Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart. (1/63334)

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

Studies on the mechanism of action of amantadine. (2/63334)

1 The effect of amantadine hydrochloride on various aspects of catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain has been investigated. 2 Amantadine failed to have any significant effect on brain concentrations of dopamine or noradrenaline even when administered daily for 9 days. 3 Amantadine had no effect on the rate of decline of noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations after alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. 4 In vitro amantadine inhibited dopamine uptake into synaptosomes only at high concentrations, and caused little release of dopamine from synaptosomes. 5 There is no evidence from these results to suggest that the anti-Parkinsonian effect of amantadine is related to an action on dopaminergic mechanisms.  (+info)

Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (3/63334)

Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed.  (+info)

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (4/63334)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

Evaluating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic equipment: the brain scanner case. (5/63334)

An approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of high-technology diagnostic equipment has been devised, using the introduction of computerised axial tomography (CAT) as a model. With the advent of CAT scanning, angiography and air encephalography have a reduced, though important, role in investigating intracranial disease, and the efficient use of conventional equipment requires the centralisation of neuroradiological services, which would result in major cash savings. In contrast, the pattern of demand for CAT scanning, in addition to the acknowledged clinical efficiency of the scanner and its unique role in the head-injured patient, ephasies the need for improved access to scanners. In the interest of the patients the pattern of service must change.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (6/63334)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Visual perception: mind and brain see eye to eye. (7/63334)

Recent functional imaging studies have identified neural activity that is closely associated with the perception of illusory motion. The mapping of the mind onto the bin appears to be one-to-one: activity in visual 'motion area' MT is highly correlated with perceptual experience.  (+info)

Accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in mice deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA. (8/63334)

Inheritable mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes cause cancer-prone human disorders, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, which are also characterized by symptoms of accelerated ageing. To study the impact of NER deficiency on mutation accumulation in vivo, mutant frequencies have been determined in liver and brain of 2-16 month old NER deficient XPA-/-, lacZ hybrid mice. While mutant frequencies in liver of 2-month old XPA-/-, lacZ mice were comparable to XPA+/-, lacZ and the lacZ parental strain animals, by 4 months of age mutant frequencies in the XPA-deficient mice were significantly increased by a factor of two and increased further until the age of 16 months. In brain, mutant frequencies were not found to increase with age. These results show that a deficiency in the NER gene XPA causes an accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in liver but not in brain. This is in keeping with a higher incidence of spontaneous liver tumors reported earlier for XPA-/- mice after about 15 months of age.  (+info)

Knight P.G.; Cunningham F.J.; Gladwell R.T., 1983: Concentrations of immuno reactive lhrh discrete brain regions of the cockerel effects of castration and testosterone replacement therapy
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China Muscle, Nerve Blood Vessel with Dissectible Brain Model, Find details about China Human Brain Model, Human Head Model from Muscle, Nerve Blood Vessel with Dissectible Brain Model - Guangzhou Rongzhiyou Medical & Technology Co., Ltd.
Term newborns with congenital heart disease have widespread brain abnormalities before they undergo cardiac surgery. The imaging findings in such newborns are similar to those in premature newborns and may reflect abnormal brain development in utero.
In late-onset Alzheimers disease (AD), multiple brain regions are not affected simultaneously. Comparing the gene expression of the affected regions to identify the differences in the biological processes perturbed can lead to greater insight into AD pathogenesis and early characteristics. We identified differentially expressed (DE) genes from single cell microarray data of four AD affected brain regions: entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus (HIP), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We organized the DE genes in the four brain regions into region-specific gene coexpression networks. Differential neighborhood analyses in the coexpression networks were performed to identify genes with low topological overlap (TO) of their direct neighbors. The low TO genes were used to characterize the biological differences between two regions. Our analyses show that increased oxidative stress, along with alterations in lipid metabolism in neurons, may be some of the very early ...
I would air dry the slides overnight before heating them at all. Then dry at 60C for 30 min and stain as usual. Somehow the air drying makes a difference. Good luck! jJoyce WeemsPathology ManagerSaint Josephs Hospital of Atlanta404-851-7376404-851-7831 - Fax-----Original Message-----From: [email protected] on behalf of Ryan Dominique SalazarSent: Fri 2/8/2008 3:58 AMTo: [email protected]: [Histonet] brain tissue sections Hi,Please help me with my brain tissue sections, Im having difficulties in staining them because they disintegrate during H&E staining, resulting into folded and incomplete sections into the slide.I processed the tissues 2 days after fixation using Leica ASP300S (all new reagents). I have no problem in cutting 5 u thickness during microtomy.I used adhesive pre-treated slides and Milli-Q water during orientation and fishing out in the floatation bath. I use flattening table as hot plate and heat the freshly cut slides at 62C, for ...
Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ∼900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes
The left cerebral hemisphere controls movement of the right side of the body. Depending on the severity, a stroke affecting the left cerebral hemisphere may result in loss of motor skills and sensations on the right side of the body, and may also cause loss of the ability to speak and understand words ...
7 Pillars Of Brain Health What is the secret to maintaining brain health? How a person manages stress, how well they socialize, how well they sleep, how much they exercise, and what they drink and eat all are crucial to brain health. So how does one achieve brain health? Here are seven pillars of […]. ...
Given recent advances in technology, it isnt unusual for a previously paralyzed man or woman regaining the ability to walk thanks to manually-controlled robotic limbs, but now University of California-Irvine researchers have accomplished the feat without such aids.. In a preliminary proof-of-concept study, Dr. An Do, Dr. Zoran Nenadic and colleagues showed that it is possible to use direct brain control to allow a spinal cord injury patient to use his or her own legs to walk again without having to rely upon mechanical aids for locomotion.. The research, which was published in the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, is said to mark the first time that direct brain control has enabled a person to walk without use of robotic devices following complete paralysis in both legs following a spinal cord injury.. The individual had been a paraplegic for five years, and thanks to an EEG-based brain control system, he was able to walk along a 3.66m long course 30 times over a 19 week span, the ...
Weve been hearing plenty about brain-based learning, but much of what we hear can be confusing. Not only are there arguments about how well brain-based learning works, there are arguments about whether such a thing such as brain-based learning exists at all.. Like so much other recent brain-related news, discussions about brain-based learning have been sparked by the boom in brain science over the past 15 years. With so much new information about the brain filtering into the mainstream, educators have been understandably eager to put to use in the classroom whatever they can.. The rush to use this information in the classroom, however, can be a problem and do more harm to education than good, says Dr. John Bruer, author of The Myth of the First Three Years and president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, which supports research and education related to the brain. Brain science, says Bruer, can tell us very little about how the brain learns and it is far too early to take what we know at this ...
Natural Size SOMSO Transparent Brain Model BS 25/T is an excellent tool for education. SOMSO Transparent Brain Model BS 25/T may be dissectible in 15 Parts showing anatomical structures. SOMSO Transparent Brain Model BS 25/T is mounted on a green base.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aluminum Has Both Oxidant and Antioxidant Effects in Mouse Brain Membranes. AU - Oteiza, Patricia I. AU - Fraga, C. G.. AU - Keen, C. L.. PY - 1993/1. Y1 - 1993/1. N2 - The in vitro effects of aluminum (A1) on lipid peroxidation were studied in mouse brain homogenates and purified brain subcellular fractions. In brain homogenates prepared in 5 mM Na2HPO4, 0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.4, the addition of Al decreased Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances (TBARS), in a dose dependent manner, with a maximum effect at 250 μM Al. In brain homogenates prepared in 20 mM Tris-HCI, 0.14 M NaCl, pH 7.4, Al acted as a prooxidant at 250 and 500 μM concentrations. The prooxidant effect of Al was enhanced with increasing concentrations of Fe2+. In brain microsonies Al increased TBARS production and conjugated dienes formation, both depending on the addition of Fe2+. In myelin, the prooxidant effect of Al on Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation was eliminated ...
AAV2-mediated CLN2 gene transfer to rodent and non-human primate brain results in long-term TPP-I expression compatible with therapy for LINCL Academic Article ...
At the intersection of brain health and housing, GBHI is collaborating with Respond Housing Agency to develop a training program that aims to create awareness and understanding of the importance of brain health.
The hippocampus is one of the earliest and most affected regions in Alzheimers disease (AD), followed by the cortex while the cerebellum is largely spared. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction is a common feature of cerebral blood vessels in AD. In this study, we sought to determine if regional heterogeneity of cerebral microvessels might help explain the susceptibility of the hippocampus and cortex as compared to the cerebellum. We isolated microvessels from wild type mice from the cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus to characterize their vascular phenotype. Superoxide anion was significantly higher in microvessels isolated from the cortex and hippocampus as compared to the cerebellum. Importantly, protein levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-2 and NOX-4 were significantly higher in the cortical and hippocampal microvessels as compared to microvessels from the cerebellum. In addition, expression of manganese superoxide dismutase protein was significantly lower in microvessels from the cortex and hippocampus
The method researchers used to assess brain atrophy across 25 published studies, called colocalization-likelihood estimation (CLE), was developed by Peter E. Turkeltaub, MD, PhD, an associate professor of neurology at Georgetown and a co-author of the study.. The researchers found that the frontal region (including anterior cingulate cortex, or ACC) is the most frequently affected brain region in HIV+ adults, whereas the neural injury to the caudate/striatum was consistently linked to neurocognitive impairment.. These results suggest a two-stage model of HAND in the context of brain atrophy, with a frontal/ACC stage that links to HIV disease and likely other comorbidities, such as substance abuse, and a caudate/striatum stage that links to neurocognitive impairment. These two areas likely play different roles in HAND, Jiang says.. It is our theory, and others, that the frontal/ACC area damage is due to a number of factors, but which importantly includes damage to the dopaminergic region, he ...
Just like your habits, the food that you eat can also play a role in your brain health and brain power. There are some foods that can enhance your brain power and brain health. Below are some of them: Fatty Fish Fatty fish must top the list of any discussion regarding the best foods that can boost brain health. Fishes
Our brain plays numerous roles in our daily lives. Basically,our behavior, emotions, memory and other cognitive functions are all linked to our brains health.For these reasons, taking good care of our brains health is very important. So, how can you improve your mental health? Here is a list of ways on how to boost your brains health.
Research by a UConn neurobiologist has demonstrated that a developmental brain disorder that causes a predisposition to seizures can be reversed.. The research, by a team led by Joseph LoTurco, a professor of physiology and neurobiology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, was the cover article in the January issue of the biomedical research journal Nature Medicine.. We showed that adding back a normal gene in a brain that has already developed the wrong way can reverse a previously formed developmental malformation, LoTurco says.. The cerebral cortex is a structure within the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, thought, and language. Its layered structure is formed during development by the migration of neurons.. The researchers focused on a malformation that happens early in fetal development that is a known risk factor for epilepsy. The malformation is linked to mutations in a certain gene known as Dcx or doublecortin. LoTurco says patients who have a ...
John DSouza mines a rich seam of thinking in this article on Brain-Based Learning... This article has been reproduced in full from its original posting on LinkedIn: Brain-Based Learning 2: BBL - Brain-Based Learning | JOHN DSOUZA | LinkedIn Brain-based learning refers to teaching methods, lesson designs, and school programs that are based on the latest scientific research…
Vitamin D, which supports overall brain structure and function by working with Omega-3 fatty acids to support cognitive function and contains powerful immune support, essential for brain health. CogGevity helps you meet your daily needs for this essential vitamin.. The CogGevity® Scientific Advisory Board members, who are experts in the medical, neuroscience and lifestyle management fields, include: Keith Black, MD, Founder/Chairman and Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, Director, Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute Ruth and Lawrence Harvey Chair in Neuroscience at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; Kristen Willeumier, PhD, Neuroscientist-Advisor; Greg Cole, PhD, Developer, Alzheimer Research Lab Professor, UCLA Department of Medicine & Neurology; Sally Frautschy, PhD, Developer/Professor-in-Residence of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and Alzheimer Research Lab Professor, Department of Medicine and Neurology; Vernon Williams, MD, Neurologist-Advisor and Director of the ...
BioAssay record AID 299827 submitted by ChEMBL: Drug level in Tg2576 betaAPP swedish transgenic mouse brain at 500 umol/kg, sc twice a day for 5 days.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Prefrontal Cortical Influences on Brain Systems Supporting Complex Mental Function (R01) RFA-MH-08-110. NIMH
Now, writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell (July 1, 2010), a team of scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison has identified a single gene that seems to be a master regulator of human brain development, guiding undifferentiated stem cells down tightly defined pathways to becoming all of the many types of cells that make up the brain.. The new finding is important because it reveals the main genetic factor responsible for instructing cells at the earliest stages of embryonic development to become the cells of the brain and spinal cord. Identifying the gene - known as Pax6 - is a first critical step toward routinely forging customized brain cells in the lab.. Whats more, the work contrasts with findings from animal models such as the mouse and zebrafish, pillars of developmental biology, and thus helps cement the importance of the models being developed from human embryonic stem cells.. The new work, conducted in the Waisman Center laboratory of UW-Madison neuroscientist Su-Chun Zhang, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of nutrition on cognition and brain health in ageing. T2 - A targeted approach. AU - Monti, Jim M.. AU - Moulton, Christopher J.. AU - Cohen, Neal J.. PY - 2015/10/15. Y1 - 2015/10/15. N2 - Animal experiments and cross-sectional or prospective longitudinal research in human subjects suggest a role for nutrition in cognitive ageing. However, data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that seek causal evidence for the impact of nutrients on cognitive ageing in humans often produce null results. Given that RCT test hypotheses in a rigorous fashion, one conclusion could be that the positive effects of nutrition on the aged brain observed in other study designs are spurious. On the other hand, it may be that the design of many clinical trials conducted thus far has been less than optimal. In the present review, we offer a blueprint for a more targeted approach to the design of RCT in nutrition, cognition and brain health in ageing that focuses on three key areas. First, the ...
By David J. Ostry (Professor, Psychology, McGill) We frequently think of neuroplasticity in the human brain in the context of the developmental and maturational changes that occur in the brain and behaviour during childhood. Luckily, for those of us that are no longer children, the adult human brain remains remarkably plastic. A facet of this plasticity that has important clinical applications is that changes occur in both sensory and motor systems of the brain with surprisingly brief periods of training. I will tell you about a series of recent studies in my laboratory, where we see that the effects of motor learning spill over into sensory systems, and that perceptual learning may provide us with a back door to the motor system that can be exploited in therapeutic interventions. Dr. Ostrys research focuses on understanding the biological mechanisms of voluntary movement and deals equally with speech production and human arm motion. His lab uses mathematical models, robots and behavioral and
NorthShore offers this quick brain health test to assess your risk for brain-related disorders. Take this brain health quiz today.
Experiments with rabbits, cats, and monkeys during recording of complex physiological processes (LEPG, ThG, Po2, Pco2, and ECoG) in functionally discrete brain regions of awake animals have shown that functional changes, expressed as desynchronization effects on ECoG, are followed by an increase of local blood flow (LCBF) in regional brain cortex up to 0.3 to 0.4 ml per minute per 1 gm brain tissue or an increase of 35% to 45% of resting levels of LCBF. Under normal physiological conditions LCBF and Po2 change periodically without any external interference at frequency ranges 0.005 to 0.2 cps. This is characteristic of all brain regions and all species of animals investigated. These variations range in amplitude as much as 28% of the mean level of LCBF.. Changes of LCBF have no correlation with changes of systemic blood pressure (SAP). Local control mechanisms appear to be responsible for them. The interrelationships of changes of functional activity and CBF in local regions of awake brain are ...
The BC Brain Wellness Program is an interactive effort to establish clinically relevant lifestyle approaches to complement medical treatment in the clinics at the Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health. The goal of the program is to establish a provincial network of wellness programs to support people living with chronic brain disorders and their care partners. ...
The consumption of CBD helps to increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, and it also helps to foster memory and learning.. 5. CBD used as an effective anti-convulsion therapy. CBD is very effective in the treatment or prevention of epilepsy and seizure attacks. The frequent seizures or convulsions are transmitted through the neurological conditions whose frequency can be greatly decreased, with the usage of CBD. The CBD oil and other supplements interact with the endocannabinoid systems and help in reducing the frequency of the convulsion attacks or seizures.. 6. CBD is used as a supplement for better brain health. CBD is a popular supplement which is used worldwide to help deal effectively with depression, migraines, and brain fog. The scientific studies have proved that CBD can be used effectively as a natural alternative to medicines to reduce mental problems, and it also helps to foster better memory, learning, and concentration.. If you want to improve your brain health then ...
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Hello, I have some sample of rat brain which is not perfused with any fixitive before. The tissue is profixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for a week and then processed for paraffin section. But when the section is cut, it expands and breaks when float in water. Does anyone know why this happen and can give suggestion for the protocol? I also have rat brain when received 4% PFA perfucion before dissected out. These whole rat brain is profixed in fixitive overnight and then dehydrated with alcohol, again, after xylene and wex embedding, it breaks up when cut into 8 micron section. Does anyone can give me some suggestions on the protocol? Thanks a lot. Janice Ho University of Hong Kong _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] ...
Keep in mind, in contrast to most other body organs, your brain cannot fix itself. Exploration considers have indicated that Parkinsons illness, a sensory system malady, is brought about by outside synthetic substances and neurotoxic toxins. As per an article distributed in the Journal of the American Association, ecological synthetic concoctions and neurotoxic toxins are answerable for some instances of Parkinsons sickness.. Food decision is critical to brain health in light of the fact that the food you eat today is not the same as that devoured by your progenitors. What was healthy in yesteryears may not be healthy today. The food you eat today contain not just remote substances in the blood that may harm the brain, yet in addition hormones and brain envoys that may upset brain exercises and consequently harm brain health.. Subsequently, your food decision ought to be founded on accessibility, taste, and cost, be that as it may, in particular, on the nonattendance or nearness of neurotoxic ...
Wait until you hear what our guest, Dr. David Perlmutter, author of the #1 New York Times bestseller Grain Brain, has to say about what foods will and wont positively affect our brain health. You may have heard the controversy resulting from his declaration that wheat, sugar and carbs have devastating effects on brain function ...
J Hepatol. 2011 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print] Effects of Anti-Viral Therapy and HCV Clearance on Cerebral Metabolism and Cognition. Byrnes V, Miller A, Lowry D, Hill E, Weinstein C, Alsop D, Lenkinsk...
Obesity is associated with lower brain volumes in cognitively normal elderly subjects, but no study has yet investigated the effects of obesity on brain structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimers disease (AD). To determine if higher body mass index (BMI) is associated …
Summary: By optimizing neurons with CRISPR gene editing technology, researchers will have new ways to study genetic influences on brain health and disease, a new study reports.. Source: SfN.. Neuroscientists have used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to regulate genes in the rat brain. Described in eNeuro, this technique paves the way for researchers to probe genetic influences on brain health and disease in model organisms that more closely resemble human conditions... Studying genes in the brain is expensive and time-consuming, often relying on transgenic animals, such as fruit flies and mice, designed to assess one gene at a time. Despite rapid advances in the development of powerfully precise CRISPR/Cas9 systems, adapting these for use in the central nervous system has proved challenging.. A neuron-optimized CRISPR activation system developed by Jeremy Day and colleagues overcomes these challenges. The researchers demonstrate both in diverse cultured cells and in multiple regions of the ...
The Global Council on Brain Health (GCBH) provides recommendations for how much physical activity is needed to promote brain health as we age.
We provide a protocol for isolation of microglia from different dissected regions of an adult mouse brain hemisphere, followed by...
Brain Health and Cognitive Function expert in Saint Michaels, MD. Learn how to improve your brain health and keep your mental edge as you age.
Brain Health and Cognitive Function expert in Rye, NY. Learn how to improve your brain health and keep your mental edge as you age.
...In studies of human brain cells the widely-used anesthetic desflurane...Over 200 million people undergo surgery each year and there has been ...They subjected human brain cells to 12% desflurane for six hours (mimi...The researchers do emphasize that the current findings are from cell c...,Anesthesia,and,Alzheimers,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Our ultimate goal is to be able gather information long term, by checking in with residents each year over a period of decades. In parallel, we will also test the efficacy of evidence-based and other promising interventions to evaluate their effects on promoting brain health. These interventions will be tailored to meet the needs of the Lakewood Ranch community. We will track the immediate and long-term efficacy and sustainability of these interventions on the individual and overall communities. We will also focus on health coaching as a means to sustain these behaviors throughout the lifespan. Thus in summary, our vision is to identify and implement lifestyle interventions at both the individual and community level that can make an immediate and meaningful impact on the lives of the community while simultaneously advancing the science of brain health. ...
Wellness Essentials Brain Health by Metagenics provides comprehensive support for cognitive function and brain health. Free Shipping!
Protecting and nourishing your brain health is a high priority! Brain health starts with whole foods, filtered water, getting restorative sleep and breathing...
Last week, Americas Brain Health Index ranked states by brain health. The top three brain-healthiest places in the US? Maryland, DC and Washington state. I helped judge the Indexs Beautiful Minds contest last year (full disclosure: Im chair of a scientific advisory board of a sponsoring...
Anatomical Brain Stud Earrings Anatomical Brain Stud Earrings Pair of birch brains with burnt-in foldy bits (sulci) Great for neurosurgeons and people whose
We know that high levels of amyloid-beta plaques are characteristic of Alzheimers, but we also know that people can have high levels of amyloid without displaying symptoms of Alzheimers. A new study shows that the reason for this apparent discrepancy may lie with another protein, called NPTX2.. It appears that memory loss occurs when high amyloid-beta occurs in combination with low levels of NPTX2.. The gene which expresses the protein NPTX2 belongs to a set of genes known as immediate early genes, which are activated almost instantly in brain cells when an experience results in a new memory. The protein is used by neurons to strengthen the circuits that encode memories.. A study of 144 archived human brain tissue samples revealed that NPTX2 protein levels were reduced by as much as 90% in brain samples from people with Alzheimers compared with age-matched brain samples without Alzheimers. People with amyloid plaques who had never shown signs of Alzheimers, on the other hand, had normal ...
Immunohistochemical analysis of human brain samples represents an alternative approach for neurogenesis experiments in adult humans [32]. Based on our results, we recommend that the time between death and tissue fixation does not exceed 16 h when devising an immunohistochemistry protocol to study neurogenesis markers in adult humans; thus, the development of a rapid autopsy program [33-35] is desirable. In the indirect immunofluorescence protocol, we noticed that better nestin staining was achieved when the primary antibody solution was maintained on the slides for 48 h at 4°C (Additional file 1: Table S1) [36] instead of overnight at room temperature (data not shown); this finding should be taken into consideration when troubleshooting poor staining of human brain samples.. A caveat of our results is that the staining may not identify a neurogenic system. Indeed, the streptavidin-biotin method revealed biotin staining in negative controls in major bundles such as the fimbria-fornix. To avoid ...
It deals with the human brain insofar as it shares the properties of other brains. The ways in which the human brain differs ... The most important that are covered in the human brain article are brain disease and the effects of brain damage. The shape and ... The brain, estimated to be over 5,000 years old, was found in the skull of a 12 to 14-year-old girl. Although the brains were ... The brains of vertebrates are made of very soft tissue. Living brain tissue is pinkish on the outside and mostly white on the ...
During brain ischemia, the brain cannot perform aerobic metabolism due to the loss of oxygen and substrate. The brain is not ... Due to different susceptibility to ischemia of various brain regions, a global brain ischemia may cause focal brain infarction ... A closely related disease to brain ischemia is brain hypoxia. Brain hypoxia is the condition in which there is a decrease in ... Brain ischemia is a condition in which there is insufficient bloodflow to the brain to meet metabolic demand. This leads to ...
... at IMDb Runaway Brain at The Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts (Articles with short description, Short ... Runaway Brain". Retrieved 2009-09-20. "Whither Runaway Brain?". Retrieved 2010-08-01. " ... Runaway Brain is a 1995 American animated comedy-horror short film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation. Featuring Mickey ... The director of Runaway Brain, Chris Bailey recalled "If you were a director or part of the development, if you were between ...
... at Metal Blade Records Brain Drill on Facebook (Pages using the EasyTimeline extension, Articles with short ... "Brain Drill > Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-11-13. "Brain Drill signs with Metal Blade Records". 2007- ... Brain Drill was founded in 2005; originally meant to be a side project by guitarist Dylan Ruskin after parting from his main ... Brain Drill was an American technical death metal band formed in 2005 from Ben Lomond, California founded by guitarist and ...
... were an American rock band featuring Albert Bouchard formerly of Blue Öyster Cult, vocalist Deborah Frost, and ... However, Billy Hilfiger was later diagnosed with and died of brain cancer. They underwent several lineup changes over the ... guitar The Brain Surgeons at Allmusic Billy Hilfiger tribute page Archived November 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Home of ... Cellsum Records Brain Surgeons on Myspace (Webarchive template wayback links, Use mdy dates from December 2019, Articles with ...
Brain was born in Bristol on 4 May 1850, to Samuel Brain, a timber merchant, and his wife, Emma. He married in 1872 to the ... Samuel Brain became chairman and managing director. Prior to his heavy involvement in business, Brain was a member of the ... Samuel Arthur Brain (4 May 1850 - 19 February 1902) was a brewery entrepreneur in Cardiff, Wales, founder of Brain's Brewery. ... Brain died on 19 February 1903 aged 52, at his home on Plymouth Road, Penarth. He had been taken ill in London on 11 February ...
Brain represented New South Wales on six occasions in 1925, 1927 and 1928. He returned to Newcastle after 1932. He also played ... Stanley Vincent Brain (1903-1969) was an Australian rugby league footballer who played in the 1920s and 1930s. Born at ... Brain died at Hamilton, New South Wales in 1969, aged 66. The Arrow (Sydney) "Stan Brain Captain" 6/9/1929 https://trove.nla. ... Newcastle, New South Wales in 1903, Brain played with St George during the club's foundation years. He played five season for ...
... may refer to: Brain death, the irreversible cessation of all brain activity Brain Dead (1990 film), an American ... "Brain Dead", a song by Sharon Needles on the album Battle Axe "Brain Dead", a song by Exodus on the album Pleasures of the ... Flesh "Brain Dead", a song by Flotsam and Jetsam on the album Unnatural Selection Brain Dead 13, a video game This ... Look up brain-dead in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Brain Dead (band) "Braindead", a song by The Vines on the album ...
"Manual (Brain Games)". AtariAge. Retrieved November 13, 2010. "Box Art (Brain Games)". AtariAge. Retrieved November 13, 2010. ... In place of using the standard joystick, Brain Games utilizes the 12-button keypad controller.[citation needed] Brain Games was ... Brain Games is limited in scope". Brain Games was re-released bundled with BASIC Programming and two keypad controllers in the ... Brain Games is a collection of memory video games programmed by Larry Kaplan and released by Atari, Inc. for the Atari 2600 in ...
... at Stewart Brain at Olympedia Stewart Brain at the Australian Olympic Committee v t e (Articles ... Stewart Brain (born 4 January 1962) is an Australian judoka. He competed in the men's lightweight event at the 1988 Summer ... "Stewart Brain Olympic Results". Olympics at Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 18 April ...
Brain asymmetry Lateralization of brain function Nieuwenhuys, R.; Donkelaar, H.J.; Nicholson, C.; Smeets, W.J.A.J.; Wicht, H. ( ... In large brains, some functions tend to be strongly lateralized. For example, the language regions (i.e., Broca's and ... These twins have two brains and two spinal chords, but these are located on the left and the right side of the body. According ... Consequently, the left side of the forebrain mostly represents the right side of the body, and the right side of the brain ...
Other brain implants are used in animal experiments simply to record brain activity for scientific reasons. Some brain implants ... usually placed on the surface of the brain, or attached to the brain's cortex. A common purpose of modern brain implants and ... A modern twist on Descartes' argument is provided by the "brain in a vat" thought experiment, which imagines a brain, sustained ... This work is part of a wider research field called brain-computer interfaces. (Brain-computer interface research also includes ...
... s make up the functional tissue of the brain. The rest of the brain tissue is structural or connective called the ... The two main types of cells in the brain are neurons, also known as nerve cells, and glial cells also known as neuroglia. ... Brain cell types are the functional neurons, and supporting glia. Neurons, also called nerve cells, are the functional ... Glial stem cells are found in all parts of the adult brain. Glial cells greatly outnumber neurons and apart from their ...
Famitsu gave Instant Brain a score of 32 out of 40. "Instant Brain Product Page". Cave. "Instant Brain Includes DoDonPachi... ... Instant Brain (360) - 9/8/7/8 Official website (in Japanese) Instant Brain at The Visual Novel Database v t e (Video game ... "Cave's Instant Brain Also Includes Nin2-Jump ... With Kinect Support". Siliconera. 2011-11-11. "Instant Brain". GiantBomb. ... Instant Brain (インスタントブレイン, Insutanto Burein) is a Japanese visual novel developed and released by Cave on November 11, 2011. ...
The two Brains opened the batting together in the second innings, but William was run out for a duck. Later, Brain was ... Brain was the owner of Vaendre Hall in the village of St Mellons. Obituaries in 1934. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, 1935. ... William Henry Brain (21 July 1870 - 20 November 1934) was an English first-class cricketer and footballer: a right-handed ... Born in Clifton, Bristol, Brain was a member of the Clifton College XI, captaining it in 1889. He went up to Oriel College, ...
... was uploaded on two occasions (com.zmhitlte.brain and com.mile.brain), starting in August 2015, both times Google's ... Brain Test was a piece of malware masquerading as an Android app that tested the users IQ. Brain Test was discovered by ... According to Check Point, it may be necessary to re-flash the ROM on a device if Brain Test has successfully installed a ... Check Point described Brain Test as "A new level of sophistication in malware". ...
... (born April 14, 1959, in Halifax, Nova Scotia) is a Canadian rower. She won a silver medal in the Coxed Fours ...
... is a non-invasive P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that allows painting without the use of muscular ... "Brain on Fire - Mein Hirn Brennt". "Heide Pfuetzner: Exhibition opening - Brain on Fire". Easdale Island Hall. ... "Brain Painting: First Evaluation of a New Brain-Computer Interface Application with ALS-Patients and Healthy Volunteers". ... Brain painting was co-developed by Andrea Kübler from the University of Würzburg (Germany) and Adi Hoesle. After development ...
... is the removal of a small piece of brain tissue for the diagnosis of abnormalities of the brain. It is used to ... Brain injury may occur due to removal of brain tissue. The resulting scar left on the brain has the potential to trigger ... When an abnormality of the brain is suspected, stereotactic (probing in three dimensions) brain needle biopsy is performed and ... If brain biopsy is performed for a possible tumor (which contain more blood vessels), the risk of death is 1% and a risk of ...
Whilst doing so they were discovered by Cet mac Mágach of the kingdom of Connacht, he then took the brain ball from the fools. ... He identified several in two tombs as being 'brain balls'. Of these several had been worn down to a smaller size, but he ... The analysis concluded that they were man made, but too soft to be used as weapons, and furthermore did not resemble 'brain ... In Irish history and legend, brain balls (Irish: liathróidí inchinne) are small stone-like balls claimed to have been made from ...
... is currently owned and distributed by Brain Chain Games, Inc. Games Magazine has named Brain Chain a Top 100 Game. ... 016565 Archived 2006-10-17 at the Wayback Machine Brain Chain Official Rules Brain Chain official website Brain Chain at ... Brain Chain has been described as Trivial Pursuit with a Go-Moku win mechanic plus a dash of Pueblo added in. Brain Chain was ... A game of Brain Chain takes approximately 30 minutes if the goal is four links in a row, an hour if the goal is five links, or ...
Allen Brain Atlas Mouse Brain Library High resolution mouse brain atlas BrainMaps High-Resolution Brain Maps and Brain Atlases ... Mouse brain, dorsal view Mouse brain, lateral view Mouse brain slices Mouse cingulate cortex neurons Mouse brain development ... The mouse brain refers to the brain of Mus musculus. Various brain atlases exist. For reasons of reproducibility, genetically ... "ISH Data :: Allen Brain Atlas: Mouse Brain". ISH Data. Retrieved 2019-02-07. "Search the library". The Mouse Brain Library. ...
National Brain Tumor Society. Retrieved 1 August 2017. "Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: What are brain metastases?". ... A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore ... Brain metastases can occur in patients months or even years after their original cancer is treated. Brain metastases have a ... Brain imaging (neuroimaging such as CT or MRI) is needed to determine the presence of brain metastases. In particular, contrast ...
... is a finalist for two Seed Media Group's Research Blogging Awards 2010 in the categories "Best Blog - ... "10 Best Brain Blogs". Archived from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved March 13, 2010. Official website ( ... Brain Blogger is a Scientific American partner biomedical blog sponsored by the Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation (GNIF ... "About Us". Brain Blogger. Retrieved March 13, 2010. "". Google News. Retrieved March 13, 2010. "The Genetics of ...
Avian Brain Nomenclature Consortium (February 2005). "Avian brains and a new understanding of vertebrate brain evolution". ... "reptilian brain" refers to those brain structures related to territoriality, ritual behavior and other "reptile" behaviors. The ... "limbic brain" refers to those brain structures, wherever located, associated with social and nurturing behaviors, mutual ... The triune brain is a model of the evolution of the vertebrate forebrain and behavior, proposed by the American physician and ...
... can refer to The female brain. See sexual differentiation. The 2006 book The Female Brain (book) by Louann ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Female brain. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ...
... is the extension of a hemiplegic flexed arm when a quadrupedal posture is assumed by a human subject. It was ... first described by Russell Brain, a British neurologist. Encyclopædia Britannica v t e (Reflexes, All stub articles, Medical ...
William Thomas Edward Brain (1891 - 1961) was a British socialist activist. Born in Birmingham, Brain became an engineer and ... Brain's last stint on the CPGB executive was in 1927, after which he remained in the party, but was less prominent. He stood in ... Brain joined the new party, and at its third congress, in 1921, he was elected to its executive committee. He became the ... Brain did not join the Communist Unity Group, but he nevertheless attended the founding conference of the Communist Party of ...
1922 Brief profile of Pat Brain Pat Brain at Cricinfo Pat Brain at CricketArchive (Articles with short description, Short ... Brain was a right-handed batsman who played primarily as a wicket-keeper. He was born at Caerau, Glamorgan. Brain made his ... Brain died at Dinas Powis, Glamorgan on 11 December 1945. His father William, brother Michael and uncle Joseph Brain all played ... Outside of playing cricket, Pat Brain worked for the family brewery, Brains Brewery. In the 1920s he served on Glamorgan's ...
... is a British game show on CBBC about science. It is hosted by Duncan Wisbey as Dr. Brain, a monkey scientist and ... Brain Imran Yusuf as Guinea Pig (GP) "CBBC Orders More 'Ultimate Brain' , License! Global". Archived from ... "Ultimate Brain: Series 1, Episode 1" (Adobe Flash).[link expired] "Ultimate Brain: Series 2, Episode 1" (Adobe Flash).[link ... Ultimate Brain at BBC Online (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links from September 2016, ...
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Guideline for Adults. *CDC Pediatric mTBI Guidelineplus icon*CDC Pediatric mTBI Guideline Checklist ... Traumatic brain injury-related deaths from firearm suicide: United States, 2008-2017. AJPH. 2020(0):e1-e3. ... Iaccarino C, Carretta A, Nicolosi F, Morselli C. Epidemiology of severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg Sci. 2018 Oct;62(5 ... Daugherty J, Waltzman D, Sarmiento K, Xu L. Traumatic brain injury-related deaths by race/ethnicity, sex, intent, and mechanism ...
Brain fog isnt like a hangover or depression. Its a disorder of executive function that makes basic cognitive tasks absurdly ... Even brain-training games-which have questionable value but are often mentioned as potential treatments for brain fog-must be ... But 20 to 30 percent of patients report brain fog three months after their initial infection, as do 65 to 85 percent of the ... It is not psychosomatic, and involves real changes to the structure and chemistry of the brain. It is not a mood disorder: "If ...
We will systematically exploit our basic brain research findings in order to initiate, guide, and support brain recovery in ... This means we can now apply brain-stimulation while recording the individual brain network (fMRI) and oscillation (EEG) ... The brains ability to flexibly adapt to its environment, while storing relevant information in both the short- and long-run ... Brain Stimulation and Cognition. With our research we aim to contribute to unravelling the psychological and neural mechanisms ...
BRAIN Initiative Connectivity across Scales (BRAIN CONNECTS): Comprehensive Centers for Human and Non-Human Primate Brain (UM1 ... BRAIN Initiative Connectivity across Scales (BRAIN CONNECTS): Comprehensive Centers for Mouse Brain (UM1 Clinical Trial Not ... BRAIN Initiative: Data Archives for the BRAIN Initiative (R24 Clinical Trial Optional) RFA-MH-20-600 Open July 14, 2023 *. Cell ... BRAIN Initiative: Integration and Analysis of BRAIN Initiative Data (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) RFA-MH-22-220 Open June 08 ...
Brain diseases affect different functions of the body from memory, speech, thinking clearly, how well the different organs work ... Brain Facts: Glossary (Society for Neuroscience) * Central Nervous System: The Brain and Spinal Cord (Nemours Foundation) Also ... When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. But when you have a brain disease, it may affect how well you ... Brain tumors, which can press on nerves and affect brain function.. *Degenerative nerve diseases, which can affect many of your ...
Hidden Brain helps curious people understand the world-- and themselves. Using science and storytelling, Hidden Brains host ... Recent episodes of Hidden Brain podcast can now be found at ... Hidden Brain Recent episodes of Hidden Brain podcast can now be found at Hidden Brain helps curious people ... Using science and storytelling, Hidden Brains host Shankar Vedantam reveals the unconscious patterns that drive human behavior ...
... and management of brain abscess in an adolescent patient. ... Radiological Case: Brain Abscess. Abel Malaguit De Castro; ...
Metastatic tumors are among the most common mass lesions in the brain. In the United States, an estimated 98,000-170,000 cases ... Use of dexamethasone in the treatment of cerebral edema resulting from brain tumors and brain surgery. Am Pract Dig Treat. 1961 ... encoded search term (Brain Metastasis) and Brain Metastasis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Brain Metastasis Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Nov 21, 2022 * Author: Victor Tse, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Nicholas Lorenzo, ...
While TCE can travel in your blood to your brain, effects will not be felt at low level exposures. People with a high TCE ...
Rehabilitation for persons with traumatic brain injury  World Health Organization. Disability and Rehabilitation Team; United ... of Defense; Drucker Brain Injury Center (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, 2004)‎ ...
Deficits in frontal brain systems may be associated with risk for suicide attempts in young people with bipolar disorder. ... Using MRI, the researchers examined brain structure and function in a group of adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 25 years ... Cite this: Brain Imaging Findings Shed Light on Suicidal Behavior - Medscape - Dec 15, 2014. ... "We observed differences in brain circuitry in adolescents and young adults who have bipolar disorder and made suicide attempts ...
... engagement in cognitive activities is explored in this study along with the relationship to brain health and mental well-being. ... believe that the best way to maintain/improve brain health is to play brain games. Little scientific evidence currently ... 2017 AARP Cognitive Activity and Brain Health Survey by Laura Mehegan, Chuck Rainville, Laura Skufca, AARP Research, July 2017 ... Attending religious services is a top activity adults age 40+ believe maintains or improves brain health.. ...
Brain Bridges by Benyo Studio has been longlisted in Dezeen Awards 2020. ... Brain Bridges explores how toy design changes when children are considered partners in the design process. ... Designed to spark imagination and creative play, Brain Bridges is a kit of generative shapes that allows kids to design ...
Todays Brain Game: WYOMING begins with two consonants (unless you classify Y as a vowel). What other two U.S. state names ... Todays Brain Game:. WYOMING begins with two consonants (unless you classify Y as a vowel). What other two U.S. state names ...
(Flashing lights, PG-13: Language) A computer science student believes that a certain pattern of images induces visions of God, and its been the spark of
Exposure to paints, degreasers, adhesives and glues is common in some occupations, and has been linked to problems such as memory loss, reduced cognitive processing speed and difficulty staying focused.
Hes researching ways to harness the brains plasticity to enhance our skills and recover lost function. ... Neuroscientist Michael Merzenich looks at one of the secrets of the brains incredible power: its ability to actively re-wire ... Growing evidence of brain plasticity. Neuroscientist Michael Merzenich looks at one of the secrets of the brains incredible ... Neuroscientist Michael Merzenich looks at one of the secrets of the brains incredible power: its ability to actively re-wire ...
Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain enable alert and attending brain states. A study now shows how basal forebrain ... Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain enable alert and attending brain states. A study now shows how basal forebrain ... But how does nucleus basalis activation and associated acetylcholine release alter brain states? How do they affect cortical ... Sillito, A.M. & Kemp, J.A. Brain Res. 289, 143-155 (1983). ... Thiele, A. Optimizing brain processing. Nat Neurosci 12, 1359- ...
All about Brain Cell (Neuron). The little grey cells that make up your mind are primarily neurons. You have approximately 100 ... But measuring brain-power doesnt have to be tricky: research shows that there is enough electrical power flickering in your ... Brain cells, or neurons, are the building blocks of the nervous system. They are designed to receive and transmit information. ... With over a 1,000 trillion connections, or synapses, in your brain, there are more transmission-pathways in your head than ...
p>Learn about the Brain Injury Center at Boston Childrens Hospital, including our unique approach to treatment. ... Specialized brain injury clinics. We offer four specialized outpatient clinics for children who have had a brain injury: two ... Our unique approach to treating brain injuries is helping to define the best practices in care for brain injuries, from early ... Because brain injuries can cause a vast array of symptoms that may not seem related to the injury, we coordinate care across ...
... using brain signals only, with computers, wheelchairs, prosthes... ... Toward Brain-Computer Interfacing Edited by Guido Dornhege, José del R. Millán, Thilo Hinterberger, Dennis J. McFarland and ... The brain-computer interface (BCI) would allow humans to operate computers, wheelchairs, prostheses, and other devices, using ... José del R. Millán is Associate Professor and Defitech Foundation Chair in Non-Invasive Brain-Machine Interface at the Swiss ...
Einsteins brain. National Museum of Health and Medicine via Men et al. When word got out that Harvey had the brain, requests ... He took the brain with him.. Harvey went to the University of Pennsylvania, and with help of a technician, cut up the brain ... Of course, he had to bring the brain. In Paternitis book Driving Mr. Albert, it describes, with the jars of brain in a duffle- ... "Hospitals Tiff over Brain of Einstein." The controversy over ownership of Einsteins brain had become a circus and it was about ...
To do so, they use several regions of the brain simultaneously, proving once again that the brain of insects is more… ... Their brains may be smaller than the head of a pin, but ants are excellent navigators that use celestial and terrestrial cues ... Can you be forgiven for committing a horrible crime if you have a brain tumor?. ...
But neurons can also be stimulated electrically using a procedure called deep brain stimulation (DBS). ... a brain region is activated by signals from other neurons. ... Brain: The Inside Story * Brain Introduction * Your Sensing ... Doctors can now activate or deactivate certain brain regions by surgically inserting a wire into the brain and sending in ... Normally, a brain region is activated by signals from other neurons. But neurons can also be stimulated electrically. How is ...
2022, Big Fish Games, Inc. All other trademarks, registered trademarks, or logos are the property of their respective owners ...
Life sciences/Organismal biology/Anatomy/Nervous system/Central nervous system/Brain/Brain structure ... A peek inside a flying bats brain uncovers clues to mammalian navigation Many mammals share a similar neural "GPS system" that ... Place cells, located in a region of the brain called the hippocampus, work together to form an innate "GPS system" for a ... However, a number of questions still remain about how this region of the brain operates during rapid movement and how it works ...
From mind-blowing facts to grammar mistakes to psychology terms, get ready to exercise your brain. ... From mind-blowing facts to grammar mistakes to psychology terms, get ready to exercise your brain. ...
brain human profile silhouette male mind Filesize. 3 k. Safe for Work?. Yes. Download. SVG (Vector) PNG (Bitmap) Small Medium ... Male Human Profile Head Sideview with Brain. by kevinolson - uploaded on November 15, 2022, 6:25 am ... A basic profile illustrating the human brain - for my site - for you to use for free cc0/pd :) ...
  • Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), which can affect brain function. (
  • At Boston Children's, our clinicians are international leaders in treating brain injuries, from mild concussions to the most severe traumatic brain injuries. (
  • Programs to support caregivers and families of veterans with traumatic brain injuries will benefit from further research on the specific economic and health needs of these caregivers. (
  • See Pediatric Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the signs and symptoms of TBI, determine the type and severity of injury, and initiate appropriate treatment. (
  • Traumatic brain injuries, commonly known as TBIs, may be devastating in these times of hardship. (
  • Furthermore, almost 50,000 individuals succumb to traumatic brain injuries each year in the United States. (
  • We then move on to use noninvasive brain stimulation (magnetic and electic neuromodulation) to alter activity in nodes of this network, leading to temporary cognitive behavioral changes in healthy volunteers. (
  • The goal is to integrate these spatial network and temporal oscillation insights to enhance cognitive functions using noninvasive brain stimulation. (
  • We also aim to investigate the role of fronto-cortical brain areas in cognitive control and self-regulation, and how functions supported by this part of the brain relate to human decision making and social behavior. (
  • This interdisciplinary and translational research program will deliver both fundamental insights into neurobiological mechanisms of attention, working memory, and cognitive control in healthy participants, and derive new brain-system-based personalised interventions for clinical applications in psychiatry, neurology, and clinical psychology. (
  • BCI research may someday provide a communication channel for patients with severe physical disabilities but intact cognitive functions, a working tool in computational neuroscience that contributes to a better understanding of the brain, and a novel independent interface for human-machine communication that offers new options for monitoring and control. (
  • Individuals with head injuries or who suffer from exposure to explosive blasts (such as first responders, accident victims, and combat troops) may experience mild to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that causes cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physical problems. (
  • [1] [2] This term is used in behavioural sciences and neuroscience and studies associated with this term often strive to explain the brain 's cognitive abilities based on statistical principles. (
  • Someone in a persistent vegetative state has lost most higher cognitive function, but his or her brain shows some activity. (
  • The present study is the first detailed description of this anatomic pathway of the macaque brain and provides the substrate for bilateral distribution of motor, motivational, and cognitive signals for reinforcement learning and selection of actions or action sequences, and for learning compensatory motor strategies after cortical stroke. (
  • Tennis Bowling is a brain training game that activates a number of different cognitive skills, among which are visual perception and hand-eye coordination. (
  • The brain game Tennis Bowling is suitable for children and adults and helps train and activate important cognitive skills. (
  • How can the brain game "Tennis Bowling" improve your cognitive abilities? (
  • When you activate a cognitive ability in the brain you also activate a certain neural pattern that by repeating this pattern (doing activities that use this cognitive skill) the neural activation can happen quicker, more precisely, and more efficiently. (
  • The male brain is a defined psychometrically as those individuals in whom systemising is significantly better than empathising, and the female brain is defined as the opposite cognitive profile. (
  • Among the 106 survivors of riding-associated TBIs, 84 (79%) had one or more indicators of brain injury severity: 67 (63%) had loss of consciousness, 49 (46%) had posttraumatic amnesia, and 14 (13%) had persistent neurologic sequelae on discharge from the hospital (e.g., seizures or cognitive, hearing, vision, speech, and/or motor impairment). (
  • This protective effect of the brain was seen on active older people whose brains were already showing signs of Alzheimer's and other cognitive diseases. (
  • Sleep deprivation has been linked to cognitive disorders like chronic fatigue syndrome and brain fog. (
  • This essay stands for brain training, the cognitive exercise to strength neuronal configuration directly. (
  • Cognitive symptoms, commonly referred to as brain fog, are among the most common persistent or new symptoms after COVID-19 in both people who have been hospitalized and those who have not. (
  • 1. Cognitive symptoms, commonly referred to as brain fog, occur in people who had COVID-19, no matter how severe their infection was. (
  • Brain tumors , which can press on nerves and affect brain function. (
  • The Brain Bee tests students' knowledge of research breakthroughs for treating diseases including depression, stroke, Down syndrome, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, and schizophrenia. (
  • Tissue-based pathological diagnosis is the criterion standard in the diagnosis of brain tumors . (
  • Can you be forgiven for committing a horrible crime if you have a brain tumor? (
  • A tumor can make you sick to your stomach if it presses on certain areas of your brain. (
  • A tumor in this part of the brain could affect your vision. (
  • Blurred vision, double vision, and floating spots can all be signs of a brain tumor. (
  • A tumor can put pressure on the nerves in your inner ear that move sound from your ear to your brain. (
  • Others start when the tumor grows into areas of your brain that control mood and emotion. (
  • Brain herniation is a life threatening condition that can occur due to a head injury, stroke, or brain tumor. (
  • It may occur due to a head injury, brain tumor , or stroke . (
  • The Eldersburg Elementary School PTA is sponsoring the Celtic Canter 5k on Saturday, May 16, with proceeds benefitting Chiaramonte, who was diagnosed with a brain tumor this February, and the National Brain Tumor Society. (
  • Join me as I support the UC Brain Tumor Center at the 2022 Walk Ahead on October 16, 2022! (
  • Imagine a cross-section shot of a head and what isn't brain, is tumor. (
  • She is excited about developments in brain tumor research. (
  • First, and most commonly, it is performed to confirm a suspected brain tumor. (
  • A typical situation occurs when diagnostic imaging demonstrates the classic appearance of a primary brain tumor and resection is not felt appropriate, as when the treating team suspects a high-grade glial tumor on the basis of imaging characteristics and does not feel that an aggressive resection is achievable. (
  • Boulton M, Bernstein M. Outpatient brain tumor surgery: innovation in surgical neurooncology. (
  • Using MRI, the researchers examined brain structure and function in a group of adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 25 years. (
  • A new standard of care proposed by RAND researchers aims to redefine high-quality care for veterans with a traumatic brain injury or posttraumatic stress disorder. (
  • [11] During the 1990s researchers including Peter Dayan , Geoffrey Hinton and Richard Zemel proposed that the brain represents knowledge of the world in terms of probabilities and made specific proposals for tractable neural processes that could manifest such a Helmholtz Machine . (
  • Cellphones emit ultra-high-frequency radio waves during calls and data transfers, and some researchers have suspected this radiation - albeit inconclusively - of being linked to long-term health risks like brain cancer. (
  • From behavioral quirks to brain cancer, researchers have looked for any health risks associated with cellphone radiation for years. (
  • In recent years, researchers have been able to "map" the functions of different areas of the brain. (
  • A team of Finnish researchers reached new partial understanding of how human brains react to nude bodies. (
  • Researchers wanted to find out how the boy's brain would recover after losing one of its visual centres - we usually have two, one in each of the brain's hemispheres. (
  • Researchers are finding it to be useful in addressing and improving brain function and brain aging. (
  • At the State University of New York at Buffalo, for example, researchers have developed software that renders three-dimensional pictures of the brain from magnetic-resonance imaging data, allowing them to digitally parcel off areas of the brain and precisely calculate their size and volume. (
  • The researchers found that subjects were able to resolve conflicting images more quickly if they were preceded by other conflicting images, indicating that the brain was preparing itself for such conflict resolution. (
  • 2012). The researchers were surprised to discover that drug effects were associated with decreases in activity in a number of key brain areas, rather than the expected increase. (
  • Researchers have identified a mutated gene that appears to be responsible for a large disparity between Neanderthal and human brains. (
  • The US researchers from Northwestern University say bilingualism is a form of brain training - a mental 'work out' that fine-tunes the mind. (
  • Internationally recognized basic and clinical researchers present new research findings in humans and animals that elucidate the roles of the brain, physiological state, genes and environment in maternal and paternal care. (
  • Researchers have also been working on brain and machine interfaces for restoring vision. (
  • The researchers found no association between any of the brain activity profiles and other mental health outcomes, such as symptoms of depression, dissociation, or impulsivity. (
  • After taking into account a whole range of factors that can affect hippocampal size, the researchers found that children with especially nurturing, caring mothers, based on their behavior during the laboratory stressor, had significantly larger hippocampi (plural of hippocampus - you've got one on each side of the brain) than kids with mothers who were average or poor nurturers. (
  • In animal studies, researchers have found that Spirulina may protect the brain from damage and degenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease . (
  • Researchers at the Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences in Delhi, India, found that Spirulina may safeguard against toxicity, stress, and degeneration in the brain. (
  • Researchers have also discovered variations in both the size and function of some brain regions that could affect skills like time management and organization. (
  • The data visualization helps researchers map out entire brain-wide circuits, and provides a new, cool way to look at the human brain. (
  • An international team of researchers has proposed a name for a type of brain disease that causes dementia symptoms: Limbic-predominant Age-related TDP-43 Encephalopathy, or LATE. (
  • Amal, a 38-year-old woman from Gaza, was found to have a brain aneurysm (the potentially life-threatening ballooning of a blood vessel) in March 2022. (
  • On 5 June 2022, Amal was referred to An-Najah University Hospital in Nablus, in the West Bank, for brain catheterization and scan (angiography), a procedure not available in the Gaza Strip. (
  • A consortium of U.S. universities, which includes Rosen's imaging center, started work this year on a similar database network containing brain scans of Alzheimer's patients from across the country. (
  • Using a mouse model, a diabetic rat model, and cultured human cells, the study found that DHA increased the production of LR11, a protein vital to clearing the brain of the enzymes that make amyloid beta plaques often associated with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Fermented Spirulina can even help to protect the brain against degenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (
  • CNN reports, a study published in Alzheimer's and dementia, the journal of the Alzheimer's Association found exercise boost levels of a protein known to strengthen communication between brain cells via synapses, which are critical, communicating junctions between nerve cells. (
  • The Centers are expected to characterize all brain cell types (neurons, glia, and other non-neuronal cells) at high-resolution. (
  • Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain enable alert and attending brain states. (
  • But measuring brain-power doesn't have to be tricky: research shows that there is enough electrical power flickering in your neurons to illuminate a flashlight bulb. (
  • Brain cells, or neurons, are the building blocks of the nervous system. (
  • Normally, a brain region is activated by signals from other neurons. (
  • Mayer explained to Medscape Medical News that when brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and glucose after an injury, neurons around the injured area become distressed. (
  • The brain is made up of billions of neurons that communicate with each other to create thoughts and moods. (
  • The amygdala sprouts a profusion of connections to higher brain regions-neurons that carry one-way traffic from amygdala to neocortex. (
  • Individual neurons are plastic but you can't change the macro anatomy of your brain. (
  • However, the risk of developing brain metastases in patients who already have metastatic disease in other sites ranges from 15% to 30% . (
  • The incidence of brain metastases associated with breast cancer appears to be increasing . (
  • What do you know about the risk of developing brain metastases in patients with breast cancer? (
  • Patients with more than three brain deposits accounted for 71.2% of all the brain metastases . (
  • This guideline covers diagnosing, monitoring and managing any type of primary brain tumour or brain metastases in people aged 16 or over. (
  • Doctors can now activate or deactivate certain brain regions by surgically inserting a wire into the brain and sending in pulses of electricity--a procedure known as deep brain stimulation (DBS). (
  • Over the last decade, doctors at UCSF and elsewhere have turned to a technique called deep brain stimulation to help people with debilitating dystonia. (
  • Also used to treat Parkinson's disease and the neurological disorder essential tremor, the technique is like putting a pacemaker inside a heart patient's chest - except that deep brain stimulation requires a neurosurgeon to implant electrodes inside the brain. (
  • Scientists are not sure exactly why deep brain stimulation works. (
  • Traditionally doctors have treated cervical dystonia with deep brain stimulation by targeting a brain nucleus known as the "globus pallidus internus. (
  • Reporting this week in the journal Neurology, the UCSF team described the results of the first detailed clinical study looking at deep brain stimulation targeting a completely different part of the brain: the "subthalamic nucleus. (
  • One breakthrough procedure called Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is proving to be beneficial for one local high school lacrosse coach. (
  • Traumatic brain injury-related deaths from firearm suicide: United States, 2008-2017. (
  • Certain human talents, such as musical ability, have been associated with left-right differences in brain structure and function. (
  • These large and important differences between the brains of adults in teens is why teens act so different from adults. (
  • Genes help explain differences between Neanderthal and human brains. (
  • Led by Alysson R Muotri, the research team compared the human and Neanderthal genomes for differences that might affect brain formation. (
  • And these differences were visible in the brain. (
  • Another study at the Center for Aging and Brain Repair at the University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Fla., showed that supplementing the diet of old rats with blueberries for 8 weeks resulted in maintenance and rejuvenation of brain circuitry. (
  • The electrodes deliver electric current to tiny parts of the brain, likely altering abnormal brain circuitry and alleviating symptoms by overriding the signals coming from those parts of the brain. (
  • For more than 900 days, while other long-COVID symptoms have waxed and waned, her brain fog has never really lifted. (
  • Of long COVID's many possible symptoms, brain fog "is by far one of the most disabling and destructive," Emma Ladds, a primary-care specialist from the University of Oxford, told me. (
  • The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely, depending on the specific problem. (
  • Because brain injuries can cause a vast array of symptoms that may not seem related to the injury, we coordinate care across several specialties - including the Trauma Center , Neurology , Neurosurgery , Sports Medicine , and Neuropsychology . (
  • Our clinics offer comprehensive evaluation, treatment, and ongoing management of brain injuries by a team of various specialists, based on each child's specific symptoms and needs. (
  • A medical doctor can assess brain injury using imaging tests, employing the Glasgow Coma Scale Test, and by asking after symptoms experienced or observed at the time of and immediately after the injury occurred. (
  • Someone who has suffered a head injury should be observed for symptoms that may indicate serious brain injury such as confusion and memory difficulties, unusual tiredness, nausea and dizziness, severe headache, and weakness or numbness on one side of the body. (
  • Even without these symptoms a serious brain injury may have occurred. (
  • Symptoms of brain injury can range from mild headaches and nausea to short-term memory loss, confusion, or difficulty with impulse control and personality changes. (
  • Knowing the symptoms can help you determine the extent of a brain injury and the appropriate treatment. (
  • This article discusses the symptoms and causes of brain herniation. (
  • Some types of brain herniation, such as subfalcine herniation, may not initially present with severe symptoms. (
  • Scientists have learned a lot about the brain in the last few decades, but mental illnesses are still diagnosed based on symptoms-the visible tips of a tower hidden in fog. (
  • That's why Philip and many others are now looking past the symptoms and diagnostic labels and into the underlying brain networks to find what drive a patient's symptoms, how these network vary among individuals and how they can be directly targeted to help those patients who don't improve with traditional treatments. (
  • In a study presented this month at the annual meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry in New York, Etkin and his colleagues analyzed brain activity in 106 people with PTSD and found they show four distinct patterns, corresponding to different clinical symptoms. (
  • Study shows link between post-trauma brain activity and symptoms of anxiety, PTSD six months later. (
  • Stevens and colleagues hypothesized that different patterns of stress-related brain activity may predict participants' long-term mental health symptoms across a range of diagnoses. (
  • Looking at participants' brain activity profiles in relation to their mental health outcomes, Stevens and co-authors found that participants with the reactive/disinhibited profile-those who showed high activity related to both threat and reward-reported higher levels of symptoms of both PTSD and anxiety over the six-month follow-up period compared with the other profiles. (
  • You might experience brain fog, lightheadedness, fatigue, tingling fingers and hands, or other symptoms if you don't get enough vitamin B12. (
  • New findings regarding the potential of brain stimulation to boost memory, improve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and treat depression resulted in this week's top trending clinical topic. (
  • The information extracted included biodata, presenting symptoms, imaging modality for confirmation of brain metastasis , treatment records , performance status pre-WBRT and 4 weeks post-WBRT, and other supportive treatments . (
  • Michael Merzenich studies neuroplasticity -- the brain's powerful ability to change itself and adapt -- and ways we might make use of that plasticity to heal injured brains and enhance the skills in healthy ones. (
  • Neural plasticity represents a crucial mechanism of the human brain to adapt to environmental changes in the developing and adult human central nervous system. (
  • Independent of this spatial network perspective of cognition, we combine this approach with electroencephalography (EEG) to study brain oscillations in the lower-frequency range (4-20 Hz) associated with modulatory/feedback functions relevant for attention and working memory. (
  • The overarching goal of the BICAN is to build reference brain cell atlases that will be widely used throughout the research community, providing a molecular and anatomical foundational framework for the study of brain function and disorders. (
  • The study sought to understand factors that influence the participation in CSAs along with the relationship to brain health and mental well-being. (
  • Harvey later would say that he "knew we had permission to do an autopsy, and I assumed that we were going to study the brain. (
  • The other theory that Burrell gives is that Harvey, perhaps inspired by the study done on Lenin's brain in 1926, simply got "caught up in the moment and was transfixed in the presence of greatness. (
  • Radiation from a mobile phone call can make brain regions near the device burn more energy, according to a new study. (
  • But this is the first reliable study showing the brain is activated by exposure to cellphone radio frequencies. (
  • A new study finds that when "brains" leave their native countries, their fellow citizens may benefit more from their smarts and creativity than if they had chosen to stay. (
  • The dire, horrible, brain-damaging effects of pornography may not exactly exist, suggests this study of a study that insists that yes, those effects do exist. (
  • Amit Etkin of Stanford University and his colleagues turned to a classic study of conflict in the brain--the Stroop task--in which the name of a color and the color of the letters in that name either match or not. (
  • A brain imaging study of psilocybin revealed unexpected findings. (
  • A recent study used brain scanning (specifically, functional magnetic resonance imaging) to obtain a window into the brain of 30 volunteers injected with this drug in order to understand what happens during the transition between normal waking consciousness and the onset of drug effects (Carhart-Harris et al. (
  • In this study, participants received two brain scans each, once after receiving a saline injection, and once after receiving a psilocybin injection. (
  • The study of German scientists provided evidence showing that the brain of urban and rural residents perceives stressful situations differently. (
  • The present study analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively in the macaque brain the origin of the crossed CSt projections compared with those originating from the ipsilateral hemisphere. (
  • According to Muotri, it's difficult to study evolutionary brain development and function, because brains do not fossilise. (
  • Implanting electrodes into a pea-sized part of the brain can dramatically improve life for people with severe cervical dystonia - a rare but extremely debilitating condition that causes painful, twisting neck muscle spasms - according to the results of a pilot study led by Jill Ostrem, MD and Philip Starr, MD PhD at the University of California, San Francisco. (
  • For the study, the team monitored the brain responses of 48 healthy student volunteers - which included 23 who were bilingual - to different sounds. (
  • In a 2018 study in the journal PLOS ONE, three participants with paralysis below the neck affecting all of their limbs used an experimental brain-computer interface being tested by the consortium BrainGate. (
  • As part of the study, Jennifer Stevens, Ph.D. , of Emory University in Atlanta, led an investigation of post-trauma brain activity in an initial group of 69 AURORA participants who were seen in an emergency department following a car crash. (
  • But to make the point here, let me describe a recent study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that more definitively than any before it shows how parental care literally changes not just kids' hearts and minds, but their brains as well. (
  • Students, who use the Society for Neuroscience book Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System to study for the Brain Bee, answer questions about neurotransmitters, learning and memory, aging, addiction, the senses, sleep, and stress. (
  • A new study has found it can protect your brain even if a person has early signs of dementia. (
  • But we didn't know how the study hints that synaptic functioning, maybe a pathway through which physical activity promotes brain health. (
  • Muotri says these changes are similar to changes in other non-human primate brains, which allow those primates to learn faster than human newborns. (
  • Bruising or concussion occurs when the brain impacts the inside of the skull. (
  • Almost half a million kids are treated in an emergency department each year for traumatic brain injury, including concussion. (
  • He has spent the years since he suffered a traumatic brain injury pushing against his physical limitations to build a life resembling the one he had imagined as a teenager. (
  • If you have suffered a traumatic brain injury, you will need the assistance of an expert traumatic brain injury lawyer in Los Angeles from the ODG Law Group to prove your TBI claim successfully. (
  • Sponsored by the Society for Neuroscience and the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives, the effort involves more than 1,700 partnerships that include scientists, patient advocates, and members of health-care organizations who organize educational events emphasizing the importance of basic neuroscience research to the health and well-being of the American public. (
  • The Lower Brain - where the top of the spinal cord goes up through our necks and into our brains - regulates body functions such as spontaneous breath, reflexes, our heartbeat, body temperature and sleep/wake cycles. (
  • Recently, Etkin found the success of exposure therapy depends on the strength of brain networks underlying how an individual recognizes and regulates response to frightening stimuli. (
  • With over a 1,000 trillion connections, or synapses, in your brain, there are more transmission-pathways in your head than there are atoms in the universe. (
  • As a teen grows the brain starts pruning its synapses. (
  • the process of "pruning", also known as synapse elimination, in the teenage brain is a complex developing period which consists of shortening unused synapses and increasing the vitality of those that are used frequently by the individual. (
  • Neanderthal-ised brain organoids (left) look very different than modern human brain organoids (right) - they have a distinctly different shape, and differ in the way their cells proliferate and how their synapses form. (
  • Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) that affects movement. (
  • He said he also envisions that in someone with a broken neck, signals from the brain could be bridged to Neuralink devices in the spinal cord. (
  • his web site presents domestic mammalian brain neuroanatomy from a gross anatomical perspective. (
  • The memories are there, but with executive function malfunctioning, the brain neither chooses the important things to store nor retrieves that information efficiently. (
  • and/or 2) develop computational methods that allow for integration of multidimensional behavioral and environmental datarepresenting multiple timescales into a conceptual and/or computational model of behavior as a complex dynamic system, designed with the capacity to integrate synchronously recorded neural data and/or inform existing models of neurobehavioral function, such as those developed with the support of the NIH BRAIN Initiative. (
  • But when you have a brain disease, it may affect how well you can function and do your daily activities. (
  • These disorders can affect the development and function of the brain. (
  • Bayesian approaches to brain function investigate the capacity of the nervous system to operate in situations of uncertainty in a fashion that is close to the optimal prescribed by Bayesian statistics . (
  • What that essentially means is that the brain, an extremely complex organ, no longer helps the patient function. (
  • But without brain function, the body eventually shuts down, unless there is medical intervention. (
  • A boy who had a large portion of his brain removed to relieve his severe epilepsy is still able to function normally, showing how adaptable our brains can be. (
  • The Brain ResQ™ formula is the most potent, synergistic blend of proven ingredients to support and rescue mitochondrial function. (
  • The brain has the function of making their body work and help with the teens brain daily life. (
  • It occurs when a sudden trauma damages the brain and disrupts normal brain function. (
  • Sleep helps your brain function properly, but not enough sleep can cause brain fog. (
  • Sleep deprivation can cause your brain to stop repairing itself, and this has negative effects on brain function. (
  • To function at its best, the brain requires specific nutrients. (
  • Our unique approach to treating brain injuries is helping to define the best practices in care for brain injuries, from early response through inpatient care and long-term follow-up. (
  • Our team members are actively involved in the community, providing education and injury prevention programs, with the long-term goal of reducing brain injuries and improving outcomes for children who have been injured. (
  • Brain injuries are among the most serious consequences of major accidents such as automobile or motorcycle crashes, sports injuries, or industrial or workplace mishaps. (
  • Because brain injuries often require long-term rehabilitation, sometimes in a dedicated brain-injury facility, treatment can be very expensive. (
  • Brain injuries often commonly result in the need for other therapies, including speech and physical therapy, in order to return to their pre-injury ability. (
  • Common brain injuries typically result from bruising, tearing, or swelling. (
  • Brain injuries are typically either open or closed. (
  • People with brain injuries that resulted from the negligent conduct of another could receive financial compensation for their injuries. (
  • Musk's Neuralink is one of many groups working on linking brains to computers, efforts aimed at helping treat brain disorders, overcoming brain injuries and other applications. (
  • Of the patients, 73.2% (n=112/153) underwent radiography and 44.4% required computed tomography (CT) scans, the majority being CT scans of the brain for suspected head injuries. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) intends to support a group of large-scale Comprehensive Centers that will adopt scalable technology platforms and streamlined sampling strategies and assay cascade to create comprehensive and highly granular brain cell atlases of human and non-human primates with an emphasis on human. (
  • Place cells, located in a region of the brain called the hippocampus, work together to form an innate "GPS system" for a variety of land animals, including humans. (
  • Several years later, on average, the children had the size of a brain area called the hippocampus measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (
  • Genetic brain disorders , which are caused by changes in genes (also called variants or mutations). (
  • While DBS is already being used to treat serious brain disorders, more uses are being studied. (
  • This program supports research directed toward developing a mechanistic understanding of the brain bases of mental disorders in adults (ages 18+) at the circuit level, drawing heavily on the use of a wide variety of state-of-the-art neuroimaging and other physiological methods, including, but not limited to, those measuring brain dynamics. (
  • Moreover, if the findings of the scientists are correct, then the neurophysiological response to a stressful situation in city dwellers is so strong that it can lead to destructive changes in the brain and emotional disorders. (
  • During the adult period, when brain is relatively stable, the two main cerebral guidelines focus both decision-making and awareness of emotions, practices that at the same time leverage its functions and prevent most of its disorders. (
  • Our non-invasive integration of brain-wide network and oscillatory communication mechanisms to optimise cognition has been fueled by our own multimodal methods development program. (
  • Research focuses on the neurobiological and psychological principles underlying human cognition, combining various brain research techniques, ranging from psychophysics to Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Electroencephalography (EEG), and Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS). (
  • The reduced activity of the brains connector hubs might permit an "unconstrained style of cognition " producing psychedelic effects (Carhart-Harris, et al. (
  • Although the neocortex is a large part of human evolution , it does contain cavities without any brain cells, as well as considerable amounts of cerebrospinal fluid, white matter , blood vessels, blood, and "non-thinking cells. (
  • Despite limited data available on voriconazole penetration into brain abscess cavities ( 9 ), this drug was clinically and radiologically effective in our patient. (
  • Brain herniation happens when brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood move from their usual position inside the skull and create increased pressure within it. (
  • Accordingly, spreading depolarization occurs in patients with aneurysmal SAH, traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, and malignant hemispheric stroke. (
  • From the ''Inside the Teenage brain,'' article 'The vast majority of brain development occurs in two basic stages: growth spurts and pruning. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is brain damage that occurs unexpectedly due to a blow to the head or a hit to the head. (
  • Better classifications of brain diseases, he says, will ultimately lead to better treatments. (
  • The BAW campaign also serves to inform legislators about the importance of supporting neuroscience research, investing in higher education, and contributing to technological developments to combat diseases of the brain and nervous system. (
  • Brain fog can also be caused by autoimmune diseases, brain injury, or certain medications. (
  • This research line utilises Brain Stimulation-induced visual masking and behavioural priming paradigms to determine the functional relevance and chronometry of early visual cortex involvement in conscious vision. (
  • In this research line we investigate the mechanisms of visual learning and memory by means of psychophysical studies, non-invasive brain stimulation, and neuroimaging. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) intends to support a Coordinating Unit for Biostatistics, Informatics, and Engagement (CUBIE) that will be composed of four components to establish respectively (1) a common sequencing data processing pipeline, (2) a common imaging data processing pipeline, (3) a comprehensive brain cell knowledge base, and (4) an engaging and outreach component to coordinate the research within and beyond BICAN. (
  • Adolescents with bipolar disorder who have attempted suicide have abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and related brain areas, preliminary research indicates. (
  • The latest research in the development of technologies that will allow humans to communicate, using brain signals only, with computers, wheelchairs, prostheses, and other devices. (
  • The new research demonstrates that even in sleep -- and at an age when even some normally developing babies also lack words -- a baby's brain response to spoken language can reveal whether that child is likely to develop speech, comprehension and social skills or whether his social and expressive disabilities are likely to remain profound. (
  • It is likely the myth that humans use only about 10 percent of their brains arose during 1930s research when scientists were uncertain regarding the functions of large areas of the cortex. (
  • Research in degeneration of the brain and heart have shown to lack adequate levels of CoQ10. (
  • New research has shown how the brain goes about accomplishing this task. (
  • Previous research has found that a number of areas of the brain, including the mPFC and the PCC actually show heightened levels of activity when a person is simply at rest and show decreased activity when concentrating attention on various tasks unrelated to thinking about oneself (D'Argembeau et al. (
  • Emerging research suggests the variation in treatment response may have something to do with biological variability inside the brains of people with PTSD, said Amit Etkin, associate professor of psychiatry at Stanford University and an investigator at the Palo Alto VA in California. (
  • Etkin received the NIH Director's Pioneering award last year for his "brain circuit first" approach to psychiatric research. (
  • thought it was simply because of their personalities, but new research has proved that it's actually because their brains aren't fully developed. (
  • U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service scientists studied the effect of a blueberry extract on mice that carried a genetic mutation for promoting increased amounts of amyloid beta plaque in the brain (Bliss, 2007). (
  • States, space research is suffering the effects of recession and the brain drain. (
  • By bridging the gap between basic and clinical research, new understandings of how the biology of the brain and the reproductive state of the parent impact their mental health and the successful rearing of young emerge. (
  • The way a person's brain responds to stress following a traumatic event, such as a car accident, may help to predict their long-term mental health outcomes, according to research supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of the National Institutes of Health. (
  • WASHINGTON, DC March 5, 2004 - Brain Awareness Week, which raises public awareness and creates interest in brain and nervous system research, takes place this month in classrooms, laboratories, and lecture halls across the nation. (
  • Aiding the effort this year is a new series of newsletters called Brain Research Success Stories , which tell the story of how biomedical research has led to improvements in patient care and how much more can be accomplished with strong federal funding. (
  • Compared to ordinary green tea, Matcha Green Tea contains 137 times more antioxidants - which, as we saw in the Spirulina research, may offer some brain protection against degenerative disease. (
  • SharpBrains is an independent market research firm tracking health and performance applications of brain science. (
  • Because the hippocampus is involved in navigation, there have been several studies looking at coding in this brain region and asking: How does neural activity represent things that are going to happen in the future or that have happened in the past? (
  • To conduct the experiments, Yartsev and Dotson used wireless neural recording devices to monitor bats' brain activity as they flew freely throughout a custom-built room that had been outfitted with cameras to track the bats' precise flight paths. (
  • Neuroscientists have discovered that certain basic states of mind, like focused concentration, actually create waves of neural discharges in consistent areas of your brain! (
  • The interface records neural activity from a small sensor in the brain to navigate things like email and apps. (
  • Per brain region, neural components are listed in hierarchal order, and there are links to images of br. (
  • Iaccarino C, Carretta A, Nicolosi F, Morselli C. Epidemiology of severe traumatic brain injury. (
  • Those who have experienced a severe to life-threatening traumatic brain injury (TBI) will need rehabilitation to recover and re-learn abilities. (
  • How is it that a brain, simply a collection of cells, can give rise to something as rich and expansive as everyday human experience? (
  • Using science and storytelling, Hidden Brain 's host Shankar Vedantam reveals the unconscious patterns that drive human behavior, the biases that shape our choices, and the triggers that direct the course of our relationships. (
  • Interest in developing an effective communication interface connecting the human brain and a computer has grown rapidly over the past decade. (
  • pitch in the human brain. (
  • O ne myth about the human brain is the claim that humans use only about 10 percent of their brain capacity. (
  • the human brain: an introduction to its functional anatomy. (
  • The human brain is home to more than 100 billion nerve cells that serve as the central command center for the human body. (
  • The human brain does complicated things in complicated ways that no one understands. (
  • This experimental attempt to ride a left-right-swapped bicycle raises a big fat question about how the human brain works. (
  • The human brain is divided into what doctors call the Lower Brain and the Upper Brain. (
  • To put our findings in perspective, the 6.4*1018 instructions per second that human kind can carry out on its general-purpose computers in 2007 are in the same ballpark area as the maximum number of nerve impulses executed by one human brain per second (1017) (36). (
  • The human brain must constantly screen incoming stimuli for relevance. (
  • The human brain is ninety-five percent of its adult size at age six, but the myth of the first three years can be proven false by the constant developing of the grey matter in the front cortex throughout one's life especially through their teenage years, which is why the experiences the brain is exposed to is crucial long past those early years. (
  • Their paper, published in Science , explains how human brain cells can be 'Neanderthal-ised' with very small changes to their DNA. (
  • It's fascinating to see that a single base-pair alteration in human DNA can change how the brain is wired," he says. (
  • He said he thinks the company should be able to put the implant in a human brain as part of a clinical trial in about six months, though that timeline is far from certain. (
  • Prediction of human errors by maladaptive changes in event-related brain networks. (
  • Quickly, but I suggest you try Google search engine with string pitch music brain. (
  • The nervous system sends signals between your brain and the rest of the body. (
  • The Upper Brain is behind all the "higher" functions in a person's nervous system. (
  • The brain structure known as the amygdala plays a key role in generating and perpetuating emotions such as fear by sending signals into the hypothalamus, which controls the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Speaking two languages profoundly affects the brain and changes how the nervous system responds to sound, lab tests revealed. (
  • Cite this: Brain Imaging Findings Shed Light on Suicidal Behavior - Medscape - Dec 15, 2014. (
  • Amygdala (located one in each hemisphere of the brain within the temporal lobe) is a part of the limbic system responsible for regulating the functions of internal organs, instinctive behavior, emotions, memory, cycles of sleep and wakefulness. (
  • The brain of the average teen is quite different to that of an adult, which results in many struggles in action and behavior that is special to teens. (
  • A computer-guided needle-aspiration of the brain lesions yielded yellow-brown, creamy fluid in which abundant septated fungal hyphae were detected microscopically ( Figure C). Cytologic investigation was consistent with a necrotic abscess. (
  • 50 copies/mL, and a MRI scan of the brain showed partial regression of the 2 brain lesions ( Figure D). (
  • Practically speaking, absolute contraindications to brain biopsy are limited to those lesions felt to be too small to accurately and safely target and to those patients who are coagulopathic or otherwise unable to safely tolerate intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. (
  • Join 12,620 readers exploring, at no cost, the latest in neuroplasticity and brain health. (
  • The brain-computer interface (BCI) would allow humans to operate computers, wheelchairs, prostheses, and other devices, using brain signals only. (
  • Botox®), which interrupt signals from the brain that cause these spasms. (
  • In experiments by other teams, implanted sensors have let paralyzed people use brain signals to operate computers and move robotic arms. (
  • The tip of the wire is placed within that nuclear structure of the deep brain and then we can just influence the electricity that's coming out of it and create an electrical field that then affects the way the neuron in the surrounding areas respond and fire and send signals to other parts of the brain. (
  • Five-year outcomes of persons with (Traumatic Brain Injury) TBI: 22% died, 30% became worse, 22% stayed same, and 26% improved. (
  • Comprehensive assessment of hemorrhage risks and outcomes after stereotactic brain biopsy. (
  • To help standardize the diagnosis process, Bakshi's center is developing a large database of brain scans taken from multiple sites across the state of New York. (
  • Ultimately, our hope is that when somebody comes in and we take a brain scan, we can make a diagnosis, stratify their disease and determine what treatments would be most effective," says Rosen. (
  • The actual diagnosis you're given has relatively little predictive value for the specific brain regions involved," Etkin told the Daily Beast. (
  • In situations in which surgical resection is not necessarily indicated but diagnosis of a brain lesion is needed to determine optimal treatment, a stereotactic brain biopsy offers a relatively safe and reliable method of obtaining diagnostic tissue. (
  • Brain biopsy should be considered when a tissue diagnosis from a suspicious brain lesion is needed to guide treatment and less-invasive methods of diagnosis are exhausted or inappropriate. (
  • In any patient considered for stereotactic brain biopsy, weighing the relative merits of biopsy, namely the ability to obtain a tissue diagnosis, against the potential risks is important. (
  • Because more than any place else in the brain, when it comes to the hippocampus, size matters. (
  • This eye-catching video shows greater detail of the hippocampus, a brain region that helps you create new memories. (
  • A brain area called the occipital lobe processes the images your eyes see. (
  • Anything to the left of his nose is not transmitted to his brain, because the occipital lobe in his right hemisphere is missing and cannot receive this information," says Marlene Behrmann of Carnegie Mellon University, Pennsylvania. (
  • However, scientists say these areas should not be constituted as the mythical unused 90 percent of the brain. (
  • Not surprisingly, scientists have also discovered that nutrition plays a very significant role in the ability to make new brain cells. (
  • Scientists still do not have a good understanding of the brain mechanisms by which psilocybin produces its effects. (
  • In this case, the goal of the scientists was to find out how the brain of the experiment participants reacts to a stressful situation. (
  • Learning a second language can boost brain power, scientists believe. (
  • Could brain drain be good for poor countries? (
  • There are legitimate concerns that brain drain's short term benefits disguise the high costs of slowed long term growth in developing countries, but the body of work on the surprising upside of brain drain is growing. (
  • Their 2010 Interphone report showed no substantial link with mobile phone use and incidence of brain cancers, aside from a very small risk increase for long-term heavy users, and in fact found reduced rates for some types. (
  • The new brain-scan-based work, to be published Feb. 23 in the Journal of the American Medical Association , shows radiation emitted from a cellphone's antenna during a call makes nearby brain tissue use 7 percent more energy. (
  • The term "brain injury" encompasses a wide variety of conditions, from mild concussions to damaged brain tissue from an object penetrating the skull. (
  • Tearing is when an impact causes tissue damage throughout significant areas of the brain. (
  • Brain herniation, also known as cerebral herniation, happens when brain tissue changes position, creating more pressure inside the skull. (
  • Swelling in the brain can cause pressure within the skull, resulting in brain tissue shifting from its usual position into surrounding areas. (
  • This is like a tidal wave or tsunami of depolarization and is an extremely pathological reaction of brain tissue," he added. (
  • This week on Hidden Brain, we return to a 2018 episode that's acutely relevant today and ask, who bears the cost when nobody wants to pay? (
  • By Sioux Henley Campbell Fighting Brain-Eating Ameba [i] It sits in a blister pack, secured in a nondescript office at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), just a few phone calls away from being flown to a patient's bedside for emergency treatment. (
  • This audio public service announcement from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention features a parent that emphasizes the importance of talking to youth about the impact of nicotine in e-cigarettes on the developing brain, including priming the brain for addiction. (
  • As a teen, being exposed to drugs, alcohol, inappropriate websites, violent movies/video games will affect and shape our brains and how our future will be by exposing our brains for addiction. (
  • But if he uses e-cigarettes, the nicotine in them can impact attention, learning, and memory, and can prime the brain for addiction. (
  • But 20 to 30 percent of patients report brain fog three months after their initial infection, as do 65 to 85 percent of the long-haulers who stay sick for much longer. (
  • Compared with bipolar patients who had not attempted suicide and healthy volunteers, those who had attempted suicide showed less integrity of white matter in key frontal brain systems, including the uncinate fasciculus, a fiber tract that connects the frontal lobe with key brain areas that control emotion, motivation, and memory, Dr Blumberg reported. (
  • Eriksen and colleagues investigated whether spreading depolarization-related variables at two different time windows (days 1-4 and 5-8) after aneurysmal SAH correlated with the stereologically determined volume of early focal brain injury on the preinterventional CT scan in 54 patients. (
  • Invasive infection is very rare in humans, and most were observed in immunocompromised patients, manifesting as osteomyelitis ( 3 , 4 ) or diffuse vascular brain invasion ( 5 ). (
  • 90% of brain abscesses in immunocompromised transplant patients with an associated mortality rate of 97% ( 10 ), despite aggressive surgery and antifungal therapy ( 9 ). (
  • The risk for recurrence in the brain for patients with early breast cancer after primary therapy is about 12% at 10 years. (
  • Kaakaji W, Barnett GH, Bernhard D, Warbel A, Valaitis K, Stamp S. Clinical and economic consequences of early discharge of patients following supratentorial stereotactic brain biopsy. (
  • Brain metastasis is a dreaded complication that significantly reduces the quality of life in breast cancer patients . (
  • The data of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis who were treated with WBRT using cobalt -60 equipment between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively collected from the departmental medical record unit. (
  • WBRT is an effective treatment modality for patients with brain metastasis in our resource -poor environment . (
  • Why psilocybin might induce reductions in brain activity is not known, but it is natural to speculate. (
  • These defects may either exacerbate or even induce a traumatic brain injury. (
  • It is also of central importance for restraining the body's stress and inflammatory responses, both of which can induce significant damage to bodily organs and the brain if not properly reined in. (
  • Out of 61 altered genes, one - called NOVA1 - was chosen for closer inspection because it affects several other genes in early brain development. (
  • Parents were fully absolved for the mental illnesses of their children, except to the degree that they passed along bad genes that caused chemical imbalances in the brain. (
  • brain abscess in an HIV-seropositive patient. (
  • Noninvasive brain stimulation may also be beneficial in treating chronic anosmia or hyposmia associated with COVID-19. (
  • The cingulate gyrus, an arch-shaped section of the brain, pushes against the falx cerebri, a crescent-shaped section between the left and right sides of the brain. (
  • Volunteers from major cities showed hyperactivity in another part of the brain as well - the so-called cingulate gyrus. (
  • A few disadvantages to the teenage brain is that the prefrontal cortex isn't fully developed yet and they are wired to be independent. (
  • The prefrontal cortex is responsible for this because it's a brain region that's not fully developed yet. (
  • From brain scans of 103 babies, Courchesne's team found that before her second birthday, a sleeping, normally developing child will typically respond to spoken words with robust activity in the network of brain structures most associated with language, memory, reward, emotion and social judgment. (
  • A) T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain showing 2 large masses (triangle) surrounded by a ring of signal intensity and. (
  • MaselBE, DeWitt D. Traumatic brain injury: a disease process, not an event. (
  • Welcome to the Boston Children's Hospital Brain Injury Center. (
  • We care for children and adolescents who have had any type of head or brain injury . (
  • We offer four specialized outpatient clinics for children who have had a brain injury: two for children who have had recent concussions and two for more specialized follow-up care after a brain injury. (
  • If you or a loved one suffers from a brain injury caused by another's carelessness or negligence, you may be able to get financial compensation for your medical costs or pain and suffering. (
  • A brain injury may occur anytime a blow or jolt to the head takes place. (
  • Whether an injury is open or closed, a serious brain injury can result in paralysis, loss of consciousness, and death. (
  • It can be difficult to determine whether a head injury has caused a related brain injury. (
  • A brain injury can occur even without a high speed or a hard object striking the injured party. (
  • Seek medical attention quickly if there is any reason to think a brain injury has taken place. (
  • This child has been defined as a deceased person yet she has all the functional attributes of a living person despite her brain injury," the center said on its website . (
  • Traumatic brain injury increases risk of Parkinson's, even years later. (
  • It has now also been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of early brain injury after SAH. (
  • The discovery of this spreading depolarization as the mechanism of brain cell death after a brain injury has provided a new potential target for treatment. (
  • Suppression of these depolarizations might one day become an important tactic for minimizing acute brain injury as it evolves in the emergency setting," Mayer and Helbok conclude. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as acquired brain injury, head injury, or brain injury, causes substantial disability and mortality. (
  • Injury deaths from traumatic brain injury (TBI) account for over 30% of fatalities each year, including over 2.5 million emergency room visits. (
  • Other people's carelessness or malicious intent that results in a major traumatic brain injury in Los Angeles (TBI) may entitle you or a loved one to compensation under the law. (
  • Bicycle accidents, SUV and pickup truck collisions, blasts and explosions, and sexual and physical attacks are all potential causes of traumatic brain injury. (
  • From mild interruptions to serious long-term brain injury, there is a wide spectrum of possibilities. (
  • Extreme traumatic brain injury (TBI) may demand specialized treatment and perhaps life-saving surgeries. (
  • According to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) report, almost 1.5 million individuals in the United States suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. (
  • Approximately 5.3 million individuals are now living with disabilities as a result of traumatic brain injury. (
  • When you encounter someone who has had a traumatic brain injury, you may assume that they can speak, walk, and seem well. (
  • Anyone may be held liable if they fail to take reasonable precautions to warn others of a danger that results in traumatic brain injury. (
  • Confabulation: After brain injury, what's it mean? (
  • Confabulation is often associated with an injury to the frontal area of the brain. (
  • Title : Brain injury in kids Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (U.S.). Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. (
  • Have a desire to do even more to improve their brain health. (
  • About one-quarter of adults age 40 and older, and more than four in 10 of those who identify as racial/ethnic minorities, believe that the best way to maintain/improve brain health is to play brain games. (
  • The most-frequently reported barrier to adding more mentally-stimulating activities is being uncertain of which activities benefit brain health. (
  • Attending religious services is a top activity adults age 40+ believe maintains or improves brain health. (
  • In this month's main article about brain builders and brain drainers, you'll read about how toxins can affect brain health. (
  • This increased interest in brain health is evident in the growing number of brain-related products and brain-healthy ingredients that are available in the market. (
  • A proven ingredient for brain health for all ages, omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid aid in development as well as benefit certain mental conditions. (
  • Spirulina and Brain Health: Could Your Brain Use a Boost? (
  • In oth-er words, both types of exer-cise seem to bring pos-i-tive and com-ple-men-tary ben-e-fits - a mes-sage often over-looked in the quest for a sin-gle "mag-ic pill" or gen-er-al solu-tion to all brain health needs. (
  • Some benefits of physical activity on brain health start right after a session of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. (
  • What Complications Can Brain Cancer Cause? (
  • In vivo magnetic resonance morphometry of the brain in musicians was used to measure the anatomical asymmetry of the planum temporale, a brain area containing auditory association cortex and previously shown to be a marker of structural and functional asymmetry. (
  • Two weeks after the accident, the participants had their brain activity measured via functional MRI while they completed a series of standard computer-based tasks. (
  • He wanted to be cremated with the brain still inside of his head and his ashes scattered in secret, in order to "discourage idolaters. (
  • Their brains may be smaller than the head of a pin, but ants are excellent navigators that use celestial and terrestrial cues to memorize their paths. (
  • In one set of experiments, they recorded bats' position and brain activity while humans encouraged the animals to explore the full 3D volume of the room. (
  • Not all of the news about brain stimulation was positive. (
  • In babies who will go on to have the most debilitating form of autism, that relationship is flipped: brain regions linked to motor control and sensory processing will light up strongly in response to spoken language and the constellation of regions typically involved in language, memory and social judgment will go quiet. (
  • Even at this early age, and despite notable language delays, babies who would be diagnosed with autism but go on to develop strong language and social skills had brain-activation patterns that looked like those of the normally developing children. (
  • There is increasing psychological evidence for the extreme male brain theory of autism. (
  • This gland is sort of a danger sensor in the brain and therefore is associated with anxiety and depression," said Professor Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg with Heidelberg University. (
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