-term memory and working memory and aggravates neuropsychiatric disorders involved in short-term and working memory ... Memory improvement is the act of improving one's memory. Medical research of memory deficits and age-related memory loss has ...
... working memory, short-term episodic memory, and delayed episodic memory. In addition, we examined the evidence for publication ... Staley JK, Mash DC (1996). "Adaptive increase in D3 dopamine receptors in the brain reward circuits of human cocaine fatalities ... We found evidence for small but significant stimulant enhancement effects on inhibitory control and short-term episodic memory ... Effects on delayed episodic memory were medium in size. However, because the effects on long-term and working memory were ...
short-term memory. *reward (minor role). Drug effects[edit]. Understanding the effects of drugs on neurotransmitters comprises ... Modifiable synapses are thought to be the main memory-storage elements in the brain. Excessive glutamate release can ... The ARAS is a complex structure consisting of several different circuits including the four monoaminergic pathways ... The ... Nevertheless, short-term exposure of the receptor to a neurotransmitter is typically sufficient for causing a postsynaptic ...
These areas of the brain are key to memory. Also, women who do not undergo therapy have been found to have less metabolic ... who had their uterus and ovaries removed for medical reasons and lost their gonadal hormones showed a decrease in short-term ... Brinton, Roberta Diaz (2008). "Estrogen-induced plasticity from cells to circuits: predictions for cognitive function". Trends ... It can also enhance long term potentiation (LTP) which is key at the neurocellular level for memory and learning and is mostly ...
... short-term memory and long-term memory. Research indicates that there are specific areas of the brain associated with spatial ... The hippocampus is known to contain two separate memory circuits. One circuit is used for recollection-based place recognition ... processing short-term memory and transferring memory from the short term to longer delay periods. Infusion of amphetamine into ... The test can be used to measure both short-term and long-term spatial memory, depending on the length of time between test and ...
Lesions impair short-term memory, cause difficulty inhibiting responses, impair the ability to judge the relevance of stimuli, ... The goal of the studies is to identify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in memory circuit modulation and learning ... In the human brain it occupies approximately the middle third of the middle frontal gyrus and the most rostral portion of the ... Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. It is between BA10 and BA45. BA46 is known as ...
... including some sort of short term memory and attention mechanism. The book then delves into a brief overview of many ... Consciousness-matter dualism China Brain Epiphenomenalism Physicalism The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search For The ... neuroscientific topics, ranging from a survey of how neurons function to a description of basic neural circuits and their ... those who support quantum theory of mind also disagree with how Crick simplifies the workings of the brain to only the Standard ...
... retention in short-term memory, and motor signaling. Historically, the DLPFC was defined by its connection to: the superior ... However, other areas of the brain are involved in working memory as well. There is an ongoing discussion if the DLPFC is ... All complex mental activity requires the additional cortical and subcortical circuits with which the DLPFC is connected. The ... Verbal working memory tasks mainly activated the left DLPFC and visual working memory tasks mainly activated the right DLPFC. ...
The brain's ability to remodel itself forms the basis of the brain's capacity to retain memories, improve motor function, and ... Notably, AMPA and NMDA receptors are key molecules in mechanisms of long and short-term potentiation between neurons. NMDA ... and neural activity can modify the structure and function of neural circuits during development and in the adult brain. Studies ... Since plasticity is such a fundamental property of brain function due to its involvement in brain development, brain repair, ...
Wilken and colleagues suggest that neuronal noise is the principal factor that limits the capacity of visual short-term memory ... Initially, noise in complex computer circuit or neural circuits is thought to slow down and negatively affect the processing ... Electroencephalogram or EEG can be used to measure the brain since the signal-to-noise ratio is poor, so noise produced by the ... These backward steps contribute to neuronal noise present in all dynamic neuronal circuits. Ion channel shot noise: The number ...
... and the more recently developed episodic buffer that integrates short-term and long-term memory, holding and manipulating a ... doi:10.1093/brain/awn066. PMC 2367692. PMID 18390562.. *^ Allman, John M.; Hakeem, Atiya; Erwin, Joseph M.; Nimchinsky, Esther ... of the medial prefrontal cortex than healthy controls even when they succeed in such tasks and utilize different circuits. ... ... Working memory is a short-term, capacity-limited cognitive buffer that stores information and permits its manipulation to guide ...
... shifts of attention and that different items simultaneously held in short-term memory line up on different phases of each brain ... Miller, E.K., and Wilson, M.A. (2008) All my circuits: Using multiple-electrodes to understand functioning neural networks. ... Siegel, M., Warden, M.R., and Miller, E.K. (2009) Phase-dependent neuronal coding of objects in short-term memory. Proceedings ... memory, and cognition. Earl Miller is the Picower Professor of Neuroscience with the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory ...
Brain extracellular matrix affects AMPA receptor lateral mobility and short-term synaptic plasticity. [10.1038/nn.2338]. Nat ... Brain Research Reviews, 54(1), 1-18. Hensch, T. K. (2005). Critical period plasticity in local cortical circuits. [Review]. ... leading to long-lasting fear memories. In an adult animal, fear conditioning induces a permanent memory resilient to erasure by ... Brain Research, 498(1), 170-174. Baig, S., Wilcock, G., & Love, S. (2005). Loss of perineuronal net N-acetylgalactosamine in ...
... and short-term heat loss. The net result of these processes is reflected in body weight, and is under continuous monitoring and ... Learning and memory[edit]. The hippocampus plays a significant role in neurotrophy: the cognitive adaptation to changing ... When the stomach is stretched, secretion stops.a It acts on hypothalamic brain cells both to increase hunger, and to increase ... a circuit that communicates the hedonic and reinforcing aspects of natural rewards,[3] such as food and addictive drugs such as ...
Visual short-term memory storage is mediated by distinctive posterior brain mechanisms, such that capacity is determined both ... activation of a visual cortex-hippocampal neuronal circuit which encodes an object or scene that is already in visual memory. " ... Studies have shown that with aging, in terms of short-term visual memory, viewing time and task complexity affect performance. ... Spatial memory is distinct from object memory and involves different parts of the brain. Spatial memory involves the dorsal ...
The neuroscientist Donald Hebb (1904-1985) was the first to distinguish between short-term memory and long-term memory. ... usually due to brain injury. According to proponents of the existence of repressed memories, such memories can be recovered ... this memory depends on "reverberating" electrical activity in neuronal circuits, and is very easily destroyed by interruption ... Memories stored for longer than this are stored in "long-term memory". Whether information is stored in long-term memory ...
LTP is also considered to be an important mechanism in terms of maintaining memories within brain regions, and therefore is ... The dream experience itself is not what enhances memory performance but rather it is the reactivation of the neural circuits ... this may be related more-so to a process of synaptic consolidation rather than systems consolidation because of the short-term ... is one form of memory consolidation seen across all species and long-term memory tasks. Long-term memory, when discussed in the ...
The CNC co-exists with the institute which complements the shorter-term projects at CBM/CNC, pursuing questions that demand a ... The stated scientific goal is "to advance our understanding of neural circuits and systems and their role in generating ... By focusing on spatial representation and memory, we expect to uncover general principles of neural network computation in the ... "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain". Who we are and what we want NTNU. Retrieved ...
The learning and the memory is generally short term. To achieve a long term memory different techniques can be used depending ... The neural circuits in this area of the brain expand with practice of an activity, just like the synaptic plasticity grows with ... but more frequently and long-term, their brain will retain this information much longer as it is stored in the long-term memory ... but also only retain the information into their short-term memory. Just like studying for an exam; if a student tries to learn ...
"Cortical adaptions and motor performance improvement associated with short-term bimanual training". Brain Research. 1071: 165- ... This sensory circuit may then be activated during the perception of known objects. This same concept has been applied to action ... This implies that the neural network for verbal working memory is specifically tied to the motor systems associated with the ... The real reason for brains A Brief Guide to Grounded Cogntion Brain Language Laboratory Cambridge Neuroscience Research for ...
For the term in computer programming, see Source code.. In signal processing, data compression, source coding,[1] or bit-rate ... IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. IEEE. 22 (12). Retrieved 2017-08-12.. ... It uses an internal memory state to avoid the need to perform a one-to-one mapping of individual input symbols to distinct ... If the frame contains areas where nothing has moved, the system can simply issue a short command that copies that part of the ...
2001) Oscillatory synchrony between human extrastriate areas during visual short-term memory maintenance. J Neurosci 21:RC177, ... Snapshots of the Brain in Action: Local Circuit Operations through the Lens of γ Oscillations. Jessica A. Cardin ... Rhythms in the brain have provided insights into local circuit interactions (Csicsvari et al., 2003; Montgomery and Buzsáki, ... Snapshots of the Brain in Action: Local Circuit Operations through the Lens of γ Oscillations ...
Her focus is on circuits that underlie short-term memory, integration, and inference in the brain. ... These circuits account for critical brain functions such as sensory perception, movement, and reasoning. ... Awards are for five-years and will provide from $100,000 to $400,000 per year of the grant term for direct costs. ... His research reveals a major role for the brains superior temporal gyrus region in speech perception, and may shed light on ...
A new study in mice identifies a gene that is critical for short-term memory but functions in a part of the brain not ... Interestingly, in order to discover new genes and brain circuits that are important for short-term memory, the researchers ... Surprising Brain Area Linked to Short-Term Memory. October 1, 2020. 0 ... a gene that is critical for short-term memory but functions in a part of the brain not traditionally associated with memory. ...
The research has implications in understanding and perhaps treating patients with dementia or other disorders of the brain and ... Nerve cells in our brains work together in harmony to store and retrieve short-term memory, and are not solo artists as ... previously thought, Western-led brain research has determined. ... ways to manipulate brain circuits and improve short term memory ... Nerve cells in our brains work together in harmony to store and retrieve short-term memory, and are not solo artists as ...
... who also found that this protein expression is impaired in the brains of offspring delivered by caesarean section (C-sections). ... Vaginal birth triggers the expression of a protein in the brains of newborns that improves brain development and function in ... This area of the brain is responsible for short- and long-term memory. UCP2 is involved in cellular metabolism of fat, which is ... "These results reveal a potentially critical role of UCP2 in the proper development of brain circuits and related behaviors," ...
... encourage new neuron circuits, improve learning, synapses and vascular functions. Exercise reduces the short-term likelihood of ... which is intimately involved with memory. Fluid also accumulates in spaces where neurons have died causing brain shrinkage( ... Dr Cotman found that exercise increases the brains levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), which is a brain ... Keep the brain active[edit , edit source]. The brain is a complex organ, and it is experience-hungry. In other words, it ...
... anyone has found a way to store information over seconds about both temporal sequences and stimulus patterns directly in brain ... Researchers say theyve found a way to store artificial short-term memories in isolated brain tissue. This is the first time ... This paves the way for future research to identify the specific brain circuits that allow us to form short-term memories. The ... Researchers Create Short-term Memories In Rat Brains 114 Posted by Unknown Lamer on Monday September 10, 2012 @10:03PM. from ...
... the information is stored in the short-term memory. The area of the brain that controls short term memory is also the centre ... Short circuit of the brain Some researchers give a physiological explanation for test anxiety. According to them, when a child ... the information is stored in the short-term memory. The area of the brain that controls short term memory is also the centre ... Short circuit of the brain Some researchers give a physiological explanation for test anxiety. According to them, when a child ...
How does the brain work? After a century of research, we still lack a coherent view of how neurons process signals and control ... THE OPERATION OF MEMORY SYSTEMS IN THE BRAIN. Introduction Functions of the Hippocampus in Long-Term Memory Short Term Memory ... Self-Consistent Theory of Recurrent Cortical Circuits. ... Globalization: A Very Short Introduction Manfred B. Steger 2017 ... How does the brain work? After a century of research, we still lack a coherent view of how neurons process signals and control ...
Objective: The purpose of this paper is to compare the working memory, decision making and executive function among PD patients ... Objective: The purpose of this paper is to compare the working memory, decision making and executive function among PD patients ... Conclusions: PD patients as well as their FDRs present different degrees of impairments of working memory, decision making and ... patients present impairments of working memory, decision making and executive function. However, whether the first-degree ...
... persons with larger working memory capacities actually encode information more deeply. ... Stimulating the Brain With Electricity Boosts Working Memory. A method for improving short-term working memory has been ... Gene Variant and Estrogen Levels Alter Memory Circuit Function in Women. The reaction between the gene variant and sex-hormone ... More Than 100 Genes Linked to Memory in Humans Identified. Probing the genes-brain relationship is likely to yield a rich ...
... producing a short-term memory function. A reverberating circuit, for example, creates physiological memory. ... The main interface of [rootings] is based on a reverberating circuit diagram. The brain, an organ composed of over 50 billion ... Any type of activity in the brain (hearing a sound, problem solving, reading) sets off neural circuits throughout the nerve ... marking out a fixed location and becoming part of memory. These reverberating circuits start with input which produces a signal ...
2019 Picower Lecture: The neural circuits underlying motor planning and short-term memory. Speaker(s): Karel Svoboda, PhD ... 2019 Picower Lecture: The neural circuits underlying motor planning and short-term memory Apr ...
... our brain stores a short-term memory of the experience in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. Those memories are later ... our brain stores a short-term memory of the experience in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. Those memories are later ... to long-term memory. The earliest, known as the standard model, proposes that short-term memories are initially formed and ... Neuroscientists identify brain circuit necessary for memory formation. by Massachusetts Institute of Technology ...
Fractionating Short-Term Memory. Alan Baddeley, Bristol University. Accuracy and Distortion in Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience ... Memory Systems in the Brain and Localization of a Memory. Richard Thompson, University of Southern California ... Session One: Psychological Concepts of Short and Long-Term Memory. Alan Baddeley, Bristol University, Chair ... Session Four: The Neurobiology of Short-Term Memory Networks. Patricia Goldman-Rakic, Yale University, Chair ...
... access to long-term memory, and storage in a short-term memory buffer. The act of globally broadcasting this information is ... One circuit may have no Φ, whereas the other may exhibit high levels. Although they are identical from the outside, one network ... Much brain activity remains localized and therefore unconscious-for example, that of the module that controls where the eyes ... Let us assume that in the future it will be possible to scan an entire human brain, with its roughly 100 billion neurons and ...
However, when microglia repopulate the brain after depletion, learning and memory performance in these tasks is improved. This ... enabling us to directly assess microglias role in memory. Here, we show that short-term memory in the novel object and place ... In this study, we therefore aimed to determine how microglia contribute to short-term memory in healthy adults. To this end, we ... These data indicate that glia play a complex role in the healthy adult animal in supporting appropriate learning and memory and ...
These findings demonstrate the necessity of the hippocampus not just in the aspects of long-term memory with which it has been ... but also in the short-term adaptive control of behavior. Functional neuroimaging showed hippocampal engagement occurring in ... conjunction with frontocerebellar circuits, thereby revealing some of the larger brain circuitry essential for the strategic ... B) Recognition memory confidence for the same conditions as in A. Responses made using the four-point confidence scale ( ...
... in which novel associations between synthetic brain patterns and behaviorally-relevant short-term memory traces will be ... I will build genetic circuits whose motifs commonly occur in natural systems. The yeasts will use the genetic circuits to ... in which novel associations between synthetic brain patterns and behaviorally-relevant short-term memory traces will be ... Summary Short term memory (STM) is impaired at old age and a host of neuropsychiatric disorders, and has been the focus of a ...
... in which novel associations between synthetic brain patterns and behaviorally-relevant short-term memory traces will be ... After training mice and rats to perform bridging-free STM-tasks, we will evaluate local circuit mechanisms in hippocampus and ... in which novel associations between synthetic brain patterns and behaviorally-relevant short-term memory traces will be ... Summary Short term memory (STM) is impaired at old age and a host of neuropsychiatric disorders, and has been the focus of a ...
... to post measurement may reflect rapid learning or memory effects linked to BDNF and 5-HTTLPR. In line with ample evidence on ... growth or differentiation at the cellular and synaptic level in the brain, research on critical moderators of brain plasticity ... Because Serotonin (5-HT) signaling and the interplay of BDNF and 5-HT are known to critically mediate brain plasticity, genetic ... Because Serotonin (5-HT) signaling and the interplay of BDNF and 5-HT are known to critically mediate brain plasticity, genetic ...
... areas of the brain that become out-of-sync as people age ... Boston University say it is possible to restore working memory ... Short-term working memory is crucial for everyday life, storing information for around 10-15 seconds to allow problem solving, ... state of someone in their 20s for the first time by applying electrical stimulation to the brain to reconnect faulty circuits. ... Two areas in the brain, the prefrontal and temporal cortex must be talking to each other correctly for working memory to ...
Stress & the Memory System:. Short-term stressors sharpen the memory system thus facilitating our decision making and other ... On the other hand, in long-term stress, the stress chemicals accumulate in the brain and cause damage to memory brain areas ... These chemicals encourage the forgetting circuits and obstruct the remembering ones (for more on stress & forgetting, click on ... Sometimes short-term stress can also be so immense that it can cause a lot of damage. Not surprisingly, a strong forceful ...
In healthy brain, A,i,β,/i, levels are regulated by a dynamic equilibrium between A,i,β,/i, release from the amyloid precursor ... NEP plays an important role in brain function due to its role in terminating neuropeptide signalling and its decrease during ... postulates that accumulation in the brain of amyloid ,i,β,/i,-peptide (A,i,β,/i,) is the primary trigger for neuronal loss ... "Mechanisms of short-term working memory deficit," in Short-Term Memory: New Research, Nova Science, New York, NY, USA, 2012. ...
NICE found that short-term TMS is safe but there is insufficient evidence to evaluate safety for long-term and frequent uses. ... TMS can be used clinically to measure activity and function of specific brain circuits in humans. The most robust and widely ... transient impairment of working memory, and induced currents in electrical circuits in implanted devices. During a transcranial ... Other adverse short-term effects of TMS include discomfort or pain, transient induction of hypomania, transient cognitive ...
  • Research published in the open-access journal BMC Biology suggests erythropoietin (EPO) may improve memory due to a direct effect on neurons in the brain, as opposed to any effect it might have on blood production in the body. (
  • Kaoru Inokuchi of the University of Toyama, and colleagues, found that new neurons in the brain cause other memories to decay - but overall memory size remains the same. (
  • With a team of students and funding through Princeton's Bezos Center for Neural Circuit Dynamics , she is studying the neural circuits that contribute to addiction and relapse in rats. (
  • Back in 2007, Todd Sacktor was able to wipe out month-old memories of unpleasant smells in rats by injecting their brains with ZIP, a peptide that was meant to block PKM-ζ. (
  • In 2011, Sacktor was able to strengthen the memory of unpleasant tastes in rats by injecting their brains with viruses carrying extra copies of PKM-ζ. (
  • Berger's team tested the device in rats trained in a simple memory task. (
  • The rats were still able to push the correct lever to receive their drink, suggesting they were able to form new memories. (
  • In other words, the rats' brain implant was remembering for them. (
  • Nerve cells in our brains work together in harmony to store and retrieve short-term memory, and are not solo artists as previously thought, Western-led brain research has determined. (
  • However, in 2012, Tonegawa's lab developed a way to label cells called engram cells, which contain specific memories. (
  • They can also artificially reactivate memories by using optogenetics, a technique that allows them to turn target cells on or off using light. (
  • In the healthy adult, however, their role is less clear: microglial hyperactivation in adults can be detrimental to memory due to excessive synaptic pruning, yet learning and memory can also be impaired in the absence of these cells. (
  • This transitory memory enhancement is associated with an ameboid morphology in the newly repopulated microglial cells and increased astrocyte density that are linked with a higher density of mature hippocampal synaptic spines and differences in pre- and post-synaptic markers. (
  • These data indicate that glia play a complex role in the healthy adult animal in supporting appropriate learning and memory and that subtle changes to the function of these cells may strategically enhance memory. (
  • The brain, an organ composed of over 50 billion nerve cells, is connected by axons and dendrite conduits. (
  • Any type of activity in the brain (hearing a sound, problem solving, reading) sets off neural circuits throughout the nerve cells. (
  • Memory engram cells (green and red). (
  • The new study from Tonegawa's group builds on previous research demonstrating that episodic memories are physically represented in populations of cells in parts of the hippocampus. (
  • These groups of cells, known as memory "engrams," could then be controlled with the fiber-optic beams. (
  • These questions - how the cells of the brain communicate to enable learning, memory and socialization - inspire Witten, who came to Princeton in 2012. (
  • The more in-sync such electrical signals of neurons were in two key hubs of the circuit, the more those cells held the short-term memory of a just-seen object. (
  • Since synchronized oscillations between populations of cells distinguished between visual stimuli, it's theoretically possible to determine the correct answers for the matching tasks the monkeys performed simply by reading their brain waves. (
  • Like neurotransmitters, sex steroids like estrogen and testosterone can influence communication between brain cells. (
  • Genes do for the brain the same things as they do for the rest of the body: they guide the fates of cells by guiding the production of proteins within those cells. (
  • The Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University has reviewed the studies and found that berry fruits protect brain cells from damage and prevent inflammation. (
  • and 2) provide an annotated listing (based on current knowledge) of the elements that would populate the RDoC matrix with respect to the genes, molecules, cells, and circuits sub-serving WM, as well as identifying promising behavioral tasks to reliably assess disruptions in WM functioning. (
  • The thalamus thalamus , mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brain just below the cerebrum and resembling a large egg in size and shape. (
  • Exercise can enhance the development of new brain cells in the adult brain, a process called adult neurogenesis. (
  • These newborn brain cells play an important role in learning and memory. (
  • The brain consists of a vast number of individual cells called neurons. (
  • This was the first discovery of cells in the human brain that respond just when you look at a visual target," explains the study's lead author, Shuo Wang (Ph.D. '14), who was a graduate student in Caltech's Computation & Neural Systems program and subsequently a postdoctoral fellow at Caltech when the experiments were done. (
  • Following undergraduate and Master's degrees at Oxford University then UCL, Colin did his PhD in John O'Keefe's laboratory in UCL, working on learning and memory in hippocampal place cells. (
  • This protein accumulation can block nerve cells in the brain from properly communicating with one another. (
  • This prevents amyloid beta protein from weakening the communication between nerve cells in the hippocampus, which plays an important role in both short- and long-term memory. (
  • The implanted devices try to replicate the way brain cells communicate with one another. (
  • This indicates that our exercise protocol activated stochastic, non-overlapping sets of mature granule cells, consistent with the sparse coding design of this circuit. (
  • Here's where things get interesting: even when the stimulus disappears - you've now started listening to a different song, perhaps that Boston song "Foreplay/Long Time" - those working memory cells continue to fire. (
  • This type of dementia occurs when a person has had many small strokes that damage brain cells. (
  • Other brain circuits may use these same cells to monitor the outcomes of more complex behaviors and adapt those behaviors accordingly, says Janelia group leader Misha Ahrens, who led the research. (
  • Ahrens and Kawashima reasoned that there must be cells in the zebrafish brain that monitor changing surroundings during a swim, then retain a memory of how much progress was made until the fish swims again-this time at pace better suited to environmental conditions. (
  • That memory-and thus the cells' activity-would strengthen with repeated training. (
  • We imaged the whole brain [looking for cells with these features], and a single nucleus beautifully popped up," Kawashima says. (
  • Elucidating how this process is coordinated requires new methods that follow maturation and activity of all cells across a developing circuit. (
  • Most interesting is that their specific pattern of activity suggests a particular process occurring in the brain cells of the cerebral cortex and also supports the role of a crucial brain circuit," says the study's senior investigator, Dr. Nicholas Schiff, the Jerold B. Katz Professor of Neurology and Neuroscience and professor of public health at Weill Cornell. (
  • In this setting of an idling brain, the investigators propose that Ambien works like any anesthesia drug, in that it briefly triggers a fast wave of excitation in brain cells before producing sleep - a phenomenon known as paradoxical excitation. (
  • Instead of going on to produce sedation and sleep, as it does in healthy people who use the drug, zolpidem further activates the brain after it's affected the idling cells, allowing the patients to become more awake than at baseline. (
  • But it wasn't clear what those newborn brain cells actually do. (
  • Nicotine has the effect of stopping new brain cells forming in the hippocampus, but it also has a stimulatory effect on the brain. (
  • For any given disorder, what nerve cells are the problem, and how can stimulation or a brain chip set them aright? (
  • We were inspired in this study to link genetics to neural circuits to behavior," Sethupathy added. (
  • These findings demonstrate the necessity of the hippocampus not just in the aspects of long-term memory with which it has been associated previously, but also in the short-term adaptive control of behavior. (
  • The brain also has a wide distribution of hormone receptors, allowing sex steroids to affect circuits across the entire brain-not just the hypothalamus and areas of the brain linked to sexual behavior. (
  • RDoC represents an inherently translational approach, considering psychopathology in terms of dysregulation and dysfunction in fundamental aspects of behavior as established through basic neuroscience and behavioral science research. (
  • The major RDoC framework consists of a matrix where the rows represent specified functional Constructs, summarizing data about a specified functional dimension of behavior, characterized in the aggregate by the genes, molecules, circuits, etc., responsible for it. (
  • A deft mixture of memoir and history, modern biology and behavior, In Search of Memory brings listeners from Kandel's childhood in Nazi-occupied Vienna to the forefront of one of the great scientific endeavors of the 20th century: the search for the biological basis of memory. (
  • By means of electrochemical impulses the brain directly controls conscious or voluntary behavior, such as walking and thinking. (
  • It also monitors, through feedback circuitry, most involuntary behavior-connections with the autonomic nervous system enable the brain to adjust heartbeat, blood pressure, fluid balance, posture, and other functions-and influences automatic activities of the internal organs. (
  • Although running induces both substantial changes in number and morphology of young neurons as well as significant changes in learning behavior, this does not prove a causal relationship," noted Professor Bischofberger, "Nevertheless, our results, together with previous findings, suggest that the enhanced pattern separation during memory testing is most likely mediated via running-induced increase in adult neurogenesis. (
  • Donald Hebb, in his important and influential book The Organization of Behavior (1949), proposed a resolution of this dilemma by assuming that the organization of a memory trace can be complex and involve a number of brain areas but that the trace can involve specific connections in particular areas. (
  • The application of these methods during working memory, decision-making, and navigation tasks has repeatedly demonstrated sequences of activity across the recorded neural population that tile the behavior. (
  • The symptoms of Binswanger's are related to the disruption of subcortical neural circuits involving short-term memory, organization, mood, attention, decisionmaking, and appropriate behavior. (
  • Studies using functional brain imaging have confirmed that the hippocampus and parahippocampal region are activated during the encoding and retrieval of memories in humans, and these studies have also identified a large network of areas in the cerebral cortex that work together to support declarative memory , our ability for learning and consciously remembering everyday facts and events (Squire et al. (
  • It also activates the upper part of the brain, namely the cerebral cortex, so you can be very alert and make quick decisions," says Burke. (
  • Five hundred years ago, anatomists who dissected and described the brain were struck by a funny little curved structure they found deep in the temporal lobes on either side of the cerebral cortex. (
  • It is part of the paralimbic zone and is involved in the retrieval of episodic and semantic memory, and the processing of familiar and emotional stimuli such as faces. (
  • The circuits could learn that two electrical stimuli are linked if they repeatedly came at the same time, and unlearn this association if these two stimuli stopped being coupled. (
  • Monkeys compared the direction of two moving random-dot stimuli, sample and test, separated by a brief memory delay. (
  • This activity is often elicited by short transient stimuli that have to be retained in memory for long delay periods, in the order of several seconds, after the original stimulus disappeared. (
  • In a typical visual short-term memory (VSTM) experiment, observers are presented with two displays, each display composed of a number of spatially distinct stimuli. (
  • He has recently turned his attention to the amygdala and its role in active memory for ethologically significant stimuli. (
  • A particular type of WM task, called Parametric Working Memory (PWM) , is delayed comparison, the sequential comparison of two graded stimuli separated by a delay period of a few seconds, which forces the subject to maintain an analog value in memory. (
  • The resulting tangles then causes various dysfunctions, such as memory problems, through the disruption of nerve cell connections (Wolfe, 2007). (
  • The upper segment of the human brain stem, the pons, contains nerve fibers that connect the two halves of the cerebellum. (
  • This is a rare form of dementia that involves extensive microscopic damage to the small blood vessels and nerve fibers that make up white matter, the "network" part of the brain believed to be critical for relaying messages between regions. (
  • This and other findings in this paper provide a comprehensive circuit mechanism for consolidation of memory ," says Susumu Tonegawa, the Picower Professor of Biology and Neuroscience, the director of the RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, and the study's senior author. (
  • Now a professor of neuroscience, emerita, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, she has written Permanent Present Tense: The Unforgettable Life of the Amnesic Patient, H. M. , her definitive account of his contribution to brain science. (
  • Shortly after the extent of his amnesia became apparent, Molaison began a lifelong series of psychological tests and brain scans, each intended to inform some theory or other, and ultimately earning him the title of "the most comprehensively studied patient in neuroscience. (
  • Although research has come a long way, we still know very little about what is actually going on in the brain, especially in learning and memory," said Witten, an assistant professor of psychology and the Princeton Neuroscience Institute. (
  • The Holy Grail of neuroscience has been to understand how and where information is encoded in the brain. (
  • 3. If computational neuroscience, microscopy, scanning, and robotics technologies continue to improve at their historical rates, preserved memories and identity may be affordably reanimated by being "uploaded" into computer simulations , beginning well before the end of this century. (
  • Genetic neuroscience of mammalian learning and memory. (
  • Early identity theorists did not emphasize psychoneural identity hypotheses, admitting that their "neuro" terms were placeholders for concepts from future neuroscience. (
  • The BRAIN Initiative is transforming neuroscience through improved methods for large-scale neural recording at cellular resolution. (
  • Working memory deteriorates faster in people with dementia or other disorders of the brain and mind. (
  • But helping restore brain function in stroke survivors or memory for those with dementia would be life changing for those individuals and their families. (
  • One side of the body may be disproportionally affected, and multi-infarct dementia may impair language or other functions, depending on the region of the brain that is affected. (
  • When the strokes occur on both sides of the brain, however, dementia is more likely than when stroke occurs on one side of the brain. (
  • In some cases, a single stroke can damage the brain enough to cause dementia. (
  • This so-called single-infarct dementia is more common when stroke affects the left side of the brain-where speech centers are located-and/or when it involves the hippocampus, the part of the brain that is vital for memory. (
  • An explosive expose of Hillary's hardening of the arteries in the brain, causing dementia, seizures, mood disorder, and inability to think or organize thoughts has hit the press. (
  • Binswanger's disease (BD), also called subcortical vascular dementia, is a type of dementia caused by widespread, microscopic areas of damage to the deep layers of white matter in the brain. (
  • It is therefore challenging to assign a single, definitive role for γ oscillations in brain function. (
  • Knowing they work together helps us better understand the circuits in the brain that can either improve or hamper executive function. (
  • Knocking out the UCP2 gene or chemically inhibiting UCP2 function interfered with the differentiation of hippocampal neurons and circuits, and impaired adult behaviors related to hippocampal functions. (
  • The increasing prevalence of C-sections driven by convenience rather than medical necessity may have a previously unsuspected lasting effect on brain development and function in humans as well. (
  • Destroy the plaques early, and brain function will not be impaired. (
  • Panic disorder (PD) patients present impairments of working memory, decision-making, and executive function. (
  • The purpose of this paper is to compare the working memory, decision-making, and executive function among people with PD, their FDRs, and controls. (
  • People with PD as well as their FDRs present different degrees of impairments of working memory, decision-making, and executive function. (
  • Normal executive function, including learning and memory, is mediated by acute and long-term dynamic regulation of neuronal connectivity. (
  • These reverberating circuits start with input which produces a signal, which in turn becomes encoded within a neuroloop, producing a short-term memory function. (
  • Two areas in the brain, the prefrontal and temporal cortex must be talking to each other correctly for working memory to function well. (
  • These findings … not only give us new insights into the basis for working memory decline but show that negative age-related changes are not unchangeable, we can bring back the superior working memory function that you had when you were much younger. (
  • NEP plays an important role in brain function due to its role in terminating neuropeptide signalling and its decrease during ageing or after such pathologies as hypoxia or ischemia contribute significantly to the development of AD pathology. (
  • In sum, although no genotype-dependent differences between the relevant training groups emerged suggesting no changes in the trained inhibition function, the observed genotype-dependent performance changes from pre- to post measurement may reflect rapid learning or memory effects linked to BDNF and 5-HTTLPR. (
  • Performance is believed to be a function of the nature and extent to which a memory of the first display is formed. (
  • This is all to say that the closer I look at the evidence regarding how our brains function, the more I'm convinced that we're designed to be single-threaded, working on things one at a time, waiting to reach a natural stopping point before moving on to what's next. (
  • TMS can be used clinically to measure activity and function of specific brain circuits in humans. (
  • Every brain area has an associated function, although many functions may involve a number of different areas. (
  • Empirical discoveries about brain structure and function suggest ways that "naturalistic" programs might develop in detail, beyond the abstract philosophical considerations in their favor. (
  • Neurons need to communicate, and they do so in neural circuits on which brain function is built. (
  • Finding and exploiting patterns and regularities in the environment is a critical brain function for animals living in a complex yet structured world. (
  • Such analysis is challenging due to the dynamical nature of brain function (e.g., in decision making), heterogeneity across neurons and limited sampling of the relevant neural population. (
  • Brain Structure & Function, 22 , 1611-1623. (
  • The underlying pathology, that is the brain changes, will always occur but whether or not symptoms develop is affected greatly by motivation to carry out a lifestyle that will reduce your risk or even prevent the development of symptoms entirely. (
  • It has been speculated that tips of the tongue experiences (when only part of a memory is recalled) may occur when the rhythms don't synchronize with the regions properly - which would put these memory failures at the door of the thalamus. (
  • Notably, false memory typically involves an error of relational processing that retrieves relations that did not actually occur but is embodied in the network of relational memories. (
  • At present, it is a reasonable assumption that only the third layer , where long-term durable molecular changes occur, must be preserved for later memory and identity reanimation. (
  • First, the precise region within the brain where the memory dependent changes occur must be localized. (
  • Finally, in addition to identifying the site of memory formation and the nature of the changes that occur, the memory specific pattern of neural activity within the network that occurs during recall of a memory must be delineated. (
  • From the perspective of the brain, such new ideas are merely old thoughts that occur at the exact same time. (
  • The persistence of drug addiction may thus reflect the persistence of specific altered patterns of synaptic connectivity, as is thought to occur for normal memory formation. (
  • They affect the entire brain both during development and throughout adult life: shaping, activating, and fueling sexually dimorphic brain circuits involved in stress and memory as well as several psychiatric disorders. (
  • Develop new ways of classifying disorders based on dimensions of observable behaviors and brain functions. (
  • TMS is used diagnostically to measure the connection between the brain and a muscle to evaluate damage from stroke, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, movement disorders, motor neuron disease, and injuries and other disorders affecting the facial and other cranial nerves and the spinal cord. (
  • Minocycline, the medication Chase has been taking for almost eight months, is one of several drugs that might correct - even reverse - many of the brain perturbations of fragile X and several other developmental disorders, including autism. (
  • Importantly, abundant tragic experience and accumulating science show that substance use disorders are not effectively treated with only short-term care. (
  • These disorders can be caused by brain damage from multiple strokes or any injury to the small vessels carrying blood to the brain. (
  • Her expertise in single neuronal electrophysiology in primates has been transferred to the operating room where she performs the intra-operative microelectrode mapping of basal ganglia nuclei during deep brain stimulations (DBS) procedures for the treatment of patients with Movement Disorders. (
  • The finding is surprising because this part of the brain is best known for its role in controlling emotions and its potential involvement in psychiatric disorders such as major depression. (
  • Although it is not precisely known how many Americans are diagnosed as severely brain injured with disorders of consciousness, by one estimate there are nearly 300,000 patients trapped in a minimally conscious state who may retain some awareness, according to Dr. Schiff. (
  • By disabling each of these four genes one at a time, they found that one in particular, Gpr12, coded for a protein that is required for and promotes working memory. (
  • The one thing that is truly special about the development of the brain-the physical basis of the mind-is its 'wiring', the critical connections between neurons, but even there, as we will see in the next chapter, genes play a critical role. (
  • This idea that the brain might be assembled in much the same way as the rest of the body-on the basis of the action of thousands of autonomous but interacting genes (shaped by natural selection)-is an anathema to our deeply held feeling that our minds are special, somehow separate from the material world. (
  • For instance, these changes might involve strengthening synaptic connections between different neurons, a process that might entail expression of different, memory related genes. (
  • 2017). Genes, brain and language [Special Issue]. (
  • Genes, Brain, and Language: A brief introduction to the Special Issue. (
  • Furthermore, the fact that H.M. retains memories for events that occurred remotely prior to his surgery indicated that these brain areas are not the site of permanent storage but instead play a role in the organization and permanent storage of memories elsewhere in the brain through the process known as memory consolidation . (
  • In addition, the participation of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the γ rhythm varies across local circuits and conditions, particularly in the cortex. (
  • Events that we are later able to remember appear to be channeled for more permanent storage in the cortex (the outer layers of the brain responsible for higher functions such as planning and problem-solving). (
  • In the cortex these memories form gradually, becoming integrated with related information to build lasting knowledge about ourselves and the world. (
  • A new study published this month in Science , from neuroscientist Susumu Tonegawa and a group of colleagues at the RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics, provides insight into what happens in the brain when a long-term memory is formed, highlighting the critical role of the forward part of the cortex. (
  • the more cortex removed, the more the impairment in memory (mass action). (
  • Frank LM, Brown EN, Wilson M. Trajectory encoding in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. (
  • the medial temporal lobe, a region known to be involved in memory and object recognition, and the medial frontal cortex , a region known to be involved in control and decision-making. (
  • A particular strength of the study, they say, was the ability to record target neurons in both the medial temporal lobe and the medial frontal cortex, and the question now is exactly how these brain regions communicate with one another during a visual search task. (
  • Working memory (WM) is an incredibly important mental talent - for starters, WM capacity correlates tightly with g - and is one of the reasons the human frontal cortex has undergone such a vast anatomical expansion. (
  • We can imagine how Wu-Tang and Boston might sound as a mash-up, if only because working memory allows the samples to intersect in the frontal cortex. (
  • New research from MIT reveals that memories are formed simultaneously in the hippocampus and the long-term storage location in the brain's cortex. (
  • He then did postdoctoral research in the laboratory of Dr. Cameron McIntyre developing computational models of evoked activity in the motor cortex in response to deep brain stimulation and now is excited to be moving full circle as an electrophysiologist to be developing new technology and therapeutic biomarkers for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease through deep brain stimulation. (
  • The sequences of neural activity discovered in the new study take place in a part of the brain called the posterior parietal cortex. (
  • These low frequency oscillations are most prominent over the frontal cortex, a region strongly dependent for its activity on other brain structures, particularly the central thalamus and the striatum, which together support short-term memory, reward, motivation, attention, alertness and sleep, among other functions. (
  • The human brain also shows visible differences in various brain regions between men and women. (
  • The problem with this analogy is that the human brain is not a computer processor. (
  • The human brain is messier. (
  • The human brain is good at confusing effort with accomplishment. (
  • There is a growing evidence that the human brain follows an environmentally-guided neural circuit building that increases its learning flexibility. (
  • cavity (cranium), the adult human brain normally weighs from 2 1-4 to 3 1-4 lb (1-1.5 kg). (
  • An additional co-author on the paper, "Encoding of target detection during visual search by single neurons in the human brain," is Adam Mamelak, a neurosurgeon at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and longtime collaborator with the team. (
  • Using terms that respect the distinction will help focus future animal research on brain circuits that detect and respond to threats, and should also help clarify the implications of this work for understanding how normal and pathological feelings of fear come about in the human brain. (
  • since the beginning of the 21st century, connectomics has introduced novel concepts, igniting hopes to crack the code of the human brain. (
  • The answer lies in very old structures in the human brain, called the amygdala and the hippocampus. (
  • Data from the study was published recently in Cell through an article titled " A Thalamic Orphan Receptor Drives Variability in Short Term Memory . (
  • We needed a population that is diverse enough to be able to answer the question of what genetic differences might account for variation in short-term memory," explained co-senior study investigator Praveen Sethupathy, PhD, an associate professor of biomedical sciences in Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine and director of the Cornell Center for Vertebrate Genomics. (
  • According to a new study led by a University of Kansas researcher, persons with larger working memory capacities actually encode information more deeply. (
  • In this study, we therefore aimed to determine how microglia contribute to short-term memory in healthy adults. (
  • Here, I am using game systems as materials and methods by which to explore these boundary zones, involving both intellectual hypotheses and the commonplace as locations and manifestations of socio-technological phenomenon-both the conditions of time and memory are extremely difficult to study and are heavily subjective. (
  • The brain holds in mind what has just been seen by synchronizing brain waves in a working memory circuit, an animal study supported by the National Institutes of Health suggests. (
  • This study provides more evidence that large scale electrical oscillations across distant brain regions may carry information for visual memories," said NIMH director Thomas R. Insel, M.D. (
  • While the study of sexual dimorphism is controversial-author Cordelia Fine coined the provocative if not entirely accurate term, "neurosexism," in her book Delusions of Gender [iii] -far too often findings in this field are unnecessarily sensationalized by the media. (
  • Our study conclusively says that PKM-ζ doesn't regulate memory, states Huganir. (
  • Lenora Volk, part of Huganir's team, states that their study doesn't rule out the possibility that PKM-ζ plays a role in some forms of memory, but it's not the essential master regulator of memory that the literature suggests. (
  • The study in the Department of Cell Physiology and Pharmacology found one of the key proteins involved in the process of memory and learning. (
  • The aim of this study was to test the neuroprotective effects of long-term oral TB treatment and its ability to reverse DS pruning in pyramidal neurons (PN) of hippocampal area CA1. (
  • A drug which has been linked to athletics doping scandals may have positive effects on memory, according to a new study. (
  • Meanwhile, a separate study published in the British Medical Journal has referred to the benefits of a Mediterranean-style diet on the brain. (
  • Our study provides a general strategy for reconstructing how functioning circuits emerge during embryogenesis. (
  • The three patients in the study suffered brain damage in different ways. (
  • Another recent study by professors at the University of Pennsylvania and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center has found how the brain converts short-term memories into long-term memories, "which can be accessed months or years after their implantation. (
  • The hippocampus' job is to remember the context of the situation and the amygdala ensures the longevity of that memory, especially the emotional memory," says Harold Burke, a faculty associate in ASU's College of Health Solutions . (
  • In addition to branding these memories in the brain, the amygdala also regulates part of the sympathetic nervous system, commonly known as the fight or flight system. (
  • The finding contrasts with many existing models of how the brain stores memories and makes decisions, which are based on the idea that firing activity in a group of neurons remain elevated or reduced during the entire process of observing a signal, storing it in memory and making a decision. (
  • Molaison lost the ability to form new memories of events, and his recollection of anything that had happened during the preceding year was severely impaired. (
  • Beginning in the 1950s, studies of the famous amnesiac patient Henry Molaison, then known only as Patient H.M., revealed that the hippocampus is essential for forming new long-term memories . (
  • Molaison, whose hippocampus was damaged during an operation meant to help control his epileptic seizures, was no longer able to store new memories after the operation. (
  • When the now-famous neurological patient Henry Molaison had his brain's hippocampus surgically sectioned to treat seizures in 1953, science's understanding of memory inadvertently received perhaps its biggest boost ever. (
  • By the end of his life in December 2008, 82-year-old Henry Molaison had the most famous brain in the world. (
  • From its historical survey of the 20th-century psychosurgery movement-the most grisly episodes of which involved the now-infamous prefrontal lobotomy-to its somewhat procedural recounting of Molaison's final days, the book repeatedly challenges the reader to decide how one should judge the checkered history of brain research and, in particular, the unique case of Molaison. (
  • Head injury or traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of disability among children and young adults that leads to varying degrees of physical and mental stability. (
  • One, Restoring Active Memory (RAM), aims to use implants to improve soldier's memories after traumatic brain injury. (
  • The research turns on its head decades of studies assuming that single neurons independently encode information in our working memories. (
  • These findings suggest that even neurons we previously thought were 'useless' because they didn't individually encode information have a purpose when working in concert with other neurons," said researcher Julio Martinez-Trujillo, based at the Robarts Research Institute and the Brain and Mind Institute at Western University. (
  • This research, however, suggests many in the neuron throng are singing from the same songbook, in essence creating chords to strengthen the collective voice of memory. (
  • And while the ramifications of this discovery are still being explored, "this gives us good material to work with as we move forward in brain research. (
  • Multiple research studies have found that many different things can influence the development and progression of AD, such as diet and exercise, education levels and daily use of the brain. (
  • This paves the way for future research to identify the specific brain circuits that allow us to form short-term memories. (
  • Consumers could also benefit from the research because it provides a window into how memory could be the key to becoming satiated, especially on products or habits they hope to quit, such as eating unhealthy foods. (
  • The heart of this research project is based around recent readings in physics, neurology, and most notably, string theory, which support the idea of tangible simultaneities, much like real, visceral memories or deja vous. (
  • Recent research also suggests that the thalamus regulates the electrical rhythms that parts of the brain use to communicate with each other. (
  • Further research on other patients with hippocampal damage confirmed recent memories are more impaired than distant ones. (
  • Memories are made of this ( New research led by the University o. (
  • New research led by the University of Leicester and published in a prestigious international scientific journal has revealed for the first time the mechanism by which memories are formed. (
  • I have for years been interested in sleep research due to my professional involvement in memory and learning . (
  • He received the Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize - often known as the Brain Prize - in 2015, along with Winfried Denk, Arthur Konnerth, and Karel Svoboda. (
  • Our research indicates that exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis improves pattern separation by supporting unique and detailed long-term representations of similar but nevertheless different memory items. (
  • Side-sleeping helps the brain clean itself of toxins, according to research. (
  • Traversing the itinerary of paradigm shifts in the understanding of neural circuits, this lecture will highlight current challenges and foci of research. (
  • Previous research centered on the idea that populations of neurons fire together with similar patterns to each other during the memory period. (
  • Dr. Schiff is also on the faculty of the Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute at Weill Cornell and is a neurologist at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center. (
  • At the same time, a handful of projects devoted to creating the next generation of brain implants are being funded by the U.S. Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative , a multimillion dollar effort to accelerate humankind's understanding of the brain. (