Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Iodine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.HistoryFamous PersonsBooksToes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.

The Genexpress IMAGE knowledge base of the human brain transcriptome: a prototype integrated resource for functional and computational genomics. (1/6161)

Expression profiles of 5058 human gene transcripts represented by an array of 7451 clones from the first IMAGE Consortium cDNA library from infant brain have been collected by semiquantitative hybridization of the array with complex probes derived by reverse transcription of mRNA from brain and five other human tissues. Twenty-one percent of the clones corresponded to transcripts that could be classified in general categories of low, moderate, or high abundance. These expression profiles were integrated with cDNA clone and sequence clustering and gene mapping information from an upgraded version of the Genexpress Index. For seven gene transcripts found to be transcribed preferentially or specifically in brain, the expression profiles were confirmed by Northern blot analyses of mRNA from eight adult and four fetal tissues, and 15 distinct regions of brain. In four instances, further documentation of the sites of expression was obtained by in situ hybridization of rat-brain tissue sections. A systematic effort was undertaken to further integrate available cytogenetic, genetic, physical, and genic map informations through radiation-hybrid mapping to provide a unique validated map location for each of these genes in relation to the disease map. The resulting Genexpress IMAGE Knowledge Base is illustrated by five examples presented in the printed article with additional data available on a dedicated Web site at the address +/ welcome.html.  (+info)

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (2/6161)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Cloning of a bovine orphan transporter and its short splicing variant. (3/6161)

We have isolated a cDNA (bv7-3) encoding a member of the Na+,Cl(-)-dependent transporter family and its short splicing variant (bv7-3s) by screening a bovine retina cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that bv7-3 encodes a protein of 729 amino acids and is a bovine homologue of the rat orphan transporter v7-3-2. bv7-3s contains 265 amino acids, sharing 252 N-terminal amino acids with bv7-3. Both mRNAs for bv7-3 and bv7-3s were detected in nervous system by Northern blot analysis. In immunofluorescence analysis in transfected HEK 293T cells, myc-tagged bv7-3 was mainly detected on the plasma membrane, whereas myc-tagged bv7-3s showed a pattern of intracellular membrane staining.  (+info)

Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma atrial and brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus. (4/6161)

Peri-operative changes in echocardiographic measurements and plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were investigated for 1 month in 3 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Post-operative left ventricular end-diastolic dimention and fractional shortening decreased in all cases. Pre-operatively increased plasma ANP concentrations reduced dramatically after the operation. Peri-operative changes in plasma BNP levels had slightly S-shaped curves in all cases. These observations suggest that post-operative responsiveness of ANP and cardiac function are rapid in comparison with cardiac morphological changes, and BNP has a different pathophysiological significance from ANP in dogs with PDA.  (+info)

Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (5/6161)

In this paper, we report the sequences of 100 cDNA clones newly determined from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries and predict the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0819 to KIAA0918. These cDNA clones were selected on the basis of their coding potentials of large proteins (50 kDa and more) by using in vitro transcription/translation assays. The sequence data showed that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames are 4.4 kb and 2.5 kb (831 amino acid residues), respectively. Homology and motif/domain searches against the public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 83 genes were similar to those of known genes, 59% of which (49 genes) were categorized as coding for proteins functionally related to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. The chromosomal locations and the expression profiles of all the genes were also examined. For 54 clones including brain-specific ones, the mRNA levels were further examined among 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, and fetal brain.  (+info)

Functional integrity of mitochondrial genomes in human platelets and autopsied brain tissues from elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease. (6/6161)

To determine whether pathogenic mutations in mtDNA are involved in phenotypic expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the transfer of mtDNA from elderly patients with AD into mtDNA-less (rho0) HeLa cells was carried out by fusion of platelets or synaptosomal fractions of autopsied brain tissues with rho0 HeLa cells. The results showed that mtDNA in postmortem brain tissue survives for a long time without degradation and could be rescued in rho0 HeLa cells. Next, the cybrid clones repopulated with exogenously imported mtDNA from patients with AD were used for examination of respiratory enzyme activity and transfer of mtDNA with the pathogenic mutations that induce mitochondrial dysfunction. The presence of the mutated mtDNA was restricted to brain tissues and their cybrid clones that formed with synaptosomes as mtDNA donors, whereas no cybrid clones that isolated with platelets as mtDNA donors had detectable mutated mtDNA. However, biochemical analyses showed that all cybrid clones with mtDNA imported from platelets or brain tissues of patients with AD restored mitochondrial respiration activity to almost the same levels as those of cybrid clones with mtDNA from age-matched normal controls, suggesting functional integrity of mtDNA in both platelets and brain tissues of elderly patients with AD. These observations warrant the reassessment of the conventional concept that the accumulation of pathogenic mutations in mtDNA throughout the aging process is responsible for the decrease of mitochondrial respiration capacity with age and with the development of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.  (+info)

The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. (7/6161)

Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists may model some behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia in nonhuman subjects. In this review, the usefulness of PCP administration as a potential animal model of schizophrenia is considered. To support the contention that NMDA receptor antagonist administration represents a viable model of schizophrenia, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of these drugs are discussed, especially with regard to differing profiles following single-dose and long-term exposure. The neurochemical effects of NMDA receptor antagonist administration are argued to support a neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia, which includes pathophysiology within several neurotransmitter systems, manifested in behavioral pathology. Future directions for the application of NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia to preclinical and pathophysiological research are offered.  (+info)

ATP inhibition of a mouse brain large-conductance K+ (mslo) channel variant by a mechanism independent of protein phosphorylation. (8/6161)

1. We investigated the effect of ATP in the regulation of two closely related cloned mouse brain large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channel alpha-subunit variants, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells, using the excised inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. 2. The mB2 BK channel alpha-subunit variant expressed alone was potently inhibited by application of ATP to the intracellular surface of the patch with an IC50 of 30 microM. The effect of ATP was largely independent of protein phosphorylation events as the effect of ATP was mimicked by the non-hydrolysable analogue 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) and the inhibitory effect of ATPgammaS was reversible. 3. In contrast, under identical conditions, direct nucleotide inhibition was not observed in the closely related mouse brain BK channel alpha-subunit variant mbr5. Furthermore, direct nucleotide regulation was not observed when mB2 was functionally coupled to regulatory beta-subunits. 4. These data suggest that the mB2 alpha-subunit splice variant could provide a dynamic link between cellular metabolism and cell excitability.  (+info)

  • This represents an entirely new route by which alcohol affects the brain and contributes to histone acetylation in neurons via the ACSS2 enzyme, which plays an important role not only for gene expression but also in alcohol-related learning. (
  • These findings mark the first empirical link between a specific neurotransmitter measured in the brains of individuals with autism and an autistic behavioral symptom," says Caroline Robertson of Harvard University and MIT's McGovern Institute for Brain Research. (
  • This is important as our brains need energy and nutrients for healthy brain chemistry, functioning of nerves, and correct neurotransmitter levels. (
  • Our team in the Berger lab had previously discovered that ACSS2 'fuels' a whole new machinery of gene expression 'on-site' in the nucleus of brain cells to turn on key memory genes after learning," said Dr. Mews of the work that was published in a 2017 Nature paper. (
  • I also discover that LSD doesn't flood the brain with serotonin like I thought it did, au contraire, it cuts off serotonin sources to the telencephalon (cerebrum), which "is the one of the most important parts of the brain, it controls emotion, hearing, vision, personality and many more things. (
  • CES) using an FDA-approved device can alter brain function, mood and responses to cognitive tasks. (
  • Uplift Me is a special blend of plant extracts, antioxidants and amino acids which balance your brain chemistry to help support elevated mood, to cut down cravings and to reduce pain. (
  • Our unique formula combines a blend of plants, antioxidants and amino acids which balance brain chemistry to help support elevated mood, fewer cravings and reduced physical pain. (
  • Studies also showed that people with autism spectrum disorders are slower at a phenomenon called binocular rivalry, which is known to involve inhibition in the brain. (
  • That connection between perception and GABA brain chemistry was completely absent in the brains of people with autism. (
  • Scientists hope that through investigating the way arginine interacts with the brain, they can learn more about the mental decline associated with age-related dementia , Parkinson's disease , and Huntington's disease (HD) to search for potential solutions. (
  • Since NO serves many different purposes, scientists are uncertain whether increases in NO levels would be helpful or harmful to the brain, and how much of an effect it would have. (
  • To our knowledge, this data provides the first empirical evidence indicating that a portion of acetate derived from alcohol metabolism directly influences epigenetic regulation in the brain. (
  • In the current study, the research team used isotopically labeled alcohol and advanced mass spectrometry to track where the alcohol and its breakdown products go in the body and brain, and found that alcohol metabolism rapidly impacts histone acetylation in the hippocampus-the learning and memory center of the brain-by directly depositing alcohol-derived acetyl groups onto histones via an enzyme called acetyl-CoA sythetase 2 (ACSS2). (
  • I have published on such topics as muscle metabolism, brain chemistry and imaging development. (
  • Robertson, senior author Nancy Kanwisher of MIT, and their colleagues wanted to find out whether this difficulty could be traced to differences in GABA levels in the autistic brain. (
  • Remind them that when they get hung up on a problem while doing their homework or independent study, they might try going for a run or taking an exercise break, and then return to the problem with their brain recharged. (
  • In addition to being used to diagnose disease and assess brain health, neuroimaging is also valuable in the study of the brain, how the brain works, and how various activities impact the brain. (
  • When we are under stress for prolonged periods of time, our bodies can start to get a little out of balance, and that includes our brain chemistry. (
  • It's long been thought this might have something to do with inhibition in the brain, and our findings lend support to this notion. (
  • Optimism and pessimism are somewhat predetermined by genetics, but we can influence positive outcomes by helping students take charge of their thoughts, feelings, and brain chemistry. (