Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.TurtlesCell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 188.8.131.52.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCarps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Potamogetonaceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Mice, Inbred C57BLAlzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Iridaceae: A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Araliaceae: The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protoveratrines: Mixtures of closely related hypotensive alkaloids from Veratrum album (Liliaceae). They have been used in the treatment of hypertension but have largely been replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.VeratrineKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Echinochloa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Sagittaria: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Kymography: The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Adenine NucleotidesIodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
It actually ends up causing cerebral anoxia that leaves permanent brain damage. - Goodyear 5 June 2012 This comment was in ... McIlroy, Anne (March 11, 2009). "Neuroscientists fear brain drain as crucial funding disappears". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. ... the cuts could produce a brain drain as researchers move to the United States and secure funding. June 2009 saw Goodyear ...
Hypoxia in fish
Hylland, P.; Milton, S.; Pek, M.; Nilsson, G. E.; Lutz, P. L. (1997). "Brain Na+/K+-ATPase activity in two anoxia tolerant ... The anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.). In Hypoxia (ed. J. G. Richards, A. P. Farrell and C. J. Brauner), pp ... In fish, the hypoxic signal is carried up to the brain for processing by the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX) and vagus ( ... Many hypoxic environments never reach the level of anoxia and most fish are able to cope with this stress using different ...
He suffered from a heart attack that caused damage to his brain secondary to cerebral anoxia. Due to his injury, he developed ... This brain damage resulted in a slight decrease in cognitive and physical skills as well as a change in personality. There were ... This hypothesis states that the most decisive effect of ECT is the arousal of the active defensive operations in the brain. ... Behavioural Brain Research, 63(2), 187-194 Watanabe, S., Yanagisawa, N. (2000). Serial position effect and selective amnesia ...
link) Peskine, A; Picq, C; Pradat-Diehl, P (Dec 2004). "Cerebral anoxia and disability". Brain Inj. 18 (12): 1243-54. doi: ... "Individual differences in personality traits reflect structural variance in specific brain regions". Brain Res Bull. 79 (5): ... In particular, the three-factor model identifies the reticular system and the limbic system in the brain as key components that ... 2006). "Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion". Depress Anxiety. 23 (3): 133-8. doi: ...
... when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia. There are four categories of cerebral hypoxia; ... The brain requires approximately 3.3 ml of oxygen per 100 g of brain tissue per minute. Initially the body responds to lowered ... Cerebral edema, brain hemorrhages and hydrocephalus exert pressure on brain tissue and impede their absorption of oxygen. ... If cerebral hypoxia was localized to a specific part of the brain, brain damage will be localized to that region. A general ...
"Near-death experiences are 'electrical surge in dying brain'". BBC News. "Could a final surge in brain activity after death ... Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia or anoxia) have been hypothesized to induce hallucinations and hence possibly explain ... a feeling that the brain has been "altered" to encompass more; and a feeling that one is now using the "whole brain" rather ... Heightened brain activity has been recorded in experimental rats directly following cardiac arrest, though there has been no ...
Cerebral hypoxia - Oxygen shortage of the brain or cerebral anoxia, a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain ... Erotic asphyxiation or autoerotic hypoxia, intentional restriction of oxygen to the brain for sexual arousal ... and cerebral anoxia. These symptoms are often difficult to identify, but early detection of symptoms can be critical.[ ... Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia. ...
... and brain damage due to cerebral anoxia. In a typical "long drop", the subject is likely to suffer one or more fractures of the ... which typically leaves a person with severe brain damage due to cerebral anoxia. Detergent-related suicide involves mixing ... In a "short drop", the victim may die from strangulation, in which the death may result from a lack of oxygen to the brain. The ... Death usually occurs as the level of oxygen becomes too low to sustain the brain cells. It is among the least common methods of ...
PMID 3364265 Yasuda H, Nakajima A. Brain protection against ischemic injury by nizofenone. Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism ... Nizofenone (Ekonal, Midafenone) is a neuroprotective drug which protects neurons from death following cerebral anoxia ( ... 1986 Mar;64(3):420-6. PMID 3512795 Yasuda H, Izumi N, Nakanishi M, Maruyama Y. Brain protection against oxygen deficiency by ... interruption of oxygen supply to the brain). It might thus be useful in the treatment of acute neurological conditions such as ...
After 4 to 6 minutes of sustained cerebral anoxia, permanent brain damage will begin to occur, but the long-term effects of a ... When they sense too much pressure in an artery that feeds the brain (such as those in the neck), they signal the brain to ... the dilation causes a dramatic decrease in blood pressure to the brain, or brain ischemia, which then causes loss of ... Some argue that when pressure is applied to the carotid artery, the baroreceptors send a signal to the brain via the ...
Suicide by hanging
... when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, an extreme form of cerebral hypoxia Anoxia (beetle), a genus of scarab beetles ... The term anoxia means a total depletion in the level of oxygen, an extreme form of hypoxia or "low oxygen". The terms anoxia ... when the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply Cerebral anoxia, ...
Cells in the brain begin to die due to anoxia. Hypoxic brain injury happens when the brain receives insufficient oxygen. A ... A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties. Primary and secondary ... Brain injuries have far-reaching and varied consequences due to the nature of the brain as the main source of bodily control. ... Non-traumatic brain injuries are those caused 'from the inside' as opposed to the external factors seen in traumatic brain ...
... when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia. There are four categories of cerebral hypoxia; ... The brain requires approximately 3.3 ml of oxygen per 100 g of brain tissue per minute. Initially the body responds to lowered ... Cerebral edema, brain hemorrhages and hydrocephalus exert pressure on brain tissue and impede their absorption of oxygen. ... Histotoxic hypoxia - Oxygen is present in brain tissue but cannot be metabolized by the brain tissue. Cyanide poisoning is a ...
Childhood acquired brain injury
They could also be caused by infections such as septicaemia; events such as anoxia and hypoxia occasioned by strangulation or ... Neurobehavioural plasticity after early brain insult". Brain. 134 (1): 2197-2215. doi:10.1093/brain/awr103. PMID 21784775. ... doi:10.1093/brain/awr103. PMID 21784775. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Bach y Rita, P (1990). "Brain plasticity as a ... Childhood (or paediatric) acquired brain injury (ABI) is the term given to any injury to the brain that occurs during childhood ...
Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain
Another anoxia-tolerant animal that is commonly used as a model to study anoxia in the mammalian brain is the crucian carp, ... The brains of several mammalian neonates have been identified as able to confer resistance to anoxia in a fashion similar to ... Selective vulnerability is the term used to describe how some parts of the brain are more sensitive to anoxia than others, and ... Anoxia-prone cells in the brain include the hippocampal pyramidal cells of CA1, cerebellar purkinje cells, pyramidal ...
Due to Prajmaline's sodium channel-blocking properties, it has been shown to protect rat white matter from anoxia (82 +/- 15 ... Brain Research. 1037 (1-2): 171-9. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.01.003. PMID 15777766. ... Malek SA, Adorante JS, Stys PK (March 2005). "Differential effects of Na-K-ATPase pump inhibition, chemical anoxia, and ...
Pim van Lommel
2014). "We Are Our Brains: From the Womb to Alzheimer's". "However, he should not fool people by giving his book the subtitle ... misunderstandings over the role of anoxia, misplaced confidence in EEG measurements (a flat electroencephalogram (EEG) reading ... Van Lommel, P. (2006). Near-Death Experience, Consciousness and the Brain. A new concept about the continuity of our ... Braithwaite, J. J. (2008). "Near Death Experiences: The Dying Brain". Skeptic. Volume 21, Number 2. Retrieved 2014-07-12. " ...
... intentional restriction of oxygen to the brain for sexual arousal Cerebral hypoxia or cerebral anoxia, a reduced supply of ... Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia. Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy ... there is word loss in their speech due to their state of confusion and cell damage in the brain. In most tissues of the body, ... and anoxia. In severe hypoxia, or hypoxia of very rapid onset, ataxia, confusion / disorientation / hallucinations / behavioral ...
Minimally conscious state
Even though functional brain imaging can objectively measure changes in brain function during noxious stimulation, the role of ... anoxia, tumor, hydrocephalus, infection). The patients were assessed multiple times over a period of 12 months post injury ... DRS scores were also significantly lower for the MCS non-traumatic brain injury group compared to the MCS traumatic brain ... those with minimally conscious state and non-traumatic brain injuries will not progress as well as those with traumatic brain ...
... or abscesses all tend to deform the adjacent brain. generalized brain swelling can occur in ischemic-anoxia states, acute liver ... shift brain structures, contribute to hydrocephalus, cause brain herniation, and restrict blood supply to the brain. It is a ... Any further elevations will lead to brain infarction and brain death. In infants and small children, the effects of ICP differ ... Brain Trauma Foundation Neurocritical care Cushing's triad Traumatic brain injury external ventricular drain Non-invasive ...
... in-brain theories), or (2) "survivalist" interpretation (out-of-brain theories). The research on NDEs often include variables ... Variables that are considered, and often summarized by researchers, include: anoxia; cerebral hypoxia; hypercarbia; endorphins ... The object of the study was to study the brain, and consciousness, during cardiac arrest, and to test the validity of out of ... Near-Death Experience: Out-of-Body and Out-of-Brain? Review of General Psychology, 2011, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1-10. Parnia S, ...
... anoxia or other trauma. The two brain regions related with this condition are medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon. ... After his death Molaison donated his brain to science, where they were able to discover the areas of the brain that had the ... Retrograde is usually caused by head trauma or brain damage to parts of the brain besides the hippocampus. The hippocampus is ... Head trauma is a very broad range as it deals with any kind of injury or active action toward the brain which might cause ...
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity
It often takes patients who develop PSH longer to reach similar levels of the brain activity seen in patients who do not ... PSH can also be associated with severe anoxia, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. Characteristics of ... Traumatic brain injury, hypoxia, stroke, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (although further associations are being explored), ... Propanolol is a common beta-blocker administered due to the fact that it penetrates the blood-brain barrier relatively well. ...
Prog in Brain Res 96:247-257, 1993 Giusto NM, Bazan NG: Phosphatidic acid of retinal microsomes contains a high proportion of ... In contrast, mature homeothermic animals, vulnerable to relatively short periods of anoxia, rapidly accumulate arachidonic and ... Brain Res 100:99-110, 1975 Aveldano MI, Bazan NG: Rapid production of diacylglycerols enriched in arachidonate and stearate ... Bazan demonstrated that brain ischemia triggers the release of free essential fatty acids (arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid ...
More than 60% of RNA transcripts for coleoid brains are recoded by editing, compared to less than 1% for a human or fruit fly. ... This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... The head includes the mouth and brain. The foot has evolved into a set of flexible, prehensile appendages, known as arms, that ... The octopus (along with cuttlefish) has the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all invertebrates, and is also greater than ...
Sudden infant death syndrome - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Health management system
... due to top down control by the brain. The advantage of this top down management is that the brain can enhance such regulation ... such as anoxia and hyperglycemia) of over prolonged exercise. The idea of a fatigue governor was first proposed in 1924 by the ... The brain controls such physiological process through top-down regulation. External treatment and the availability of support ... Brain Behav. Immun. 17 (1): 20-7. doi:10.1016/S0889-1591(02)00031-4. PMID 12615046. Pacheco-López G, Niemi MB, Kou W, et al. ( ...
Suicide by hanging
Wicht, H (1996), "The brains of lampreys and hagfishes: Characteristics, characters, and comparisons.", Brain, Behavior and ... as well as a high tolerance for both hypoxia and anoxia, with a well developed anaerobic metabolism. The skin has also been ... They have cartilaginous skulls (although the part surrounding the brain is composed primarily of a fibrous sheath) and tooth- ... The complexity of the hagfish brain has been an issue of debate since the late 19th century, with some morphologists believing ...
... and open brain. In addition, after embryonic day 12.5, the brain of the embryos showed several structural changes. APAF-1 cells ... Neonatal cardiomyocytes ultrastructure after anoxia-reoxygenation.. Defective pathwaysEdit. The many different types of ... A caspase 9 knock-out leads to a severe brain malformation. A caspase 8 knock-out leads to cardiac failure and thus embryonic ... Finally, a caspase 3 knock-out was characterized by ectopic cell masses in the brain and abnormal apoptotic features such as ...
Damage to the brain (such as from a massive stroke, non-penetrating head injury, intoxication or poisoning) may result in a ... If this situation is not immediately identified and corrected, death will ensue from cerebral and cardiac anoxia. ... Brain, AIJ (1985). "Three cases of difficult intubation overcome by the laryngeal mask airway". Anaesthesia. 40 (4): 353-5. doi ... brain damage, cardiovascular collapse, and death. When performed improperly, the associated complications (e.g., ...
It is able to cross the blood-brain barrier- a highly selective barrier that separates circulating blood from the brain's ... Apoptosis as a result of anoxia/reoxygenation and H(2)O(2) treatment may also be inhibited. ... upon focal ischemic brain damage caused by acute subdural hematoma in the rat". Brain Research. 845 (2): 232-235. doi:10.1016/ ... Phase III trials for both ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury were run in March 2002. However, these trials found ...
Attached to the brain are two special organs called statocysts (sac-like structures containing a mineralised mass and sensitive ... This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... More than 60% of RNA transcripts for coleoid brains are recoded by editing, compared to less than 1% for a human or fruit fly. ... The head includes the mouth and brain. The foot has evolved into a set of flexible, prehensile appendages, known as "arms", ...
Vitamin C is obtained through sources such as caribou liver, kelp, whale skin, and seal brain; because these foods are ... In the terminal stages of prolonged diving, however, even these organs must tolerate anoxia for surprisingly long times, and ... hunters may also chop up pieces of fat and the brain to mix together and eat with meat. Women and children are accustomed to ...
Damage to the brain (such as from a massive stroke, non-penetrating head injury, intoxication or poisoning) may result in a ... If this situation is not immediately identified and corrected, death will ensue from cerebral and cardiac anoxia. Of 4,460 ... 379-92 Benumof (2007), Wheeler M and Ovassapian A, Chapter 18: Fiberoptic endoscopy-aided technique, p. 399-438 Brain, AIJ ( ... suffered severe brain damage and died. For example, among paramedics in several United States urban communities, unrecognized ...
2009). Near-Death Experiences and the Brain. In Craig Murray. Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Out-of-Body and Near- ... A wide range of physiological theories of the NDE have been put forward including those based upon cerebral hypoxia, anoxia, ... Progress in Brain Research. 150. pp. 351-367. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(05)50025-6. ISBN 9780444518514. . PMID 16186035.. ... This basis could be congruent with the thesis of pathoclisis-the inclination of special parts of the brain to be the first to ...
The central nervous system consists of a brain and paired ventral nerve cords that connect to the brain and run along the ... This stores oxygen for peak activity or when the animal experiences anoxia, for example while burrowing in oxygen-free ... The brain is a ring of four ganglia, positioned around the rhynchocoel near its front end. At least a pair of ventral nerve ... The brain is a ring of four ganglia, masses of nerve cells, positioned round the rhynchocoel near its front end - while the ...
Consciousness after death
If manipulation of brain activity changes consciousness, then a causal role for that brain activity can be inferred. Two of the ... from neuroscience considers the NDE to be a hallucinatory state caused by various neurological factors such as cerebral anoxia ... "Diagnosis of brain death". UpToDate. Retrieved 25 March 2014. Goila, A.; Pawar, M. (2009). "The diagnosis of brain death". ... Mental development/brain development correlation: The brain grows and develops in an intricately orchestrated sequence of ...
There was some atheroma in the internal brain arteries that led to the cerebral softening of the left side of the brain around ... This hypoxia or anoxia leads to neuronal injury, which is known as a stroke. The death of neurons leads to a so-called ... The results yielded 52% of normal brains having a normal Circle of Willis, while only 33% of brains with cerebral softening had ... than there were in normal brains (27%). These results point to an assumption of a higher incidence rate of anomalies in brains ...
Warm anoxia can also occur during reimplantation of the kidney after storage. Lannon showed, by measurements of succinate ... Fuhrman showed that slices of rat kidney cortex and brain withstood cooling to 0.2 °C for one hour at which temperature their ... Fuhrman FA, Field J. The reversibility of the inhibition of rat brain and kidney metabolism by cold. Am J Physiol 1943;139:193- ... When excising a kidney some anoxia is inevitable in the interval between dividing the renal artery and cooling the kidney. It ...
Stem cell secretome
Brain research. Molecular brain research. 6 (2-3): 177-85. doi:10.1016/0169-328x(89)90052-1. PMID 2615594. Lee, MK; Kim, JH; ... In particular, GPBB is responsible for supplying emergency glucose during periods of stress, including anoxia, hypoglycemia, or ... Glycogen phosphorylase, brain (PYGB, GPBB), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PYGB gene on chromosome 20. The ... Though GPBB is primarily expressed in adult and fetal brain, it has also been detected in cardiomyocytes and at low levels in ...
Drosophila X virus
Based on previous studies, DXV was unsuccessfully cultured in vertebrate cells lines and mouse brain. It has not been shown yet ... Assay results of DXV showed that DXV induces sensitivity to both carbon dioxide and NH2, which suggests general anoxia. ... Therefore, the pathogenic pathway for DXV leads to anoxia sensitivity and death of D. melanogaster. By negative contrast ...
hypoxic brain damage - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for hypoxic brain damage
Find hypoxic brain damage information, treatments for hypoxic brain damage and hypoxic brain damage symptoms. ... MedHelps hypoxic brain damage Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hypoxic brain damage. ... Hi, I have a 2 1/2 year old son with severe brain damage following a hypoxic injury when he... ... Hi, I have a 2 1/2 year old son with severe brain damage following a hypoxic injury when he... ...
How do medications treat toxic anoxia? | Anoxic Brain Injuries - Sharecare
Although medication is generally not the primary treatment for toxic anoxia, it is important in some cases. Medication used to ... Anoxic Brain Injuries. An anoxic brain injury occurs when there is a lack of oxygen going to the brain. When this oxygen ... The brain damage that occurs from an anoxic brain injury affects the whole brain. Some areas of the ... ... Medication used to treat toxic anoxia works by stabilizing the brain or by reversing the chemical problem that caused the ...
What increases my risk for stagnant anoxia? | Anoxic Brain Injuries - Sharecare
There is a risk of stagnant anoxia with any surgical procedure that r ... and emphysema all increase your risk for stagnant anoxia. ... Anoxic Brain Injuries. An anoxic brain injury occurs when there ... The brain damage that occurs from an anoxic brain injury affects the whole brain. Some areas of the ... ... An anoxic brain injury is a serious and possibly life-threatening injury in which the brain is depri... ...
Anoxia / reoxygenation induced cell death in crucian carp brain
These adaptations solve the main problem encountered during anoxia, which is to supply cells with enough ATP. The brain has a ... One possibility is that anoxia initiates apoptotic pathways in the brain without leading to actual cell death until oxygen is ... It is still not known if the crucian carp brain suffers brain damage after anoxic exposure. The aim of this study was therefore ... the need to possess effective mechanisms to repair a damaged brain after anoxia / reoxygenation events. ...
Metabolic Mechanisms of Anoxia Tolerance in the Turtle Brain | Springer for Research & Development
Turtle brain survives anoxia by maintaining ATP levels necessary to avoid the loss of ion homeostasis and the uncontrolled ... Turtle brain survives anoxia by maintaining ATP levels necessary to avoid the loss of ion homeostasis and the uncontrolled ... Nilsson, G.E. and P.L. Lutz, Release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in response to anoxia in turtle brain. Am J Physiol, 261 ( ... Pérez-Pinzón M.A., Lutz P.L., Sick T.J., Rosenthal M. (1997) Metabolic Mechanisms of Anoxia Tolerance in the Turtle Brain. In: ...
Protective effect of hypothermia on brain potassium homeostasis during repetitive anoxia in Drosophila melanogaster | Journal...
A) The last 12 [K+]o surges of a hypothetical cold temperature trace during repetitive anoxia. A 3 min/0.5 min anoxia/normoxia ... Protective effect of hypothermia on brain potassium homeostasis during repetitive anoxia in Drosophila melanogaster ... Protective effect of hypothermia on brain potassium homeostasis during repetitive anoxia in Drosophila melanogaster ... Protective effect of hypothermia on brain potassium homeostasis during repetitive anoxia in Drosophila melanogaster ...
Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain, Physiological Reviews | DeepDyve
"Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain, Physiological Reviews" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain. Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain A. J. Hansen 1985-01-01 00 ... Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain. A. J. Hansen ... Hansen, J.A. "Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain ... Hansen, J.A. (1985). Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain. Physiological Reviews, 65, 101. MLA ...
The recovery of the brain from anoxia after administration of analeptic drugs; electroencephalographic studies on rabbits. |...
TEMPERATURE MODULATION OF THE EFFECTS OF REPETITIVE ANOXIA ON POTASSIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN THE BRAIN OF Drosophila melanogaster
... ... o can be used to assess neural failure during anoxia. The effect of temperature on the maintenance of brain [K+]o homeostasis ... N2-delivery patterns consisting of long anoxia, short normoxia and high cycle frequency increased disruption of brain [K+]o ... hypothermia had a protective effect on brain K+ homeostasis during repetitive anoxia. Male flies are suggested as a useful ...
Changes in Brain Volume during Anesthesia:the Effects of Anoxia and Hypercapnia | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
Changes in Brain Volume during Anesthesia: the Effects of Anoxia and Hypercapnia. Anesthesiology 7 1942, Vol.3, 481. doi: ... J. C. WHITE, M. VERLOT, B. SELVERSTONE, H. K. BEECHER; Changes in Brain Volume during Anesthesia: the Effects of Anoxia and ... Changes in Brain Volume during Anesthesia: the Effects of Anoxia and Hypercapnia ... Changes in Brain Volume during Anesthesia: the Effects of Anoxia and Hypercapnia ...
The Effects of Hypoxia & Anoxia to the Brain
... Smith Jones Solicitors , Personal Injury Claims , Serious Injury Claims , Brain ... Fortunately, brain damage from anoxia and hypoxia can heal over time. Brain injuries can heal if they are caught early and the ... Whats the Difference between Hypoxia & Anoxia?. Anoxic brain injuries are caused when there is a complete severance of oxygen ... Acquired Brain Injuries. Like any acquired brain injury the symptoms can be unpredictable and depend on the person and the ...
Brain antioxidant regulation in mammals and anoxia-tolerant reptiles: balanced for neuroprotection and neuromodulation. -...
Ascorbate levels are also selectively elevated in the CNS of anoxia-tolerant reptiles compared to mammals; moreover, plasma and ... Brain antioxidant regulation in mammals and anoxia-tolerant reptiles: balanced for neuroprotection and neuromodulation. ... Brain antioxidant regulation in mammals and anoxia-tolerant reptiles: balanced for neuroprotection and neuromodulation. ... Brain antioxidant regulation in mammals and anoxia-tolerant reptiles: balanced for neuroprotection and neuromodulation. ...
Brain energetics and tolerance to anoxia in deep hypothermia<...
Brain energetics and tolerance to anoxia in deep hypothermia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2005;1048:10-35. ... Brain energetics and tolerance to anoxia in deep hypothermia. In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2005 ; Vol. 1048 ... Brain energetics and tolerance to anoxia in deep hypothermia. Radoslav K. Andjus, Željko Džakula, John L. Markley, Slobodan ... Andjus, R. K., Džakula, Ž., Markley, J. L., & Macura, S. (2005). Brain energetics and tolerance to anoxia in deep hypothermia. ...
Metabolic Alterations in Brain During Anoxic-Anoxia and Subsequent Recovery | JAMA Neurology | JAMA Network
... it was generally thought that irreversible brain damage would result from any condition that produced a profound cerebral ... Metabolic Alterations in Brain During Anoxic-Anoxia and Subsequent Recovery. Lester R. Drewes, PhD; David D. Gilboe, PhD; A. ... Metabolic Alterations in Brain During Anoxic-Anoxia and Subsequent Recovery. Arch Neurol. 1973;29(6):385-390. doi:10.1001/ ... This has led some workers to question whether cerebral anoxia actually causes irreversible brain damage within so short a ...
Traumatic Brain Injury - Anoxia and Hypoxia | Karns & Kerrison
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region ... Traumatic Brain Injury ... Anoxia is the total depletion of the level of oxygen in the human body. ... Both anoxia and hypoxia can cause traumatic brain injury. The brain requires a constant flow of oxygen in order to function and ... wounds or injuries causing severe bleeding can cause anemic anoxia having the same result as any type of anoxia. ...
Inborn Brain Injuries<...
... typically in the form of hypoxic or anoxic brain damage, can occur before or during birth. Questions? Call us 415-746-1477 ... Anoxia is more severe, and is caused by a total lack of oxygen. Anoxia can cause extreme brain damage, whereas hypoxia may ... Infant Brain Injuries & Prenatal or Newborn Brain Damage. Inborn brain injuries are injuries that occur in the womb or during ... San Francisco Brain Injury Lawyers. If you believe that your child did not receive the proper care during childbirth, or that ...
Endoscopic sphenoid sinus surgery -otolaryngology-healthfrom.com brain anoxia
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Traumatic Brain Injury - Anoxia and Hypoxia | Karns Law Group
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region ... Traumatic Brain Injury ... Anoxia is the total depletion of the level of oxygen in the human body. ... Tags: Anoxia, Hypoxia, TBI, Traumatic Brain Injury. Related Posts: Traumatic Brain injury - Tinnitus, Traumatic Brain Injury- ... Traumatic Brain Injury - Anoxia and Hypoxia. By Robert Karns of Karns Law Group posted in Traumatic Brain Injury on Tuesday, ...
Early EEG correlates of neuronal injury after brain anoxia.<...
Stanko, C., & Freeman, W. D. (2012). Early EEG correlates of neuronal injury after brain anoxia. Neurology, 79(19), 2010. https ... Stanko, C & Freeman, WD 2012, Early EEG correlates of neuronal injury after brain anoxia., Neurology, vol. 79, no. 19, pp. ... Stanko, Carlene ; Freeman, W. D. / Early EEG correlates of neuronal injury after brain anoxia. In: Neurology. 2012 ; Vol. 79, ... Early EEG correlates of neuronal injury after brain anoxia. / Stanko, Carlene; Freeman, W. D. ...
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Proteomic changes in the crucian carp brain during exposure to anoxia<...
During exposure to anoxia, the crucian carp brain is able to maintain normal overall protein synthesis rates. However, it is ... Smith, RW, Cash, P, Ellefsen, S & Nilsson, GE 2009, Proteomic changes in the crucian carp brain during exposure to anoxia, ... Proteomic changes in the crucian carp brain during exposure to anoxia. Richard W Smith, Phil Cash, Stian Ellefsen, Goran E ... Proteomic changes in the crucian carp brain during exposure to anoxia. / Smith, Richard W; Cash, Phil; Ellefsen, Stian; Nilsson ...
Perinatal and Neonatal Hypoxia Ischaemia: The Unique Challenges of Treating the Infant Brain | IntechOpen
However, the infant brain displays a unique profile of sensitivity and resistance compared to adult ischaemic stroke patients. ... Both pathology and response to treatment are uniquely affected by the molecular landscape of the neonatal brain. With new ... This chapter will review currently known differences between the infant and adult brain response to hypoxia, and address ... as global mortality and morbidity increases research funding into infant brain injury, it is important to raise awareness of ...
Brain potassium ion homeostasis, anoxia, and metabolic inhibition in turtles and rats<...
Brain potassium ion homeostasis, anoxia, and metabolic inhibition in turtles and rats. / Sick, T. J.; Rosenthal, M.; LaManna, J ... Brain potassium ion homeostasis, anoxia, and metabolic inhibition in turtles and rats. American Journal of Physiology - ... Inhibition of glycolysis with iodoacetate (IAA) resulted in rapid elevation of [K+]o in turtle brain during anoxia, but IAA had ... Sick, T. J. ; Rosenthal, M. ; LaManna, J. C. ; Lutz, P. L. / Brain potassium ion homeostasis, anoxia, and metabolic inhibition ...
Anoxia: Symptoms, types, and treatment
Anoxia occurs when a persons body or brain stops getting oxygen. Learn more about the causes, symptoms, and types in this ... Anoxia occurs when a persons body or brain stops getting oxygen. The loss of oxygen to the body or brain can be extremely ... Stagnant anoxia. Stagnant anoxia happens when a persons blood does not reach the brain or other parts of the body that require ... www.headway.org.uk/about-brain-injury/individuals/types-of-brain-injury/hypoxic-and-anoxic-brain-injury/anoxic-brain-injury- ...
Protective effect of hypothermia on brain potassium homeostasis during repetitive anoxia in Drosophila melanogaster | Journal...
Repeated anoxia disrupts brain K+ homeostasis in the fruit fly, causing an increment in [K+]o baseline (Armstrong et al., 2011 ... Consequently, assessment of brain [K+]o can be used to evaluate the integrity of the fruit flys brain physiology while ... A) The last 12 [K+]o surges of a hypothetical cold temperature trace during repetitive anoxia. A 3 min/0.5 min anoxia/normoxia ... Protective effect of hypothermia on brain potassium homeostasis during repetitive anoxia in Drosophila melanogaster ...
Oxygen Deprivation | Lawsuit for Brain Damage
... also called cerebral anoxia. Contact attorney Fred Pritzker and his team about a lawsuit. ... You may have the right to sue if your loved one suffered brain damage due to oxygen deprivation, ... Cerebral anoxia may result in severe brain damage or death. Recovery depends on how long the brain has been deprived of oxygen ... What is a Cerebral Anoxia?. Cerebral anoxia is a condition where there is an absence of oxygen to the brain, i.e., oxygen ...
Tracking and Research on Cerebral Palsy | CDC
Maternal Oxytocin Administration Before Birth Influences the Effects of Birth Anoxia on the Neonatal Rat Brain. | Le Centre de...
Direct injection of oxytocin to postnatal day 2 rat pups followed by exposure to anoxia also resulted in increased brain ... Accueil » Maternal Oxytocin Administration Before Birth Influences the Effects of Birth Anoxia on the Neonatal Rat Brain. ... Maternal Oxytocin Administration Before Birth Influences the Effects of Birth Anoxia on the Neonatal Rat Brain.. ... Maternal Oxytocin Administration Before Birth Influences the Effects of Birth Anoxia on the Neonatal Rat Brain.. ...
tDCS in MCS: Repeated Stimulations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Patients in Minimally Conscious State After a Severe Brain Injury (e.g., Anoxia, Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke) Device: ... Brain Injuries. Brain Injuries, Traumatic. Persistent Vegetative State. Wounds and Injuries. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous ... patients , 3 months after the acute brain injury. *patients with a metallic cerebral implant or a pacemaker (in line with the ...
Gill remodeling in fish - a new fashion or an ancient secret? | Journal of Experimental Biology
Nilsson, G. E. and Lutz, P. L. (2004). Anoxia tolerant brains. J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. 24,475 -486. ... Nilsson, G. E. (2001). Surviving anoxia with the brain turned on. News Physiol. Sci. 16,218 -221. ... Chapman, L. J. and Hulen, K. G. (2001). Implications of hypoxia for the brain size and gill morphometry of mormyrid fishes. J. ... In fact, it even tolerates long periods of anoxia (for a review, see Nilsson and Lutz, 2004). In the winter, many crucian carp ...
Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain - Wikipedia
Another anoxia-tolerant animal that is commonly used as a model to study anoxia in the mammalian brain is the crucian carp, ... The brains of several mammalian neonates have been identified as able to confer resistance to anoxia in a fashion similar to ... Selective vulnerability is the term used to describe how some parts of the brain are more sensitive to anoxia than others, and ... Anoxia-prone cells in the brain include the hippocampal pyramidal cells of CA1, cerebellar purkinje cells, pyramidal ...
Stagnant anoxiaAnemic anoxiaTraumaticSevereEffects of AnoxiaOccursMechanisms of Anoxia ToleranceSymptoms of anoxia may notIrreversible brain2018Anoxic brain injuriesDamageToxicInjuriesType of anoxiaActivity duringToxinsHigh altitudesHypoxia AnoxiaRepetitive anoxiaNeuronsMetabolicSpinalAnesthesiaCardiac arrestToleranceCrucian carp brainAcuteTotal lack of oxygenHomeostasisNeuronalStarved of oxygenEncephalopathyAmount of oxygenDiagnosisAlterationsMinutes without oxygenMitochondrialSurvivalOxygen depletionExposureOrgansMammalianDISORDERSMammalsDurationDeficitsDeprivationNeonatal brainEnough oxygen
- What increases my risk for stagnant anoxia? (sharecare.com)
- Heart disease, asthma, and emphysema all increase your risk for stagnant anoxia. (sharecare.com)
- There is a risk of stagnant anoxia with any surgical procedure that requires general anesthesia. (sharecare.com)
- Although stagnant anoxia is not common, it can occur at any age. (sharecare.com)
- Stagnant anoxia happens when a person's blood does not reach the brain or other parts of the body that require blood to function correctly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Cardiovascular problems, such as a stroke or heart failure , are often the cause of stagnant anoxia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Stagnant anoxia occurs when there is interference with the blood flow, although the blood and its oxygen-carrying abilities are normal. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A common cause of general stagnant anoxia is heart disease or interference with the return of blood flow through the veins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Examples of local stagnant anoxia include exposure to cold, diseases that restrict circulation to the extremities, and ergot poisoning . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Stagnant anoxia is also known as hypoxicischemic injury. (healthline.com)
- Cardiovascular events are the most common cause of stagnant anoxia. (healthline.com)
- Third, stagnant anoxia, also called hypoxicischemic injury, is caused by an internal problem that blocks enough oxygen-rich blood from reaching the brain. (injurylawyers.com)
- The most common is called hypoxicischemic injury , also known as HII or stagnant anoxia. (caregiver.org)
- In addition, anemic anoxia can occur when a person does not have enough blood. (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- Acute hemorrhages, wounds or injuries causing severe bleeding can cause anemic anoxia having the same result as any type of anoxia. (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- Anemic anoxia takes place where there is not enough hemoglobin in a person's blood, or the hemoglobin present has become ineffective. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Anemic anoxia results from a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin or RBCs in the blood, which reduces the ability to get oxygen to the tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Anemic anoxia occurs when your blood can't carry enough oxygen around your body to keep your organs functioning properly. (healthline.com)
- This lack of oxygen can cause anemic anoxia. (healthline.com)
- First is anemic anoxia, which is caused by the blood not being able to carry enough oxygen to the brain. (injurylawyers.com)
- Anemic anoxia can also be caused by chronic anemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, and acute hemorrhaging. (injurylawyers.com)
- Anemic anoxia occurs when the blood cannot properly carry enough oxygen or if there is not enough blood in the body itself to support the oxygen needs of the brain. (shepherd.org)
- Another occasional cause of HAI is anemic anoxia , which can occur when someone does not have enough blood or hemoglobin, a chemical in the red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. (caregiver.org)
- Acute hemorrhage, chronic anemia, and carbon monoxide poisoning are conditions that can result in anemic anoxia. (caregiver.org)
- Where the injury may not count as a traumatic brain injury, as in one that was caused by some kind of physical bump to the head, the symptoms and damage to the brain can be the same. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- As the symptoms cannot be directly seen, unlike a traumatic head injury, many people underestimate the effects and do not understand that the brain damage caused can be just as severe as any other brain injury. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- Both anoxia and hypoxia can cause traumatic brain injury . (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- Symptoms are the same as in any traumatic brain injury including short term memory loss, decline in executive functions, difficulty with words and visual disturbances. (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- Once diagnosis is complete, treatment can be continued as in any other traumatic brain injury including neuropsychological testing to get the extent of the injury and rehabilitation including cognitive therapy. (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- By Robert Karns of Karns Law Group posted in Traumatic Brain Injury on Tuesday, October 8, 2013. (karnslaw.com)
- Our lawyers have experience obtaining money for people with traumatic brain injuries caused by fires, explosions and accidents. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Brain Waves is a newsletter published twice annually by The University of Alabama at Birmingham Traumatic Brain Injury Model System (UAB-TBIMS) . (uab.edu)
- This issue answers questions related to traumatic brain injury caused by violence. (uab.edu)
- Despite the advances in early diagnosis and treatment of moderate to severe TBI, the fact remains that traumatic brain injury will be a life-changing experience for many patients. (brainline.org)
- Traumatic brain injury and stroke: does recovery differ? (bioportfolio.com)
- Traumatic brain injury and stroke often lead to cognitive, neurological and psychological disorders, which can result in many difficulties. (bioportfolio.com)
- An experienced lawyer at Steinger, Greene & Feiner can helpyou pursue rightful compensation.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that an estimated 2.8 million traumatic brain injuries occur annually ,making it a serious public health matter in the United States. (injurylawyers.com)
- An acute brain injury or acute treatment of a traumatic brain injury is aimed at minimizing secondary injury and life support. (injurylawyers.com)
- Yes, a car crash can cause a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in many ways. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- A traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when there is a "bump, blow, or jolt to the head" that causes issues with the functions of the. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Can a Fall Cause Traumatic Brain Injury? (brainandspinalcord.org)
- The Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program at Ohio State's Wexner Medical Center is a nationally recognized leader in rehabilitative care for people with traumatic and non-traumatic brain injuries. (osu.edu)
- Ohio State offers the only rehabilitation program in central Ohio certified for traumatic brain injury. (osu.edu)
- Severe cerebral hypoxia and anoxia is usually caused by traumatic events such as choking , drowning , strangulation , smoke inhalation , drug overdoses , crushing of the trachea , status asthmaticus , and shock . (wikipedia.org)
- There are two types of acquired brain injuries, non-traumatic and traumatic. (biami.org)
- A non-traumatic brain injury is caused by damage to the brain by internal factors, such as lack of oxygen, exposure to toxins, pressure from a tumor, and so on. (biami.org)
- A traumatic brain injury is an injury to the brain that is caused by an outside force or impact that is sudden and damaging. (biami.org)
- Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious condition and a leading cause of death and disability [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Unlike traumatic brain injuries, in which brain damage is induced by direct physical trauma, anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries are brain injuries characterized by a lack of oxygen being provided to the brain. (shepherd.org)
- Upon regaining consciousness, the effects and symptoms are often similar to that of a traumatic brain injury, depending on severity of the injury. (shepherd.org)
- In Maryland and Washington D.C., our personal injury lawyers handle serious medical malpractice cases and traumatic brain injury cases. (marylandaccidentlawblog.com)
- Do not hesitate to contact our Maryland law firm for your free consultation with an experienced medical malpractice attorney or one of our traumatic brain injury lawyers. (marylandaccidentlawblog.com)
- brain injury is not a traumatic brain injury. (bio.net)
- Now completely revised and updated, Manual of Traumatic Brain Injury: Assessment and Management, Second Edition is a comprehensive evidence-based guide to brain injury diagnosis, treatment, and recovery, delivered in a succinct format designed for targeted access to essential content. (springerpub.com)
- Each represents a brain injury caused by lack of oxygen but hypoxic injuries can be more severe if the flow is not re-established soon. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- A hypoxic or anoxic brain injury, if severe, can lead to death or place the sufferer in a situation that leads to a vegetative state. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- In general, the more complete the deprivation of oxygen, the more severe the harm to the brain and the greater the consequences. (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- Anoxia is more severe, and is caused by a total lack of oxygen. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- However, most mammals cannot tolerate hypoxia/anoxia without undergoing severe cellular damage or death ( Hermes-Lima and Zenteno-Savín, 2002 ). (cloudfront.net)
- Cerebral anoxia may result in severe brain damage or death. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- In one case, a young girl survived a fire, but smoke inhalation had caused cerebral anoxia and permanent, severe brain damage. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Patients in Minimally Conscious State After a Severe Brain Injury (e.g. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Severe brain trauma and especially serious brain lesions inducing coma lead to many cases of disability. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. (mcw.edu)
- Anoxia and hypoxia can be caused by any number of disease states of the blood, lungs, heart and circulation including heart attack , severe asthma , or emphysema . (thefreedictionary.com)
- For example, alcohol-induced liver damage (alcoholic cirrhosis) can result in involuntary hand tremors (asterixis), while severe anoxia (lack of oxygen) may result in coma with no movement. (rxlist.com)
- Other symptoms may not be as severe and may be more localized such as cranial nerve palsies (damage to one of the 12 cranial nerves that exit the brain). (rxlist.com)
- For many patients, the damage to the brain resulting from a moderate to severe TBI may lead to life-long disabilities or motor deficits. (brainline.org)
- Once ABI sets in, the likelihood of permanent and severe brain damage begins to increase. (legalreader.com)
- More severe anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries may leave the patient in a vegetative state. (shepherd.org)
- A full recovery from severe anoxic or hypoxic brain injury is rare, but many patients with mild anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries are capable of making a full or partial recovery. (shepherd.org)
Effects of Anoxia2
- In this article, we look at the most common causes and symptoms of anoxia, as well as how the effects of anoxia are treated. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Finally, when dams were pretreated with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, maternal oxytocin no longer potentiated effects of anoxia on neonatal brain lactate, suggesting this effect of oxytocin may be mediated via prostaglandin production or other COX-derived products. (mcgill.ca)
- When this oxygen deprivation occurs, brain cells can start to die within five minutes. (sharecare.com)
- When the brain no longer receives either of these substances, loss of function occurs quickly (83, 254), and viability is endangered when the lack of substrates persists for more than a few minutes (51, 83). (deepdyve.com)
- Anoxia occurs when a person's body or brain stops getting oxygen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Hypoxia occurs when one part of a person's body, such as the brain, can only obtain a reduced amount of oxygen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Anoxia occurs when the body does not get any oxygen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Toxic anoxia occurs when you take in toxins or other chemicals. (healthline.com)
- It occurs when your blood doesn't reach your brain or other body parts that need it. (healthline.com)
- Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy ( HIE ) is a condition that occurs when the entire brain is deprived of an adequate oxygen supply, but the deprivation is not total. (wikipedia.org)
- Anoxia occurs when oxygen is absent or depleted and unable to properly reach organs or tissue. (alleydog.com)
- Toxic anoxia occurs when chemicals or poisons hinder the ability of the brain to receive oxygen from blood cells. (shepherd.org)
- This occurs when some internal event prevents enough oxygen-rich blood from reaching the brain. (caregiver.org)
- Carbon monoxide poisoning , which appears to damage parts of the brain controlling movement, occurs in suicide attempts using automobile exhaust, but can also happen due to malfunctioning furnaces and other accidents involving machinery and industrial equipment. (caregiver.org)
Mechanisms of Anoxia Tolerance1
Symptoms of anoxia may not2
- In this state, the brain can start to deteriorate rapidly and devastating and irreversible brain damage can soon set in. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- Until a few years ago, it was generally thought that irreversible brain damage would result from any condition that produced a profound cerebral anoxia of greater than eight to ten minutes' duration. (jamanetwork.com)
- This has led some workers to question whether cerebral anoxia actually causes irreversible brain damage within so short a period as ten minutes. (jamanetwork.com)
- The Technique seeks to prevent or delay the irreversible brain damage thought to occur when no oxygen reaches the brain for four minutes. (angelfire.com)
Anoxic brain injuries6
- Learn more form our experts about anoxic brain injuries. (sharecare.com)
- Anoxic brain injuries are caused when there is a complete severance of oxygen to the brain over enough time to cause massive damage. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- Anoxic brain injuries can be debilitating, even deadly. (legalreader.com)
- Anoxic brain injuries (ABIs) are not injuries that are expected to occur in a hospital setting. (legalreader.com)
- This article will focus specifically on anoxic brain injuries (ABIs), which occur when the brain's oxygen supply is severely restricted. (legalreader.com)
- Anoxic brain injuries are caused by a complete lack of oxygen being provided to the brain, which results in the death of brain cells after approximately four minutes of oxygen deprivation. (shepherd.org)
- It is still not known if the crucian carp brain suffers brain damage after anoxic exposure. (uio.no)
- Regardless, anoxia followed by reoxygenation does cause some damage in the form of increased levels of apoptosis in the crucian carp telencephalon. (uio.no)
- Fortunately, brain damage from anoxia and hypoxia can heal over time. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- One of the major causes of brain damage in infants is lack of oxygen during or shortly after birth. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- Anoxia can cause extreme brain damage, whereas hypoxia may cause mild to moderate brain damage. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- If you believe that your child did not receive the proper care during childbirth, or that you were not correctly advised during pregnancy and your child has incurred brain damage because of either cases, you may be able to file for medical negligence or malpractice. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- Blocked Airways - Infants' lungs may get clogged with mucus, constricting the path of air, leading to potentially long-term side effects such as brain damage. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- Umbilical Cord Problems - If an infant is wrapped in an umbilical cord or if the umbilical cord is cut too soon, the potential loss of oxygen may lead to brain damage. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- Placenta Eruptions - When a placenta separates from the uterus too soon it may cause a lower oxygen supply to the child, potentially causing brain damage. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- Extensive and Strenuous Labor - During periods of extensive pushing and contracting, a child may be knocked and pressed up against a mother's uterus, causing brain damage. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- Brain anoxia be careful not to damage the optic nerve and internal carotid artery. (anoxia.info)
- A lack of oxygen in the brain causes brain cells to die and can increase the likelihood of brain damage or death. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- You may have the right to sue if your loved one suffered brain damage due to oxygen deprivation, also called cerebral anoxia. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Recovery depends on how long the brain has been deprived of oxygen and how much brain damage has occurred. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- However a Western painted turtle can survive anoxia for months without apparent tissue damage. (eurekalert.org)
- This receptor/channel is strongly associated with anoxic damage in the mammalian brain by permitting a very large flow of calcium ions into the cell during anoxia. (eurekalert.org)
- I am the messenger because I believe in the technique that Jeffrey Dobkin is trying to promote in order to help delay brain damage in certain instances. (angelfire.com)
- We all have heard of children that fall through the ice and are later pulled out and revived with little or no brain damage, yet they were breathless for well over the 4 minutes we now know it takes before the brain dies from lack of oxygen. (angelfire.com)
- A simple technique can reduce or delay the possibility of brain damage and brain death to a heart attack victim for up to an hour or more. (angelfire.com)
- Almost everyone has heard of a boy drowning in cold water then, after half an hour of submersion, being resuscitated with no ill effects and no brain damage. (angelfire.com)
- There was no cerebral damage, although his brain received no oxygen for over half an hour. (angelfire.com)
- Research has provided additional case study after case study of extended cold water submersion with no brain damage to resuscitated victims. (angelfire.com)
- Article after article, story after story, of people deprived of oxygen for up to an hour with no ill effects or brain damage. (angelfire.com)
- What is it that protects the brain from damage in cases of oxygen deprivation over the four-minute limit? (angelfire.com)
- Anoxia, and the resultant brain damage, is a particular problem with newborns during difficult births. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Encephalopathy is a general term that means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. (rxlist.com)
- For example, anoxic encephalopathy means brain damage due to lack of oxygen, and hepatic encephalopathy means brain malfunction due to liver disease . (rxlist.com)
- Often the severity and type of symptoms are related to the severity and cause of the brain disease or damage. (rxlist.com)
- The term disability in relationship to TBI means a loss of physical or mental function caused by damage to the brain. (brainline.org)
- A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. (bioportfolio.com)
- are especially likely to cause damage to the brain. (injurylawyers.com)
- But there are other ways a person could suffer from brain damage. (injurylawyers.com)
- After only five minutes of oxygen deprivation, brain cells begin to die, according to the Cleveland Clinic , which can cause permanent brain damage. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Some patients experience brain death or pass away due to brain damage caused by an opioid overdose. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- EMTs and doctors will attempt to restore oxygen supply to the brain to reduce the risk of brain damage. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- two, that their use be suspended until meaningful long-term efficacy and minimal risk of memory loss, cognitive deficits, brain damage, and mortality are independently demonstrated by premarket approval. (psychcentral.com)
- The APA also suggests that "Brain damage should not be included in the informed consent process as a risk of treatment. (psychcentral.com)
- It appears the APA Task Force on ECT overlooked considerable evidence that ECT does produce brain damage as summarized by neuroscientist Dr. Peter Sterling. (psychcentral.com)
- But long-term effects could result in death from brain damage because of anoxia," said Dr Ibrahim. (greenpeace.org)
- This can result in permanent brain damage and even death. (medicalmalpracticehelp.com)
- anoxia cannot possibly cause further brain damage. (freehomepage.com)
- Anoxia has been shown to cause brain damage that can have lasting consequences like amnesia. (alleydog.com)
- People who attempt either hanging or charcoal grill carbon monoxide poisoning and survive can face permanent brain damage due to cerebral anoxia . (wikipedia.org)
- Individuals who jump from a bridge and survive may face irreversible damage to multiple organs, as well as the spine and brain. (wikipedia.org)
- We studied patients who survived cardiac arrest, because this is a well-described life threatening medical situation, where patients will ultimately die from irreversible damage to the brain if cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not initiated within 5 to 10 minutes. (iands.org)
- How do medications treat toxic anoxia? (sharecare.com)
- Although medication is generally not the primary treatment for toxic anoxia, it is important in some cases. (sharecare.com)
- Medication used to treat toxic anoxia works by stabilizing the brain or by reversing the chemical problem that caused the condition. (sharecare.com)
- More importantly, medications may be used as antidotes for the common poisons that cause toxic anoxia. (sharecare.com)
- Toxic anoxia stops the blood from carrying oxygen around the body effectively. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most common causes of toxic anoxia. (healthline.com)
- As the name suggests, toxic anoxia is caused by toxins in the body that prevent oxygen in the blood from being used properly. (injurylawyers.com)
- Another syndrome, toxic anoxia , involves the presence in the body of toxins or other substances that may interfere with the way an individual processes oxygen. (caregiver.org)
- Hypoxic brain injuries are caused when there is a partial lack of oxygen, an interruption in the oxygen flow that isn't as complete as anoxic injuries but still enough to prevent the brain from operating at full capacity. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- Brain injuries can heal if they are caught early and the right treatment is sought. (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- Inborn brain injuries are injuries that occur in the womb or during birth. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- They may take place in the placenta itself or toxins, drugs or viruses may cross the placenta causing brain injuries. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- When there is trauma-caused brain injuries, it is often due to medical negligence. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- Excessive Pulling - If a doctor pulls an infant in an atypical or aggressive manner, the pressure and stress may lead to inborn brain injuries. (dubrovskylawyers.com)
- People who have experienced brain injuries may take longer to do cognitive or "thinking" tasks associated with memory, such as coming up with the correct change in the checkout line at the grocery store or placing an order at a restaurant. (brainline.org)
- Brain injuries can cause cognitive, physical and emotional impairments. (injurylawyers.com)
- When we think of brain injuries, we usually think about someone getting hit in the head really hard. (injurylawyers.com)
- These types of brain injuries are often caused by issues like strokes, cardiac arrest, and cardiac arrhythmia. (injurylawyers.com)
- The prognosis of hypoxic brain injuries depends on several factors, including how long the brain was deprived of oxygen. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- At Ohio State, we develop advanced treatments and therapies to restore independence and enhance quality of life for those who have experienced brain injuries. (osu.edu)
- Ohio State's Wexner Medical Center offers unparalleled care for the treatment of brain injuries. (osu.edu)
- How Do Brain Injuries Happen? (legalreader.com)
- There are many different types of brain injuries. (legalreader.com)
- Just as there are no two people alike, no two brain injuries are the same. (biami.org)
- Origami provides comprehensive rehabilitation care for survivors of brain injuries and their families. (biami.org)
- Acquired brain injuries can be subcategorized into either non TBI or TBI types. (intechopen.com)
- What are Anoxic or Hypoxic Brain Injuries? (shepherd.org)
- Hypoxic brain injuries are brain injuries that form due to a restriction on the oxygen being supplied to the brain. (shepherd.org)
- Anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries often cause an initial loss of consciousness, which can be short-term or long-term depending on severity and length of oxygen deprivation. (shepherd.org)
- Projecting the recovery and care for anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries is difficult because each case is unique. (shepherd.org)
- Perez-Pinzon, M.A., C.Y. Chan, M. Rosenthal, and T.J. Sick, Membrane and synaptic activity during anoxia in the isolated turtle cerebellum. (springer.com)
- Mathew Pamenter, a graduate student in the lab, had the idea to investigate a relatively newly discovered potassium channel (mitochondrial KATP channel) as a possible regulator of NMDA receptor activity during anoxia. (eurekalert.org)
- The type of antidote use obviously depends on the type of chemical ingested or inhaled, but they all work to counteract the effects of specific toxins affecting the brain. (sharecare.com)
- If a fetus is exposed to drugs, alcohol or toxins while in the womb, the risk of the baby developing a brain abnormality is higher. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- It may be caused by metabolic or mitochondrial dysfunction, infectious agents (bacteria, virus, or prion), increased pressure in the skull, prolonged exposure to toxins, chronic progressive trauma, or lack of oxygen or poor nutrition of blood flow to the brain. (businesswire.com)
- Oxygen levels are low at high altitudes, which may cause altitude sickness or anoxia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- One form of anoxic anoxia can happen when you're at high altitudes. (healthline.com)
- Exerting yourself when you're at high altitudes can make the effects of anoxic anoxia worse. (healthline.com)
- Carbon monoxide poisoning can lead to anoxic anoxia, as can being at high altitudes. (injurylawyers.com)
- What's the Difference between Hypoxia & Anoxia? (smithjonessolicitors.co.uk)
- Environmentally, animals can experience periods of hypoxia/anoxia because of flood-prone burrows or decreased partial O 2 pressure caused by increased altitude ( Hoback and Stanley, 2001 ). (cloudfront.net)
- Despite the importance O 2 has for proper cellular and organismal performance, we still do not have a complete understanding of the molecular and physiological processes that take place during hypoxia/anoxia or the strategies that protect tolerant species during the absence of O 2 and subsequent reperfusion. (cloudfront.net)
- A) The last 12 [K + ] o surges of a hypothetical cold temperature trace during repetitive anoxia. (biologists.org)
- Repetitive anoxia resulted in a loss of the ability to maintain [K+]o baseline at ~10 mM. (queensu.ca)
- It was concluded that 1) N2-delivery patterns consisting of long anoxia, short normoxia and high cycle frequency increased disruption of brain [K+]o baseline maintenance, 2) males were more susceptible to repeated anoxia than females at room temperature, and 3) hypothermia had a protective effect on brain K+ homeostasis during repetitive anoxia. (queensu.ca)
- Repetitive anoxia resulted in a loss of the ability to maintain [K + ] o baseline at 6.6±0.3 mmol l −1 . (cloudfront.net)
- We conclude that (1) reperfusion patterns consisting of long anoxia, short normoxia and high cycle frequency increase disruption of brain [K + ] o baseline maintenance, and (2) hypothermia has a protective effect on brain K + homeostasis during repetitive anoxia. (cloudfront.net)
- The brain consumes about a fifth of the body's total oxygen supply and needs energy to transmit electrochemical impulses between the cells and to maintain the ability of neurons (brain cells) to receive and respond to these signals. (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- Paper presentation: "NMDA receptor regulation by mitochondrial KATP channels and adenosine receptors in cortical neurons of the anoxia-tolerant western painted turtle," 12:30 p.m.-3 p.m. Sunday April 3, Physiology 381.3/board #A558. (eurekalert.org)
- In larger brains with longer neocortical neurogenesis, its organization changes progressively, differentiating the frontal pole from the occipital pole in volume of connectivity and number of neurons per unit column. (bioportfolio.com)
- Adult neural precursors isolated from post mortem brain yield mostly neurons: an erythropoietin-dependent process. (semanticscholar.org)
- I am aware of no tiny signpost visible on electron microscopy over spiny neurons in the basal ganglia that read "communist brain. (washingtontimes.com)
- The remarkable time-resolution enhancement by deep lethargic hypothermia (15°C rectal temperature, "cold narcosis," "anesthesia by internal cold") of metabolic events in the rat brain after oxygen deprivation has been exploited to monitor metabolic changes by in vivo 31 P-NMR. (elsevier.com)
- Anoxic pups born from dams pre-treated with intravenous injections or infusions of oxytocin before birth showed significantly increased brain lactate, a metabolic indicator of CNS hypoxia, compared to anoxic pups from dams pre-treated with saline. (mcgill.ca)
- The results indicate that maternal oxytocin administration may have multiple acute effects on CNS metabolic responses to anoxia at birth. (mcgill.ca)
- 1H MRS-detectable metabolic brain changes and reduced impulsive behavior in adult rats exposed to methylphenidate during adolescence. (springer.com)
- This points at an hitherto unrecognized aspect of anoxia tolerance in crucian carp: the need to possess effective mechanisms to repair a damaged brain after anoxia / reoxygenation events. (uio.no)
- A central question toward defining anoxic tolerance in turtle brain is how do ATP production and ATP use remain matched despite complete inhibition of oxidative metabolism. (springer.com)
- A correlation was established between the bioenergetic status of the brain and physiological descriptors of tolerance (survival and revival times) determined in parallel experiments with large series of animals. (elsevier.com)
- The results contribute to the understanding of the role of brain energetics in tolerance to oxygen deprivation. (elsevier.com)
- However, basic biochemical pathways are common to almost all species, certainly among reptiles (turtles), fish, birds and mammals," Buck said, adding: "Therefore, the basic signals and pathways that permit anoxia-tolerance in the turtle must also be present in mammals. (eurekalert.org)
- This result indicates that this channel plays a key role in the natural anoxia-tolerance of the turtle and opens a new research direction in this area. (eurekalert.org)
Crucian carp brain1
- In this study, we used a rat model of global anoxia during Cesarean section birth to test if administering oxytocin to pregnant dams prior to birth affects the acute neonatal CNS response to birth anoxia. (mcgill.ca)
- One, ECT is designed to evoke grand mal seizures posing an acute rise in blood pressure well into the hypertensive range and is frequently the cause of small hemorrhages in the brain. (psychcentral.com)
- The definition of clinical death was used for the period of unconsciousness caused by anoxia of the brain due to the arrest of circulation and breathing that happens during ventricular fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (iands.org)
Total lack of oxygen1
- Turtle brain survives anoxia by maintaining ATP levels necessary to avoid the loss of ion homeostasis and the uncontrolled release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters [1- (springer.com)
- The effect of temperature on the maintenance of brain [K+]o homeostasis in male and female Drosophila melanogaster (W1118) was assessed during repeated anoxic comas induced by N2 gas. (queensu.ca)
- In addition, the turtle brain does not rely on cellular stores of high-energy compounds for maintenance of ionic homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
- We conclude that potassium ion homeostasis in the anoxic turtle brain must result from increased glycolytic ATP production and from decreased energy utilization. (elsevier.com)
- The effect of temperature (17, 23 or 29°C) on the maintenance of brain [K + ] o homeostasis in male Drosophila melanogaster (w1118) individuals was assessed during repeated anoxic comas induced by N 2 gas. (cloudfront.net)
- Indeed, the ability to "sense" O 2 and maintain homeostasis is considered one of the most important roles of the central nervous system (CNS) and likely represented a major driving force in the evolution of the human brain. (springer.com)
- By further exploring O 2 's free radical "quantum quirkiness" including emergent quantum physiological phenomena, our understanding of precisely how the human brain senses O 2 deprivation (hypoxia) and the elaborate redox-signaling defense mechanisms that defend O 2 homeostasis has the potential to offer unique insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of human brain disease. (springer.com)
Starved of oxygen1
- Encephalopathy is often considered a complication of a primary problem such as alcoholic cirrhosis , kidney failure , or anoxia. (rxlist.com)
- The term encephalopathy, in most cases, is preceded by various terms that describe the reason, cause, or special conditions of the patient that leads to brain malfunction. (rxlist.com)
- Encephalopathy is a common brain disease or malfunction of the brain. (businesswire.com)
Amount of oxygen1
- Diagnosis has to be done by an experienced physician such as a neurologist or neurosurgeon who can refer the patient for appropriate brain imaging tests including CT scans, MRIs, DWIs or DTIs and in addition, EEGs. (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- Diagnosis of anoxia and hypoxia is commonly made through the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Clinical neuropsychology is a specialty profession that focuses on brain functions and includes the assessment, diagnosis and remediation of conditions affecting the central nervous system. (firelands.com)
- Caffeic acid phenethyl ester and its related compounds limit the functional alterations of the isolated mouse brain and liver mitochondria submitted to in vitro anoxia-reoxygenation: relationship to their antioxidant activities. (nih.gov)
- Alterations of brain metabolites in metachromatic leukodystrophy as detected by localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo. (mpg.de)
Minutes without oxygen4
- It only takes around 4 minutes without oxygen for the brain to become permanently damaged. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- After about four to five minutes without oxygen, your brain can become permanently damaged. (healthline.com)
- Your brain can last a few minutes without oxygen before any symptoms appear. (healthline.com)
- After several minutes without oxygen, brain cells begin to die. (legalreader.com)
- Endomorphins and morphine limit anoxia-reoxygenation-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in the mouse. (nih.gov)
- These findings might help to explain the exceptional vulnerability of higher cognitive functions during pathological processes of the brain, such as circulatory disturbances, genetic mitochondrial diseases, and neurodegeneration. (frontiersin.org)
- Lutz, J. Pablo, and D. Mash, Downregulation of sodium channels during anoxia: a putative survival strategy of turtle brain. (springer.com)
- The expression of genes involved in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in turtle (Trachemys scripta) brain during anoxic submergence at 21°C and 5°C reveals the importance of cold as a preparatory cue for anoxia survival. (uio.no)
- Direct injection of oxytocin to postnatal day 2 rat pups followed by exposure to anoxia also resulted in increased brain lactate and decreased brain ATP, compared to anoxia exposure alone. (mcgill.ca)
- Short-term effects of adolescent methylphenidate exposure on brain striatal gene expression and sexual/endocrine parameters in male rats. (springer.com)
- The function of the mammalian brain depends on a continuous supply of O2and glucose. (deepdyve.com)
- A known protective factor is adenosine, a compound that accumulates in both mammalian and reptile (turtle) brains in response to low oxygen levels. (eurekalert.org)
- Developmental duration as an organizer of the evolving mammalian brain: scaling, adaptations, and exceptions. (bioportfolio.com)
- Obstetric complications involving anoxia or prolonged hypoxia are suspected to increase the risk for such mental disorders as schizophrenia and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. (jneurosci.org)
- These findings suggest a mechanism by which perinatal complications involving anoxia might contribute to the etiology of mental disorders that have been linked to disturbances in central DA transmission and lateralized PFC dysfunction. (jneurosci.org)
- The goal of this project is to study the effect of noninvasive brain stimulation on decision-making and on brain activity in impulse control disorders. (bioportfolio.com)
- This study looks at the role of a specific brain chemical system in the mood and attention symptoms seen in major depression and bipolar disorders using functional brain imaging. (bioportfolio.com)
- Building Models of Brain Disorders with Three-Dimensional Organoids. (bioportfolio.com)
- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in substance use disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (bioportfolio.com)
- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. (bioportfolio.com)
- Lower vitamin D levels are found in people with schizophrenia and depressive disorders, and also associated with neuroimaging abnormalities such as reduced brain volume in both animals and humans. (bioportfolio.com)
- It is a syndrome that is characterized by multiple brain disorders. (businesswire.com)
- In the brain of mammals, even brief periods of oxygen deprivation can induce apoptotic cell death. (uio.no)
- Brain antioxidant regulation in mammals and anoxia-tolerant reptiles: balanced for neuroprotection and neuromodulation. (ox.ac.uk)
- Unlike anoxia-sensitive mammals, this doesn't occur in the western painted turtle's brain. (eurekalert.org)
- This conclusion was based on observations made by physicians during clinical emergencies and by investigators using experimental models in which the onset, degree, and duration of anoxia could be controlled. (jamanetwork.com)
- Brain anoxia kyocera echo commercial - duration. (anoxia.info)
- Exceptions do exist, however, in species of three separate taxa, marsupials, naked mole rats, and bats, which break the correlation of neurodevelopmental duration and brain size. (bioportfolio.com)
- Naked mole rats and bats both have small brains and unusual longevity, coupled with neurodevelopmental periods characteristic of much bigger-brained animals, raising the possibility that developmental duration and lifespan have some genetic or mechanistic control in common. (bioportfolio.com)
- The role of duration of development in mediating between the mechanistic levels of construction of retinal and cortical organization, and the different life histories associated with larger brains, such as duration of parental care, learning and overall longevity are discussed. (bioportfolio.com)
- Moments before death ( http://health.howstuffworks.com/dying.htm/printable), the patients experienced a burst in brain wave activity, with the spikes occurring at the same time before death and at comparable intensity and duration. (thethinkingatheist.com)
- In addition, other common physical deficits from anoxia and hypoxia can be a lack of coordination (ataxia), an inability to execute familiar physical movements such as brushing teeth or eating with utensils (apraxia), jerky motions or trembling of the extremities (spasticity) or weakness of arms and legs (quadriparesis). (karnskerrisonlaw.com)
- Cerebral anoxia is a condition where there is an absence of oxygen to the brain, i.e., oxygen deprivation. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- With oxygen deprivation, the cells of the brain die within several minutes. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia . (wikipedia.org)
- Cases of total oxygen deprivation are termed "anoxia", which can be hypoxic in origin (reduced oxygen availability) or ischemic in origin (oxygen deprivation due to a disruption in blood flow). (wikipedia.org)
- Continued oxygen deprivation results in fainting , long-term loss of consciousness, coma , seizures, cessation of brain stem reflexes , and brain death . (wikipedia.org)
- Anoxia typically refers to complete oxygen deprivation while partial deprivation is called hypoxia (although occasionally these terms are used interchangeably). (alleydog.com)
- Occur when oxygen-carrying blood cannot reach the brain, resulting in oxygen deprivation. (shepherd.org)
- Anoxia is when the body or brain does not get enough oxygen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Anoxic anoxia can happen when there is not enough oxygen available to ensure the body functions properly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The longer your brain goes without enough oxygen, the more likely you may experience long-term complications, including death. (healthline.com)
- Anoxic anoxia happens when there's not enough oxygen available to your body. (healthline.com)
- Finally, anoxic anoxia is caused by a lack of enough oxygen in the air. (injurylawyers.com)
- Without enough oxygen in the air, both a person's body and brain suffocates. (injurylawyers.com)
- Occasionally, HAI is caused by anoxic anoxia , which is when the air itself does not contain enough oxygen to be absorbed and used by the body. (caregiver.org)