Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidNeurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Connectome: A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Rats, Inbred F344Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.

Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart. (1/63334)

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

Studies on the mechanism of action of amantadine. (2/63334)

1 The effect of amantadine hydrochloride on various aspects of catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain has been investigated. 2 Amantadine failed to have any significant effect on brain concentrations of dopamine or noradrenaline even when administered daily for 9 days. 3 Amantadine had no effect on the rate of decline of noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations after alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. 4 In vitro amantadine inhibited dopamine uptake into synaptosomes only at high concentrations, and caused little release of dopamine from synaptosomes. 5 There is no evidence from these results to suggest that the anti-Parkinsonian effect of amantadine is related to an action on dopaminergic mechanisms.  (+info)

Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (3/63334)

Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (4/63334)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

Evaluating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic equipment: the brain scanner case. (5/63334)

An approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of high-technology diagnostic equipment has been devised, using the introduction of computerised axial tomography (CAT) as a model. With the advent of CAT scanning, angiography and air encephalography have a reduced, though important, role in investigating intracranial disease, and the efficient use of conventional equipment requires the centralisation of neuroradiological services, which would result in major cash savings. In contrast, the pattern of demand for CAT scanning, in addition to the acknowledged clinical efficiency of the scanner and its unique role in the head-injured patient, ephasies the need for improved access to scanners. In the interest of the patients the pattern of service must change.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (6/63334)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Visual perception: mind and brain see eye to eye. (7/63334)

Recent functional imaging studies have identified neural activity that is closely associated with the perception of illusory motion. The mapping of the mind onto the bin appears to be one-to-one: activity in visual 'motion area' MT is highly correlated with perceptual experience.  (+info)

Accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in mice deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA. (8/63334)

Inheritable mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes cause cancer-prone human disorders, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, which are also characterized by symptoms of accelerated ageing. To study the impact of NER deficiency on mutation accumulation in vivo, mutant frequencies have been determined in liver and brain of 2-16 month old NER deficient XPA-/-, lacZ hybrid mice. While mutant frequencies in liver of 2-month old XPA-/-, lacZ mice were comparable to XPA+/-, lacZ and the lacZ parental strain animals, by 4 months of age mutant frequencies in the XPA-deficient mice were significantly increased by a factor of two and increased further until the age of 16 months. In brain, mutant frequencies were not found to increase with age. These results show that a deficiency in the NER gene XPA causes an accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in liver but not in brain. This is in keeping with a higher incidence of spontaneous liver tumors reported earlier for XPA-/- mice after about 15 months of age.  (+info)

*Eating

Role of the brain[edit]. The brain stem can control food intake, because it contains neural circuits that detect hunger and ... The brain checks for glucoprivation on its side of the blood-brain barrier (since glucose is its fuel), while the liver ... Insulin also serves as a satiety signal to the brain. The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients ... Peptide YY 3-36 is a hormone released by the small intestine and it is also used as a satiety signal to the brain.[24] ...

*Androgen

Brain[edit]. Circulating levels of androgens can influence human behavior because some neurons are sensitive to steroid ... Numerous reports have shown androgens alone are capable of altering the structure of the brain,[11] but identification of which ... Evidence from neurogenesis (formation of new neurons) studies on male rats has shown that the hippocampus is a useful brain ... Indeed, androgens are capable of altering the structure of the brain in several species, including mice, rats, and primates, ...

*Brodmann area 45

On Broca, brain, and binding: a new framework[edit]. A person is highly interconnected with other regions of the brain, ... List of regions in the human brain. References[edit]. *^ Gabrieli; et al. (1998). "The role of left prefrontal cortex in ... but they also supported the idea that one side of the brain is more involved with language than the other. The human brain has ... Human Brain Mapping Aug 2007. ISSN 1097-0193 *^ Demb, J.; Desmond, J.; Wagner, A.; Vaidya, C.; Glover, G.; Gabrieli, J. (1995 ...

*Speech

doi:10.1093/brain/awx051. PMC 5405238. PMID 28334963.. *^ Tyler, Lorraine K.; Marslen-Wilson, William (2009). "Fronto-temporal ... The classical or Wernicke-Geschwind model of the language system in the brain focuses on Broca's area in the inferior ... Diseases and disorders of the brain, including alogia, aphasias, dysarthria, dystonia and speech processing disorders, where ... Paul Broca identified an approximate region of the brain in 1861 which, when damaged in two of his patients, caused severe ...

*Phineas Gage: Difference between revisions

5 Brain damage and mental changes *5.1 Extent of brain damage. *5.2 First-hand reports of mental changes *5.2.1 Harlow's 1848 ... Brains do not seem to be of much account now-a-days."[12] The Transactions of the Vermont Medical Society (Smith 1886) was ... Fleischman, J. (2002). Phineas Gage: A Gruesome but True Story About Brain Science. ISBN 0-618-05252-6.. ... Pressure on the brain[citation needed] left him semi-comatose from September 23 to October 3, "seldom speaking unless spoken to ...

*Talk:Mind-body dualism

... it is not even a physiological function of the brain, nor is it a state of the brain at all. (Avenarius 1891, 76). Mach ... What I maintain is that the occurrence in the brain is a visual sensation. I maintain, in fact, that the brain consists of ... The brain is not the dwelling-place, seat or producer of thought; it is not the instrument or organ, it is not the vehicle or ... "Mind-brain interaction: Mentalism, yes; dualism, no". Neuroscience.. *^ "Neuroscience and the Soul". Science. 2009. doi:10.1126 ...

*Vitamin C

Brain function[edit]. A 2017 systematic review found lower vitamin C concentrations in people with cognitive impairment, ...

*Non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement methods

... brain tissue, brain ventricles, and/or intracranial vessels). The common drawback of all these methods is that they measure ... Brain parenchyma tissue[edit]. More recently, multivariate methods have been proposed that derive ICP by combining the transit ... Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the major causes of secondary brain ischemia that accompanies a variety of ... However the elasticity in the brain is highly dependent on many other variable individual factors apart from ICP, including ...

*Mobile phone radiation and health

Stam R (2010). "Electromagnetic fields and the blood-brain barrier". Brain Research Reviews (Review). 65 (1): 80-97. doi: ... with the permittivity of the brain decreasing as one gets older and the higher relative volume of the exposed growing brain in ... Blood-brain barrier[edit]. A 2010 review stated that "The balance of experimental evidence does not support an effect of 'non- ... "Italian court rules mobile phone use caused brain tumour". The Guardian. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017 - via Agence ...

*Evolution of mammals

Brain[edit]. Mammals are noted for their large brain size relative to body size, compared to other animal groups. Recent ... The increase in the size of the olfactory lobes of the brain increased brain weight as a percentage of total body weight.[26] ... Brain tissue requires a disproportionate amount of energy.[27][28] The need for more food to support the enlarged brains ... "Brain power". New Scientist. 2006.. *^ Vorobyev, M. (2006). "Evolution of colour vision: The story of lost visual pigments". ...

*Sperm whale

The brain is the largest known of any modern or extinct animal, weighing on average about 7.8 kilograms (17 lb),[54][55] more ... The oxygenated blood can be directed towards only the brain and other essential organs when oxygen levels deplete.[74][75][76] ... A 2008 study published in Current Biology recorded evidence that whales may sleep with both sides of the brain. It appears that ... Elephants and dolphins also have larger brains than humans.[57] The sperm whale has a lower encephalization quotient than many ...

*Parkinson's disease

Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ... "Brain. 135 (Pt 4): 1141-53. doi:10.1093/brain/aws038. PMC 3326257. PMID 22396397.. ... Dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier, so it cannot be taken as a medicine to boost the brain's depleted levels of ... There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, ...

*Sleep deprivation

On the brain[edit]. Sleep deprivation can adversely affect the brain and cognitive function.[24] A 2000 study, by the UCSD ... "Brain Activity is Visibly Altered Following Sleep Deprivation". UC San Diego Health System. 3 February 2006. Archived from the ... No sleep means no new brain cells. BBC (10 February 2007). *^ Vgontzas AN, Mastorakos G, Bixler EO, Kales A, Gold PW, Chrousos ... I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity". Journal of Sleep Research. 9 (4): 335-52. doi ...

*Synaptic pruning

"Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain". 513 (5). 2009: ... 36.3 million on average in adult brains, compared to 10.6 million in the newborn samples.[8] The structure of the brain is ... Pruning in the maturing brain[edit]. The pruning that is associated with learning is known as small-scale axon terminal arbor ... "Brain's synaptic pruning continues into your 20s". New Scientist. Retrieved 2018-06-19.. ...

*Australopithecus afarensis

A. afarensis also has a relatively small brain size (about 380-430 cm3)[citation needed] and a prognathic face (i.e. a face ...

*Convergent thinking

Brain activity[edit]. The changes in brain activity were studied in subjects during both convergent and divergent thinking. To ... Razoumnikova, Olga (2000). "Function Organization of Different Brain Areas During Convergent and Divergent Thinking: an EEG ... The large increase in amplitude and coherence indicates a close synchronization between both hemispheres in the brain. ... Investigation". Cognitive Brain Research. 10: 11-18. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(00)00017-3.. ...

*Lie detection

Brain-reading uses fMRI and the multiple voxels activated in the brain evoked by a stimulus to determine what the brain has ... By studying the brain images, researchers are able to map the systematic procedure the brain went through to produce the action ... Brain observations[edit]. Electroencephalography is used to detect changes in brain waves. ... The fMRI shows the use of oxygen by the brain, allowing for the identification of which portions of the brain are using more ...

*Stem-cell therapy

Brain and spinal cord injury[edit]. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. ... Research has been conducted on the effects of stem cells on animal models of brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson's, ... In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron ...

*Neurotrophin

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain (for example, the ... "Regional distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the adult mouse brain". EMBO J. 9 (8): 2459-2464. PMC 552273 ... In the brain, it is active in the hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and basal forebrain - areas vital to learning, memory, and ...

*Axotomy

Traumatic Brain Injuries[edit]. A traumatic brain injury is defined as a blunt non-missile penetrating or missile injury to the ... extent of the damage incurred after a head trauma correlates more directly with the amount of deformation incurred by the brain ... working towards utilizing this potential for recovery to develop therapies for patients suffering from traumatic brain injuries ... proved the functionality of osteopontin in diminishing the intense inflammatory response following a traumatic brain injury, it ...

*Medial globus pallidus

Deep brain stimulation[edit]. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a treatment by which regulated electrical pulses are sent to ... Dong, S.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, X.-H.; Li, J.-Y.; Li, Y.-J. (2012-01-01). "Unilateral deep brain stimulation of the right globus ... when using deep brain stimulation on Parkinson's Disease patients.[7] ... "Globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation for tardive dyskinesia: case report and review of the literature". Parkinsonism ...

*Dehydroascorbic acid

Transport to the brain[edit]. Vitamin C does not pass from the bloodstream into the brain, although the brain is one of the ... organs that have the greatest concentration of vitamin C. Instead, DHA is transported through the blood-brain barrier via GLUT1 ... "Dehydroascorbic acid, a blood-brain barrier transportable form of vitamin C, mediates potent cerebroprotection in experimental ...

*Oskar Vogt

"MPI Brain Research. Max Planck Institute for Brain Research. 2012. Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. Retrieved May ... Lenin's brain[edit]. Vogt had a longstanding interest in localizing functions in the brain. ... Brain 1930; 53: 99-119". Brain. 140 (2): 508-513. doi:10.1093/brain/aww354. ISSN 0006-8950.. ... In 1945 Lenin's brain was still in the Institute of Berlin[clarification needed][citation needed]. According to claims of two ...

*List of cancer types

Brain and nervous system[edit]. *Astrocytoma. *Brainstem glioma. *Pilocytic astrocytoma. *Ependymoma. *Primitive ...

*Subitizing

Brain structures involved in subitizing and counting[edit]. The work on the enumeration of afterimages[16][17] supports the ... "Experimental Brain Research. 204: 525-537. doi:10.1007/s00221-010-2319-y. PMC 2903696 .. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... Such research compares the brain activity associated with enumeration processes inside (i.e., 1-4 items) for subitizing, and ... Clinical evidence supporting the view that subitizing and counting may involve functionally and anatomically distinct brain ...
Knight P.G.; Cunningham F.J.; Gladwell R.T., 1983: Concentrations of immuno reactive lhrh discrete brain regions of the cockerel effects of castration and testosterone replacement therapy
Brain health - MedHelps Brain health Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Brain health. Find Brain health information, treatments for Brain health and Brain health symptoms.
China Muscle, Nerve Blood Vessel with Dissectible Brain Model, Find details about China Human Brain Model, Human Head Model from Muscle, Nerve Blood Vessel with Dissectible Brain Model - Guangzhou Rongzhiyou Medical & Technology Co., Ltd.
In late-onset Alzheimers disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and early characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with low topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very early ...
I would air dry the slides overnight before heating them at all. Then dry at 60C for 30 min and stain as usual. Somehow the air drying makes a difference. Good luck! jJoyce WeemsPathology ManagerSaint Josephs Hospital of Atlanta404-851-7376404-851-7831 - Fax-----Original Message-----From: [email protected] on behalf of Ryan Dominique SalazarSent: Fri 2/8/2008 3:58 AMTo: [email protected]: [Histonet] brain tissue sections Hi,Please help me with my brain tissue sections, Im having difficulties in staining them because they disintegrate during H&E staining, resulting into folded and incomplete sections into the slide.I processed the tissues 2 days after fixation using Leica ASP300S (all new reagents). I have no problem in cutting 5 u thickness during microtomy.I used adhesive pre-treated slides and Milli-Q water during orientation and fishing out in the floatation bath. I use flattening table as hot plate and heat the freshly cut slides at 62C, for ...
Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ∼900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes
The left cerebral hemisphere controls movement of the right side of the body. Depending on the severity, a stroke affecting the left cerebral hemisphere may result in loss of motor skills and sensations on the right side of the body, and may also cause loss of the ability to speak and understand words ...
7 Pillars Of Brain Health What is the secret to maintaining brain health? How a person manages stress, how well they socialize, how well they sleep, how much they exercise, and what they drink and eat all are crucial to brain health. So how does one achieve brain health? Here are seven pillars of […]. ...
Given recent advances in technology, it isnt unusual for a previously paralyzed man or woman regaining the ability to walk thanks to manually-controlled robotic limbs, but now University of California-Irvine researchers have accomplished the feat without such aids.. In a preliminary proof-of-concept study, Dr. An Do, Dr. Zoran Nenadic and colleagues showed that it is possible to use direct brain control to allow a spinal cord injury patient to use his or her own legs to walk again without having to rely upon mechanical aids for locomotion.. The research, which was published in the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, is said to mark the first time that direct brain control has enabled a person to walk without use of robotic devices following complete paralysis in both legs following a spinal cord injury.. The individual had been a paraplegic for five years, and thanks to an EEG-based brain control system, he was able to walk along a 3.66m long course 30 times over a 19 week span, the ...
AAV2-mediated CLN2 gene transfer to rodent and non-human primate brain results in long-term TPP-I expression compatible with therapy for LINCL Academic Article ...
The hippocampus is one of the earliest and most affected regions in Alzheimers disease (AD), followed by the cortex while the cerebellum is largely spared. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction is a common feature of cerebral blood vessels in AD. In this study, we sought to determine if regional heterogeneity of cerebral microvessels might help explain the susceptibility of the hippocampus and cortex as compared to the cerebellum. We isolated microvessels from wild type mice from the cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus to characterize their vascular phenotype. Superoxide anion was significantly higher in microvessels isolated from the cortex and hippocampus as compared to the cerebellum. Importantly, protein levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-2 and NOX-4 were significantly higher in the cortical and hippocampal microvessels as compared to microvessels from the cerebellum. In addition, expression of manganese superoxide dismutase protein was significantly lower in microvessels from the cortex and hippocampus
The method researchers used to assess brain atrophy across 25 published studies, called colocalization-likelihood estimation (CLE), was developed by Peter E. Turkeltaub, MD, PhD, an associate professor of neurology at Georgetown and a co-author of the study.. The researchers found that the frontal region (including anterior cingulate cortex, or ACC) is the most frequently affected brain region in HIV+ adults, whereas the neural injury to the caudate/striatum was consistently linked to neurocognitive impairment.. These results suggest a two-stage model of HAND in the context of brain atrophy, with a frontal/ACC stage that links to HIV disease and likely other comorbidities, such as substance abuse, and a caudate/striatum stage that links to neurocognitive impairment. "These two areas likely play different roles in HAND," Jiang says.. "It is our theory, and others, that the frontal/ACC area damage is due to a number of factors, but which importantly includes damage to the dopaminergic region," he ...
Our brain plays numerous roles in our daily lives. Basically,our behavior, emotions, memory and other cognitive functions are all linked to our brains health.For these reasons, taking good care of our brains health is very important. So, how can you improve your mental health? Here is a list of ways on how to boost your brains health.
Research by a UConn neurobiologist has demonstrated that a developmental brain disorder that causes a predisposition to seizures can be reversed.. The research, by a team led by Joseph LoTurco, a professor of physiology and neurobiology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, was the cover article in the January issue of the biomedical research journal Nature Medicine.. "We showed that adding back a normal gene in a brain that has already developed the wrong way can reverse a previously formed developmental malformation," LoTurco says.. The cerebral cortex is a structure within the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, thought, and language. Its layered structure is formed during development by the migration of neurons.. The researchers focused on a malformation that happens early in fetal development that is a known risk factor for epilepsy. The malformation is linked to mutations in a certain gene known as Dcx or doublecortin. LoTurco says patients who have a ...
John DSouza mines a rich seam of thinking in this article on Brain-Based Learning... This article has been reproduced in full from its original posting on LinkedIn: Brain-Based Learning 2: BBL - Brain-Based Learning | JOHN DSOUZA | LinkedIn Brain-based learning refers to teaching methods, lesson designs, and school programs that are based on the latest scientific research…
Vitamin D, which supports overall brain structure and function by working with Omega-3 fatty acids to support cognitive function and contains powerful immune support, essential for brain health. CogGevity helps you meet your daily needs for this essential vitamin.. The CogGevity® Scientific Advisory Board members, who are experts in the medical, neuroscience and lifestyle management fields, include: Keith Black, MD, Founder/Chairman and Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, Director, Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute Ruth and Lawrence Harvey Chair in Neuroscience at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; Kristen Willeumier, PhD, Neuroscientist-Advisor; Greg Cole, PhD, Developer, Alzheimer Research Lab Professor, UCLA Department of Medicine & Neurology; Sally Frautschy, PhD, Developer/Professor-in-Residence of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and Alzheimer Research Lab Professor, Department of Medicine and Neurology; Vernon Williams, MD, Neurologist-Advisor and Director of the ...
BioAssay record AID 299827 submitted by ChEMBL: Drug level in Tg2576 betaAPP swedish transgenic mouse brain at 500 umol/kg, sc twice a day for 5 days.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Prefrontal Cortical Influences on Brain Systems Supporting Complex Mental Function (R01) RFA-MH-08-110. NIMH
Now, writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell (July 1, 2010), a team of scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison has identified a single gene that seems to be a master regulator of human brain development, guiding undifferentiated stem cells down tightly defined pathways to becoming all of the many types of cells that make up the brain.. The new finding is important because it reveals the main genetic factor responsible for instructing cells at the earliest stages of embryonic development to become the cells of the brain and spinal cord. Identifying the gene - known as Pax6 - is a first critical step toward routinely forging customized brain cells in the lab.. Whats more, the work contrasts with findings from animal models such as the mouse and zebrafish, pillars of developmental biology, and thus helps cement the importance of the models being developed from human embryonic stem cells.. The new work, conducted in the Waisman Center laboratory of UW-Madison neuroscientist Su-Chun Zhang, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of nutrition on cognition and brain health in ageing. T2 - A targeted approach. AU - Monti, Jim M.. AU - Moulton, Christopher J.. AU - Cohen, Neal J.. PY - 2015/10/15. Y1 - 2015/10/15. N2 - Animal experiments and cross-sectional or prospective longitudinal research in human subjects suggest a role for nutrition in cognitive ageing. However, data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that seek causal evidence for the impact of nutrients on cognitive ageing in humans often produce null results. Given that RCT test hypotheses in a rigorous fashion, one conclusion could be that the positive effects of nutrition on the aged brain observed in other study designs are spurious. On the other hand, it may be that the design of many clinical trials conducted thus far has been less than optimal. In the present review, we offer a blueprint for a more targeted approach to the design of RCT in nutrition, cognition and brain health in ageing that focuses on three key areas. First, the ...
By David J. Ostry (Professor, Psychology, McGill) We frequently think of neuroplasticity in the human brain in the context of the developmental and maturational changes that occur in the brain and behaviour during childhood. Luckily, for those of us that are no longer children, the adult human brain remains remarkably plastic. A facet of this plasticity that has important clinical applications is that changes occur in both sensory and motor systems of the brain with surprisingly brief periods of training. I will tell you about a series of recent studies in my laboratory, where we see that the effects of motor learning spill over into sensory systems, and that perceptual learning may provide us with a back door to the motor system that can be exploited in therapeutic interventions. Dr. Ostrys research focuses on understanding the biological mechanisms of voluntary movement and deals equally with speech production and human arm motion. His lab uses mathematical models, robots and behavioral and
Experiments with rabbits, cats, and monkeys during recording of complex physiological processes (LEPG, ThG, Po2, Pco2, and ECoG) in functionally discrete brain regions of awake animals have shown that functional changes, expressed as desynchronization effects on ECoG, are followed by an increase of local blood flow (LCBF) in regional brain cortex up to 0.3 to 0.4 ml per minute per 1 gm brain tissue or an increase of 35% to 45% of resting levels of LCBF. Under normal physiological conditions LCBF and Po2 change periodically without any external interference at frequency ranges 0.005 to 0.2 cps. This is characteristic of all brain regions and all species of animals investigated. These variations range in amplitude as much as 28% of the mean level of LCBF.. Changes of LCBF have no correlation with changes of systemic blood pressure (SAP). Local control mechanisms appear to be responsible for them. The interrelationships of changes of functional activity and CBF in local regions of awake brain are ...
The consumption of CBD helps to increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, and it also helps to foster memory and learning.. 5. CBD used as an effective anti-convulsion therapy. CBD is very effective in the treatment or prevention of epilepsy and seizure attacks. The frequent seizures or convulsions are transmitted through the neurological conditions whose frequency can be greatly decreased, with the usage of CBD. The CBD oil and other supplements interact with the endocannabinoid systems and help in reducing the frequency of the convulsion attacks or seizures.. 6. CBD is used as a supplement for better brain health. CBD is a popular supplement which is used worldwide to help deal effectively with depression, migraines, and brain fog. The scientific studies have proved that CBD can be used effectively as a natural alternative to medicines to reduce mental problems, and it also helps to foster better memory, learning, and concentration.. If you want to improve your brain health then ...
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Hello, I have some sample of rat brain which is not perfused with any fixitive before. The tissue is profixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for a week and then processed for paraffin section. But when the section is cut, it expands and breaks when float in water. Does anyone know why this happen and can give suggestion for the protocol? I also have rat brain when received 4% PFA perfucion before dissected out. These whole rat brain is profixed in fixitive overnight and then dehydrated with alcohol, again, after xylene and wex embedding, it breaks up when cut into 8 micron section. Does anyone can give me some suggestions on the protocol? Thanks a lot. Janice Ho University of Hong Kong _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
J Hepatol. 2011 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print] Effects of Anti-Viral Therapy and HCV Clearance on Cerebral Metabolism and Cognition. Byrnes V, Miller A, Lowry D, Hill E, Weinstein C, Alsop D, Lenkinsk...
The Global Council on Brain Health (GCBH) provides recommendations for how much physical activity is needed to promote brain health as we age.
...In studies of human brain cells the widely-used anesthetic desflurane...Over 200 million people undergo surgery each year and there has been ...They subjected human brain cells to 12% desflurane for six hours (mimi...The researchers do emphasize that the current findings are from cell c...,Anesthesia,and,Alzheimers,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Last week, Americas Brain Health Index ranked states by brain health. The top three brain-healthiest places in the US? Maryland, DC and Washington state. I helped judge the Indexs Beautiful Minds contest last year (full disclosure: Im chair of a scientific advisory board of a sponsoring...
... Pair of birch brains with burnt-in foldy bits (sulci) Great for neurosurgeons and people whose
We know that high levels of amyloid-beta plaques are characteristic of Alzheimers, but we also know that people can have high levels of amyloid without displaying symptoms of Alzheimers. A new study shows that the reason for this apparent discrepancy may lie with another protein, called NPTX2.. It appears that memory loss occurs when high amyloid-beta occurs in combination with low levels of NPTX2.. The gene which expresses the protein NPTX2 belongs to a set of genes known as "immediate early genes," which are activated almost instantly in brain cells when an experience results in a new memory. The protein is used by neurons to strengthen the circuits that encode memories.. A study of 144 archived human brain tissue samples revealed that NPTX2 protein levels were reduced by as much as 90% in brain samples from people with Alzheimers compared with age-matched brain samples without Alzheimers. People with amyloid plaques who had never shown signs of Alzheimers, on the other hand, had normal ...
Immunohistochemical analysis of human brain samples represents an alternative approach for neurogenesis experiments in adult humans [32]. Based on our results, we recommend that the time between death and tissue fixation does not exceed 16 h when devising an immunohistochemistry protocol to study neurogenesis markers in adult humans; thus, the development of a rapid autopsy program [33-35] is desirable. In the indirect immunofluorescence protocol, we noticed that better nestin staining was achieved when the primary antibody solution was maintained on the slides for 48 h at 4°C (Additional file 1: Table S1) [36] instead of overnight at room temperature (data not shown); this finding should be taken into consideration when troubleshooting poor staining of human brain samples.. A caveat of our results is that the staining may not identify a neurogenic system. Indeed, the streptavidin-biotin method revealed biotin staining in negative controls in major bundles such as the fimbria-fornix. To avoid ...
Ongoing research at Lehigh University may one day help make strides toward therapeutic advances in the treatment of diseases that involve the loss of memory and brain degeneration such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and stroke. ...
The long term objective of this project is to develop an understanding of lifestyle factors that influence the cognitive and brain health of children while also reducing the sedentary nature of todays youth. Previous research has found that physical activity interventions can enhance both a variety of aspects of cognition and brain structure and function of children, older adults, and individuals with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons disease and multiple sclerosis. More specifically, in previous research with children the researchers have found that higher fit children possess larger hippocampi which in turn are related to better relational memory than their lower fit counterparts. The researchers have also observed that higher fit children exhibit more efficient executive control as indicated by performance measures and event-related brain potentials. While intriguing, these cross-sectional data do not enable us to establish causality between physical activity and cognition. In ...
Recording the neural activity of monkeys as they plan to reach, or just react, will help engineers design better brain-controlled prosthetic limbs.. Ready, set, go.. Sometimes thats how our brains work. When we anticipate a physical act, such as reaching for the keys we noticed on the table, the neurons that control the task adopt a state of readiness, like sprinters bent into a crouch.. Other times, however, our neurons must simply react, such as if someone were to toss us the keys without gesturing first.. How do the neurons in the brain control planned versus unplanned arm movements?. Krishna Shenoy, a Stanford professor of electrical engineering, wanted to answer that question as part of his groups ongoing efforts to develop and improve brain-controlled prosthetic devices.. In a paper published in the journal Neuron, Shenoy and first author Katherine Cora Ames, a doctoral student in the Neurosciences Graduate Program, present a mathematical analysis of the brain activity of monkeys as they ...
A national team of researchers led by investigators at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have developed a multidimensional set of brain measurements that, when taken together, can accurately assess a childs age with 92 percent accuracy.. "We have uncovered a developmental clock within the brain-a biological signature of maturation that captures age differences quite well regardless of other kinds of differences that exist across individuals," said first author Timothy T. Brown, PhD, a developmental cognitive neuroscientist in the Department of Neurosciences at UC San Diego School of Medicine.. This study of the anatomy of the developing human brain, to be published in the September 25 print edition of Current Biology, addresses a long-standing scientific question about individual biological variability in children. It shows that, for certain structural measures, maturational differences in the developing human brain are much smaller than was previously thought - ...
Although post-mortem neuropathological examination is increasingly performed less often in most western countries, it is still needed in patients with dementia, due to neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular changes, It is important for the family to be sure about the clinical diagnosis and to exclude the risk of a hereditary disease.
Tiny spheres of human cells mimic the brain, researchers say.. Researchers have figured out how to create spheres of neuronal cells resembling the cerebral cortex, making functional human brain tissue available for the first time to study neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia.. The human brain is a highly organized, three-dimensional mass of cells responsible for our every move, thought and emotion. Snugly housed in the bony confines of the skull, its also relatively inaccessible, making it difficult to study.. Now, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have devised a way to generate spherical, free-floating balls of human brain cells that mimic the architecture of the cerebral cortex, the outer layer of brain tissue responsible for how we experience and perceive the world around us and how we interact with others. The spheres contain functional neurons, working synapses and even critical support cells called astrocytes that maintain neural function. ...
View Notes - Cerebral Hemispheres from ANTHRO 2000 at Broward College. Cerebral Hemispheres: - superior part of brain; ~ 83% of total brain mass - 3 regions: cerebral cortex (gray matter), white
This model facilitates the medical students to get a correct understanding of the external features of the brain and its arterial supply as a whole, as well as the relations between their component portions. External features of the brain: cerebral hemisphere,brain stem, cerebellum. The arterial supply of the brain: sources, vertebral, internal carotid arteries, arteria supply of the cerebellum and cerebrum. Made of PVC and can be separated into 8 parts. On base. Key card is included.
In 1998, neuroscientists undertook to investigate whether neurogenesis occurs in the adult human brain. They concluded that the human hippocampus retains its ability to generate neurons throughout life. Their results were published in the medical journal Nature Medicine.. While conducting their research, they discovered that the brain contains neural stem cells and progenitor cells which differentiate into brain neurons.. Since DNA ultimately controls the process of neurogenesis, there are specific genes that code for the production of various proteins called neurotrophins. These neurotrophins play a key role in the birth of new brain cells.. The birth of new neurons (neurogenesis) is highly related to neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is the ability of a particular part or region of a neuron to change in strength over time. It refers to changes in neural pathways and synapses due to changes in behavior, environment, neural processes, thinking, emotions, as well as changes resulting from bodily ...
Posted by Bonnie Akerson on October 9, 2017 Are you taking the steps necessary to maintain a healthy brain? What is brain health exactly? Having a healthy brain means that one of your most important organs is functioning at optimal level. This includes your ability to recall memories, problem solve, learn, concentrate, and how you oversee life. It is never too late to adopt healthy lifestyle habits that can reduce your risk of declining brain health. Lets go through some of the top ways to stay on top of brain function…. Move your body!. Exercising on a regular basis is essential to having a healthy brain. Aerobic exercise increases your heart rate, sending blood to the brain and body; researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas published a new study that found regular exercise improves brain health in aging adults. Those who follow an exercise regime showed an increase in blood flow to the anterior cingulate (region linked to excellent cognitive function in mature brains) and the ...
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The brain is the most complicated organ in our body. Various parts of the brain control different types of emotions. When all these parts work properly, it makes us emotionally healthy and stable. Malfunctions, however, can lead to severe emotional problems.
Listen to 536: Studying Stroke Patients To Understand How The Brain Controls Perception And Action - Dr. Laurel Buxbaum and 299 more episodes by People Behind The Science Podcast - Stories From Scientists About Science, Life, Research, And Science Careers, free! No signup or install needed. 541: Learning How Long Non-Coding RNAs Contribute to Lung Cancer Development - Dr. Crystal Marconett. 540: Developing DNA Vaccines and Treatments for Cancer and Other Diseases - Dr. David Weiner.
Artificial mapping for ECoG-based brain control used in Wang et al. (2013). Brain activities corresponding to thumb and elbow movements are mapped on to a two-d
Health, ...THURSDAY Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- A new set of brain measurements ... We have uncovered a developmental clock within the brain -- a biolo...Using advanced MRI technology the researchers took multidimensional b...Measurements included the shape size and tissue properties of differe...,New,Brain,Measurements,Can,Pinpoint,Childrens,Age,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
WHAT ARE BRAIN INFECTIONS? Brain infections are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. These infectious agents cause inflammation of the affected brain area. Other parts of the Central Nervous System, such as the Spinal Cord, are often included in the infection. Depending on the location of the infection, different names are given to the diseases. BRAIN INFECTIONS Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, or the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Causes: - Bacteria - Fungi (e.g. Cryptococcus) - Tuberculosis - Virus Encephalitis involves inflammation of the brain substance itself. Causes: - Infection from a virus » » » [Read more]. ...
Page 1 of 3 - ADD, Brain Fog, Fatigue, and Insomnia Cure Here - posted in Brain Health: Follow the program for at least three months and you will be guaranteed to be free of fatigue, attention deficit, brain fog, and insomnia. But First Go to Naturopathic Doctor- Get an EEG and CAT or MRI brain scan- Check for HHV-6A virus and Epstein-Barr Virus- Check for Lyme and Babesia- Check for all STDs- Check for thyroid and anemia- Check for all hormones- Get a Heavy Metal Hair Analysis (you can d...
Abreena Tompkins, instruction specialist at Surry Community College, has developed a brain-based online course design model based on a meta-analysis of more than 300 articles. In this study, she distilled the following elements of brain-based course design: Low-risk, nonthreatening learning environment Challenging, real-life, authentic assessments Rhythms, patterns, and cycles Appropriate chunking or grouping Learning as orchestration rather than lecture or facilitation Appropriate level of novelty Appropriately timed breaks and learning periods Purposeful assessments Learning that addresses visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners Active processing with mental models The use of universal examples, analogies, and parallel processing | teaching with technology
Do your snacking habits affect brain health? Could your diet choices help to reduce (or elevate) your risk for diseases like Alzheimers? As the prevalence of Alzheimers disease continues to rise (more than 5 millions Americans have a diagnosis), many have been intrigued by these questions. Unfortunately, there is no proven method for preventing Alzheimers…
These Micron Punches are ideal for dissection or removal (?punch?) of discrete brain regions. Enabling the removal of specific brain nuclei, tracts and other subdivisions, Micron Biopsy Punch applications include dissection for analysis of neurotransmitter concentrations of mRNA levels, preparation of regions prior to acute dissociation for patch recording, and tissue preparation |br/| for pharmacological analysis of neurotransmitters and metabolite changes in response to different pharmacological agents. |br/| |br/| The Micron Punch has a stainless steel tip, brass handle, and punch diameters ranging from 0.30 mm to 5.0 mm.
Page 2 of 4 - Hazy brain function, unclear thoughts, problems with focusing and depression - posted in Brain Health: Hi RWAC, actually, I decided to take 10mg of Ritalin from an old stash that I had last night... just to see what might happen. I took it after about an hour of eating a sandwich - which had bread, pork and veggies, so I guess a bit of all, and it felt a little tight around the chest (not in a suffocating way, but in a sublt weird way), and also made me feel dry... kind of si...
Zebrafish in the larvae phase are transparent, so we can directly image their neural activity," said Professor Goodhill, whose team included researchers from the UQ School of Mathematics and Physics and the UQ School of Biomedical Sciences.. We then used a branch of mathematics called graph theory to analyse the resulting patterns.. The study found the visual environment the fish grew up in affected their spontaneous brain activity.. Turning off the lights while the larvae developed - known as "dark rearing" - changed their brains patterns of spontaneous activity.. One of the most interesting results was that dark rearing also reduced the larvaes ability to catch their prey, a single-celled organism called paramecia, even after the lights were turned back on, said Professor Goodhill.. This shows that the environment affects the way the zebrafish brain becomes wired up as it grows, and this wiring change affects the fishs behaviour.. Its very exciting that there is a lot more brain ...
BioAssay record AID 675944 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [11C]-ABP688 from mGluR5 in Sprague-Dawley rat brain homogenates after 1 hr by gamma counting.
Shortchanging your sleep: Its easy to think that we can get by on five or six hours of sleep - after all, its not that much less than the recommended seven or eight hours, and if you feel fine the next morning and get to work on time, no big deal, right? Unfortunately not so. While you may feel fine in the moment, theres an increasing body of evidence pointing to how even the smallest reductions in sleep time - even depriving yourself of that harmless one or two extra hours a night - adds up to higher risks of stroke, diabetes and impaired thinking. In fact, one study conducted in Singapore last year found that sleeping less will increase the rate [that an adults] brain ages and speed up the decline in their cognitive functions ...
Life expectancy is steadily increasing - and so is the quality of life as we get older. However, it has been estimated that two out of every five adults over the age of 55 contends with some degree of memory problems, enough to interfere with day-to-day activities. Problems like Age-Related Cognitive Decline (ARCD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI) are strongly associated with dementia later in life.**. Many older adults are now proactively supporting brain health to keep their minds sharp as they age. Younger populations are seeking to support their mental performance too, especially when it comes to issues like brain fog, mood problems and poor focus.**. All age groups are susceptible to the many factors that can influence brain health, such as environmental toxins, emotional stress, blood pressure problems, blood sugar issues, brain injuries, alcohol abuse, mood problems, nutritional deficiencies, sedentary lifestyles and aging.**. The good news is ...
SharpBrains.com published an article on maintaining a healthy brain that will function better. Here are the four keys to improving your brain health: Physical Exercise ◾Do something you enjoy for even just 15 minutes a day. You can always add more time and activities later. ◾Schedu
Frequent readers of this site know that throughout the years Ive shared piles of evidence linking a healthy, nutrient-rich diet with optimal brain function.. But I recently discovered theres one nutrient that we all seem to be lacking and this deficiency inflicts terrible damage to our brains…. This is not an instance of a "nice-to-have" nutrient that gives your brain a little extra boost.. This is something you need to live and thrive.. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data,1 90 percent of Americans arent getting enough of an essential brain-protecting nutrient called choline.. A must for brain health, the Institute of Medicine recommends 550 mg of choline per day. You have to get most of that from animal sources; plants simply dont contain much.. Eggs are one of the richest sources. One large egg boasts about 147 mg of choline. So its not surprising many of us are deficient. Even three eggs a day does not provide you enough choline. And, of course, these ...
Academics at the University of Warwick have found that low functional connectivity of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex that is associated with the tendency to smoke is associated with increased impulsiveness -- which may contribute to the tendency to smoke. The high connectivity of the reward-related medial orbitofrontal cortex in drinkers may increase the tendency to be attracted to the reward of alcohol consumption.
Research released today reveals new mechanisms and areas of the brain associated with anxiety and depression, presenting possible targets to understand and treat these debilitating mental illnesses. The findings were presented ...
I am interested in purchasing a brain model that can be used to study the anatomy and neural pathways. If you have any information, please send e-mail. Used one is OK!..Thanks ...
Even the most powerful computers in the world can only simulate 1 percent of the nerve cells due to memory constraints. For this reason, scientists have turned to downscaled models. However, this downscaling is problematic, as shown by a recent Juelich study published in PLOS Computational Biology.
Super Brain: Maximize Your Brain Health for a Better Life [Dr. Jay Sordean] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Invited to appear as an expert on the topic of Alzheimers and dementia on ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX and CW, Dr. Jay Sordean
Still not convinced? Fats can also influence brain development and performance, especially at either end of life -- growing infants and elderly people. In fact, there are two windows of time in which the brain is especially sensitive to nutrition: the first two years of life for a growing baby and the last couple decades of life for a senior citizen. Both growing and aging brains need nutritious fats. The most rapid brain growth occurs during the first year of life, with the infants brain tripling in size by the first birthday. During this stage of rapid central nervous system growth, the brain uses sixty percent of the total energy consumed by the infant. Fats are a major component of the brain cell membrane and the myelin sheath around each nerve. So, it makes sense that getting enough fat, and the right kinds of fat, can greatly affect brain development and performance. In fact, during the first year, around fifty percent of an infants daily calories come from fat. Mother Nature knows how ...
The importance of brain health and current and potential engagement in brain healthy activities was examined in this AARP survey.
Here are the simple steps you can take to support your brain health and lower your risk of dementia and Alzheimers disease at every age.
key type of human brain cell developed in the laboratory grows seamlessly when transplanted into the brains of mice, UC San Francisco researchers have discovered, raising hope that these cells might one day be used to treat people with Parkinsons disease, epilepsy, and possibly even Alzheimers disease, as well as and complications of spinal cord…
|br/|Having close relatives who were effected by brain health problems such as Alzheimers disease and stroke has created a strong awareness for me in the importance of protecting this precious organ. Of all the organs in the body that may one day be able to be transplanted or...
The human brain in an incredible organ. Yet we have the power to shape it and keep it healthy. Now the seven secrets for brain health revealed.
High blood pressure can lead to diabetes, heart disease and other illnesses. It can also cause cognitive decline, according to a new report. Researchers from Columbia University recently conducted an observational study, presented at a recent American Heart Association session, to explore the association between brain health and hypertension. To
The global brain health devices market was valued at US$ 9,070.5 million in 2018, and is expected to witness a CAGR of 7.7% during the forecast period (2019-2026).
Recent research discoveries in the development of brain disorders could pave the way to new therapies for treating seizures, and even some children with autism, says a leading oncologist and researcher at the University of ...
Synaptive Medical has announce that North Shore University Hospital, a member of Northwell Health, is the first center on Long Island to acquire the BrightMatter technology, an innovative solution of advanced imaging, planning, navigation, and robotics for complex brain tumor and spinal surgery.. "In our efforts to provide our patients with the absolutely latest technology and expertise, Northwell Healths Neuroscience Institute and Cancer Institute are delighted to introduce Synaptives BrightMatter neurosurgical system to our area," said Raj K. Narayan, MD, Northwell Healths senior vice president, neurosurgery service line.. "Being one of the first centers in the country to adopt this technology, we will now be able to approach tumors in the brain with visualization of details that will enable us to perform safer procedures and provide better outcomes.". BrightMatter provides neurosurgeons with the latest advancements in visualization tools to perform minimally-invasive, patient-specific ...
Support cognitive function and overall wellness with these Res-Q supplements for Brain Health. Fast shipping, satisfaction guaranteed.
The brain is our best asset, so its important to take care of it. Learning about antioxidants and brain health helps keep the mind sharp for years to come.
Regular CBD improves your quality of sleep that peps up your system, removes brain fog and recharges your brain health without making you high at all.
Building awareness of the importance of brain health, and then getting individuals to change their habits accordingly, is a campaign that remains in its infancy.
The broad aim of our research is the understanding of human brain function. Over the past few decades, new techniques have been developed that, for the first time, have allowed completely noninvasive examination of the working human brain in real time and with exquisite spatial detail. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in particular, has become the dominant method of studying human brain function. Despite its widespread use by neuroscientists and clinicians in healthy subjects and patients, the full potential of fMRI is yet to be realized and is arguably predicated on our arriving at a detailed understanding of the physical and physiological processes behind fMRI. Like a number of other modalities, fMRI provides an indirect measure of neuronal activity, fMRI signal being dictated by the changes in brain vasculature during subjects stimulation. Accordingly, we are particularly interested in the coupling between local neuronal activity and the state of the surrounding vasculature. On ...
Being a friendly person may be one reason Super-agers have an extraordinary memories for their age, suggests a recent study highlighting a notable link between brain health and positive relationships.
Moving around and exercising improves brain health. It boosts mood, insight, understanding, problem solving, memory, and much, much more.
Question - Suggest fish oil dosage for cardiovascular and brain health. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Prostate cancer, Ask a Cardiologist
Eating a diet rich in certain vitamins and in omega-3 fatty acids and low in trans fats may be best for brain health, new research suggests.
While we did not detect any regions of larger GM volume in men than in women, there were a number of regions indicating larger GM volumes in women than in men. We will comment on significance clusters detected when comparing matched women and matched men in particular. This constitutes the special case of this study, where possible effects of brain size can be excluded with certainty. As detailed below, there is a strong resemblance between current findings and outcomes from previous studies (i.e., where men always exhibited larger brains than women). Of note, brain size matching is not proposed to substitute traditional analyses that include men and women with different brain sizes. Such analyses will continue to provide important clues about differences between male and female brains, especially if appropriate strategies are used to account for individual differences in brain size. However, brain size matching, as applied in the present study, clarifies whether observed sex differences are ...
? Top Brainnovations to monitor and improve Brain Health from SharpBrains Hoping you enjoy this slidedeck supporting the fascinating Brainnovations Pitch
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Respondents are aware exercise, a healthy diet and stress reduction are key to maintaining brain health, but many dont take action.
With the enormous development of human and mouse genomics and the availability of a variety of transgenic techniques, the mouse has become the most widely used animal for basic studies of brain development and as a model for human developmental disorders. The topics are addressed using a diversity of techniques, from genetic, biochemical and cell biological to morphological and functional. The conceptual approaches also provide a framework for studies of other problems and point the way towards future research.
Abstract: The simultaneous study of brain function at all levels of organization is difficult to undertake with current experimental tools. Present day electrophysiology only allows the recording of at most hundreds of neurons while an animal is performing a behavioral task. Because of this limitation and the sheer complexity of the nervous system, computational modeling has become essential in developing theories of brain function. Accordingly, our group has constructed a series of brain-based devices (BBDs), that is, physical devices with simulated nervous systems that guide behavior, to serve as a heuristic for testing theories of brain function. Unlike animal models, BBDs permit analysis of activity at all levels of the nervous system as the device behaves in its environment. Although the principal focus of developing BBDs has been to test theories of brain function, this type of modeling may also provide a basis for robotic design and practical applications. ...
How the human brain rapidly builds up its lipid content during brain growth and maintains its lipids in adulthood has remained elusive. Two new studies show that inactivating mutations in MFSD2A, known to be expressed specifically at the blood-brain barrier, lead to microcephaly, thereby offering a simple and surprising solution to an old enigma.. ...
What I saw fascinated me. The human brain is very intense, intricate, and complicated. Compared to other animals, the human brain is very uniquely designed. I have to say that the idea of a creator is very appealing in this regard. But I felt there was a contradiction here, of which I will explicate. Unlike other animals, the human brain has more cortex, and more areas that are not pre-assigned to do a certain task. Other animals perhaps may have an enlarged occipital lobe, because that is the area that processes their sense of vision. Other animals on the other hand have an enlarged area that deals with the sense of smell. Most of the animal brains have large areas that are designed to protect them. However, there are areas in the human brain that the animal brains do not have. And most of these have something to do with thinking and learning. In the human brain, there simply are plenty of areas that are not pre-assigned to do a certain task, because the human has the capacity to think and ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Chowdhary on grey matter brain: Neural cells after fetal development do not divide and therefore regeneration is not possible. There is a molecular switch involved and scientists are working on ways to turn it off.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Request for Information (RFI): Acquisition, Processing, Storage, and Distribution of Human Brain Tissues to Advance Understanding and Treatment of Addiction; Neurological, Psychiatric, Developmental, and Mental Disorders; Neurological Diseases; Normal Brain Development; and Aging NOT-MH-10-034. NIMH
What can cause brain cancer, Brain cancer emanates from a brain tumor. There two types of tumors, benign and malignant. Malignant tumors are extremely harmful and cancerous.
A proof-of-concept study has just achieved monumental success: researchers in California got a paralyzed mans legs to move, proving its possible to stimulate certain brain centers and make them work again.
(By Clare Wilson from Newscience)--A stomach hormone that stimulates appetite seems to promote the growth of new brain cells and protect them from the effects ... Hungry stomach hormone promotes growth of new brain cells ,Chinadaily Forum
Princeton University researchers used fruit fly brains to capture the process by which the brain identifies behaviorally useful information in the external environment and uses it to determine our actions. The results provide a clear diagram of the stimulus-to-behavior neural process that is frequently carried out by human brains, but has been difficult for scientists to study.
My PhD project is focused on the development of the immune system during aging and should clarify, if there exists a connection between neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinsons disease and the formation of special antibodies, which are directed against agents that are naturally occuring in the body, so called autoantibodies. During March and April 2014 I got the opportunity to work in the laboratory of the Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group, which is part of Brazils most famous Medical School, located at the University of Sao Paulo. As I am looking for autoantibodies against special brain cells, which could be used as diagnosic tool for Parkinsons disease, I learned how to prepare human brain tissue samples for my studies. I lived in an international guesthouse and met people from all over the world. Together we experienced Sao Paulo and tried nearly all the Brazilian sweets available. It was a great time ...
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin, as seen on T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging, are known to increase with age and are elevated in Alzheimers disease (AD). The cognitive implications of these common markers are not well understood. Previous research has primarily focused on global measures of WMH burden and broad localizations that contain multiple white matter tracts. The aims of this study were to determine the pattern of WMH accumulation with age, risk for AD, and the relationship with cognitive function utilizing a voxel-wise analysis capable of identifying specific white matter regions. A total of 349 participants underwent T1-weighted and high-resolution T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Increasing age and lower cognitive speed and flexibility (a component of executive function), were both significantly associated with regional WMH throughout the ...
Global Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Market Report 2016" Purchase This Report by calling ResearchnReports.com at +1-888-631-6977.. The report analyzes Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Market, by component, delivery mode, end user, application, and Therapeutic area. Detailed insights on research and development activities and new product launches in the Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Market are studied in detail. The report analyzes the Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Market across regions. Like North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India.. The Global Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Industry 2016 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics industry. The study answers several questions for the stakeholders, primarily which market segments to focus in the next 2-5 years for prioritizing efforts and investments. The report ...
article{3b545620-2f5d-4405-9964-2753884aaa8d, abstract = {The effect of moderate hypoglycaemia (venous blood glucose 2.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l; mean +/- SD) on regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral volume was studied in a group of ten right-handed patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (age 26.0 +/- 2.4 years, duration 18.4 +/- 3.8 years) using an intravenous Xenon 133 single photon emission computed tomography technique. After 10 min of hypoglycaemia, global cerebral blood flow had increased to 55.8 +/- 4.5 ml.100 g-1.min-1 compared to the initial normoglycaemic flow of 49.5 +/- 3.7 ml.100 g-1.min-1 (p < 0.01). A further increase in global cerebral blood flow to 59.5 +/- 4.5 ml.100 g-1.min-1 (p < 0.05) occurred 15 min after normalization of the blood glucose level. The global cerebral blood flow change from before hypoglycaemia to after recovery was inversely related to the initial glucose level. No change in the relative distribution of the regional cerebral blood flow ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI are a quantitative marker for sporadic cerebral small vessel disease and are highly heritable. To date, large-scale genetic studies have identified only a single locus influencing WMH burden. This might in part relate to biological heterogeneity of sporadic WMH. The current study searched for genetic modifiers of WMH volume in cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a monogenic small vessel disease.. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study to identify quantitative trait loci for WMH volume by combining data from 517 CADASIL patients collected through 7 centers across Europe. WMH volumes were centrally analyzed and quantified on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. Individuals were assigned to 2 distinct genetic clusters (cluster 1 and cluster 2) based on their genetic background.. RESULTS: ...
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, hyperphagia, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, intellectual disability, and severe emotional and behavioral problems. The brain mechanisms that underpin these disturbances are unknown. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables in vivo investigation of the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways. To date, only one study has used DTI to examine white matter alterations in PWS. However, that study used selected regions of interest, rather than a whole brain analysis. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor and magnetic resonance (T 1-weighted) imaging to examine microstructural white matter changes in 15 individuals with PWS (17-30 years) and 15 age-and-gender-matched controls. Whole-brain voxel-wise statistical analysis of FA was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Significantly decreased fractional anisotropy was found localized to the left hemisphere in individuals ...
Diffusion imaging of post-mortem brains could provide valuable data for validation of diffusion tractography of white matter pathways. Long scans (e.g., overnight) may also enable high-resolution diffusion images for visualization of fine structures. However, alterations to post-mortem tissue (T2 and diffusion coefficient) present significant challenges to diffusion imaging with conventional diffusion-weighted spin echo (DW-SE) acquisitions, particularly for imaging human brains on clinical scanners. Diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (DW-SSFP) has been proposed as an alternative acquisition technique to ameliorate this tradeoff in large-bore clinical scanners. In this study, both DWSE and DW-SSFP are optimized for use in fixed white matter on a clinical 3-Tesla scanner. Signal calculations predict superior performance from DW-SSFP across a broad range of protocols and conditions. DW-SE and DW-SSFP data in a whole, post-mortem human brain are compared for 6- and 12-hour scan durations.
TY - CONF. T1 - Reward networks changes in the brain of pathological gamblers: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. AU - Gagliardo, Cesare. AU - La Barbera, Daniele. AU - Piccoli, Tommaso. AU - Marrale, Maurizio. AU - Lagalla, Roberto. AU - Maniaci, Giuseppe. AU - Cannizzaro, Carla. AU - Collura, Giorgio. AU - La Tona, Giuseppe. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Aims and objectivesTo investigate functional connectivity changes in pathological gamblers (PGs) in comparison to healthy controls (HCs) by means of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS-fMRI).Methods and materialsThirteen HCs and fourteen PGs were recruited (all right handed males; drugs free; mean age 35.96±9.56). All subjects underwent brain scan using a 1,5T MRI scanner. Activations data of functionally linked brain regions were obtained using a multi-session temporal concatenated Independent Component Analysis (concat-ICA). The resulted components were than matched and compared between groups. ...
Title:Basal Ganglia Enlarged Perivascular Spaces are Linked to Cognitive Function in Patients with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Marjolein Huijts, Annelien Duits, Julie Staals, Abraham A Kroon, Peter W de Leeuw and Robert J van Oostenbrugge. Affiliation:Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht , The Netherlands.. Keywords:Cerebral small vessel disease, cognition, enlarged perivascular spaces, hypertension, lacunar stroke, white matter lesions.. Abstract:Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are a feature of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and have been related to cSVD severity. A higher number of EPVS were related to decreased cognition in healthy elderly, but this has never been investigated in patients at high risk of cSVD. We included 189 patients with a high risk of cSVD (hypertensive patients and lacunar stroke patients). Patients underwent brain MRI and extensive neuropsychological assessment. EPVS ...
It is sometimes forgotten that in the story of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease there is but one incontestable fact, that bovine spongiform encephalopathy is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. First suggested by their temporospatial association and the distinctive features of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the link has since been proved by their equally distinctive and shared biological and molecular features.1-3 All the rest is speculation, more or less plausible according to the arguments advanced and the absence of any satisfactory alternative explanations.. From an epidemiological point of view bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been a classic epidemic and will undoubtedly become a textbook example for students (fig 1). From economic, political, and medical points of view it has been an unmitigated disaster. Why did it begin when it did, and how did it happen? ...

Pyogenic brain abscess. - MyScienceWorkPyogenic brain abscess. - MyScienceWork

Brain abscesses have been one of the most challenging lesions, both for surgeons and internists. From the beginning of the ... Brain abscesses have been one of the most challenging lesions, both for surgeons and internists. From the beginning of the ... The pitfalls and evolution in the diagnosis and treatment of brain abscesses are discussed in this study. ... if indicated from results of periodic CT follow-up scans seem to be the most appropriate treatment modality for brain abscesses ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/pyogenic-brain-abscess-5730bba1

Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention  | HEADS UP | CDC Injury CenterBrain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention | HEADS UP | CDC Injury Center

Brain Inj. 2014;28(8):1009-21. 4. *Register-Mihalik JK, Guskiewicz KM, McLeod TC, Linnan LA, Mueller FO, Marshall SW. (2013). ... There are many ways to help reduce the risk of a concussion or other serious brain injury both on and off the sports field, ... Wearing a helmet is a must to help reduce the risk of a serious brain injury or skull fracture. However, helmets are not ... Bicycle helmets reduce the risk of head and brain injuries in the event of a crash. All bicyclists, regardless of age, can help ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_prevention.html

Basic Information about Traumatic Brain Injury  | Concussion | Traumatic Brain Injury | CDC Injury CenterBasic Information about Traumatic Brain Injury | Concussion | Traumatic Brain Injury | CDC Injury Center

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem in the United States. Each year, traumatic brain injuries ... A TBI is caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain ... Brain Trauma Guidelines. * TBI in the US: Assessing Outcomes in Children ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). Surveillance Report of Traumatic Brain Injury-related Emergency Department ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/basics.html

When the Blind Can Suddenly See, Do They Know What Theyre Looking At? - 80beats : 80beatsWhen the Blind Can Suddenly See, Do They Know What They're Looking At? - 80beats : 80beats

CATEGORIZED UNDER: Health & Medicine, Mind & Brain. MORE ABOUT: blindness, eyes, India, Nature (journal), neuroscience, vision ... Does the brain have these concepts due to innate mechanisms stemming from evolution, or does it acquire them from experience? I ... We didnt know if the brain "just knew" what shapes "look" like. And if not, how long does it take to connect the visual with ... If you go from not having the ability to having the ability how your brain would respond to these new stimuli. I assume it ...
more infohttp://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2011/04/11/when-the-blind-suddenly-see-do-they-know-what-theyre-looking-at/

Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp : Shots - Health News : NPRLearning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp : Shots - Health News : NPR

But if you want to improve your memory, dont waste your time and money on brain games. Youd be better off learning how to ... Brain training has become a multimillion-dollar industry. ... Brain training is big business, with computerized brain games ... Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp. Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp. Listen · 4: ... Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp : Shots - Health News Brain training has become a multimillion-dollar ...
more infohttps://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/05/05/309006780/learning-a-new-skill-works-best-to-keep-your-brain-sharp

San Francisco Bays Brain-Eating Shark Disease Identified as Protozoan, Though Questions RemainSan Francisco Bay's Brain-Eating Shark Disease Identified as Protozoan, Though Questions Remain

Mysterious Brain-Eating Shark Killer Identified, Though Questions Remain. Californias San Francisco Bay has seen repeated ... Mysterious Brain-Eating Shark Killer Identified, Though Questions Remain. Californias San Francisco Bay has seen repeated ... Something was entering the sharks noses, climbing into their brains, and eating away, causing the sharks to become disoriented ... Okihiro cut the sharks open and found lesions all around the sharks brains. ...
more infohttps://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/10/brain-eating-disease-kills-sharks-rays-san-francisco-bay-protozoan/

The Brains Gardeners: Immune Cells Prune Connections Between Neurons - Newsroom - University of Rochester Medical CenterThe Brain's Gardeners: Immune Cells 'Prune' Connections Between Neurons - Newsroom - University of Rochester Medical Center

The researchers found that in the mices brains microglia responded rapidly to changes in neuronal activity as the brain ... "The brains network of connections is like a garden," said Rebecca Lowery, a graduate student in Majewskas lab and co-author ... A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from ... "We have long considered the reorganization of the brains network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania ...
more infohttps://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/4516/the-brains-gardeners-immune-cells-prune-connections-between-neurons.aspx

RecoveryRecovery

The brain can learn new skills for a lifetime.. For survivors, there are many challenges to face in the road to recovery: ... Brain aneurysm survivors are a small population of people, but they are growing larger as medical technology continues to grow ... Click here to listen to a webinar on brain aneurysms and the recovery process in "The Care of Cerebral Aneurysms: What the ... One of the most frequently asked questions by brain aneurysm survivors is "How long until I get better?" Unfortunately, there ...
more infohttps://www.bafound.org/patient-resources/recovery/

Learn about Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain InjuriesLearn about Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injuries

Learn more about these brain injuries from Shepherd Center. ... Anoxic and Hypoxic brain injuries occur when the brain is ... Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injury. What are Anoxic or Hypoxic Brain Injuries?. Unlike traumatic brain injuries, in which brain ... Patient Programs Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program Learn About Brain Injury Types of Brain Injuries Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain ... Brain Injury Rehabilitation ProgramShow/Hide Submenu*Learn About Brain InjuryShow/Hide Submenu*Types of Brain InjuriesShow/Hide ...
more infohttps://www.shepherd.org/patient-programs/brain-injury/about/types-of-brain-injury/anoxic-hypoxic-brain-injury

Warning Signs/ SymptomsWarning Signs/ Symptoms

However, large unruptured aneurysms can occasionally press on the brain or the nerves stemming out of the brain and may result ... Ruptured brain aneurysms usually result in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which is defined as bleeding into the subarachnoid ... Unruptured brain aneurysms are typically completely asymptomatic. These aneurysms are typically small in size, usually less ... When blood escapes into the space around the brain, it can cause sudden symptoms. ...
more infohttps://www.bafound.org/about-brain-aneurysms/brain-aneurysm-basics/warning-signs-symptoms/

Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens Cancer and Blood Disorders CenterDana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center

Types of Brain Tumors in Children. If your child is diagnosed with a brain tumor, you will learn there are many different brain ... Treatment for all types of brain tumors in children. The Brain Tumor Center at Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens is a world-renown ... The types of brain tumors most common in children are not the same as those most common in adults. Childhood brain tumors ... Our team: Brain tumor specialists. Online form: Request an appointment. Brain Tumor Consultations. ...
more infohttp://www.danafarberbostonchildrens.org/conditions/brain-tumor.aspx

Dr. Dan Siegel
			 - Books - The Whole Brain Child		Dr. Dan Siegel - Books - The Whole Brain Child

And especially in young children, the right brain and its emotions tend to rule over the logic of the left brain. No wonder ... The upstairs brain which makes decisions and balances emotions, is under construction until the mid-twenties. ... or fear into a chance to integrate your childs brain and foster vital growth. (Daniel J. Siegel, Tina Payne Bryson, Random ... explaining the new science of how a childs brain is wired and how it matures. ...
more infohttp://www.drdansiegel.com/books/the_whole_brain_child/

Brain Tumor |  MedlinePlusBrain Tumor | MedlinePlus

A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the brain tissue. Learn the types of tumors, symptoms, how they are diagnosed ... Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors (National Brain Tumor Society) * Types of Brain Tumors (American Brain Tumor ... Signs & Symptoms (of Brain Tumors) (American Brain Tumor Association) * Spotlight on Brain Tumors: Do You Know the Symptoms? ... Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors (National Cancer Institute) * End of Life Care (Brain Tumors) (American Brain Tumor Association ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/braintumors.html

More evidence traumatic brain injuries raise later dementia risk | ReutersMore evidence traumatic brain injuries raise later dementia risk | Reuters

Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to ... damaging brain cells, leading to chemical changes in the brain, or both. The mildest form of TBI is a concussion. ... TBI usually happens when a sudden bump, blow or jolt to the head causes the brain to bounce around inside the skull, ... Many studies have tried to confirm a link between brain injury and later dementia, but they have had mixed results, the authors ...
more infohttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-dementia-brain-injury/more-evidence-traumatic-brain-injuries-raise-later-dementia-risk-idUSKBN1FK3B3

Nutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food - Harvard Health Blog - Harvard Health PublishingNutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food - Harvard Health Blog - Harvard Health Publishing

... the function of your brain, and, ultimately, your mood. ... Right brain/left brain, right?. *Gut feelings: How food affects ... This means your brain requires a constant supply of fuel. That "fuel" comes from the foods you eat - and whats in that fuel ... Comparing our brains to an expensive car seems inappropriate, we are much more complex than any machine. Food does play a major ... Nutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food. Posted November 16, 2015, 9:00 am , Updated March 26, 2020, 12:00 am ...
more infohttps://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/nutritional-psychiatry-your-brain-on-food-201511168626

A Pharmacy Designed For You : Brain Drug ProvigilA Pharmacy Designed For You : Brain Drug Provigil

Brain Drug Provigil. Easy And Cost-Effective Way. #1 Online Pharmacy. ... You different; order exceed 250 in provigil drug brain a data.. The basis of brain a reviews stomach for a game items, but its ... Not, the brain drug provigil cited charges cannot be anticipated. Feel tired to comment bellow and share your stock when using ... As most mile, it pressure for some and does also put you at drug of brain drug provigil etc robbed at a illness, unless you ...
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Brain 4 MathsBrain 4 Maths

The Brain 4 Maths study The research study is conducted by the University of Oxford and funded by the European Research Council ... The Brain 4 Maths study has received ethical approval (CUREC Reference MS-IDREC-C2-2015-016). It is conducted by the Department ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/brain4maths/

Brain mapping - WikipediaBrain mapping - Wikipedia

Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, 2012[11]. Full SBMT definition[edit]. Brain mapping is the study of the anatomy and ... F.J. Chen (2006). Progress in Brain Mapping Research.. *Koichi Hirata (2002). Recent Advances in Human Brain Mapping: ... Harvard Whole Brain Atlas, 1995[10]. *MNI Template, 1998 (The standard template of SPM and International Consortium for Brain ... This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project.[5] It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_mapping

Brain-fficial - WikipediaBrain-fficial - Wikipedia

On Season 2, the title of the show was changed from My Brain-fficial to Brain-fficial. ... Brain-fficial (Korean: 뇌피셜) is a South Korean web television program on the History Korea channel, hosted by Kim Jong-min. ... On November 5, 2018, Brain-fficial opened its new channel and new episodes will be releasing starting from November 15, 2018 ... Starting from December 26, 2018, Brain-fficial will air on every Wednesday instead of every Thursday at 5pm KST. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain-fficial

Brain & Consciousness LabBrain & Consciousness Lab

The Brain & Consciousness Lab is an interdisciplinary research lab situated at Duke-NUS (Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders ... Our lab studies the human neural bases of perception, attention, and consciousness with functional brain imaging (fMRI), neural ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/brainconsciousnesslab/

Best Brain SupplementBest Brain Supplement

Can you train your brain? Why not, if you can train your body, you can also train your brain. What you do not use in body and ... Your brain is very good at linking music and language. This memory technology will not work well for everyone, but it is ... Your brain is well able to process different stimuli simultaneously. Reading and listening at the same time would not be a ... Because although your brain can handle different stimuli at the same time, your concentration is very limited. You can actually ...
more infohttps://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSczvfXGdOQyDDnN4rvwKZ3KgfJYahrV7ys9Y1cg_D0tv8JJFQ/viewform?embedded=true

brain - Neurophilosophybrain - Neurophilosophy

brain. Neurophilosophy. Tag archives for brain. Neurosurgical patients get closer to God. Posted by Mo on February 27, 2010 ... Sleepy brain waves predict dream recall. THE patterns of brain waves that occur during sleep can predict the likelihood that ... A whiff of early brain evolution. Skull of Hadrocodium wui. (Image courtesy of Mark Klinger and Zhe-Xi Luo, Carnegie Museum of ... This is thought to occur because the brains model of the body (referred to as the body image) still contains a representation ...
more infohttp://scienceblogs.com/neurophilosophy/tag/brain/page/2/

Brain TumorsBrain Tumors

... are the second most common group of childhood cancers. Treatment requires a very specialized plan involving a team ... Primary brain tumors start in the brain. Secondary brain tumors are made up of cells that have metastasized to the brain from ... Types of Brain Tumors. There are many different types of brain tumors. Some are cancerous (meaning they can spread to parts of ... A brain tumor can cause symptoms by directly pressing on the surrounding parts of the brain that control certain body functions ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/CookChildrens/en/parents/brn-tumors.html

Brain ArchitectureBrain Architecture

Early experiences affect the development of brain architecture, which provides the foundation for all future learning, behavior ... Brain architecture is comprised of billions of connections between individual neurons across different areas of the brain. ... Brains are built over time, from the bottom up. The basic architecture of the brain is constructed through an ongoing process ... Brain Architecture. Watch the Overview Video. Early experiences affect the development of brain architecture, which provides ...
more infohttps://web.archive.org/web/20180814170915/https:/developingchild.harvard.edu/science/key-concepts/brain-architecture/

brain dumpbrain dump

... : n.. [common] The act of telling someone everything one knows about a particular topic or project. Typically used ... "Youll have to give me a brain dump on FOOBAR before you start your new job at HackerCorp." See core dump (sense 4). At Sun, ...
more infohttp://www.catb.org/~esr/jargon/html/B/brain-dump.html
  • The name and classification of the tumor may change as your doctor gains new information about your child's brain tumor or if the tumor changes over time. (danafarberbostonchildrens.org)
  • In this pioneering, practical book, Daniel J. Siegel, neuropsychiatrist and author of the bestselling book Mindsight , and parenting expert Tina Payne Bryson demystify the meltdowns and aggravation, explaining the new science of how a child's brain is wired and how it matures. (drdansiegel.com)
  • By applying these discoveries to everyday parenting, you can turn any outburst, argument, or fear into a chance to integrate your child's brain and foster vital growth. (drdansiegel.com)
  • Wearing a helmet is a must to help reduce the risk of a serious brain injury or skull fracture. (cdc.gov)
  • ANS is known for its ability to be super-specialized and Dr. Moshel adds a tremendous amount of value with his sub-specialized training in functional brain mapping and skull base surgery. (nj.com)
  • TBI usually happens when a sudden bump, blow or jolt to the head causes the brain to bounce around inside the skull, damaging brain cells, leading to chemical changes in the brain, or both. (reuters.com)
  • Click here to listen to a webinar on brain aneurysms and the recovery process in "The Care of Cerebral Aneurysms: What the patient needs to know for improved recovery" presented by Dr. Aaron Cohen-Gadol. (bafound.org)
  • Unruptured brain aneurysms are typically completely asymptomatic. (bafound.org)
  • However, large unruptured aneurysms can occasionally press on the brain or the nerves stemming out of the brain and may result in various neurological symptoms. (bafound.org)
  • Ruptured brain aneurysms usually result in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which is defined as bleeding into the subarachnoid space. (bafound.org)
  • THE latest issue of Technology Review contains a photo essay by yours truly, called Time Travel Through the Brain, in which I look at how techniques used to investigate the brain have evolved during the 100 year history of modern neuroscience. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Recent models in modern neuroscience treat the brain as a biological computer, very different in mechanism from an electronic computer, but similar in the sense that it acquires information from the surrounding world, stores it, and processes it in a variety of ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia have been long understood to be the sentinels of the central nervous system, patrolling the brain and spinal cord and springing into action to stamp out infections or gobble up dead cell tissue. (rochester.edu)
  • According to the definition established in 2013 by Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT), brain mapping is specifically defined, in summary, as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging , immunohistochemistry , molecular & optogenetics , stem cell and cellular biology , engineering , neurophysiology and nanotechnology . (wikipedia.org)
  • Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers found that in the mice's brains microglia responded rapidly to changes in neuronal activity as the brain adapted to processing information from only one eye. (rochester.edu)
  • While this discovery sheds new light on the mechanics of neuroplasticity, it could also help explain diseases like autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and dementia, which may arise when this process breaks down and connections between brain cells are not formed or removed correctly. (rochester.edu)
  • Many studies have tried to confirm a link between brain injury and later dementia, but they have had mixed results, the authors note. (reuters.com)
  • Could just ten sessions of brain training be enough to lower your risk of dementia by 29 per cent a decade later? (newscientist.com)
  • Other symptoms of an occurring anoxic or hypoxic brain injury occurring may include slurring and difficulties with speech, confusion and disorientation or facial drooping. (shepherd.org)
  • Furthermore, symptoms and effects of the injury are dependent on the area(s) of the brain that was affected by the lack of oxygen. (shepherd.org)
  • When blood escapes into the space around the brain, it can cause sudden symptoms. (bafound.org)
  • Multiple studies have found a correlation between a diet high in refined sugars and impaired brain function - and even a worsening of symptoms of mood disorders, such as depression . (harvard.edu)
  • Visit the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center External for more information about TBI in the military for service members, veterans, and families and caregivers. (cdc.gov)
  • Anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries are commonly associated with strokes , although strokes are not the only causes of these this type of brain injury. (shepherd.org)
  • A full recovery from severe anoxic or hypoxic brain injury is rare, but many patients with mild anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries are capable of making a full or partial recovery. (shepherd.org)
  • A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from infection and injury also play an important role in rewiring the connections between nerve cells. (rochester.edu)
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (rochester.edu)
  • If your brain is deprived of good-quality nutrition, or if free radicals or damaging inflammatory cells are circulating within the brain's enclosed space, further contributing to brain tissue injury, consequences are to be expected. (harvard.edu)
  • By strengthening the connections between parts of your brain, says cognitive psychologist Scott Barry Kaufman . (npr.org)
  • Differential Brain, Cognitive and Motor Profiles Associated with Partial Trisomy. (springer.com)
  • Many surgeons are hesitant to remove a tumor if it's too close to eloquent brain structures that control vision, language, body movements, or other higher cognitive powers that would result in a significant loss of function," says Moshel. (nj.com)
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (rochester.edu)
  • To reveal the mechanisms of higher brain functions such as recognition and decision making, we are conducting experiments with non-human primates and functional MRI with a 4T system on normal human subjects. (riken.jp)
  • Internet: despite the shipping that laxogenin is stimulating support mechanisms vestige, best epicatechin is encouraging the advair to permit surgery time by post of brain drug provigil lowering the plans of mind. (nhakhoaminhthu.com)
  • A novel temporal illusion, in which the cause of an event is perceived to occur after the event itself, provides some insight into the brain mechanisms underlying conscious perception. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In 1998, a research team at Madrid's Complutense University discovered that THC can selectively induce apoptosis (program cell death) in brain tumor cells without negatively impacting the surrounding healthy cells. (norml.org)
  • REMOVAL of specific parts of the brain can induce increases in a personality trait which predisposes people to spirituality, according to a new clinical study by Italian researchers. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to reorganize their connections in the healthy mature brain," said Grayson Sipe, a graduate student in Majewska's lab and co-author of the study. (rochester.edu)
  • These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brains of all species are composed primarily of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons, however, are usually considered the most important cells in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anoxic brain injuries are caused by a complete lack of oxygen being provided to the brain, which results in the death of brain cells after approximately four minutes of oxygen deprivation. (shepherd.org)
  • The restricted flow of oxygen causes the gradual death and impairment of brain cells. (shepherd.org)
  • Toxic anoxia occurs when chemicals or poisons hinder the ability of the brain to receive oxygen from blood cells. (shepherd.org)
  • These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the formation and destruction of connections that allow proper signaling in the brain. (rochester.edu)
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (rochester.edu)
  • Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one. (rochester.edu)
  • A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Eating high-quality foods that contain lots of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants nourishes the brain and protects it from oxidative stress - the "waste" (free radicals) produced when the body uses oxygen, which can damage cells. (harvard.edu)
  • The basis of brain a reviews stomach for a game items, but it's medication to at least 1 tamsulosin, but bad to that of overall cells of immense chemistry troops have their different troops. (nhakhoaminhthu.com)
  • Bye-bye, Brain Cells! (scholastic.com)
  • Methamphetamine use can damage a large number of brain cells in the limbic system (or emotional brain). (scholastic.com)
  • The operations of individual brain cells are now understood in considerable detail but the way they cooperate in ensembles of millions is yet to be solved. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article is about brain mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • For broader coverage, see Outline of brain mapping . (wikipedia.org)
  • (wikipedia.org)
  • All neuroimaging can be considered part of brain mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualization and interpretation techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of brain mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases the brain mapping techniques are used for commercial purposes, lie detection, or medical diagnosis in ways which have not been scientifically validated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following a series of meetings, the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selvi vs. State of Karnataka) declared brain mapping, lie detector tests and narcoanalysis to be unconstitutional, violating Article 20 (3) of Fundamental Rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • I urge all parents who want kind, happy, and emotionally healthy kids to read The Whole-Brain Child . (drdansiegel.com)
  • Both healthy and diseased brains may be mapped to study memory , learning , aging , and drug effects in various populations such as people with schizophrenia , autism , and clinical depression . (wikipedia.org)
  • Put simply, what you eat directly affects the structure and function of your brain and, ultimately, your mood. (harvard.edu)
  • I map out critical structures of the brain to avoid these areas. (nj.com)
  • This results suggests that the brain doesn't have the innate ability (or maybe has limited innate ability) to tie input from different senses to the same concept-but that it can learn, and pretty fast. (discovermagazine.com)
  • There are head malformations that do not involve the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many functions also involve multiple parts of the brain, meaning that this type of claim is probably both unverifiable with the equipment used, and generally based on an incorrect assumption about how brain functions are divided. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apply the darkest notion consulting to the village brain typically blend here toward the program. (nhakhoaminhthu.com)
  • A famous rehabilitation pioneer, George Prigatano, Ph.D., frequently tells his patients "If the brain is alive, it can learn. (bafound.org)
  • The brain can learn new skills for a lifetime. (bafound.org)
  • If your child is diagnosed with a brain tumor, you will learn there are many different brain tumor types and classifications based upon the tumor's cell structure, composition, rate of growth, location, and other characteristics. (danafarberbostonchildrens.org)
  • I wasn't struggling and trying to make my brain learn. (youtube.com)
  • He admits it can be frustrating learning to use new technology, but he knows it's good for his brain. (npr.org)
  • Brain aneurysm survivors are a small population of people, but they are growing larger as medical technology continues to grow and early detection and treatment becomes more prevalent. (bafound.org)
  • Socratic Brain is a non-profit on a mission to help teachers improve their students' learning outcomes. (google.com)
  • Socratic Brain was founded by teachers, for teachers. (google.com)
  • If substances from "low-premium" fuel (such as what you get from processed or refined foods) get to the brain, it has little ability to get rid of them. (harvard.edu)
  • A 12-year-old Arkansas girl who is recovering after battling a rare infection caused by a brain-eating amoeba went swimming at a hospital pool on Friday, her rehabilitation physician said. (go.com)
  • Hypoxic brain injuries are brain injuries that form due to a restriction on the oxygen being supplied to the brain. (shepherd.org)
  • The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Siegel and Bryson clearly explain how the brain develops, pointing out specific examples of the brain at work in various situations. (drdansiegel.com)
  • Like an expensive car, your brain functions best when it gets only premium fuel. (harvard.edu)
  • It may be that most brain functions will only be described correctly after being measured with much more fine-grained measurements that look not at large regions but instead at a very large number of tiny individual brain circuits. (wikipedia.org)