Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart. (1/63334)

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

Studies on the mechanism of action of amantadine. (2/63334)

1 The effect of amantadine hydrochloride on various aspects of catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain has been investigated. 2 Amantadine failed to have any significant effect on brain concentrations of dopamine or noradrenaline even when administered daily for 9 days. 3 Amantadine had no effect on the rate of decline of noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations after alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. 4 In vitro amantadine inhibited dopamine uptake into synaptosomes only at high concentrations, and caused little release of dopamine from synaptosomes. 5 There is no evidence from these results to suggest that the anti-Parkinsonian effect of amantadine is related to an action on dopaminergic mechanisms.  (+info)

Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (3/63334)

Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (4/63334)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

Evaluating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic equipment: the brain scanner case. (5/63334)

An approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of high-technology diagnostic equipment has been devised, using the introduction of computerised axial tomography (CAT) as a model. With the advent of CAT scanning, angiography and air encephalography have a reduced, though important, role in investigating intracranial disease, and the efficient use of conventional equipment requires the centralisation of neuroradiological services, which would result in major cash savings. In contrast, the pattern of demand for CAT scanning, in addition to the acknowledged clinical efficiency of the scanner and its unique role in the head-injured patient, ephasies the need for improved access to scanners. In the interest of the patients the pattern of service must change.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (6/63334)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Visual perception: mind and brain see eye to eye. (7/63334)

Recent functional imaging studies have identified neural activity that is closely associated with the perception of illusory motion. The mapping of the mind onto the bin appears to be one-to-one: activity in visual 'motion area' MT is highly correlated with perceptual experience.  (+info)

Accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in mice deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA. (8/63334)

Inheritable mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes cause cancer-prone human disorders, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, which are also characterized by symptoms of accelerated ageing. To study the impact of NER deficiency on mutation accumulation in vivo, mutant frequencies have been determined in liver and brain of 2-16 month old NER deficient XPA-/-, lacZ hybrid mice. While mutant frequencies in liver of 2-month old XPA-/-, lacZ mice were comparable to XPA+/-, lacZ and the lacZ parental strain animals, by 4 months of age mutant frequencies in the XPA-deficient mice were significantly increased by a factor of two and increased further until the age of 16 months. In brain, mutant frequencies were not found to increase with age. These results show that a deficiency in the NER gene XPA causes an accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in liver but not in brain. This is in keeping with a higher incidence of spontaneous liver tumors reported earlier for XPA-/- mice after about 15 months of age.  (+info)

Knight P.G.; Cunningham F.J.; Gladwell R.T., 1983: Concentrations of immuno reactive lhrh discrete brain regions of the cockerel effects of castration and testosterone replacement therapy
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China Muscle, Nerve Blood Vessel with Dissectible Brain Model, Find details about China Human Brain Model, Human Head Model from Muscle, Nerve Blood Vessel with Dissectible Brain Model - Guangzhou Rongzhiyou Medical & Technology Co., Ltd.
Term newborns with congenital heart disease have widespread brain abnormalities before they undergo cardiac surgery. The imaging findings in such newborns are similar to those in premature newborns and may reflect abnormal brain development in utero.
In late-onset Alzheimers disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and early characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with low topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very early ...
I would air dry the slides overnight before heating them at all. Then dry at 60C for 30 min and stain as usual. Somehow the air drying makes a difference. Good luck! jJoyce WeemsPathology ManagerSaint Josephs Hospital of Atlanta404-851-7376404-851-7831 - Fax-----Original Message-----From: [email protected] on behalf of Ryan Dominique SalazarSent: Fri 2/8/2008 3:58 AMTo: [email protected]: [Histonet] brain tissue sections Hi,Please help me with my brain tissue sections, Im having difficulties in staining them because they disintegrate during H&E staining, resulting into folded and incomplete sections into the slide.I processed the tissues 2 days after fixation using Leica ASP300S (all new reagents). I have no problem in cutting 5 u thickness during microtomy.I used adhesive pre-treated slides and Milli-Q water during orientation and fishing out in the floatation bath. I use flattening table as hot plate and heat the freshly cut slides at 62C, for ...
Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ∼900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes
The left cerebral hemisphere controls movement of the right side of the body. Depending on the severity, a stroke affecting the left cerebral hemisphere may result in loss of motor skills and sensations on the right side of the body, and may also cause loss of the ability to speak and understand words ...
7 Pillars Of Brain Health What is the secret to maintaining brain health? How a person manages stress, how well they socialize, how well they sleep, how much they exercise, and what they drink and eat all are crucial to brain health. So how does one achieve brain health? Here are seven pillars of […]. ...
Given recent advances in technology, it isnt unusual for a previously paralyzed man or woman regaining the ability to walk thanks to manually-controlled robotic limbs, but now University of California-Irvine researchers have accomplished the feat without such aids.. In a preliminary proof-of-concept study, Dr. An Do, Dr. Zoran Nenadic and colleagues showed that it is possible to use direct brain control to allow a spinal cord injury patient to use his or her own legs to walk again without having to rely upon mechanical aids for locomotion.. The research, which was published in the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, is said to mark the first time that direct brain control has enabled a person to walk without use of robotic devices following complete paralysis in both legs following a spinal cord injury.. The individual had been a paraplegic for five years, and thanks to an EEG-based brain control system, he was able to walk along a 3.66m long course 30 times over a 19 week span, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aluminum Has Both Oxidant and Antioxidant Effects in Mouse Brain Membranes. AU - Oteiza, Patricia I. AU - Fraga, C. G.. AU - Keen, C. L.. PY - 1993/1. Y1 - 1993/1. N2 - The in vitro effects of aluminum (A1) on lipid peroxidation were studied in mouse brain homogenates and purified brain subcellular fractions. In brain homogenates prepared in 5 mM Na2HPO4, 0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.4, the addition of Al decreased Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances (TBARS), in a dose dependent manner, with a maximum effect at 250 μM Al. In brain homogenates prepared in 20 mM Tris-HCI, 0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.4, Al acted as a prooxidant at 250 and 500 μM concentrations. The prooxidant effect of Al was enhanced with increasing concentrations of Fe2+. In brain microsonies Al increased TBARS production and conjugated dienes formation, both depending on the addition of Fe2+. In myelin, the prooxidant effect of Al on Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation was eliminated ...
AAV2-mediated CLN2 gene transfer to rodent and non-human primate brain results in long-term TPP-I expression compatible with therapy for LINCL Academic Article ...
The hippocampus is one of the earliest and most affected regions in Alzheimers disease (AD), followed by the cortex while the cerebellum is largely spared. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction is a common feature of cerebral blood vessels in AD. In this study, we sought to determine if regional heterogeneity of cerebral microvessels might help explain the susceptibility of the hippocampus and cortex as compared to the cerebellum. We isolated microvessels from wild type mice from the cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus to characterize their vascular phenotype. Superoxide anion was significantly higher in microvessels isolated from the cortex and hippocampus as compared to the cerebellum. Importantly, protein levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-2 and NOX-4 were significantly higher in the cortical and hippocampal microvessels as compared to microvessels from the cerebellum. In addition, expression of manganese superoxide dismutase protein was significantly lower in microvessels from the cortex and hippocampus
The method researchers used to assess brain atrophy across 25 published studies, called colocalization-likelihood estimation (CLE), was developed by Peter E. Turkeltaub, MD, PhD, an associate professor of neurology at Georgetown and a co-author of the study.. The researchers found that the frontal region (including anterior cingulate cortex, or ACC) is the most frequently affected brain region in HIV+ adults, whereas the neural injury to the caudate/striatum was consistently linked to neurocognitive impairment.. These results suggest a two-stage model of HAND in the context of brain atrophy, with a frontal/ACC stage that links to HIV disease and likely other comorbidities, such as substance abuse, and a caudate/striatum stage that links to neurocognitive impairment. These two areas likely play different roles in HAND, Jiang says.. It is our theory, and others, that the frontal/ACC area damage is due to a number of factors, but which importantly includes damage to the dopaminergic region, he ...
Our brain plays numerous roles in our daily lives. Basically,our behavior, emotions, memory and other cognitive functions are all linked to our brains health.For these reasons, taking good care of our brains health is very important. So, how can you improve your mental health? Here is a list of ways on how to boost your brains health.
Research by a UConn neurobiologist has demonstrated that a developmental brain disorder that causes a predisposition to seizures can be reversed.. The research, by a team led by Joseph LoTurco, a professor of physiology and neurobiology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, was the cover article in the January issue of the biomedical research journal Nature Medicine.. We showed that adding back a normal gene in a brain that has already developed the wrong way can reverse a previously formed developmental malformation, LoTurco says.. The cerebral cortex is a structure within the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, thought, and language. Its layered structure is formed during development by the migration of neurons.. The researchers focused on a malformation that happens early in fetal development that is a known risk factor for epilepsy. The malformation is linked to mutations in a certain gene known as Dcx or doublecortin. LoTurco says patients who have a ...
John DSouza mines a rich seam of thinking in this article on Brain-Based Learning... This article has been reproduced in full from its original posting on LinkedIn: Brain-Based Learning 2: BBL - Brain-Based Learning | JOHN DSOUZA | LinkedIn Brain-based learning refers to teaching methods, lesson designs, and school programs that are based on the latest scientific research…
Vitamin D, which supports overall brain structure and function by working with Omega-3 fatty acids to support cognitive function and contains powerful immune support, essential for brain health. CogGevity helps you meet your daily needs for this essential vitamin.. The CogGevity® Scientific Advisory Board members, who are experts in the medical, neuroscience and lifestyle management fields, include: Keith Black, MD, Founder/Chairman and Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, Director, Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute Ruth and Lawrence Harvey Chair in Neuroscience at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; Kristen Willeumier, PhD, Neuroscientist-Advisor; Greg Cole, PhD, Developer, Alzheimer Research Lab Professor, UCLA Department of Medicine & Neurology; Sally Frautschy, PhD, Developer/Professor-in-Residence of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and Alzheimer Research Lab Professor, Department of Medicine and Neurology; Vernon Williams, MD, Neurologist-Advisor and Director of the ...
BioAssay record AID 299827 submitted by ChEMBL: Drug level in Tg2576 betaAPP swedish transgenic mouse brain at 500 umol/kg, sc twice a day for 5 days.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Prefrontal Cortical Influences on Brain Systems Supporting Complex Mental Function (R01) RFA-MH-08-110. NIMH
Now, writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell (July 1, 2010), a team of scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison has identified a single gene that seems to be a master regulator of human brain development, guiding undifferentiated stem cells down tightly defined pathways to becoming all of the many types of cells that make up the brain.. The new finding is important because it reveals the main genetic factor responsible for instructing cells at the earliest stages of embryonic development to become the cells of the brain and spinal cord. Identifying the gene - known as Pax6 - is a first critical step toward routinely forging customized brain cells in the lab.. Whats more, the work contrasts with findings from animal models such as the mouse and zebrafish, pillars of developmental biology, and thus helps cement the importance of the models being developed from human embryonic stem cells.. The new work, conducted in the Waisman Center laboratory of UW-Madison neuroscientist Su-Chun Zhang, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of nutrition on cognition and brain health in ageing. T2 - A targeted approach. AU - Monti, Jim M.. AU - Moulton, Christopher J.. AU - Cohen, Neal J.. PY - 2015/10/15. Y1 - 2015/10/15. N2 - Animal experiments and cross-sectional or prospective longitudinal research in human subjects suggest a role for nutrition in cognitive ageing. However, data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that seek causal evidence for the impact of nutrients on cognitive ageing in humans often produce null results. Given that RCT test hypotheses in a rigorous fashion, one conclusion could be that the positive effects of nutrition on the aged brain observed in other study designs are spurious. On the other hand, it may be that the design of many clinical trials conducted thus far has been less than optimal. In the present review, we offer a blueprint for a more targeted approach to the design of RCT in nutrition, cognition and brain health in ageing that focuses on three key areas. First, the ...
By David J. Ostry (Professor, Psychology, McGill) We frequently think of neuroplasticity in the human brain in the context of the developmental and maturational changes that occur in the brain and behaviour during childhood. Luckily, for those of us that are no longer children, the adult human brain remains remarkably plastic. A facet of this plasticity that has important clinical applications is that changes occur in both sensory and motor systems of the brain with surprisingly brief periods of training. I will tell you about a series of recent studies in my laboratory, where we see that the effects of motor learning spill over into sensory systems, and that perceptual learning may provide us with a back door to the motor system that can be exploited in therapeutic interventions. Dr. Ostrys research focuses on understanding the biological mechanisms of voluntary movement and deals equally with speech production and human arm motion. His lab uses mathematical models, robots and behavioral and
Experiments with rabbits, cats, and monkeys during recording of complex physiological processes (LEPG, ThG, Po2, Pco2, and ECoG) in functionally discrete brain regions of awake animals have shown that functional changes, expressed as desynchronization effects on ECoG, are followed by an increase of local blood flow (LCBF) in regional brain cortex up to 0.3 to 0.4 ml per minute per 1 gm brain tissue or an increase of 35% to 45% of resting levels of LCBF. Under normal physiological conditions LCBF and Po2 change periodically without any external interference at frequency ranges 0.005 to 0.2 cps. This is characteristic of all brain regions and all species of animals investigated. These variations range in amplitude as much as 28% of the mean level of LCBF.. Changes of LCBF have no correlation with changes of systemic blood pressure (SAP). Local control mechanisms appear to be responsible for them. The interrelationships of changes of functional activity and CBF in local regions of awake brain are ...
The consumption of CBD helps to increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, and it also helps to foster memory and learning.. 5. CBD used as an effective anti-convulsion therapy. CBD is very effective in the treatment or prevention of epilepsy and seizure attacks. The frequent seizures or convulsions are transmitted through the neurological conditions whose frequency can be greatly decreased, with the usage of CBD. The CBD oil and other supplements interact with the endocannabinoid systems and help in reducing the frequency of the convulsion attacks or seizures.. 6. CBD is used as a supplement for better brain health. CBD is a popular supplement which is used worldwide to help deal effectively with depression, migraines, and brain fog. The scientific studies have proved that CBD can be used effectively as a natural alternative to medicines to reduce mental problems, and it also helps to foster better memory, learning, and concentration.. If you want to improve your brain health then ...
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Hello, I have some sample of rat brain which is not perfused with any fixitive before. The tissue is profixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for a week and then processed for paraffin section. But when the section is cut, it expands and breaks when float in water. Does anyone know why this happen and can give suggestion for the protocol? I also have rat brain when received 4% PFA perfucion before dissected out. These whole rat brain is profixed in fixitive overnight and then dehydrated with alcohol, again, after xylene and wex embedding, it breaks up when cut into 8 micron section. Does anyone can give me some suggestions on the protocol? Thanks a lot. Janice Ho University of Hong Kong _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Keep in mind, in contrast to most other body organs, your brain cannot fix itself. Exploration considers have indicated that Parkinsons illness, a sensory system malady, is brought about by outside synthetic substances and neurotoxic toxins. As per an article distributed in the Journal of the American Association, ecological synthetic concoctions and neurotoxic toxins are answerable for some instances of Parkinsons sickness.. Food decision is critical to brain health in light of the fact that the food you eat today is not the same as that devoured by your progenitors. What was healthy in yesteryears may not be healthy today. The food you eat today contain not just remote substances in the blood that may harm the brain, yet in addition hormones and brain envoys that may upset brain exercises and consequently harm brain health.. Subsequently, your food decision ought to be founded on accessibility, taste, and cost, be that as it may, in particular, on the nonattendance or nearness of neurotoxic ...
J Hepatol. 2011 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print] Effects of Anti-Viral Therapy and HCV Clearance on Cerebral Metabolism and Cognition. Byrnes V, Miller A, Lowry D, Hill E, Weinstein C, Alsop D, Lenkinsk...
Obesity is associated with lower brain volumes in cognitively normal elderly subjects, but no study has yet investigated the effects of obesity on brain structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimers disease (AD). To determine if higher body mass index (BMI) is associated …
The Global Council on Brain Health (GCBH) provides recommendations for how much physical activity is needed to promote brain health as we age.
We provide a protocol for isolation of microglia from different dissected regions of an adult mouse brain hemisphere, followed by...
Brain Health and Cognitive Function expert in Saint Michaels, MD. Learn how to improve your brain health and keep your mental edge as you age.
Brain Health and Cognitive Function expert in Rye, NY. Learn how to improve your brain health and keep your mental edge as you age.
...In studies of human brain cells the widely-used anesthetic desflurane...Over 200 million people undergo surgery each year and there has been ...They subjected human brain cells to 12% desflurane for six hours (mimi...The researchers do emphasize that the current findings are from cell c...,Anesthesia,and,Alzheimers,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Our ultimate goal is to be able gather information long term, by checking in with residents each year over a period of decades. In parallel, we will also test the efficacy of evidence-based and other promising interventions to evaluate their effects on promoting brain health. These interventions will be tailored to meet the needs of the Lakewood Ranch community. We will track the immediate and long-term efficacy and sustainability of these interventions on the individual and overall communities. We will also focus on health coaching as a means to sustain these behaviors throughout the lifespan. Thus in summary, our vision is to identify and implement lifestyle interventions at both the individual and community level that can make an immediate and meaningful impact on the lives of the community while simultaneously advancing the science of brain health. ...
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Last week, Americas Brain Health Index ranked states by brain health. The top three brain-healthiest places in the US? Maryland, DC and Washington state. I helped judge the Indexs Beautiful Minds contest last year (full disclosure: Im chair of a scientific advisory board of a sponsoring...
Anatomical Brain Stud Earrings Anatomical Brain Stud Earrings Pair of birch brains with burnt-in foldy bits (sulci) Great for neurosurgeons and people whose
We know that high levels of amyloid-beta plaques are characteristic of Alzheimers, but we also know that people can have high levels of amyloid without displaying symptoms of Alzheimers. A new study shows that the reason for this apparent discrepancy may lie with another protein, called NPTX2.. It appears that memory loss occurs when high amyloid-beta occurs in combination with low levels of NPTX2.. The gene which expresses the protein NPTX2 belongs to a set of genes known as immediate early genes, which are activated almost instantly in brain cells when an experience results in a new memory. The protein is used by neurons to strengthen the circuits that encode memories.. A study of 144 archived human brain tissue samples revealed that NPTX2 protein levels were reduced by as much as 90% in brain samples from people with Alzheimers compared with age-matched brain samples without Alzheimers. People with amyloid plaques who had never shown signs of Alzheimers, on the other hand, had normal ...
Immunohistochemical analysis of human brain samples represents an alternative approach for neurogenesis experiments in adult humans [32]. Based on our results, we recommend that the time between death and tissue fixation does not exceed 16 h when devising an immunohistochemistry protocol to study neurogenesis markers in adult humans; thus, the development of a rapid autopsy program [33-35] is desirable. In the indirect immunofluorescence protocol, we noticed that better nestin staining was achieved when the primary antibody solution was maintained on the slides for 48 h at 4°C (Additional file 1: Table S1) [36] instead of overnight at room temperature (data not shown); this finding should be taken into consideration when troubleshooting poor staining of human brain samples.. A caveat of our results is that the staining may not identify a neurogenic system. Indeed, the streptavidin-biotin method revealed biotin staining in negative controls in major bundles such as the fimbria-fornix. To avoid ...
Ongoing research at Lehigh University may one day help make strides toward therapeutic advances in the treatment of diseases that involve the loss of memory and brain degeneration such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and stroke. ...
The long term objective of this project is to develop an understanding of lifestyle factors that influence the cognitive and brain health of children while also reducing the sedentary nature of todays youth. Previous research has found that physical activity interventions can enhance both a variety of aspects of cognition and brain structure and function of children, older adults, and individuals with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons disease and multiple sclerosis. More specifically, in previous research with children the researchers have found that higher fit children possess larger hippocampi which in turn are related to better relational memory than their lower fit counterparts. The researchers have also observed that higher fit children exhibit more efficient executive control as indicated by performance measures and event-related brain potentials. While intriguing, these cross-sectional data do not enable us to establish causality between physical activity and cognition. In ...
Recording the neural activity of monkeys as they plan to reach, or just react, will help engineers design better brain-controlled prosthetic limbs.. Ready, set, go.. Sometimes thats how our brains work. When we anticipate a physical act, such as reaching for the keys we noticed on the table, the neurons that control the task adopt a state of readiness, like sprinters bent into a crouch.. Other times, however, our neurons must simply react, such as if someone were to toss us the keys without gesturing first.. How do the neurons in the brain control planned versus unplanned arm movements?. Krishna Shenoy, a Stanford professor of electrical engineering, wanted to answer that question as part of his groups ongoing efforts to develop and improve brain-controlled prosthetic devices.. In a paper published in the journal Neuron, Shenoy and first author Katherine Cora Ames, a doctoral student in the Neurosciences Graduate Program, present a mathematical analysis of the brain activity of monkeys as they ...
A national team of researchers led by investigators at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have developed a multidimensional set of brain measurements that, when taken together, can accurately assess a childs age with 92 percent accuracy.. We have uncovered a developmental clock within the brain-a biological signature of maturation that captures age differences quite well regardless of other kinds of differences that exist across individuals, said first author Timothy T. Brown, PhD, a developmental cognitive neuroscientist in the Department of Neurosciences at UC San Diego School of Medicine.. This study of the anatomy of the developing human brain, to be published in the September 25 print edition of Current Biology, addresses a long-standing scientific question about individual biological variability in children. It shows that, for certain structural measures, maturational differences in the developing human brain are much smaller than was previously thought - ...
Although post-mortem neuropathological examination is increasingly performed less often in most western countries, it is still needed in patients with dementia, due to neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular changes, It is important for the family to be sure about the clinical diagnosis and to exclude the risk of a hereditary disease.
Tiny spheres of human cells mimic the brain, researchers say.. Researchers have figured out how to create spheres of neuronal cells resembling the cerebral cortex, making functional human brain tissue available for the first time to study neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia.. The human brain is a highly organized, three-dimensional mass of cells responsible for our every move, thought and emotion. Snugly housed in the bony confines of the skull, its also relatively inaccessible, making it difficult to study.. Now, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have devised a way to generate spherical, free-floating balls of human brain cells that mimic the architecture of the cerebral cortex, the outer layer of brain tissue responsible for how we experience and perceive the world around us and how we interact with others. The spheres contain functional neurons, working synapses and even critical support cells called astrocytes that maintain neural function. ...
Connections in the brain of a healthy 29 year old female human viewed from the front, face on (anterior view). The top of the brain is at the top of the image. Brain cells communicate with each other through these nerve fibres, which have been visualised using diffusion imaging tractography. Diffusion weighted imaging is a specialised type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan which measures water diffusion in many directions in order to reconstruct the orientation of bundles of axons. Tractography is used to indirectly model these bundles of axons (nerve fibres), which transmit information between cortical regions at the brains surface. For example, the bundles of fibres (tracts) closest to the viewer are travelling to the frontal lobe of the brain. Connections travelling from the corticospinal tract to the motor cortex are visible in blue/purple. The brain measures approximately 18 cm from front to back.
View Notes - Cerebral Hemispheres from ANTHRO 2000 at Broward College. Cerebral Hemispheres: - superior part of brain; ~ 83% of total brain mass - 3 regions: cerebral cortex (gray matter), white
This model facilitates the medical students to get a correct understanding of the external features of the brain and its arterial supply as a whole, as well as the relations between their component portions. External features of the brain: cerebral hemisphere,brain stem, cerebellum. The arterial supply of the brain: sources, vertebral, internal carotid arteries, arteria supply of the cerebellum and cerebrum. Made of PVC and can be separated into 8 parts. On base. Key card is included.
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Brain. 136 (1): 28-42. doi:10.1093/brain/aws322. PMC 3562078. PMID 23365092. Mouzon, B; Bachmeier, C (February 2014). "Chronic ... Studies have demonstrated that in both, human and mice, traumatic brain injury is associated with ongoing white matter ... "Inflammation and white matter degeneration persist for years after a single traumatic brain injury". ... neuropathological and neurobehavioral changes in a repetitive mild traumatic brain injury model". Ann. Neurol. 75 (2): 241-254 ...
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doi:10.1093/brain/awt091. PMID 23687118. Abbott, Alison (May 2015). "Neurophysiology: The man who bared the brain". Nature. 521 ... "Weighing brain activity with the balance: Angelo Mosso's original manuscripts come to light". Brain. 137 (2): 621-633. ... Brain Renaissance: From Vesalius to Modern Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. 4 May 2015. ISBN 9780199383832. Retrieved 26 ... "The machine that tried to scan the brain in 1882". NPR. August 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2017. "Here's How Neuroscientists in ...
"Brain." Occipito‐temporal Connections in the Human Brain. 23 June 2003. Web. 27 March 2016. Benevento, Louis A., and Gregg P. ... The optic nerves from both eyes meet and cross at the optic chiasm, at the base of the hypothalamus of the brain. At this point ... A small region in the center of the field of view is processed redundantly by both halves of the brain. Information from the ... The default mode network is a network of brain regions that are active when an individual is awake and at rest. The visual ...
doi:10.1093/brain/119.5.1647. PMID 8931587. Surguladze SA, El-Hage W, Dalgleish T, Radua J, Gohier B, Phillips ML (2010). " ... The research has supported that there are independent neural systems in the brain, each handling a specific basic emotion. ... In one study, people of differing political persuasions were shown disgusting images in a brain scanner. In conservatives, the ... 2003). "Brain activation by disgust-inducing pictures in obsessive-compulsive disorder". Biological Psychiatry. 54 (7): 751-756 ...
Brain. 138 (9): 2571-83. doi:10.1093/brain/awv203. PMC 4547053. PMID 26187333. Crimi, Alessandro; Commowick, Olivier; Maarouf, ... Brain lesions associated with a clinically isolated syndrome may be indicative of several neurological diseases, like multiple ... A clinically definitive diagnosis of MS is made once an MRI detects lesions in the brain, consistent with those typical of MS. ... "Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis". ...
Brain. 122 (10): 1973-1987. doi:10.1093/brain/122.10.1973. PMID 10506098. Retrieved 18 June 2014. Rowe, J.B.; Owen, Adrian M.; ... Play media Human brain dissection video (1 min 52 sec). Demonstrating location of parieto-occipital sulcus of left cerebral ...
Brain Res. 741 (1-2): 284-93. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(96)00983-3. PMID 9001734. Milner, A. David (1995). The Visual Brain in ... Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 16 (3): 338-47. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(02)00302-6. PMID 12706214. Bouaziz, Serge; Magnan, Annie (2007 ... Brain. 133 (Pt 4): 1239-51. doi:10.1093/brain/awq052. PMID 20375139. Smith AD, Gilchrist ID (April 2005). "Drawing from ... Although constructional apraxia can result from lesions in any part of the brain, it is most commonly associated with lesions ...
Brain. 123 (9): 1926-1938. doi:10.1093/brain/123.9.1926. PMID 10960056. Samson S.; Zatorre R.J. (1991). "Recognition memory for ... MRI has been used to show that this region of the brain is larger in musicians than non-musicians, which may be due to changes ... In conjunction with brain plasticity, these processes become more and more stable. However, this process expresses a degree of ... This may be due to more storage of information on both sides of the brain by the mixed lefthanded group. Experts have ...
Brain. 123: 74-81. doi:10.1093/brain/123.1.74. PMID 10611122. Njemanze, PC (1991). "Cerebral lateralization in linguistic and ... The first uses "B-mode" imaging, which displays a 2-dimensional image of the skull, brain, and blood vessels as seen by the ... Lastly, fTCD has been used as a brain-computer interface modality. Conventional FTCD has limitations for the study of cerebral ... Myrden, A; Kushki, A; Sejdic, E; Guerguerian, A-M; Chau, T (2011). "A brain-computer interface based on bilateral transcranial ...
Brain. 130 (Pt 4): 887-94. doi:10.1093/brain/awm022. PMID 17438014. Cowan, W. Maxwell; Südhof, Thomas C.; Stevens, Charles F. ( ... Goltz came to this conclusion after observing dogs who had parts of their brains removed. David Ferrier, who became a hero of ... Ferrier maintained that there was localization of function in the brain. Ferrier's strongest evidence was a monkey who suffered ... Sherrington also influenced American pioneer brain surgeon Harvey Williams Cushing. Sherrington's philosophy as a teacher can ...
Lees AJ (April 2019). "Charcot's capricious scribe". Brain. 142 (4): 1161-63. doi:10.1093/brain/awz047. Walusinski (2019), pp. ...
Blank, S. C. (2002). "Speech production: Wernicke, Broca and beyond". Brain. 125 (8): 1829-1838. doi:10.1093/brain/awf191. ISSN ... Brain. 123 (12): 2400-2406. doi:10.1093/brain/123.12.2400. ISSN 0006-8950. PMC 5630088. PMID 11099443. ... Her research investigates the neural basis of vocal communication - how our brains process the information in speech and voices ... Scott started her research career in Cambridge at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, ...
Brain. 123 (11): 2189-2202. doi:10.1093/brain/123.11.2189. PMID 11050020. Fukui H, Murai T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Hanakawa T ( ... Lin CH, Chiu YC, Lee PL, Hsieh JC (2007). "Is deck B a disadvantageous deck in the Iowa Gambling Task?". Behav Brain Funct. 3: ... The Iowa gambling task is currently being used by a number of research groups using fMRI to investigate which brain regions are ... Richard L. Peterson (9 July 2007). Inside the Investor's Brain: The Power of Mind Over Money. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-06737-6. " ...
Clinical and neurobiological insights". Brain. 121 (10): 1819-1840. doi:10.1093/brain/121.10.1819. PMID 9798740. Menon, G. ... Lesions in the brain stem can cause visual hallucinations. Visual hallucinations are frequent in those with certain sleep ...
These cuts are thought to interrupt some fibers that connect neighboring parts of the brain, but they do not appear to cause ... Transections in language areas of the brain may mildly impair the language function served by that area. Epilepsy surgery is ... Multiple subpial transections is a surgical treatment modality for epilepsy used in scenarios wherein epileptogenic brain ... The surgeon makes a series of shallow cuts (transections) into the brain's cerebral cortex. ...
Brain. 131 (Pt 1): 8-38. doi:10.1093/brain/awm251. PMC 2373641. PMID 17947337. Sato, Hitomi; Patterson, Karalyn; Fushimi, Takao ... It has been found that during certain tasks, dyslexics had activated one of two regions of the brain: the Broca's area, which ... Several studies have found that different levels of brain damage can lead to the occurrence of varying forms of non-word ... Phonological dyslexia is a reading disability that is a form of alexia (acquired dyslexia), resulting from brain injury, stroke ...
Specifically, it is used to target specific sites of the brain and directly introduce pharmacological agents to the brain which ... limited to brain surgery. Besides the brain, biopsy and surgery of the breast are done routinely to locate, sample (biopsy), ... Thus, each brain structure can be easily assigned a range of three coordinate numbers, which will be used for positioning the ... For example, brain atlases often use the external auditory meatus, the inferior orbital ridges, the median point of the maxilla ...
... how five thousand years ago the lobes of the brain fused and before that people thought when the right lobe of the brain said ... doi:10.1093/brain/awh466. PMID 15743870. "Google Books". Retrieved November 18, 2017. Posey, Thomas (1983). "Auditory ... With further research in the late 1990s using new brain imaging technology, Jaynes's ideas received renewed attention and ... Crow, Tim (2005). "Right Hemisphere Language Functions and Schizophrenia: The Forgotten Hemisphere". Brain. 128 (5): 963-78. ...
With their atlas, von Economo and Koskinas hoped to create a basis for future brain research and the localisation of brain ... In this context, Economo was interested in "élite brains." He hoped to find microstructural characteristics in these brains ... Jones, E. G. (2008). "Cortical maps and modern phrenology". Brain. 131 (8): 2227-2233. doi:10.1093/brain/awn158. Triarhou, LC ( ... Von Economo was inspired by this illness to search for a centre of sleep in the brain. After the first attempts to divide the ...
Bucknill, J. C. (1881). "The Late Lord Chief Justice of England on Lunacy". Brain. 4: 1-26. doi:10.1093/brain/4.1.1. Butler ... that any disease which produces a malfunctioning of the mind is a disease of the mind and need not be a disease of the brain ...
A case of sociopathy". Brain. 123 (6): 1122-1141. doi:10.1093/brain/123.6.1122. PMID 10825352. Hitch, G. J. (1985). Short-term ... Second, the brain regions involved in the retrieval of the memory must match the regions targeted by glucocorticoids. There are ... Stress can cause acute and chronic changes in certain brain areas which can cause long-term damage. Over-secretion of stress ... Thus, emotional memories are enhanced when stress is induced, as they are both associated with the same areas of the brain, ...
Brain. 139 (10): 2590-2599. doi:10.1093/brain/aww141. ISSN 0006-8950. PMC 5840887. PMID 27324878. Khan, A Z; Pisella, L; ... He Founded the VSS Canadian Vision Social and is a member of the Canadian Brain Research Strategy Neuroscience Leaders Group. ... "York U. Psychologist Doug Crawford wins Canada Research Chair in visual functions of the brain , York Media Relations". news. ... "DFG, German Research Foundation - A spotlight on: 'Brain in Action'". www.dfg.de. Retrieved 2018-04-03. "SIGNAL/NOISE ...
Projection neurons send the signals from the glomeruli deeper into the brain. The actual signal sent through these projection ... Projection neurons therefore transmit a sharpened olfactory signal to the deeper parts of the brain. Tufted cells project onto ...
Change in the brain's white matter: The role of the brain's white matter in active learning and memory may be underestimated, R ... Brain. 113: 27-47. doi:10.1093/brain/113.1.27. PMID 2302536. Marner, Lisbeth; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Tang, Yong; Pakkenberg, Bente ... White matter forms the bulk of the deep parts of the brain and the superficial parts of the spinal cord. Aggregates of grey ... The substantia nigra is a third colored component found in the brain that appears darker due to higher levels of melanin in ...
The where and when of consciousness in the brain. Velmans, M. (1992). "Is Consciousness Integrated?". Behavioral and Brain ... doi:10.1093/brain/118.5.1105. PMID 7496774. Tong, F.; Engel, S.A. (2001). "Interocular rivalry revealed in the human cortical ... W]e can suppose, both theorists have exactly the same theory of what happens in your brain; they agree about just where and ... The sensory inputs arrive in the brain and are interpreted at different times, so a given event can give rise to a succession ...
Brain. 137 (Pt 4): 1254-61. doi:10.1093/brain/awt377. PMC 3959552. PMID 24519974. Kapitan, Tomis (1992). "Peirce and the ... Brain Sci. 32, 96-97 Cosmides, L. et al. (2005) Detecting cheaters. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 9,505-506 Johnson-Laird, P.N ... Damasio, A.R. (1994) Descartes' error: Emotion reason, and the human brain. New York, NY: Putnam. Gilbert, Morewedge, Risen, & ... because it is the part in the brain that allows you to interpret emotion. Another note to make is that when emotion shapes ...
L-dopa is able to pass the blood-brain barrier as a prodrug and is decarboxylated in the brain to the neurotransmitter dopamine ... Brain. 123 (10): 2077-2090. doi:10.1093/brain/123.10.2077. PMID 11004125. Jiang Y, Norman KE (2006). "Effects of visual and ... Brain 1996; 119 Hausdorff J.M.; Cudkowicz M.E.; Firtion R.; Wei J.Y.; Goldberger A.L. (1998). "Gait variability and basal ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the pedunculopontine nucleus, a part of the brainstem involved in motor planning, has been ...
The importance of brain health and current and potential engagement in brain healthy activities was examined in this AARP ... Learn More about Brain Health. Four in five adults say they engage in activities that they think are good for their brain ... This AARP survey examined how important brain health is to 40+ adults and activities they may be engaging in to maintain or ... Lastly, this survey sought to understand what type of information adults were interested in receiving when it comes to brain ...
Treatments and Tools for Brain health. Find Brain health information, treatments for Brain health and Brain health symptoms. ... MedHelps Brain health Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Dont leave your brain out of your regular fitness regimen! Brain and body fitness expert Michael Gonzalez-Wallace has five ...
CATEGORIZED UNDER: Health & Medicine, Mind & Brain. MORE ABOUT: blindness, eyes, India, Nature (journal), neuroscience, vision ... Does the brain have these concepts due to innate mechanisms stemming from evolution, or does it acquire them from experience? I ... We didnt know if the brain "just knew" what shapes "look" like. And if not, how long does it take to connect the visual with ... If you go from not having the ability to having the ability how your brain would respond to these new stimuli. I assume it ...
Brain Inj. 2014;28(8):1009-21. 4. *Register-Mihalik JK, Guskiewicz KM, McLeod TC, Linnan LA, Mueller FO, Marshall SW. (2013). ... There are many ways to help reduce the risk of a concussion or other serious brain injury both on and off the sports field, ... Wearing a helmet is a must to help reduce the risk of a serious brain injury or skull fracture. However, helmets are not ... Bicycle helmets reduce the risk of head and brain injuries in the event of a crash. All bicyclists, regardless of age, can help ...
In the United States, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health concern that results in death and disability for ...
But if you want to improve your memory, dont waste your time and money on brain games. Youd be better off learning how to ... Brain training has become a multimillion-dollar industry. ... Brain training is big business, with computerized brain games ... Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp. Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp. Listen · 4: ... Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp : Shots - Health News Brain training has become a multimillion-dollar ...
Mysterious Brain-Eating Shark Killer Identified, Though Questions Remain. Californias San Francisco Bay has seen repeated ... Mysterious Brain-Eating Shark Killer Identified, Though Questions Remain. Californias San Francisco Bay has seen repeated ... Something was entering the sharks noses, climbing into their brains, and eating away, causing the sharks to become disoriented ... Okihiro cut the sharks open and found lesions all around the sharks brains. ...
The researchers found that in the mices brains microglia responded rapidly to changes in neuronal activity as the brain ... "The brains network of connections is like a garden," said Rebecca Lowery, a graduate student in Majewskas lab and co-author ... A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from ... "We have long considered the reorganization of the brains network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania ...
The brain can learn new skills for a lifetime.. For survivors, there are many challenges to face in the road to recovery: ... Brain aneurysm survivors are a small population of people, but they are growing larger as medical technology continues to grow ... Click here to listen to a webinar on brain aneurysms and the recovery process in "The Care of Cerebral Aneurysms: What the ... One of the most frequently asked questions by brain aneurysm survivors is "How long until I get better?" Unfortunately, there ...
Learn more about these brain injuries from Shepherd Center. ... Anoxic and Hypoxic brain injuries occur when the brain is ... Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injury. What are Anoxic or Hypoxic Brain Injuries?. Unlike traumatic brain injuries, in which brain ... Patient Programs Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program Learn About Brain Injury Types of Brain Injuries Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain ... Brain Injury Rehabilitation ProgramShow/Hide Submenu*Learn About Brain InjuryShow/Hide Submenu*Types of Brain InjuriesShow/Hide ...
Types of Brain Tumors in Children. If your child is diagnosed with a brain tumor, you will learn there are many different brain ... Treatment for all types of brain tumors in children. The Brain Tumor Center at Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens is a world-renown ... The types of brain tumors most common in children are not the same as those most common in adults. Childhood brain tumors ... Our team: Brain tumor specialists. Online form: Request an appointment. Brain Tumor Consultations. ...
And especially in young children, the right brain and its emotions tend to rule over the logic of the left brain. No wonder ... The upstairs brain which makes decisions and balances emotions, is under construction until the mid-twenties. ... or fear into a chance to integrate your childs brain and foster vital growth. (Daniel J. Siegel, Tina Payne Bryson, Random ... explaining the new science of how a childs brain is wired and how it matures. ...
Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to ... damaging brain cells, leading to chemical changes in the brain, or both. The mildest form of TBI is a concussion. ... TBI usually happens when a sudden bump, blow or jolt to the head causes the brain to bounce around inside the skull, ... Many studies have tried to confirm a link between brain injury and later dementia, but they have had mixed results, the authors ...
... the function of your brain, and, ultimately, your mood. ... Right brain/left brain, right?. *Gut feelings: How food affects ... This means your brain requires a constant supply of fuel. That "fuel" comes from the foods you eat - and whats in that fuel ... Comparing our brains to an expensive car seems inappropriate, we are much more complex than any machine. Food does play a major ... Nutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food. Posted November 16, 2015, 9:00 am , Updated March 26, 2020, 12:00 am ...
Brain Drug Provigil. Easy And Cost-Effective Way. #1 Online Pharmacy. ... You different; order exceed 250 in provigil drug brain a data.. The basis of brain a reviews stomach for a game items, but its ... Not, the brain drug provigil cited charges cannot be anticipated. Feel tired to comment bellow and share your stock when using ... As most mile, it pressure for some and does also put you at drug of brain drug provigil etc robbed at a illness, unless you ...
Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, 2012[11]. Full SBMT definition[edit]. Brain mapping is the study of the anatomy and ... F.J. Chen (2006). Progress in Brain Mapping Research.. *Koichi Hirata (2002). Recent Advances in Human Brain Mapping: ... Harvard Whole Brain Atlas, 1995[10]. *MNI Template, 1998 (The standard template of SPM and International Consortium for Brain ... This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project.[5] It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries ( ...
The Brain & Consciousness Lab is an interdisciplinary research lab situated at Duke-NUS (Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders ... Our lab studies the human neural bases of perception, attention, and consciousness with functional brain imaging (fMRI), neural ...
The Interdepartmental Committee on Drug Addiction, commonly called the Brain Committee after its chairman Sir Russell Brain, ... The First Brain Report[edit]. The first report is also known as The Report of the Second Inter-departmental Committee on Drug ... The Second Brain Report[edit]. The second report was published in 1964.[4] This report showed that there had been a significant ... by Rachel Lart, CHANGING IMAGES OF THE ADDICT AND ADDICTION, BRITISH MEDICAL PERCEPTION FROM ROLLESTON TO BRAIN Archived 2012- ...
... in other projects. The Brain Connectivity Toolbox codebase is widely used by brain-imaging ... bctpy: Brain Connectivity Toolbox for Python.. bct-cpp: Brain Connectivity Toolbox in C++.. Human Connectome Project: An NIH ... Virtual Brain Project: A consortium for simulation of primate brain-network dynamics.. FieldTrip: Advanced analysis toolbox of ... The Brain Connectivity Toolbox (brain-connectivity-toolbox.net) is a MATLAB toolbox for complex-network analysis of structural ...
Can you train your brain? Why not, if you can train your body, you can also train your brain. What you do not use in body and ... Your brain is very good at linking music and language. This memory technology will not work well for everyone, but it is ... Your brain is well able to process different stimuli simultaneously. Reading and listening at the same time would not be a ... Because although your brain can handle different stimuli at the same time, your concentration is very limited. You can actually ...
A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore ... Brain metastases can occur in patients months or even years after their original cancer is treated. Brain metastases have a ... Brain imaging (neuroimaging such as CT or MRI) is needed to determine the presence of brain metastases. In particular, contrast ... The diagnosis of brain metastases typically follows a diagnosis of a systemic cancer. Occasionally, brain metastases will be ...
... devises a plan to destroy the brain during its quiescent period. Schratt resists the brains hypnotic power by repeating the ... Donovans Brain is a 1942 science fiction novel by American writer Curt Siodmak. The novel became an instant classic and was ... The brain uses Cory to do his bidding, signing checks in Donovans name, and continuing the magnates illicit financial schemes ... The physician is unable to save Donovans life, but removes his brain on the chance that it might survive, placing the gray ...
brain. Neurophilosophy. Tag archives for brain. Neurosurgical patients get closer to God. Posted by Mo on February 27, 2010 ... Sleepy brain waves predict dream recall. THE patterns of brain waves that occur during sleep can predict the likelihood that ... A whiff of early brain evolution. Skull of Hadrocodium wui. (Image courtesy of Mark Klinger and Zhe-Xi Luo, Carnegie Museum of ... This is thought to occur because the brains model of the body (referred to as the body image) still contains a representation ...
Early experiences affect the development of brain architecture, which provides the foundation for all future learning, behavior ... Brain architecture is comprised of billions of connections between individual neurons across different areas of the brain. ... Brains are built over time, from the bottom up. The basic architecture of the brain is constructed through an ongoing process ... Brain Architecture. Watch the Overview Video. Early experiences affect the development of brain architecture, which provides ...
ARCHITECTURE OF A BRAIN. MAVRICs brain consists of a number of modules comprised of adaptrode neurons. Each module performs ... MAVRICs Brain. George E. Mobus. Computer Sciene Department, Western Washington University Bellingham, WA 98226. and. Paul S. ... Figure 2 shows a block diagram of the various modules in the brain. Fig. 2 The MAVRIC brain is comprised of functional module ... A moronic snail brain is seemingly not in the mainstream of AI research. As far as anyone can ascertain snails do not reason or ...
WebMD explains categories of brain disease, including those caused by infection and trauma and those caused by vascular, ... Brain aneurysm: An artery in the brain develops a weak area that swells like a balloon. A brain aneurysm rupture causes a ... Brain Diseases: Tumors, Masses, and Increased Pressure. This category of brain disease includes: Brain tumor: Any abnormal ... Heres an overview of various diseases of the brain.. Brain Diseases: Infections. Brain diseases in the category of infections ...
... Intensive behaviour therapy no better than conventional support. Research led by UCL has found ... view article , [Latest Brain Sciences News] UCL receives over £1m for research on link between the brain and behaviour. UCL has ... view article , [Latest Brain Sciences News] Women in Vision UK launches to unite women in vision and eye research. Despite ... view article , [Latest Brain Sciences News] Top New Year Honours for UCL academics and alumni. Four UCL academics and five ...
... is a term indicating the emigration of educated or talented individuals due to domestic turmoil or professional ... What is Brain Drain?. Brain drain is a slang term indicating a significant emigration of educated or talented individuals. A ... Example of Brain Drain. As of 2017, brain drain has been a significant consequence of the ongoing Puerto Rican debt crisis. In ... Brain drain, also known as human capital flight, can occur on several levels. Geographic brain drain occurs when talented ...
... "brain"), Saterland Frisian Brainge ("brain"), West Frisian brein ("brain"), Dutch brein ("brain"), Low German Brägen, Bregen (" ... brain (third-person singular simple present brains, present participle braining, simple past and past participle brained) ... From Middle English brayn, brain, from Old English bræġn ("brain"), from Proto-Germanic *bragną ("brain"), from Proto-Indo- ... brain lobes) brain lobe; frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe (Category: en:Brain) ...
... enables humans to give new dimensions to science and technology and make enormous development in making the best ... BLUE BRAIN * 2. ,ul,,li,1.INTRODUCTION ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,2.WHAT IS BLUE BRAIN ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,3.WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN ,/li,,/ ... 6.HOW BLUE BRAIN WORKS ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,7.BLUE BRAIN POWER ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,8.ARTIFICIAL BRAIN ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,9.BENEFITS ... BLUE BRAIN"- The name of the worlds first virtual brain. That means a machine that can function as human brain. ,/li,,/ul,,ul ...
Primary brain tumors start in the brain. Secondary brain tumors are made up of cells that have metastasized to the brain from ... Brain Tumors. When brain cells grow abnormally or out of control, a tumor (a mass of cells) can form. If the tumor puts ... Types of Brain Tumors. There are many different types of brain tumors. Some are cancerous (meaning they can spread to parts of ... A brain tumor can cause symptoms by directly pressing on the surrounding parts of the brain that control certain body functions ...