Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart. (1/63334)

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

Studies on the mechanism of action of amantadine. (2/63334)

1 The effect of amantadine hydrochloride on various aspects of catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain has been investigated. 2 Amantadine failed to have any significant effect on brain concentrations of dopamine or noradrenaline even when administered daily for 9 days. 3 Amantadine had no effect on the rate of decline of noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations after alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. 4 In vitro amantadine inhibited dopamine uptake into synaptosomes only at high concentrations, and caused little release of dopamine from synaptosomes. 5 There is no evidence from these results to suggest that the anti-Parkinsonian effect of amantadine is related to an action on dopaminergic mechanisms.  (+info)

Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (3/63334)

Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (4/63334)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

Evaluating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic equipment: the brain scanner case. (5/63334)

An approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of high-technology diagnostic equipment has been devised, using the introduction of computerised axial tomography (CAT) as a model. With the advent of CAT scanning, angiography and air encephalography have a reduced, though important, role in investigating intracranial disease, and the efficient use of conventional equipment requires the centralisation of neuroradiological services, which would result in major cash savings. In contrast, the pattern of demand for CAT scanning, in addition to the acknowledged clinical efficiency of the scanner and its unique role in the head-injured patient, ephasies the need for improved access to scanners. In the interest of the patients the pattern of service must change.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (6/63334)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Visual perception: mind and brain see eye to eye. (7/63334)

Recent functional imaging studies have identified neural activity that is closely associated with the perception of illusory motion. The mapping of the mind onto the bin appears to be one-to-one: activity in visual 'motion area' MT is highly correlated with perceptual experience.  (+info)

Accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in mice deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA. (8/63334)

Inheritable mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes cause cancer-prone human disorders, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, which are also characterized by symptoms of accelerated ageing. To study the impact of NER deficiency on mutation accumulation in vivo, mutant frequencies have been determined in liver and brain of 2-16 month old NER deficient XPA-/-, lacZ hybrid mice. While mutant frequencies in liver of 2-month old XPA-/-, lacZ mice were comparable to XPA+/-, lacZ and the lacZ parental strain animals, by 4 months of age mutant frequencies in the XPA-deficient mice were significantly increased by a factor of two and increased further until the age of 16 months. In brain, mutant frequencies were not found to increase with age. These results show that a deficiency in the NER gene XPA causes an accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in liver but not in brain. This is in keeping with a higher incidence of spontaneous liver tumors reported earlier for XPA-/- mice after about 15 months of age.  (+info)

Knight P.G.; Cunningham F.J.; Gladwell R.T., 1983: Concentrations of immuno reactive lhrh discrete brain regions of the cockerel effects of castration and testosterone replacement therapy
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China Muscle, Nerve Blood Vessel with Dissectible Brain Model, Find details about China Human Brain Model, Human Head Model from Muscle, Nerve Blood Vessel with Dissectible Brain Model - Guangzhou Rongzhiyou Medical & Technology Co., Ltd.
Term newborns with congenital heart disease have widespread brain abnormalities before they undergo cardiac surgery. The imaging findings in such newborns are similar to those in premature newborns and may reflect abnormal brain development in utero.
In late-onset Alzheimers disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and early characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with low topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very early ...
I would air dry the slides overnight before heating them at all. Then dry at 60C for 30 min and stain as usual. Somehow the air drying makes a difference. Good luck! jJoyce WeemsPathology ManagerSaint Josephs Hospital of Atlanta404-851-7376404-851-7831 - Fax-----Original Message-----From: [email protected] on behalf of Ryan Dominique SalazarSent: Fri 2/8/2008 3:58 AMTo: [email protected]: [Histonet] brain tissue sections Hi,Please help me with my brain tissue sections, Im having difficulties in staining them because they disintegrate during H&E staining, resulting into folded and incomplete sections into the slide.I processed the tissues 2 days after fixation using Leica ASP300S (all new reagents). I have no problem in cutting 5 u thickness during microtomy.I used adhesive pre-treated slides and Milli-Q water during orientation and fishing out in the floatation bath. I use flattening table as hot plate and heat the freshly cut slides at 62C, for ...
Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ∼900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes
The left cerebral hemisphere controls movement of the right side of the body. Depending on the severity, a stroke affecting the left cerebral hemisphere may result in loss of motor skills and sensations on the right side of the body, and may also cause loss of the ability to speak and understand words ...
7 Pillars Of Brain Health What is the secret to maintaining brain health? How a person manages stress, how well they socialize, how well they sleep, how much they exercise, and what they drink and eat all are crucial to brain health. So how does one achieve brain health? Here are seven pillars of […]. ...
Given recent advances in technology, it isnt unusual for a previously paralyzed man or woman regaining the ability to walk thanks to manually-controlled robotic limbs, but now University of California-Irvine researchers have accomplished the feat without such aids.. In a preliminary proof-of-concept study, Dr. An Do, Dr. Zoran Nenadic and colleagues showed that it is possible to use direct brain control to allow a spinal cord injury patient to use his or her own legs to walk again without having to rely upon mechanical aids for locomotion.. The research, which was published in the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, is said to mark the first time that direct brain control has enabled a person to walk without use of robotic devices following complete paralysis in both legs following a spinal cord injury.. The individual had been a paraplegic for five years, and thanks to an EEG-based brain control system, he was able to walk along a 3.66m long course 30 times over a 19 week span, the ...
Weve been hearing plenty about brain-based learning, but much of what we hear can be confusing. Not only are there arguments about how well brain-based learning works, there are arguments about whether such a thing such as brain-based learning exists at all.. Like so much other recent brain-related news, discussions about brain-based learning have been sparked by the boom in brain science over the past 15 years. With so much new information about the brain filtering into the mainstream, educators have been understandably eager to put to use in the classroom whatever they can.. The rush to use this information in the classroom, however, can be a problem and do more harm to education than good, says Dr. John Bruer, author of The Myth of the First Three Years and president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, which supports research and education related to the brain. Brain science, says Bruer, can tell us very little about how the brain learns and it is far too early to take what we know at this ...
Natural Size SOMSO Transparent Brain Model BS 25/T is an excellent tool for education. SOMSO Transparent Brain Model BS 25/T may be dissectible in 15 Parts showing anatomical structures. SOMSO Transparent Brain Model BS 25/T is mounted on a green base.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aluminum Has Both Oxidant and Antioxidant Effects in Mouse Brain Membranes. AU - Oteiza, Patricia I. AU - Fraga, C. G.. AU - Keen, C. L.. PY - 1993/1. Y1 - 1993/1. N2 - The in vitro effects of aluminum (A1) on lipid peroxidation were studied in mouse brain homogenates and purified brain subcellular fractions. In brain homogenates prepared in 5 mM Na2HPO4, 0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.4, the addition of Al decreased Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances (TBARS), in a dose dependent manner, with a maximum effect at 250 μM Al. In brain homogenates prepared in 20 mM Tris-HCI, 0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.4, Al acted as a prooxidant at 250 and 500 μM concentrations. The prooxidant effect of Al was enhanced with increasing concentrations of Fe2+. In brain microsonies Al increased TBARS production and conjugated dienes formation, both depending on the addition of Fe2+. In myelin, the prooxidant effect of Al on Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation was eliminated ...
AAV2-mediated CLN2 gene transfer to rodent and non-human primate brain results in long-term TPP-I expression compatible with therapy for LINCL Academic Article ...
At the intersection of brain health and housing, GBHI is collaborating with Respond Housing Agency to develop a training program that aims to create awareness and understanding of the importance of brain health.
The hippocampus is one of the earliest and most affected regions in Alzheimers disease (AD), followed by the cortex while the cerebellum is largely spared. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction is a common feature of cerebral blood vessels in AD. In this study, we sought to determine if regional heterogeneity of cerebral microvessels might help explain the susceptibility of the hippocampus and cortex as compared to the cerebellum. We isolated microvessels from wild type mice from the cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus to characterize their vascular phenotype. Superoxide anion was significantly higher in microvessels isolated from the cortex and hippocampus as compared to the cerebellum. Importantly, protein levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-2 and NOX-4 were significantly higher in the cortical and hippocampal microvessels as compared to microvessels from the cerebellum. In addition, expression of manganese superoxide dismutase protein was significantly lower in microvessels from the cortex and hippocampus
The method researchers used to assess brain atrophy across 25 published studies, called colocalization-likelihood estimation (CLE), was developed by Peter E. Turkeltaub, MD, PhD, an associate professor of neurology at Georgetown and a co-author of the study.. The researchers found that the frontal region (including anterior cingulate cortex, or ACC) is the most frequently affected brain region in HIV+ adults, whereas the neural injury to the caudate/striatum was consistently linked to neurocognitive impairment.. These results suggest a two-stage model of HAND in the context of brain atrophy, with a frontal/ACC stage that links to HIV disease and likely other comorbidities, such as substance abuse, and a caudate/striatum stage that links to neurocognitive impairment. These two areas likely play different roles in HAND, Jiang says.. It is our theory, and others, that the frontal/ACC area damage is due to a number of factors, but which importantly includes damage to the dopaminergic region, he ...
Just like your habits, the food that you eat can also play a role in your brain health and brain power. There are some foods that can enhance your brain power and brain health. Below are some of them: Fatty Fish Fatty fish must top the list of any discussion regarding the best foods that can boost brain health. Fishes
Our brain plays numerous roles in our daily lives. Basically,our behavior, emotions, memory and other cognitive functions are all linked to our brains health.For these reasons, taking good care of our brains health is very important. So, how can you improve your mental health? Here is a list of ways on how to boost your brains health.
Research by a UConn neurobiologist has demonstrated that a developmental brain disorder that causes a predisposition to seizures can be reversed.. The research, by a team led by Joseph LoTurco, a professor of physiology and neurobiology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, was the cover article in the January issue of the biomedical research journal Nature Medicine.. We showed that adding back a normal gene in a brain that has already developed the wrong way can reverse a previously formed developmental malformation, LoTurco says.. The cerebral cortex is a structure within the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, thought, and language. Its layered structure is formed during development by the migration of neurons.. The researchers focused on a malformation that happens early in fetal development that is a known risk factor for epilepsy. The malformation is linked to mutations in a certain gene known as Dcx or doublecortin. LoTurco says patients who have a ...
John DSouza mines a rich seam of thinking in this article on Brain-Based Learning... This article has been reproduced in full from its original posting on LinkedIn: Brain-Based Learning 2: BBL - Brain-Based Learning | JOHN DSOUZA | LinkedIn Brain-based learning refers to teaching methods, lesson designs, and school programs that are based on the latest scientific research…
Vitamin D, which supports overall brain structure and function by working with Omega-3 fatty acids to support cognitive function and contains powerful immune support, essential for brain health. CogGevity helps you meet your daily needs for this essential vitamin.. The CogGevity® Scientific Advisory Board members, who are experts in the medical, neuroscience and lifestyle management fields, include: Keith Black, MD, Founder/Chairman and Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, Director, Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute Ruth and Lawrence Harvey Chair in Neuroscience at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; Kristen Willeumier, PhD, Neuroscientist-Advisor; Greg Cole, PhD, Developer, Alzheimer Research Lab Professor, UCLA Department of Medicine & Neurology; Sally Frautschy, PhD, Developer/Professor-in-Residence of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and Alzheimer Research Lab Professor, Department of Medicine and Neurology; Vernon Williams, MD, Neurologist-Advisor and Director of the ...
BioAssay record AID 299827 submitted by ChEMBL: Drug level in Tg2576 betaAPP swedish transgenic mouse brain at 500 umol/kg, sc twice a day for 5 days.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Prefrontal Cortical Influences on Brain Systems Supporting Complex Mental Function (R01) RFA-MH-08-110. NIMH
Now, writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell (July 1, 2010), a team of scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison has identified a single gene that seems to be a master regulator of human brain development, guiding undifferentiated stem cells down tightly defined pathways to becoming all of the many types of cells that make up the brain.. The new finding is important because it reveals the main genetic factor responsible for instructing cells at the earliest stages of embryonic development to become the cells of the brain and spinal cord. Identifying the gene - known as Pax6 - is a first critical step toward routinely forging customized brain cells in the lab.. Whats more, the work contrasts with findings from animal models such as the mouse and zebrafish, pillars of developmental biology, and thus helps cement the importance of the models being developed from human embryonic stem cells.. The new work, conducted in the Waisman Center laboratory of UW-Madison neuroscientist Su-Chun Zhang, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of nutrition on cognition and brain health in ageing. T2 - A targeted approach. AU - Monti, Jim M.. AU - Moulton, Christopher J.. AU - Cohen, Neal J.. PY - 2015/10/15. Y1 - 2015/10/15. N2 - Animal experiments and cross-sectional or prospective longitudinal research in human subjects suggest a role for nutrition in cognitive ageing. However, data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that seek causal evidence for the impact of nutrients on cognitive ageing in humans often produce null results. Given that RCT test hypotheses in a rigorous fashion, one conclusion could be that the positive effects of nutrition on the aged brain observed in other study designs are spurious. On the other hand, it may be that the design of many clinical trials conducted thus far has been less than optimal. In the present review, we offer a blueprint for a more targeted approach to the design of RCT in nutrition, cognition and brain health in ageing that focuses on three key areas. First, the ...
By David J. Ostry (Professor, Psychology, McGill) We frequently think of neuroplasticity in the human brain in the context of the developmental and maturational changes that occur in the brain and behaviour during childhood. Luckily, for those of us that are no longer children, the adult human brain remains remarkably plastic. A facet of this plasticity that has important clinical applications is that changes occur in both sensory and motor systems of the brain with surprisingly brief periods of training. I will tell you about a series of recent studies in my laboratory, where we see that the effects of motor learning spill over into sensory systems, and that perceptual learning may provide us with a back door to the motor system that can be exploited in therapeutic interventions. Dr. Ostrys research focuses on understanding the biological mechanisms of voluntary movement and deals equally with speech production and human arm motion. His lab uses mathematical models, robots and behavioral and
NorthShore offers this quick brain health test to assess your risk for brain-related disorders. Take this brain health quiz today.
Experiments with rabbits, cats, and monkeys during recording of complex physiological processes (LEPG, ThG, Po2, Pco2, and ECoG) in functionally discrete brain regions of awake animals have shown that functional changes, expressed as desynchronization effects on ECoG, are followed by an increase of local blood flow (LCBF) in regional brain cortex up to 0.3 to 0.4 ml per minute per 1 gm brain tissue or an increase of 35% to 45% of resting levels of LCBF. Under normal physiological conditions LCBF and Po2 change periodically without any external interference at frequency ranges 0.005 to 0.2 cps. This is characteristic of all brain regions and all species of animals investigated. These variations range in amplitude as much as 28% of the mean level of LCBF.. Changes of LCBF have no correlation with changes of systemic blood pressure (SAP). Local control mechanisms appear to be responsible for them. The interrelationships of changes of functional activity and CBF in local regions of awake brain are ...
The BC Brain Wellness Program is an interactive effort to establish clinically relevant lifestyle approaches to complement medical treatment in the clinics at the Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health. The goal of the program is to establish a provincial network of wellness programs to support people living with chronic brain disorders and their care partners. ...
The consumption of CBD helps to increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, and it also helps to foster memory and learning.. 5. CBD used as an effective anti-convulsion therapy. CBD is very effective in the treatment or prevention of epilepsy and seizure attacks. The frequent seizures or convulsions are transmitted through the neurological conditions whose frequency can be greatly decreased, with the usage of CBD. The CBD oil and other supplements interact with the endocannabinoid systems and help in reducing the frequency of the convulsion attacks or seizures.. 6. CBD is used as a supplement for better brain health. CBD is a popular supplement which is used worldwide to help deal effectively with depression, migraines, and brain fog. The scientific studies have proved that CBD can be used effectively as a natural alternative to medicines to reduce mental problems, and it also helps to foster better memory, learning, and concentration.. If you want to improve your brain health then ...
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Hello, I have some sample of rat brain which is not perfused with any fixitive before. The tissue is profixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for a week and then processed for paraffin section. But when the section is cut, it expands and breaks when float in water. Does anyone know why this happen and can give suggestion for the protocol? I also have rat brain when received 4% PFA perfucion before dissected out. These whole rat brain is profixed in fixitive overnight and then dehydrated with alcohol, again, after xylene and wex embedding, it breaks up when cut into 8 micron section. Does anyone can give me some suggestions on the protocol? Thanks a lot. Janice Ho University of Hong Kong _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] ...
Keep in mind, in contrast to most other body organs, your brain cannot fix itself. Exploration considers have indicated that Parkinsons illness, a sensory system malady, is brought about by outside synthetic substances and neurotoxic toxins. As per an article distributed in the Journal of the American Association, ecological synthetic concoctions and neurotoxic toxins are answerable for some instances of Parkinsons sickness.. Food decision is critical to brain health in light of the fact that the food you eat today is not the same as that devoured by your progenitors. What was healthy in yesteryears may not be healthy today. The food you eat today contain not just remote substances in the blood that may harm the brain, yet in addition hormones and brain envoys that may upset brain exercises and consequently harm brain health.. Subsequently, your food decision ought to be founded on accessibility, taste, and cost, be that as it may, in particular, on the nonattendance or nearness of neurotoxic ...
Wait until you hear what our guest, Dr. David Perlmutter, author of the #1 New York Times bestseller Grain Brain, has to say about what foods will and wont positively affect our brain health. You may have heard the controversy resulting from his declaration that wheat, sugar and carbs have devastating effects on brain function ...
J Hepatol. 2011 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print] Effects of Anti-Viral Therapy and HCV Clearance on Cerebral Metabolism and Cognition. Byrnes V, Miller A, Lowry D, Hill E, Weinstein C, Alsop D, Lenkinsk...
Obesity is associated with lower brain volumes in cognitively normal elderly subjects, but no study has yet investigated the effects of obesity on brain structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimers disease (AD). To determine if higher body mass index (BMI) is associated …
Summary: By optimizing neurons with CRISPR gene editing technology, researchers will have new ways to study genetic influences on brain health and disease, a new study reports.. Source: SfN.. Neuroscientists have used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to regulate genes in the rat brain. Described in eNeuro, this technique paves the way for researchers to probe genetic influences on brain health and disease in model organisms that more closely resemble human conditions... Studying genes in the brain is expensive and time-consuming, often relying on transgenic animals, such as fruit flies and mice, designed to assess one gene at a time. Despite rapid advances in the development of powerfully precise CRISPR/Cas9 systems, adapting these for use in the central nervous system has proved challenging.. A neuron-optimized CRISPR activation system developed by Jeremy Day and colleagues overcomes these challenges. The researchers demonstrate both in diverse cultured cells and in multiple regions of the ...
The Global Council on Brain Health (GCBH) provides recommendations for how much physical activity is needed to promote brain health as we age.
We provide a protocol for isolation of microglia from different dissected regions of an adult mouse brain hemisphere, followed by...
Brain Health and Cognitive Function expert in Saint Michaels, MD. Learn how to improve your brain health and keep your mental edge as you age.
Brain Health and Cognitive Function expert in Rye, NY. Learn how to improve your brain health and keep your mental edge as you age.
...In studies of human brain cells the widely-used anesthetic desflurane...Over 200 million people undergo surgery each year and there has been ...They subjected human brain cells to 12% desflurane for six hours (mimi...The researchers do emphasize that the current findings are from cell c...,Anesthesia,and,Alzheimers,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Our ultimate goal is to be able gather information long term, by checking in with residents each year over a period of decades. In parallel, we will also test the efficacy of evidence-based and other promising interventions to evaluate their effects on promoting brain health. These interventions will be tailored to meet the needs of the Lakewood Ranch community. We will track the immediate and long-term efficacy and sustainability of these interventions on the individual and overall communities. We will also focus on health coaching as a means to sustain these behaviors throughout the lifespan. Thus in summary, our vision is to identify and implement lifestyle interventions at both the individual and community level that can make an immediate and meaningful impact on the lives of the community while simultaneously advancing the science of brain health. ...
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Protecting and nourishing your brain health is a high priority! Brain health starts with whole foods, filtered water, getting restorative sleep and breathing...
Last week, Americas Brain Health Index ranked states by brain health. The top three brain-healthiest places in the US? Maryland, DC and Washington state. I helped judge the Indexs Beautiful Minds contest last year (full disclosure: Im chair of a scientific advisory board of a sponsoring...
Anatomical Brain Stud Earrings Anatomical Brain Stud Earrings Pair of birch brains with burnt-in foldy bits (sulci) Great for neurosurgeons and people whose
We know that high levels of amyloid-beta plaques are characteristic of Alzheimers, but we also know that people can have high levels of amyloid without displaying symptoms of Alzheimers. A new study shows that the reason for this apparent discrepancy may lie with another protein, called NPTX2.. It appears that memory loss occurs when high amyloid-beta occurs in combination with low levels of NPTX2.. The gene which expresses the protein NPTX2 belongs to a set of genes known as immediate early genes, which are activated almost instantly in brain cells when an experience results in a new memory. The protein is used by neurons to strengthen the circuits that encode memories.. A study of 144 archived human brain tissue samples revealed that NPTX2 protein levels were reduced by as much as 90% in brain samples from people with Alzheimers compared with age-matched brain samples without Alzheimers. People with amyloid plaques who had never shown signs of Alzheimers, on the other hand, had normal ...
Immunohistochemical analysis of human brain samples represents an alternative approach for neurogenesis experiments in adult humans [32]. Based on our results, we recommend that the time between death and tissue fixation does not exceed 16 h when devising an immunohistochemistry protocol to study neurogenesis markers in adult humans; thus, the development of a rapid autopsy program [33-35] is desirable. In the indirect immunofluorescence protocol, we noticed that better nestin staining was achieved when the primary antibody solution was maintained on the slides for 48 h at 4°C (Additional file 1: Table S1) [36] instead of overnight at room temperature (data not shown); this finding should be taken into consideration when troubleshooting poor staining of human brain samples.. A caveat of our results is that the staining may not identify a neurogenic system. Indeed, the streptavidin-biotin method revealed biotin staining in negative controls in major bundles such as the fimbria-fornix. To avoid ...
Role of the brain[edit]. The brain stem can control food intake, because it contains neural circuits that detect hunger and ... The brain checks for glucoprivation on its side of the blood-brain barrier (since glucose is its fuel), while the liver ... Insulin also serves as a satiety signal to the brain. The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients ... Peptide YY 3-36 is a hormone released by the small intestine and it is also used as a satiety signal to the brain.[24] ...
Brain[edit]. Circulating levels of androgens can influence human behavior because some neurons are sensitive to steroid ... Numerous reports have shown androgens alone are capable of altering the structure of the brain,[11] but identification of which ... Evidence from neurogenesis (formation of new neurons) studies on male rats has shown that the hippocampus is a useful brain ... Indeed, androgens are capable of altering the structure of the brain in several species, including mice, rats, and primates, ...
On Broca, brain, and binding: a new framework[edit]. A person is highly interconnected with other regions of the brain, ... List of regions in the human brain. References[edit]. *^ Gabrieli; et al. (1998). "The role of left prefrontal cortex in ... but they also supported the idea that one side of the brain is more involved with language than the other. The human brain has ... Human Brain Mapping Aug 2007. ISSN 1097-0193 *^ Demb, J.; Desmond, J.; Wagner, A.; Vaidya, C.; Glover, G.; Gabrieli, J. (1995 ...
BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. BDNF was first isolated from pig brain in 1982 by Yves-Alain ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ... Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 130 (1-2): 178-86. doi:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2004.07.019. PMID 15519688.. ...
doi:10.1093/brain/awx051. PMC 5405238. PMID 28334963.. *^ Tyler, Lorraine K.; Marslen-Wilson, William (2009). "Fronto-temporal ... The classical or Wernicke-Geschwind model of the language system in the brain focuses on Broca's area in the inferior ... Diseases and disorders of the brain, including alogia, aphasias, dysarthria, dystonia and speech processing disorders, where ... Paul Broca identified an approximate region of the brain in 1861 which, when damaged in two of his patients, caused severe ...
5 Brain damage and mental changes *5.1 Extent of brain damage. *5.2 First-hand reports of mental changes *5.2.1 Harlow's 1848 ... Brains do not seem to be of much account now-a-days."[12] The Transactions of the Vermont Medical Society (Smith 1886) was ... Fleischman, J. (2002). Phineas Gage: A Gruesome but True Story About Brain Science. ISBN 0-618-05252-6.. ... Pressure on the brain[citation needed] left him semi-comatose from September 23 to October 3, "seldom speaking unless spoken to ...
... it is not even a physiological function of the brain, nor is it a state of the brain at all. (Avenarius 1891, 76). Mach ... What I maintain is that the occurrence in the brain is a visual sensation. I maintain, in fact, that the brain consists of ... The brain is not the dwelling-place, seat or producer of thought; it is not the instrument or organ, it is not the vehicle or ... "Mind-brain interaction: Mentalism, yes; dualism, no". Neuroscience.. *^ "Neuroscience and the Soul". Science. 2009. doi:10.1126 ...
Brain function[edit]. A 2017 systematic review found lower vitamin C concentrations in people with cognitive impairment, ...
Brain activity during remote viewing[edit]. In November 2001, there was an article by Michael Persinger published in The ... Any movement while drawing did not result in "artifacts" in the brain readout.[16] In Swann's book To Kiss Earth Goodbye there ... The results with Swann suggested that during his remote viewing there were associated measurable changes in brain activity. ...
... brain tissue, brain ventricles, and/or intracranial vessels). The common drawback of all these methods is that they measure ... Brain parenchyma tissue[edit]. More recently, multivariate methods have been proposed that derive ICP by combining the transit ... Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the major causes of secondary brain ischemia that accompanies a variety of ... However the elasticity in the brain is highly dependent on many other variable individual factors apart from ICP, including ...
Skoyles and Sagan, for example, argue that human brain expansion by increasing the prefrontal cortex would have created a brain ... Brain change[edit]. Although the advent of anatomical physical modernity cannot confidently be linked with palaeoneurological ... "Evolution of the human brain" In Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution, edited by A. Locke and C. Peters, pp. 74-116. Oxford ... change,[67] it does seem probable that hominid brains evolved through the same selection processes as other body parts.[68] ...
Stam R (2010). "Electromagnetic fields and the blood-brain barrier". Brain Research Reviews (Review). 65 (1): 80-97. doi: ... with the permittivity of the brain decreasing as one gets older and the higher relative volume of the exposed growing brain in ... Blood-brain barrier[edit]. A 2010 review stated that "The balance of experimental evidence does not support an effect of 'non- ... "Italian court rules mobile phone use caused brain tumour". The Guardian. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017 - via Agence ...
Brain[edit]. Mammals are noted for their large brain size relative to body size, compared to other animal groups. Recent ... The increase in the size of the olfactory lobes of the brain increased brain weight as a percentage of total body weight.[26] ... Brain tissue requires a disproportionate amount of energy.[27][28] The need for more food to support the enlarged brains ... "Brain power". New Scientist. 2006.. *^ Vorobyev, M. (2006). "Evolution of colour vision: The story of lost visual pigments". ...
The brain is the largest known of any modern or extinct animal, weighing on average about 7.8 kilograms (17 lb),[54][55] more ... The oxygenated blood can be directed towards only the brain and other essential organs when oxygen levels deplete.[74][75][76] ... A 2008 study published in Current Biology recorded evidence that whales may sleep with both sides of the brain. It appears that ... Elephants and dolphins also have larger brains than humans.[57] The sperm whale has a lower encephalization quotient than many ...
Brain cell death. There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[56] One mechanism consists ... "Brain. 135 (Pt 4): 1141-53. doi:10.1093/brain/aws038. PMC 3326257. PMID 22396397.. ... Dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier, so it cannot be taken as a medicine to boost the brain's depleted levels of ... There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, ...
On the brain[edit]. One study suggested, based on neuroimaging, that 35 hours of total sleep deprivation in healthy controls ... a b National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Archived 11 October 2007 at the ... I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity". Journal of Sleep Research. 9 (4): 335-52. doi ... The effect has been shown to be linked to increases in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).[78] It has been shown that ...
Expression in the brain[edit]. MCPH1 is expressed in the fetal brain, in the developing forebrain, and on the walls of the ... Certain mutations in MCPH1, when homozygous, cause primary microcephaly-a severely diminished brain.[5][6][7] Hence, it has ... Brain man makes waves with claims of recent human evolution". Science. 314 (5807): 1871-3. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1871. ... In addition to MCPH1, other genes have been designated MCPH genes based on their role in brain size. These include WDR62 (MCPH2 ...
A. afarensis also has a relatively small brain size (about 380-430 cm3)[citation needed] and a prognathic face (i.e. a face ...
Neuroimaging studies and clinical studies of individuals with brain lesions make it clear that the brain is modularized; for ... Links to brain activity[edit]. The core ideas that cognitive functions can be organized in terms of broad functions of the ... Based on A. R. Luria's (1966) work on modularization of brain function, and supported by decades of neuroimaging research, the ... These four processes are hypothesized to functions of four areas of the brain. Planning is broadly located in the front part of ...
Brain activity[edit]. The changes in brain activity were studied in subjects during both convergent and divergent thinking. To ... Razoumnikova, Olga (2000). "Function Organization of Different Brain Areas During Convergent and Divergent Thinking: an EEG ... The large increase in amplitude and coherence indicates a close synchronization between both hemispheres in the brain. ... Investigation". Cognitive Brain Research. 10: 11-18. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(00)00017-3.. ...
Brain-reading uses fMRI and the multiple voxels activated in the brain evoked by a stimulus to determine what the brain has ... By studying the brain images, researchers are able to map the systematic procedure the brain went through to produce the action ... Brain observations[edit]. Electroencephalography is used to detect changes in brain waves. ... The fMRI shows the use of oxygen by the brain, allowing for the identification of which portions of the brain are using more ...
Brain and spinal cord injury[edit]. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. ... Research has been conducted on the effects of stem cells on animal models of brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson's, ... In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron ...
"Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 1 (4): 515-526. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00076512.. *^ a b c d Baron-Cohen, Simon (1991), " ... Brain mechanisms[edit]. In neurotypical humans[edit]. Research on theory of mind in autism led to the view that mentalizing ... doi:10.1093/brain/awf189. PMID 12135974.. *^ Pelphrey, K. A.; et al. (2005). "Neural basis of eye gaze processing deficits in ... doi:10.1093/brain/awh404. PMID 15758039.. *^ Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Bullmore ET, Baron-Cohen S, et al. (MRC AIMS ...
Actual brain anatomy in Stegosaurus is poorly known, but the brain itself was small even for a dinosaur, fitting well with a ... which gave an indication of the brain size. The endocast showed the brain was indeed very small, the smallest proportionally of ... This "brain" was proposed to have given a Stegosaurus a temporary boost when it was under threat from predators.[38] ... Stegosaurus had a relatively low brain-to-body mass ratio. It had a short neck and a small head, meaning it most likely ate low ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain (for example, the ... "Regional distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the adult mouse brain". EMBO J. 9 (8): 2459-2464. PMC 552273 ... In the brain, it is active in the hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and basal forebrain - areas vital to learning, memory, and ...
... the brain of C. saharicus would have been similar to that of a related dinosaur, Allosaurus fragilis.[13] Larsson found that ... Endocranial anatomy of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) and its implications for theropod brain ... Starting from the portion of the brain closest to the tip of the animal's snout is the forebrain, which is followed by the ... the floccular lobe of the brain would have projected into the area surrounded by the semicircular canals, just like in other ...
Brain research[edit]. On 22 March 2018, an agreement was signed establishing the Chinese Institute for Brain Science, Beijing.[ ... brain sciences and brain research. The project also encompasses nine other sub-projects, including an innovative seed industry ... the new brain institute will serve as a core facility for the country's planned project to study the human brain. The institute ... Brain Gain' to attract highly educated overseas Chinese to return to China to work, China has made significant improvements in ...
Traumatic Brain Injuries[edit]. A traumatic brain injury is defined as a blunt non-missile penetrating or missile injury to the ... extent of the damage incurred after a head trauma correlates more directly with the amount of deformation incurred by the brain ... working towards utilizing this potential for recovery to develop therapies for patients suffering from traumatic brain injuries ... proved the functionality of osteopontin in diminishing the intense inflammatory response following a traumatic brain injury, it ...
Deep brain stimulation[edit]. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a treatment by which regulated electrical pulses are sent to ... Dong, S.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, X.-H.; Li, J.-Y.; Li, Y.-J. (2012-01-01). "Unilateral deep brain stimulation of the right globus ... when using deep brain stimulation on Parkinson's Disease patients.[7] ... "Globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation for tardive dyskinesia: case report and review of the literature". Parkinsonism ...
"Brain. 116: 1-20. doi:10.1093/brain/116.1.1. hdl:21.11116/0000-0001-A182-5. PMID 8453452.. ... Trauma and brain exposure[edit]. This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by ... doi:10.1093/brain/115.1.73. PMID 1559164.. *^ a b Kopelman, M.D. (2000). "Focal Retrograde Amnesia and the Attribution of ... Brain. 118 (2): 401-416. doi:10.1093/brain/118.2.401. hdl:21.11116/0000-0001-A1FC-D. PMID 7735882.. ...
CATEGORIZED UNDER: Health & Medicine, Mind & Brain. MORE ABOUT: blindness, eyes, India, Nature (journal), neuroscience, vision ... Does the brain have these concepts due to innate mechanisms stemming from evolution, or does it acquire them from experience? I ... We didnt know if the brain "just knew" what shapes "look" like. And if not, how long does it take to connect the visual with ... If you go from not having the ability to having the ability how your brain would respond to these new stimuli. I assume it ...
The brain controls everything we do, and is often likened to the central computer within a vast, complicated communication ... Its believed that some people are more "right-brained" or "left-brained" while others are more "whole-brained," meaning they ... Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ... What Does the Brain Do?. The brain controls what we think and feel, how we learn and remember, and the way we move and talk. ...
But if you want to improve your memory, dont waste your time and money on brain games. Youd be better off learning how to ... Brain training has become a multimillion-dollar industry. ... Brain training is big business, with computerized brain games ... Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp. Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp. Listen · 4: ... Learning A New Skill Works Best To Keep Your Brain Sharp : Shots - Health News Brain training has become a multimillion-dollar ...
Mysterious Brain-Eating Shark Killer Identified, Though Questions Remain. Californias San Francisco Bay has seen repeated ... Mysterious Brain-Eating Shark Killer Identified, Though Questions Remain. Californias San Francisco Bay has seen repeated ... Something was entering the sharks noses, climbing into their brains, and eating away, causing the sharks to become disoriented ... Okihiro cut the sharks open and found lesions all around the sharks brains. ...
The researchers found that in the mices brains microglia responded rapidly to changes in neuronal activity as the brain ... "The brains network of connections is like a garden," said Rebecca Lowery, a graduate student in Majewskas lab and co-author ... A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from ... "We have long considered the reorganization of the brains network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania ...
The brain can learn new skills for a lifetime.. For survivors, there are many challenges to face in the road to recovery: ... Brain aneurysm survivors are a small population of people, but they are growing larger as medical technology continues to grow ... Click here to listen to a webinar on brain aneurysms and the recovery process in "The Care of Cerebral Aneurysms: What the ... One of the most frequently asked questions by brain aneurysm survivors is "How long until I get better?" Unfortunately, there ...
Learn more about these brain injuries from Shepherd Center. ... Anoxic and Hypoxic brain injuries occur when the brain is ... Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injury. What are Anoxic or Hypoxic Brain Injuries?. Unlike traumatic brain injuries, in which brain ... Patient Programs Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program Learn About Brain Injury Types of Brain Injuries Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain ... Brain Injury Rehabilitation ProgramShow/Hide Submenu*Learn About Brain InjuryShow/Hide Submenu*Types of Brain InjuriesShow/Hide ...
Types of Brain Tumors in Children. If your child is diagnosed with a brain tumor, you will learn there are many different brain ... Treatment for all types of brain tumors in children. The Brain Tumor Center at Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens is a world-renown ... The types of brain tumors most common in children are not the same as those most common in adults. Childhood brain tumors ... Our team: Brain tumor specialists. Online form: Request an appointment. Brain Tumor Consultations. ...
And especially in young children, the right brain and its emotions tend to rule over the logic of the left brain. No wonder ... The upstairs brain which makes decisions and balances emotions, is under construction until the mid-twenties. ... or fear into a chance to integrate your childs brain and foster vital growth. (Daniel J. Siegel, Tina Payne Bryson, Random ... explaining the new science of how a childs brain is wired and how it matures. ...
CDC defines a traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, ...
... physical assault damages the brain. It is one of the most common causes of disability and death in adults. ... Acquired brain injury hapens when a sudden, external, ... Brain injury may happen in one of two ways:. * Closed brain ... Traumatic Brain Injury. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. What is traumatic brain injury?. Traumatic brain injury (TBI ... What is primary and secondary brain injury?. Primary brain injury refers to the sudden and profound injury to the brain that is ...
Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to ... damaging brain cells, leading to chemical changes in the brain, or both. The mildest form of TBI is a concussion. ... TBI usually happens when a sudden bump, blow or jolt to the head causes the brain to bounce around inside the skull, ... Many studies have tried to confirm a link between brain injury and later dementia, but they have had mixed results, the authors ...
... the function of your brain, and, ultimately, your mood. ... Right brain/left brain, right?. *Gut feelings: How food affects ... This means your brain requires a constant supply of fuel. That "fuel" comes from the foods you eat - and whats in that fuel ... Comparing our brains to an expensive car seems inappropriate, we are much more complex than any machine. Food does play a major ... Nutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food. Posted November 16, 2015, 9:00 am , Updated March 26, 2020, 12:00 am ...
Brain Drug Provigil. Easy And Cost-Effective Way. #1 Online Pharmacy. ... You different; order exceed 250 in provigil drug brain a data.. The basis of brain a reviews stomach for a game items, but its ... Not, the brain drug provigil cited charges cannot be anticipated. Feel tired to comment bellow and share your stock when using ... As most mile, it pressure for some and does also put you at drug of brain drug provigil etc robbed at a illness, unless you ...
... cancers metastatic to the brain as primary brain cancers, classifying nonresidents with previously diagnosed brain cancer as ... Brain Cancer -- Texas Because of concern among local physicians in Cooke County, Texas,* about an apparent excess of brain ... The number of persons with brain cancer in Cooke County may have appeared high because: (1) the brain is a frequent site of ... considered cases of brain cancer. Information on cancer metastatic to the brain was also reviewed. The expected number of cases ...
Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, 2012[11]. Full SBMT definition[edit]. Brain mapping is the study of the anatomy and ... F.J. Chen (2006). Progress in Brain Mapping Research.. *Koichi Hirata (2002). Recent Advances in Human Brain Mapping: ... Harvard Whole Brain Atlas, 1995[10]. *MNI Template, 1998 (The standard template of SPM and International Consortium for Brain ... This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project.[5] It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries ( ...
The Brain & Consciousness Lab is an interdisciplinary research lab situated at Duke-NUS (Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders ... Our lab studies the human neural bases of perception, attention, and consciousness with functional brain imaging (fMRI), neural ...
The Interdepartmental Committee on Drug Addiction, commonly called the Brain Committee after its chairman Sir Russell Brain, ... The First Brain Report[edit]. The first report is also known as The Report of the Second Inter-departmental Committee on Drug ... The Second Brain Report[edit]. The second report was published in 1964.[4] This report showed that there had been a significant ... by Rachel Lart, CHANGING IMAGES OF THE ADDICT AND ADDICTION, BRITISH MEDICAL PERCEPTION FROM ROLLESTON TO BRAIN Archived 2012- ...
... in other projects. The Brain Connectivity Toolbox codebase is widely used by brain-imaging ... bctpy: Brain Connectivity Toolbox for Python.. bct-cpp: Brain Connectivity Toolbox in C++.. Human Connectome Project: An NIH ... Virtual Brain Project: A consortium for simulation of primate brain-network dynamics.. FieldTrip: Advanced analysis toolbox of ... The Brain Connectivity Toolbox ( is a MATLAB toolbox for complex-network analysis of structural ...
Can you train your brain? Why not, if you can train your body, you can also train your brain. What you do not use in body and ... Your brain is very good at linking music and language. This memory technology will not work well for everyone, but it is ... Your brain is well able to process different stimuli simultaneously. Reading and listening at the same time would not be a ... Because although your brain can handle different stimuli at the same time, your concentration is very limited. You can actually ...
brain. Neurophilosophy. Tag archives for brain. Neurosurgical patients get closer to God. Posted by Mo on February 27, 2010 ... Sleepy brain waves predict dream recall. THE patterns of brain waves that occur during sleep can predict the likelihood that ... A whiff of early brain evolution. Skull of Hadrocodium wui. (Image courtesy of Mark Klinger and Zhe-Xi Luo, Carnegie Museum of ... This is thought to occur because the brains model of the body (referred to as the body image) still contains a representation ...
Early experiences affect the development of brain architecture, which provides the foundation for all future learning, behavior ... Brain architecture is comprised of billions of connections between individual neurons across different areas of the brain. ... Brains are built over time, from the bottom up. The basic architecture of the brain is constructed through an ongoing process ... Brain Architecture. Watch the Overview Video. Early experiences affect the development of brain architecture, which provides ...
ARCHITECTURE OF A BRAIN. MAVRICs brain consists of a number of modules comprised of adaptrode neurons. Each module performs ... MAVRICs Brain. George E. Mobus. Computer Sciene Department, Western Washington University Bellingham, WA 98226. and. Paul S. ... Figure 2 shows a block diagram of the various modules in the brain. Fig. 2 The MAVRIC brain is comprised of functional module ... A moronic snail brain is seemingly not in the mainstream of AI research. As far as anyone can ascertain snails do not reason or ...
WebMD explains categories of brain disease, including those caused by infection and trauma and those caused by vascular, ... Brain aneurysm: An artery in the brain develops a weak area that swells like a balloon. A brain aneurysm rupture causes a ... Brain Diseases: Tumors, Masses, and Increased Pressure. This category of brain disease includes: Brain tumor: Any abnormal ... Heres an overview of various diseases of the brain.. Brain Diseases: Infections. Brain diseases in the category of infections ...
... Intensive behaviour therapy no better than conventional support. Research led by UCL has found ... view article , [Latest Brain Sciences News] UCL receives over £1m for research on link between the brain and behaviour. UCL has ... view article , [Latest Brain Sciences News] Women in Vision UK launches to unite women in vision and eye research. Despite ... view article , [Latest Brain Sciences News] Top New Year Honours for UCL academics and alumni. Four UCL academics and five ...
... is a term indicating the emigration of educated or talented individuals due to domestic turmoil or professional ... What is Brain Drain?. Brain drain is a slang term indicating a significant emigration of educated or talented individuals. A ... Example of Brain Drain. As of 2017, brain drain has been a significant consequence of the ongoing Puerto Rican debt crisis. In ... Brain drain, also known as human capital flight, can occur on several levels. Geographic brain drain occurs when talented ...
... "brain"), Saterland Frisian Brainge ("brain"), West Frisian brein ("brain"), Dutch brein ("brain"), Low German Brägen, Bregen (" ... brain (third-person singular simple present brains, present participle braining, simple past and past participle brained) ... From Middle English brayn, brain, from Old English bræġn ("brain"), from Proto-Germanic *bragną ("brain"), from Proto-Indo- ... brain lobes) brain lobe; frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe (Category: en:Brain) ...
... enables humans to give new dimensions to science and technology and make enormous development in making the best ... BLUE BRAIN * 2. ,ul,,li,1.INTRODUCTION ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,2.WHAT IS BLUE BRAIN ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,3.WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN ,/li,,/ ... 6.HOW BLUE BRAIN WORKS ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,7.BLUE BRAIN POWER ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,8.ARTIFICIAL BRAIN ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,9.BENEFITS ... BLUE BRAIN"- The name of the worlds first virtual brain. That means a machine that can function as human brain. ,/li,,/ul,,ul ...
Primary brain tumors start in the brain. Secondary brain tumors are made up of cells that have metastasized to the brain from ... Brain Tumors. When brain cells grow abnormally or out of control, a tumor (a mass of cells) can form. If the tumor puts ... Types of Brain Tumors. There are many different types of brain tumors. Some are cancerous (meaning they can spread to parts of ... A brain tumor can cause symptoms by directly pressing on the surrounding parts of the brain that control certain body functions ...
  • Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one. (
  • The researchers found that in the mice's brains microglia responded rapidly to changes in neuronal activity as the brain adapted to processing information from only one eye. (
  • In the current study, researchers found that overall, the risk of dementia was increased by about 80 percent during an average 15-year follow-up period after a traumatic brain injury. (
  • REMOVAL of specific parts of the brain can induce increases in a personality trait which predisposes people to spirituality, according to a new clinical study by Italian researchers. (
  • Doctors don't know what causes brain tumors, but researchers think there may be genetic and environmental causes. (
  • UCL has been awarded £1,050,000 by the Leverhulme Trust to fund a Doctoral Training Programme (DTP) for 15 researchers to explore and understand the link between the brain and behaviour. (
  • The UK Dementia Research Institute have announced a £1.5 million award to fund research into Huntington's disease which will be led by Faculty of Brain Sciences researchers Professors Gillian Bates and Sarah Tabrizi. (
  • A team involving UCL scientists has developed a new device that could revolutionise our understanding of the brain by allowing researchers to map the activity of complex neural networks that control behaviour and decision making, in a way never before possible. (
  • Seldom does a a month go by without researchers announcing new information about the brain. (
  • To do better, the architects of the Kavli plan called for a Brain Activity Map (BAM) project: a technology-development programme that would give researchers the tools to start small, produce detailed maps of neural activity in simple organisms such as the fruitfly, and then move on to larger, more complex mammalian systems such as the mouse retina. (
  • As researchers learn more about the brain, it becomes increasingly difficult to imagine how all the disparate data can be organized into a cohesive, coherent whole. (
  • In a proof-of-concept study using functional MRI (fMRI), researchers found that women who regularly consumed probiotic-containing yogurt showed altered activity of brain regions that control central processing of emotion and sensation. (
  • The Dartmouth Brain Imaging Center (DBIC) is a research resource that is provided by Dartmouth College to all brain researchers in the Dartmouth community. (
  • Through clinical trials , researchers test the effects of new medications on a group of volunteers with brain cancer. (
  • Following a strict protocol and using carefully controlled conditions, researchers evaluate the investigational drugs under development and measure the ability of the new drug to treat brain cancer, its safety, and any possible side effects. (
  • Researchers in the US found that napping boosts brain power by clearing out the brain's temporary storage space so it can absorb new information: they also propose that this clearing out process happens during a specific stage of sleep. (
  • The researchers found that an hour's nap can dramatically boost and restore brain power: it not only refreshes the mind, but can make you smarter, they suggest. (
  • A team of researchers successfully changed the gender in the brains of newborn rats from female to male, according to findings published this week in Nature Neuroscience. (
  • The researchers used electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to measure the amount of signaling occurring between brain areas in children. (
  • However, when looking at connectivity between other parts of the brain, the researchers saw differences. (
  • Last week, an international group of brain researchers released the Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness . (
  • Cellphones emit ultra-high-frequency radio waves during calls and data transfers, and some researchers have suspected this radiation - albeit inconclusively - of being linked to long-term health risks like brain cancer. (
  • From behavioral quirks to brain cancer, researchers have looked for any health risks associated with cellphone radiation for years. (
  • Volkow and a team of researchers scanned the brains of 47 people with a cellphone attached to each side of their head. (
  • Using a revolutionary method of imaging the brain, researchers from the Open University (OU) and the London Business School say they have identified the brain region that becomes active as the shopper reaches to the supermarket shelf to make their final choice. (
  • Researchers found that the brain was hugely active during the 2.5 seconds it took for the button press to be made. (
  • Researchers have long debated whether adult brains can create new cells. (
  • Boston University researchers will study the former New England Patriots player's brain for signs of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE. (
  • It's as yet unclear what degree of risk the particles pose but researchers fear they could lead to brain diseases. (
  • In the largest study of its kind, researchers have found new evidence that strengthens the tie between brain trauma and Parkinson's disease. (
  • Researchers have found that while we sleep, a mechanism removes waste from the brain - a finding they say may change the scientific understanding of sleep. (
  • The types of brain tumors most common in children are not the same as those most common in adults. (
  • Childhood brain tumors frequently appear in different locations and behave differently than brain tumors in adults. (
  • Read our overview of childhood brain tumors , or learn about specific types of brain tumors below. (
  • The Brain Tumor Center at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's is a world-renown destination for children with malignant and non-malignant childhood brain tumors . (
  • On May 22, 2017, Mark Kieran, MD, PhD, discussed what's new in research and treatment for pediatric brain tumors on Facebook Live. (
  • Through research and clinical trials, we are leading the way in improving survival rates for hard-to-treat pediatric brain tumors. (
  • When discovered early enough, brain tumors are usually treatable. (
  • There are many different types of brain tumors. (
  • Primary brain tumors start in the brain. (
  • Secondary brain tumors are made up of cells that have metastasized to the brain from somewhere else in the body. (
  • In children, most brain tumors are primary. (
  • Medulloblastomas or primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are cancerous, high-grade tumors that start in the posterior fossa, a part of the brain near the base of the skull. (
  • Craniopharyngiomas are non-cancerous tumors that form at the base of the brain near the pituitary gland. (
  • Germ cell tumors usually form in the testes or ovaries but can also form in the brain and central nervous system. (
  • Some kids who have certain genetic conditions have a greater chance of developing brain tumors. (
  • Diseases like neurofibromatosis , von Hippel-Lindau disease, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome are all associated with a higher risk of brain tumors. (
  • Because symptoms might develop gradually and can be like those of other common childhood conditions, brain tumors can be difficult to diagnose. (
  • Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. (
  • Brain tumors can cause many symptoms. (
  • Doctors diagnose brain tumors by doing a neurologic exam and tests including an MRI, CT scan, and biopsy. (
  • Spotlight on Brain Tumors: Do You Know the Symptoms? (
  • This chapter reviews only the subject of parenchymal brain metastases from systemic solid tumors arising in childhood. (
  • Lester SG, Morphis JG II, Hornback NB, Williams SD, Einhorn LH: Brain metastases and testicular tumors: Need for aggressive therapy. (
  • In: Deutsch M. (eds) Management of Childhood Brain Tumors. (
  • Although such growths are popularly called brain tumors, not all brain tumors are cancer. (
  • What are brain tumors? (
  • What are malignant tumors relative to brain cancer? (
  • In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain. (
  • To meet the unique needs of brain tumor patients, the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) and the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN) announce the availability of the first ever clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for the treatment of adults with brain tumors. (
  • Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps . (
  • The Brain & Consciousness Lab is an interdisciplinary research lab situated at Duke-NUS ( Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders Program ) in Singapore. (
  • The global brain is a neuroscience-inspired and futurological vision of the planetary information and communications technology network that interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts. (
  • THE latest issue of Technology Review contains a photo essay by yours truly, called Time Travel Through the Brain, in which I look at how techniques used to investigate the brain have evolved during the 100 year history of modern neuroscience. (
  • Only a month earlier, US President Barack Obama had unveiled the neuroscience equivalent of a Moon shot: a far-reaching programme that could rival Europe's 10-year, €1-billion (US$1.3-billion) Human Brain Project (see page 5 ). (
  • Of all the scientific enterprises that we taxpayers support, none is more important--from both a practical and a purely intellectual viewpoint--than neuroscience, the study of the brain. (
  • I had no intention of revisiting the debate over the use of brain imaging in social neuroscience, which I blogged about last month . (
  • I had room to cite only two of them in my magazine column this week , but there were no dissenting voices: some studies that use fMRI to correlate patterns of brain activity with some measure of emotion, thought or other psychological trait/behavior of interest to social neuroscience are indeed problematic. (
  • Brain Connectivity is an international neuroscience journal dedicated to the publication of original reports and scientific reviews concerned with all aspects of anatomical, functional, and causal connections between distinct units within the central nervous system. (
  • How people use their brains to learn, record and store memory is a fundamental question in contemporary neuroscience,' said Steven Rose, director of the brain and behavior research group and professor of biology at the Open University. (
  • Michael Miller , professor and chair in the department of neuroscience and physiology at SUNY Upstate Medical University , said that MEG scans provided a unique insight into the real-time activity of brain regions in humans and animals. (
  • The Oregon Brain Institute recently published the 2018 Innovations in Neuroscience, highlighting leading edge research conducted at OHSU. (
  • Recent models in modern neuroscience treat the brain as a biological computer, very different in mechanism from an electronic computer, but similar in the sense that it acquires information from the surrounding world, stores it, and processes it in a variety of ways. (
  • The name and classification of the tumor may change as your doctor gains new information about your child's brain tumor or if the tumor changes over time. (
  • In this pioneering, practical book, Daniel J. Siegel, neuropsychiatrist and author of the bestselling book Mindsight , and parenting expert Tina Payne Bryson demystify the meltdowns and aggravation, explaining the new science of how a child's brain is wired and how it matures. (
  • By applying these discoveries to everyday parenting, you can turn any outburst, argument, or fear into a chance to integrate your child's brain and foster vital growth. (
  • By age 3, a child's brain, on average, has twice as many neurons and neural connections, and is twice as energetic, as an adult's. (
  • Humans and other vertebrates possess a central nervous system (CNS) - the brain and spinal cord - containing specialized cells called neurons. (
  • A new study provides the first evidence in humans that probiotics in the diet can modulate brain activity. (
  • This study is unique because it is the first to show an interaction between a probiotic and the brain in humans," lead author Kirsten Tillisch, MD, associate professor, Oppenheimer Family Center for Neurobiology of Stress, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, told Medscape Medical News . (
  • Going forward, they say, "identification of the signaling pathways between the microbiota and the brain in humans is needed to solidify our understanding of microbiota gut-brain interactions. (
  • Why did humans evolve big brains? (
  • Second, even if it did work in humans, eating it would not deliver it to our brains, because it would be almost certainly be broken down in the stomach. (
  • If your child is diagnosed with a brain tumor, you will learn there are many different brain tumor types and classifications based upon the tumor's cell structure, composition, rate of growth, location, and other characteristics. (
  • Meet our brain tumor specialists . (
  • What's New in Brain Tumor Treatment? (
  • A holiday concert brings together a girl and the surgeon who removed her brain tumor. (
  • sponsored by American Brain Tumor Association. (
  • When brain cells grow abnormally or out of control, a tumor (a mass of cells) can form. (
  • If the tumor puts pressure on certain areas of the brain, it can affect how the body functions. (
  • A localized tumor is confined to one area and is generally easier to remove, as long as it's in a part of the brain that's easy to get to. (
  • A brain tumor can cause symptoms by directly pressing on the surrounding parts of the brain that control certain body functions, or by causing a buildup of spinal fluid and pressure throughout the brain (a condition known as hydrocephalus ). (
  • A doctor who thinks a child might have a brain tumor will do a thorough neurological exam and order imaging studies of the brain: a CT (computed tomography) scan , MRI (magnetic resonance imaging , or possibly both. (
  • If imaging studies reveal a brain tumor, then surgery is likely to be the next step. (
  • A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. (
  • However, the term "does not include procedures…undertaken to cure well-defined disease states such as brain tumor, epileptic foci and certain chronic pain syndromes. (
  • The Care of the Adult Patient with a Brain Tumor Clinical Practice Guideline was released today with an educational webinar to follow. (
  • The two organizations will release a clinical practice guideline for the Care of the Pediatric Patient with a Brain Tumor in summer 2014. (
  • Every day, 500 people across the U.S. are diagnosed of with a brain tumor. (
  • 4,300 children will be diagnosed with a brain tumor this year. (
  • The ABTA and AANN partnered to produce these guidelines to fill a critical gap in brain tumor patient care. (
  • As leaders in their fields, both organizations spearheaded the project in order to ensure that health care professionals caring for brain tumor patients have the information necessary to deliver optimal patient care. (
  • The goal of the clinical practice guidelines is to help nurses provide consistent and evidence-based care for brain tumor patients and their families from diagnosis throughout the trajectory of the illness. (
  • According to guidelines' co-author and American Brain Tumor Association Senior Advisor Mary Lovely, PhD, RN, CNRN, "The information contained in these new guidelines is based on a thorough review of recent studies and literature and includes for nurses especially, new and valuable information and instructions from what they were taught. (
  • Lovely adds that, in addition to monitoring and treatment of the patient, "the brain tumor clinical guidelines provide information on survivorship and how nurses can help patients better manage side effects in order to move toward an optimal quality of life. (
  • Founded in 1973, the American Brain Tumor Association was first and is now the only national organization committed to funding brain tumor research and providing support and education programs for all tumor types and all age groups. (
  • As of 2017, brain drain has been a significant consequence of the ongoing Puerto Rican debt crisis. (
  • Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behavior onto brain regions (see fMRI ). (
  • Early experiences affect the development of brain architecture , which provides the foundation for all future learning, behavior, and health. (
  • Toxic stress weakens the architecture of the developing brain, which can lead to lifelong problems in learning, behavior, and physical and mental health. (
  • One of the things I recently heard from a school psychologist is that the brain uses glucose throughout the day, especially for heavy cognitive demands -- so a small bit (not much) of sugar in the afternoon may help behavior problems if they increase at this time. (
  • Using science and storytelling, Hidden Brain 's host Shankar Vedantam reveals the unconscious patterns that drive human behavior, the biases that shape our choices, and the triggers that direct the course of our relationships. (
  • Psychosurgery" is defined as "any operation designed to produce an irreversible lesion or destroy brain tissue for the primary purpose of altering the thoughts, emotions or behavior of a human being. (
  • The BRAIN Initiative extends beyond the mapping of the brain and bridges scales that span from atoms to thoughts and behavior, linking what is known about single cells and subcellular activities in the brain to whole brain function leading to complex behavior. (
  • The NSF BRAIN Initiative promises innovative and integrated solutions to challenges in our ability to predict how collective interactions between brain function and our physical and social environment enable complex behavior. (
  • An astonishing advance, the artificial brain may be the first step toward manmade higher behavior, WSJ's Gautam Naik reports. (
  • The list will include faculty affiliates of the Center for Brain Science (CBS) and the Mind Brain Behavior (MBB) Interfaculty Initiative. (
  • In extreme cases, the effect [in which a pattern of brain activity is correlated with a behavior, feeling, etc.] doesn't exist at all, and what you are reporting is just noise. (
  • Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. (
  • Retrieved on May 20, 2019 from (
  • Microglia have been long understood to be the sentinels of the central nervous system, patrolling the brain and spinal cord and springing into action to stamp out infections or gobble up dead cell tissue. (
  • A closed brain injury is caused by a rapid forward or backward movement and shaking of the brain inside the bony skull that results in bruising and tearing of brain tissue and blood vessels. (
  • It includes an entire series of steps or stages of cellular, chemical, tissue, or blood vessel changes in the brain that contribute to further destruction of brain tissue. (
  • When there is a direct blow to the head, the bruising of the brain and the damage to the internal tissue and blood vessels is due to a mechanism called coup-contrecoup. (
  • If your brain is deprived of good-quality nutrition, or if free radicals or damaging inflammatory cells are circulating within the brain's enclosed space, further contributing to brain tissue injury, consequences are to be expected. (
  • Brainstem gliomas form in the tissue of the brainstem, the part of the brain that connects to the spine. (
  • Needed to manufacture brain tissue, enzymes, neurotransmitters and myriad other brain chemicals. (
  • The VA-BU-CLF Brain Bank is the largest tissue repository in the world focused on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and CTE. (
  • Collects central nervous system tissue samples (brain, spinal cord and eyes) from deceased athletes to better understand the effects of trauma on the human nervous system. (
  • Why is brain tissue donation important? (
  • Who can give consent for brain tissue donation? (
  • The legally authorized representative (usually, the next of kin) may give consent to donate brain and spinal cord tissue following the death of a donor. (
  • A full-time brain donation coordinator is available 24/7, 365 days per year to arrange the tissue collecting by a local diener near the locality where the donor has died. (
  • These changes can be measured by emitting frequencies of near-infrared light around 3 cm deep into the brain tissue and measuring the light attenuation caused by levels of oxyhemoglobin. (
  • Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. (
  • With growing frustration, the 31-year-old Brazilian cancer biologist stared through his microscope at slides of brain tissue for any evidence his experiment had succeeded. (
  • The new brain-scan-based work, to be published Feb. 23 in the Journal of the American Medical Association , shows radiation emitted from a cellphone's antenna during a call makes nearby brain tissue use 7 percent more energy. (
  • He now claims, with characteristic boldness, to have developed the only biological theory that explains how the marvellous phenomenon of the mind somehow emerges from the enigmatic three-pound mass of tissue known as the brain. (
  • Brain tissue in its natural state is too soft to work with, but it can be hardened by immersion in alcohol or other fixatives, and then sliced apart for examination of the interior. (
  • Further information can be gained by staining slices of brain tissue with a variety of chemicals that bring out areas where specific types of molecules are present in high concentrations. (
  • It is also possible to examine the microstructure of brain tissue using a microscope, and to trace the pattern of connections from one brain area to another. (
  • Unlike traumatic brain injuries , in which brain damage is induced by direct physical trauma, anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries are brain injuries characterized by a lack of oxygen being provided to the brain. (
  • [5] It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries (as in the case of Phineas Gage) [6] and improving brain injury treatment. (
  • An estimated 135,000 sports and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries, including concussions, are treated in U.S. emergency departments each year ( 1 ). (
  • It does this via the spinal cord , which runs from the brain down through the back. (
  • The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system . (
  • Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. (
  • According to the definition established in 2013 by Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT), brain mapping is specifically defined, in summary, as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging , immunohistochemistry , molecular & optogenetics , stem cell and cellular biology , engineering , neurophysiology and nanotechnology . (
  • Intradural metastases may involve the leptomeninges, brain, or spinal cord, and are usually of hematogenous origin. (
  • Family members of deceased athletes may donate their loved one's brain and spinal cord after their death to the VA-BU-CLF Brain Bank to be examined neuropathologically for evidence of CTE or other disorders of the central nervous system. (
  • Of specific interest is using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI (dMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography ( EEG ), positron emission tomography (PET), Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and other non-invasive scanning techniques to map anatomy , physiology , perfusion , function and phenotypes of the human brain. (
  • Our lab studies the human neural bases of perception, attention, and consciousness with functional brain imaging (fMRI), neural decoding methods, and psychophysical techniques. (
  • The women underwent fMRI before and after the intervention to measure resting brain activity and brain responses to an emotion-recognition task in which they viewed a series of pictures of people with angry or scared faces and matched them to other faces showing the same emotions. (
  • The VA-BU-CLF Brain Bank research team conducts cutting edge research on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) and mild traumatic brain injury. (
  • The purpose of the research is to help understand the long-term effects of previous brain injuries, including any association with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). (
  • Concerns about chronic traumatic encephalopathy among athletes had been growing since the suicide of former football star Dave Duerson , who specifically shot himself in the chest in order to spare his brain, which he wanted donated to science for study. (
  • I've met many people through The Brain Aneurysm Foundation. (
  • Stay current with the Brain Aneurysm Foundation. (
  • (18 March, p 43) , I cannot understand why Einstein's family gave his brain to a clinical pathologist instead of to a laboratory engaged in research on the human brain. (
  • LONDON, ENGLAND - MARCH 27: Slices of Albert Einstein's brain (bottom right) are displayed at the Wellcome trusts new 'Brains' exhibition at the Wellcome Collection on March 27, 2012 in London, England. (
  • The exhibit makes up part of the Wellcome Collection's major new exhibition, 'Brains' which includes slices of Einstein's brain, 3000 year old trepanned skulls, ancient Egyptian mummified brains and brains in jars, and opens to the public from March 29 June 17, 2012. (
  • Slices of Albert Einstein's brain are on display at the Wellcome trusts new 'Brains' exhibition at the Wellcome Collection in London from Mar. 29- June 17. (
  • The exhibition includes slices of Einstein's brain, 3000 year old trepanned skulls, ancient Egyptian mummified brains and brains in jars. (
  • The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. (
  • Twelve residents had newly diagnosed brain cancer, and one had cancer of another nervous-system site. (
  • Primary brain cancers occur from five to 25 times more often than primary cancers of other parts of the central nervous system (1). (
  • Death rates from brain and other nervous system cancers among white males and females in Cooke County did not significantly exceed comparable rates in Texas and in the United States from 1950 through 1979 (5). (
  • Proponents of the global brain hypothesis claim that the Internet increasingly ties its users together into a single information processing system that functions as part of the collective nervous system of the planet. (
  • The human brain is the central control of the nervous system and is highly complex. (
  • This initiative holds great promise for addressing fundamental neurobiological questions about healthy brain function, laying the groundwork for advancing treatments for nervous system disorders or traumatic brain injury, and for generating brain-inspired "smart" technologies to meet future societal needs. (
  • Founded in 1966, Experimental Brain Research publishes original contributions on many aspects of experimental research of the central and peripheral nervous system. (
  • A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. (
  • America's advertising community has recognized the "brain on drugs" advertisement as one of the most influential ads of all time, and experts said the analogy drawn in the commercial is legitimate. (
  • Until that is known, imaging cannot be used to predict who will recover, or to help patients' brains rewire, he said. (
  • Travel can rewire your brain. (
  • The number of neurons in the human brain is vast - many billions (although glial cells, which provide various support functions, are even more numerous). (
  • The brain is a highly integrated organ and its multiple functions operate in coordination with one another. (
  • The brain is an extremely metabolically active organ, making it a very hungry one, and a picky eater at that. (
  • Similar to organ donation, pledging your brain to the VA-BU-CLF Brain Bank is a precious gesture that helps others in a truly impactful way. (
  • Organ donors must be declared brain-dead before their organs may be removed for transplant . (
  • Information on cancer metastatic to the brain was also reviewed. (
  • Counting secondary cancers metastatic to the brain as primary brain cancers, classifying nonresidents with previously diagnosed brain cancer as residents, and showing an incorrect cause of death on the death certificate may explain why the observed number of persons with brain cancer appeared excessive to local physicians. (
  • Others are metastatic, and they start somewhere else in the body and move to the brain. (
  • The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. (
  • Hanna Retallack, an MD-PhD graduate student in Derisi's lab, generally focuses her research on the ways the Zika virus affects the human brain. (
  • This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project . (
  • Brain drain, also known as human capital flight, can occur on several levels. (
  • By analogy with a human brain, the part of a machine or computer that performs calculations . (
  • The Allen Institute is known for our atlases-deep, high quality data sets revealing where genes are expressed and how cells and connections are arranged in the mouse and human brain,' says Allan Jones , Ph.D., CEO of the Allen Institute. (
  • The mouse, a small rodent, is an important model system often used to understand the far less accessible and far larger human brain. (
  • One of the foremost open scientific questions is to understand the structure and function of the human brain. (
  • A human brain may contain as many as 100 billion neurons of different kinds. (
  • How big is the human brain compared to other brains? (
  • An adult human brain weighs around 3 pounds (1400 grams), or about as much as a cantaloupe. (
  • The human brain is comprised of 1011 neurons. (
  • The human brain is typically three times the size of the brain found in other mammals of an equivalent body size. (
  • Although neuroscientists are accumulating data about the human brain at a prodigious pace, the human mind remains, in many respects, as mysterious as ever. (
  • Tillisch and colleagues now have neatly shown that probiotics can also affect resting brain activity in human subjects using neuroimaging techniques. (
  • Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain. (
  • The more we learn about the human brain, the more we will have the ability to change it. (
  • In debates over creationist doctrines, evolutionary biologists often are hard-pressed to explain how nature could make something as intricate as the human brain. (
  • In every human brain, there are as many neurons as there are galaxies in the known universe - about 100 billion, drawn from 10,000 different cell types and woven into a three-dimensional tapestry, with threads of neural interconnections that number in the trillions. (
  • Evolutionary biologists can use this new equation to test their ideas for how the human brain got so big. (
  • The map of the human brain just got an upgrade that's been more than a century in the making. (
  • It deals with the human brain insofar as it shares the properties of other brains. (
  • The ways in which the human brain differs from other brains are covered in the human brain article. (
  • The most important is brain disease and the effects of brain damage, that are covered in the human brain article. (
  • By strengthening the connections between parts of your brain, says cognitive psychologist Scott Barry Kaufman . (
  • Emotional well-being and social competence provide a strong foundation for emerging cognitive abilities, and together they are the bricks and mortar of brain architecture. (
  • That's when Suzuki, a renowned researcher of brain plasticity, began to study not only how physical activity impacts our cognitive functions but also how students can use exercise as a tool to improve their health-and their grades. (
  • Use the term 'cognitive impairment,' and have Dr. Glasser talk with Dr. Jim Malec, Mayo Clinic TBI Researcher in Rochester, Minn., and a member of Brain Injury Task Force, American Congress of Rehab Medicine. (
  • An Adaptive Learning Interface that Adjusts Task Difficulty based on Brain State (PDF) - using blood flow to measure cognitive load, this tool releases new lessons to you when you're ready for them. (
  • The McKnight Brain Research Foundation funds research and investigation of the brain related to cognitive aging and age-related memory loss, to better understand and ultimately delay or alleviate memory loss acquired through the normal aging process. (
  • What Are the Parts of the Brain? (
  • DAI usually causes coma and injury to many different parts of the brain. (
  • Many functions also involve multiple parts of the brain, meaning that this type of claim is probably both unverifiable with the equipment used, and generally based on an incorrect assumption about how brain functions are divided. (
  • Also, the authors examined only several sites on the brain and there may be parts of the brain that were activated but they did not record,' he said. (
  • Much data suggests that many functions are quite broadly distributed, the brain is quite plastic and quite remarkable recovery can occur after injury to large parts of the brain. (
  • These neurons typically communicate with one another by means of long fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. (
  • They send these signals by means of an axon, which is a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects, usually with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body. (
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (
  • Some scientists have criticized the brain image-based claims made in scientific journals and the popular press, like the discovery of "the part of the brain responsible" things like love or musical ability or a specific memory. (
  • This dynamic tool empowers scientists to investigate how circuits in the behaving mouse brain coordinate to drive activity and perception, and lays a crucial foundation for understanding perception, cognition and ultimately consciousness. (
  • The data are presented as part of the suite of Allen Brain Atlas tools in the uniform and shareable Neurodata Without Borders file format, which allows scientists around the world to easily mine and model the data. (
  • The data from thousands of individual cells and populations of cells are presented in a novel visualization format through the Allen Brain Atlas data portal, and are accompanied by analysis tools and access to all raw data, which allows scientists to deeply explore the rules that govern how networks of cells in the visual cortex communicate. (
  • More than 100 people at the Allen Institute were involved in the creation of the Allen Brain Observatory, from animal care technicians to neuroscientists, engineers, microscopy experts, optical physiologists, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists. (
  • Underlying every personal difference in thought, attitude and ability is an astonishing variety of brain cells, scientists have discovered. (
  • For many years, scientists were convinced that the brain quickly lost its ability to produce new neurons. (
  • Scientists used to believe that the brain was only changeable during childhood, but now widely accept that neuroplasticity - the ability of the brain to change - is present throughout your life. (
  • Scientists in the United Kingdom believe they may be close to unraveling some of the brain processes that ultimately dictate the choices we make as consumers. (
  • The scientists used a technique known as magnetic encephalography (MEG) - the fastest of all scanner methods - to measure the minute magnetic fields around the brain and identify regions that are active during the second or so it takes for a person to make their shopping choice. (
  • Young said that for centuries scientists have struggled with the question of whether function is localized or distributed in the brain. (
  • For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. (
  • However, large unruptured aneurysms can occasionally press on the brain or the nerves stemming out of the brain and may result in various neurological symptoms. (
  • As you breathe, move, and interact with your surroundings, sensory nerves carry messages about what is happening throughout your body to your brain. (
  • Motor nerves relay signals from your brain to your muscles, telling you how to respond. (
  • Sensory nerves carry messages about pressure, pain and temperature from the body to the brain. (
  • Motor nerves carry messages from the brain to muscles and glands, telling them what to do. (
  • Nerves on the right side of the body connect to the left side of the brain. (
  • If a brain aneurysm presses on nerves in your brain, it can cause signs and symptoms. (
  • Demski, L.S. and Northcutt, R.G. The brain and cranial nerves of the white shark: an evolutionary perspective. (
  • The new research suggests that instead of the sudden recovery Wallis seemed to make when he began speaking and moving three years ago, he actually may have been slowly recovering all along, as nerves in his brain formed new connections at a glacial pace until enough were present to make a network. (
  • Maria's Incredible Recovery From Brain Trauma - Duration: 2 minutes, 25 seconds. (
  • 1 Yet, the brain is highly vulnerable to a variety of insults such as stroke, cardiac arrest, trauma, near-drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning, etc. with high morbidity and mortality. (
  • Would it be helpful for our new brain trauma victims? (
  • The terrible toll of brain trauma among athletes continues to rise, with the release of an autopsy report last week on football player Ray Easterling, formerly of the Atlanta Falcons, who died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in April. (
  • The simplest way to gain information about brain anatomy is by visual inspection, but many more sophisticated techniques have been developed. (
  • Click here to listen to a webinar on brain aneurysms and the recovery process in "The Care of Cerebral Aneurysms: What the patient needs to know for improved recovery" presented by Dr. Aaron Cohen-Gadol. (
  • Unruptured brain aneurysms are typically completely asymptomatic. (
  • Ruptured brain aneurysms usually result in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which is defined as bleeding into the subarachnoid space. (
  • Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, begin to leak blood, or burst. (
  • The public should react with caution to this study and press for more research," said Donald Stein, director of the Brain Research Lab in the emergency medicine department at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, who wasn't involved in the study. (
  • His fingertips flatten against each other as he tents his hands to explain juggling the constant torrent of new brain-related research. (
  • The US Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative would develop a host of tools to study brain activity, the president promised, and lead to huge breakthroughs in understanding the mind. (
  • I'm looking for research on building a brain-based schedule (class, day, week, year). (
  • Bross ID: The role of brain metastases in cascade processes: Implications for research and clinical management. (
  • NSF is uniquely positioned to foster BRAIN Initiative research by bringing together a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines, and empowering these national and international communities whose members are poised to cooperatively pursue and reveal the fundamental principles and processes underlying memories, thoughts and complex behaviors. (
  • The DBIC organizes meetings and workshops to train DBIC investigators, postdoctoral fellows, students, and research staff in different brain imaging techniques, experimental design, and state-of-the-art methods of analysis. (
  • DBIC supports the education of undergraduate and graduate students by providing access to the MRI facility for undergraduate honors thesis projects conducted under the supervision of faculty investigators, for the laboratory portion of undergraduate courses on brain imaging, and for doctoral dissertation research. (
  • Over the next several years, the FAS Research Development group will track and disseminate all funding opportunities related to the BRAIN Initiative . (
  • This FOA seeks applications for exploratory research studies that use new and emerging methods for large scale recording and manipulation of neural circuits across multiple brain regions. (
  • Major pharmaceutical companies continually research and develop new medications and treatments for brain cancer , which must be shown to be safe and effective before doctors can prescribe them to patients. (
  • The OHSU Brain Institute has been a national leader in brain and neurology research for years. (
  • The findings are also in line with earlier research by the same team, where they established that working through the night, which is common practice among students facing midterm and final exams, decreases one's capacity to absorb new facts by nearly 40 per cent due to regions of the brain shutting down as a result of sleep deprivation . (
  • Drawing on 21st-century research and technology, Brain: The Inside Story offers visitors a new perspective and keen insight into their own brains through imaginative art, vivid brain-scan imaging, and dynamic interactive exhibits for all ages. (
  • The Charles A Dana Foundation, which finances brain research, funded the scientific work. (
  • Research on the brain and how we think and act is influencing the way some teachers teach. (
  • Brain Connectivity is an investigational journal, and research reports are strongly recommended to contain experimental data. (
  • New research reveals the connection between stress, poverty and brain development in children. (
  • Our research seeks to develop an efficient and effective brain-computer interface (BCI) system that will serve as a communication access method for individuals with locked-in syndrome. (
  • We are pleased to announce the new name of our interdisciplinary, multi-institutional research team: the Consortium for Accessible Multimodal Brain-Body Interfaces (CAMBI). (
  • New research shows that a recently discovered mechanism that removes waste products from the brain is mainly active during sleep. (
  • Pathologic diagnoses in medical records or on death certificates coded 191, 192.0-192.3, or 192.9 using either the International Classification of Diseases, Adapted, eighth (ICDA-8) or ninth (ICD-9) revisions, were considered cases of brain cancer. (
  • Despite the concern among Cooke County physicians, no statistically significant excess in brain cancer incidence and mortality was found. (
  • Some patients are reluctant to take part in clinical trials for fear of getting no treatment at all for their brain cancer. (
  • These brain cancer drugs may be even more effective than the current treatment. (
  • What is brain cancer? (
  • Cancer epidemiologist Geoffrey Kabat of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine said the work can't and doesn't offer any clinical predictions, but regarded it as the best to date on cellphone radiation's effects on the brain. (
  • and they activate neural pathways that travel directly between the gut and the brain. (
  • [4] Such propagation is similar to the spreading activation that neural networks in the brain use to process information in a parallel, distributed manner. (
  • This can impair the development of neural connections, especially in the areas of the brain dedicated to higher-order skills. (
  • The Decade of the Brain was a "foolish idea," grumbled Torsten Wiesel, who won a Nobel Prize in 1981 for his work on the neural underpinnings of vision. (
  • The Simons Collaboration on the Global Brain (SCGB) seeks applicants for postdoctoral fellowships whose intended work is at the interface of theory and experiment on the nature, role and mechanisms of the neural activity that produces cognition. (
  • This FOA seeks applications for the optimization of existing and emerging technologies and approaches that have potential to address major challenges associated with recording and manipulating neural activity, at or near cellular resolution, at multiple spatial and temporal scales, in any region and throughout the entire depth of the brain. (
  • In particular we seek exceptionally creative approaches to address major challenges associated with recording and manipulating neural activity, at or near cellular resolution, at multiple spatial and/or temporal scales, in any region and throughout the entire depth of the brain. (
  • Early evidence suggests that Parkinson's may be a gut disease that affects the brain. (
  • It may be that most brain functions will only be described correctly after being measured with much more fine-grained measurements that look not at large regions but instead at a very large number of tiny individual brain circuits. (
  • After this period of rapid proliferation, connections are reduced through a process called pruning, which allows brain circuits to become more efficient. (
  • Although genes provide the blueprint for the formation of brain circuits, these circuits are reinforced by repeated use. (
  • It is easier and less costly to form strong brain circuits during the early years than it is to intervene or "fix" them later. (
  • Throughout developing brain circuits, neurons and synapses vie for sensory stimulation - the electricity of touch, vision, taste, hearing and smell. (
  • Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body's functions. (
  • For while the foods we eat have measurable effects on the body's performance, they may prove to have an even more critical influence on how the brain handles its tasks. (
  • In a paper published in Science Translational Medicine they dubbed this the "glymphatic system," because it acts like the body's lymphatic system but is managed by brain cells known as glial cells. (
  • Physiologically, brains exert centralized control over a body's other organs. (
  • The brains of all species are composed primarily of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glial cells. (
  • Edelman complains that many leading theorists resist what Edelman considers to the be the obvious approach to tackling the problem of consciousness, which involves two things: a close study of the actual physiology of the brain, and application of the universally accepted explanation of how the brain came to be--Darwin's theory of natural selection. (
  • Daniel Siegel and Tina Payne Bryson turn leading brain science into simple, smart-and effective-solutions to your child's struggles. (
  • The Brain Architecture Game was designed to help explain the science of early brain development-what promotes it, what derails it, and what the consequences are for society. (
  • SEATTLE , July 13, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The Allen Institute for Brain Science today announced the release of the Allen Brain Observatory: a highly standardized survey of cellular-level activity in the mouse visual system. (
  • The Allen Brain Observatory is a stunning window into the visual brain of the mouse,' says Christof Koch , Ph.D., President and Chief Scientific Officer of the Allen Institute for Brain Science. (
  • TV Review : Roger Bingham Probes the Science of the Brain. (
  • This project is being carried out in collaboration with the Center for Brain Science. (
  • In Soft-Wired: How the New Science of Brain Plasticity Can Change Your Life , Dr. Michael Merzenich - known as "the father of brain plasticity" - explains the importance of getting outside our comfort zone and embracing the unfamiliar. (
  • The First Meeting of The Lifelong Learning Network was held in Yokohama (Japan) from 10-11 December 2002, in collaboration with the RIKEN Brain Science Institute. (
  • What are Anoxic or Hypoxic Brain Injuries? (
  • Anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries are commonly associated with strokes , although strokes are not the only causes of these this type of brain injury. (
  • Anoxic brain injuries are caused by a complete lack of oxygen being provided to the brain, which results in the death of brain cells after approximately four minutes of oxygen deprivation. (
  • Hypoxic brain injuries are brain injuries that form due to a restriction on the oxygen being supplied to the brain. (
  • Anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries often cause an initial loss of consciousness, which can be short-term or long-term depending on severity and length of oxygen deprivation. (
  • More severe anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries may leave the patient in a vegetative state. (
  • Projecting the recovery and care for anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries is difficult because each case is unique. (
  • A full recovery from severe anoxic or hypoxic brain injury is rare, but many patients with mild anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries are capable of making a full or partial recovery. (
  • TBI is a broad term that describes a vast array of injuries that happen to the brain. (
  • Closed brain injuries happen when there is a nonpenetrating injury to the brain with no break in the skull. (
  • Closed brain injuries are usually caused by car accidents, falls, and increasingly, in sports. (
  • Penetrating, or open head injuries happen when there is a break in the skull, such as when a bullet pierces the brain. (
  • Some brain injuries are mild, with symptoms disappearing over time with proper attention. (
  • Sports-related recurrent brain injuries---United States. (
  • Brain Introduction main content. (
  • His brain was donated by his family to the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (
  • The glymphatic system clears away toxins or waste products that could be responsible for brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. (
  • While this discovery sheds new light on the mechanics of neuroplasticity, it could also help explain diseases like autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and dementia, which may arise when this process breaks down and connections between brain cells are not formed or removed correctly. (
  • Reuters Health) - During the first year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the risk of developing dementia rises four- to six-fold, according to a large Swedish study that followed millions of people age 50 or older for decades. (
  • Many studies have tried to confirm a link between brain injury and later dementia, but they have had mixed results, the authors note. (
  • A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from infection and injury also play an important role in rewiring the connections between nerve cells. (
  • These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the formation and destruction of connections that allow proper signaling in the brain. (
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (
  • The restricted flow of oxygen causes the gradual death and impairment of brain cells. (
  • Toxic anoxia occurs when chemicals or poisons hinder the ability of the brain to receive oxygen from blood cells. (
  • TBI usually happens when a sudden bump, blow or jolt to the head causes the brain to bounce around inside the skull, damaging brain cells, leading to chemical changes in the brain, or both. (
  • Eating high-quality foods that contain lots of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants nourishes the brain and protects it from oxidative stress - the "waste" (free radicals) produced when the body uses oxygen, which can damage cells. (
  • These form from star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. (
  • Like other parts of your body, your brain is made up of cells. (
  • Many of these cells help regulate the chemistry of the brain and give it structure. (
  • It tracks the direction of water molecules in and around brain cells, an indicator of brain activity, and makes pictures in red, green and blue -- one colour for each direction of movement (up/down, back/front, top/bottom). (
  • LA JOLLA, Calif. - Alysson Muotri was looking for brain cells that glow in the dark. (
  • The wayward strand appeared to seek out developing brain cells and, like a virus, arbitrarily alter their genetic makeup. (
  • Muotri and Marchetto searched hundreds of slides for any sign that the DNA sequence had altered brain cells. (
  • In the womb, brain cells increase at a rate of 250,000 a minute. (
  • Brain cells shrink by 60%, increasing the space between them so the toxins can be flushed away more effectively. (
  • Another discovery was that noradrenaline, a brain chemical that is released in bursts to keep the brain alert in response to fear and other stimuli, is less active during sleep, leading the team to suggest that the neurotransmitter may control the expansion and shrinking of brain cells during sleep-wake cycles. (
  • The operations of individual brain cells are now understood in considerable detail but the way they cooperate in ensembles of millions is yet to be solved. (
  • Neurons, however, are usually considered the most important cells in the brain. (
  • Everyone who pledges their brain will receive a personalized brain donor card and an informational packet on brain donation. (
  • He applies as a lab assistant for Dr. Frankenollie but finds he is looking for a donor to switch brains with the monster he created. (
  • These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to reorganize their connections in the healthy mature brain," said Grayson Sipe, a graduate student in Majewska's lab and co-author of the study. (
  • The Brain 4 Maths study has received ethical approval (CUREC Reference MS-IDREC-C2-2015-016). (
  • Both healthy and diseased brains may be mapped to study memory , learning , aging , and drug effects in various populations such as people with schizophrenia , autism , and clinical depression . (
  • Irregular bedtimes may disrupt healthy brain development in young children, according to a study of intelligence and sleeping habits. (
  • This study, they say, "clearly demonstrates" an effect of probiotic ingestion on evoked brain responses and resting-state networks in women. (
  • The Boston University Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy made the diagnosis, and now has 60 other cases in its athletes' brain bank. (
  • Children with Asperger's syndrome show patterns of brain connectivity distinct from those of children with autism, according to a new study. (
  • We looked at a group of 26 children with Asperger's, to see whether measures of brain connectivity would indicate they're part of autism group, or they stood separately," said study researcher Dr. Frank Duffy, a neurologist at Boston's Children Hospital. (
  • The results suggest the conditions are related, but there are physiological differences in brain connectivity that distinguish children with Asperger's from those with autism, according to the study published Wednesday (July 31) in the journal BMC Medicine. (
  • Radiation from a mobile phone call can make brain regions near the device burn more energy, according to a new study. (
  • But this is the first reliable study showing the brain is activated by exposure to cellphone radio frequencies. (
  • Brain imaging physicist Dardo Tomasi of Brookhaven National Laboratory, who co-authored the study, said that's several times less activity than visual brain regions show during an engaging movie. (
  • Five hours of sleep loss results in loss of connectivity between neurons in the area of the brain linked with learning and memory, study shows. (
  • This study shows that the brain has different functional states when asleep and when awake. (
  • The changes in the brain are often microscopic and may not be evident on computed tomography (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. (
  • There may be good reasons for keeping brain scans out of courts (4 October, p 5) , but doubt about their ability to "read minds" is not the best of them. (
  • Brain scans are often used to prove that women are "not as good" as their male counterparts. (
  • Other symptoms of an occurring anoxic or hypoxic brain injury occurring may include slurring and difficulties with speech, confusion and disorientation or facial drooping. (
  • Upon regaining consciousness, the effects and symptoms are often similar to that of a traumatic brain injury, depending on severity of the injury. (
  • Furthermore, symptoms and effects of the injury are dependent on the area(s) of the brain that was affected by the lack of oxygen. (
  • When blood escapes into the space around the brain, it can cause sudden symptoms. (
  • Multiple studies have found a correlation between a diet high in refined sugars and impaired brain function - and even a worsening of symptoms of mood disorders, such as depression . (
  • If a brain aneurysm bursts, symptoms can include a sudden, severe headache, nausea and vomiting, stiff neck, loss of consciousness, and signs of a stroke . (
  • Doctors treating the victims of unexplained health attacks in Cuba have discovered abnormalities in the brain as they've searched for clues to how U.S. embassy workers developed such a vast array of symptoms, the Associated Press has learned. (
  • This year, in recognition of Brain Injury Awareness Month, CDC encourages school professionals, coaches, parents, and athletes to learn the risks for concussions in youth sports. (
  • IBM Watson Health will integrate MedyMatch's AI technology to aid timely detection of brain bleeding. (
  • The health of your brain depends not only on how much fat you eat but on what kind it is. (
  • Anything brightly colored is brain food, loaded with vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that maintain brain health and enhance mental performance. (
  • 4 Thus, brain damage is a major public health problem deserving every effort towards understanding its pathogenesis and treatment. (
  • The Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation has funded 279 brain health projects to improve the lives of those with age-related diseases. (
  • Several sub-categories under original articles and communications will be considered, including reports of original experimental data, methodological studies, novel data analysis schemes, theoretical data modeling, and descriptions of changes in brain connectivity in health and disease. (
  • The company implants electrodes to treat brain diseases. (
  • Is CRISPR the miracle we've been hoping for to treat genetic brain diseases? (
  • The singular importance of the brain to life is exemplified by agreement on medical, legal, and ethical grounds that a person dies when brain death occurs. (
  • Generous support for Brain: The Inside Story had been provided by the Eileen P. Bernard Exhibition Fund and Mary and David Solomon. (
  • Secondary brain injury refers to the changes that evolve over a period of hours to days after the primary brain injury. (
  • The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum which contains the cerebral cortex. (
  • The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain and is bunched up into convoluted folds called sulci to enable a greater area to be enclosed in the skull. (
  • It's like Google Maps for your cerebral cortex: A new interactive atlas purports to show which bits of your brain help you understand which types of concepts. (
  • Espana P, Chang P, Wiernik PH: Increased incidence of brain metastases in sarcoma patients. (
  • Their 2010 Interphone report showed no substantial link with mobile phone use and incidence of brain cancers, aside from a very small risk increase for long-term heavy users, and in fact found reduced rates for some types. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a sudden, external, physical assault damages the brain. (
  • The severity of a brain injury can range from a mild concussion to a severe injury that results in coma or even death. (
  • Closed brain injury. (
  • Penetrating brain injury. (
  • Diffuse axonal injury is the shearing (tearing) of the brain's long connecting nerve fibers (axons) that happens when the brain is injured as it shifts and rotates inside the bony skull. (
  • What is primary and secondary brain injury? (
  • Primary brain injury refers to the sudden and profound injury to the brain that is considered to be more or less complete at the time of impact. (
  • What are the possible results of brain injury? (
  • The long-term or permanent results of brain injury may need post-injury and possibly lifelong rehabilitation. (
  • I am a PhD in Psychology and Social Work who practices at a nonprofit medical center near Ann Arbor, Mich. We have an acute rehabilitation service, which historically has included a certified traumatic brain injury program (both in patient acute hospital based and outpatient). (
  • Terry Wallis, 42, of Arkansas, is thought to be the only person in the US to recover so dramatically so long after a severe brain injury. (
  • Wallis was 19 when an accident gave him a traumatic brain injury that left him briefly in a coma and then in a minimally conscious state, in which he was awake but uncommunicative other than occasional nods and grunts, for more than 19 years. (
  • In Wallis's brain, 'what we first see is how overwhelmingly severe this injury was', with many abnormalities compared to the healthy people, Schiff said. (
  • The other minimally conscious patient -- a 24-year-old man who suffered severe brain injury in a car accident when he was 18 -- also had evidence of changes in nerve connections, but they were not organised in a way that made a difference in his ability to function. (
  • A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head. (
  • Aaron Hernandez Suicide: A Football Brain Injury Link? (
  • As the brain jolts backward, it can hit the skull on the opposite side and cause a bruise called a contrecoup lesion. (
  • The jarring of the brain against the sides of the skull can cause shearing (tearing) of the internal lining, tissues, and blood vessels leading to internal bleeding, bruising, or swelling of the brain. (
  • Brain death , State of irreversible destruction of the brain . (
  • Anemic anoxia occurs when the blood cannot properly carry enough oxygen or if there is not enough blood in the body itself to support the oxygen needs of the brain. (
  • Because this dynamic process never stops, it is impossible to determine what percentage of brain development occurs by a certain age. (
  • Geographic brain drain occurs when talented professionals flee one country or region within a country in favor of another. (
  • A repeat concussion that occurs before the brain recovers from the first can be very dangerous and might slow recovery or increase the chances for long-term problems. (
  • They also noted that the sleeping brain removes significantly more amounts of one toxic protein, amyloid-beta, which is implicated in Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Neuroscientists have done a great job of breaking the brain into pieces, but they have no idea how to put it back together again. (
  • Neuroscientists find speedometers in the brain using a "Flintstone-like" car. (
  • It's believed that some people are more "right-brained" or "left-brained" while others are more "whole-brained," meaning they use both halves of their brain to the same degree. (
  • Brain aneurysm survivors are a small population of people, but they are growing larger as medical technology continues to grow and early detection and treatment becomes more prevalent. (
  • ATLANTA, Georgia (CNN Student Bureau) -- While few people have seen a brain damaged by drugs, millions have seen the TV commercial with fried eggs -- "This is your brain. (
  • It's possible to boost alertness, memory and stress resistance by supplying food components that are precursors of important brain neurotransmitters, but so far they have been tested only on people with nutritional deficiencies. (
  • The Hidden Brain helps curious people understand the world - and themselves. (
  • The 2010 piece aforementioned warned that "the electronic toys our dim, attention-deficient darlings depend on to sustain brain waves are made, for the most, by older people," and that "the hi-tech endeavor consist in older Americans and Asians uniting to supply young, twittering twits with the playthings that keep their brainwaves from flatlining. (
  • Doctors compared Wallis's brain function to that of 20 healthy people and another minimally conscious patient who showed virtually no recovery for six years. (
  • However, stronger connectivity among the left hemisphere brain areas in children with Asperger's may be what makes people with Asperger's special in terms of their personalities and abilities, Duffy said. (
  • These studies used only 14 people, at most, and looked at brain activity over brief time spans of about 60 seconds. (
  • Beyond the local supermarket, Rose and his team believe the findings could go on to show the brain processes behind the conscious decisions people make when it comes to important life choices, such as selecting a partner or career. (
  • Do Smart People Have Different Brains? (
  • Each 60-second Brain Bite requires a team of about 6 to 10 people, and takes about one to two months to make. (
  • [2] Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of brain mapping. (
  • The brain only has limited energy at its disposal and it appears that it must [choose] between two different functional states - awake and aware or asleep and cleaning up. (