A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A genus of gram-negative, oxidase-positive, nonfermentative rods which are motile by means of a single flagellum. Afipia felis and BARTONELLA HENSELAE are causative agents of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is a fast-growing and soybean-nodulating innoculant.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is sometimes called broom because of the shape of the plant. Members produce SPARTEINE.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A proposed family of bacteria belonging to the alpha-2 subgroup of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)

The Bradyrhizobium japonicum nolA gene encodes three functionally distinct proteins. (1/348)

Examination of nolA revealed that NolA can be uniquely translated from three ATG start codons. Translation from the first ATG (ATG1) predicts a protein (NolA1) having an N-terminal, helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif similar to the DNA-binding domains of the MerR-type regulatory proteins. Translation from ATG2 and ATG3 would give the N-terminally truncated proteins NolA2 and NolA3, respectively, lacking the DNA-binding domain. Consistent with this, immunoblot analyses of Bradyrhizobium japonicum extracts with a polyclonal antiserum to NolA revealed three distinct polypeptides whose molecular weights were consistent with translation of nolA from the three ATG initiation sites. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce derivatives of nolA in which ATG start sites were sequentially deleted. Immunoblots revealed a corresponding absence of the polypeptide whose ATG start site was removed. Translational fusions of the nolA mutants to a promoterless lacZ yielded functional fusion proteins in both Escherichia coli and B. japonicum. Expression of NolA is inducible upon addition of extracts from 5-day-old etiolated soybean seedlings but is not inducible by genistein, a known inducer of the B. japonicum nod genes. The expression of both NolA2 and NolA3 requires the presence of NolA1. NolA1 or NolA3 is required for the genotype-specific nodulation of soybean genotype PI 377578.  (+info)

A novel 53-kDa nodulin of the symbiosome membrane of soybean nodules, controlled by Bradyrhizobium japonicum. (2/348)

A nodule-specific 53-kDa protein (GmNOD53b) of the symbiosome membrane from soybean was isolated and its LysC digestion products were microsequenced. cDNA clones of this novel nodulin, obtained from cDNA library screening with an RT-PCR (reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction)-generated hybridization probe exhibited no homology to proteins identified so far. The expression of GmNOD53b coincides with the onset of nitrogen fixation. Therefore, it is a late nodulin. Among other changes, the GmNOD53b is significantly reduced in nodules infected with the Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutant 184 on the protein level as well as on the level of mRNA expression, compared with the wild-type infected nodules. The reduction of GmNOD53b mRNA is related to an inactivation of the sipF gene in B. japonicum 184, coding for a functionally active signal peptidase.  (+info)

Further studies of the role of cyclic beta-glucans in symbiosis. An NdvC mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum synthesizes cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-glucosyl. (3/348)

The cyclic beta-(1-->3),beta-(1-->6)-D-glucan synthesis locus of Bradyrhizobium japonicum is composed of at least two genes, ndvB and ndvC. Mutation in either gene affects glucan synthesis, as well as the ability of the bacterium to establish a successful symbiotic interaction with the legume host soybean (Glycine max). B. japonicum strain AB-14 (ndvB::Tn5) does not synthesize beta-glucans, and strain AB-1 (ndvC::Tn5) synthesizes a cyclic beta-glucan lacking beta-(1-->6)-glycosidic bonds. We determined that the structure of the glucan synthesized by strain AB-1 is cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucosyl, a cyclic beta-(1-->3)-linked decasaccharide in which one of the residues is substituted in the 6 position with beta-laminaribiose. Cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucosyl did not suppress the fungal beta-glucan-induced plant defense response in soybean cotyledons and had much lower affinity for the putative membrane receptor protein than cyclic beta-(1-->3),beta-(1-->6)-glucans produced by wild-type B. japonicum. This is consistent with the hypothesis presented previously that the wild-type cyclic beta-glucans may function as suppressors of a host defense response.  (+info)

Susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity of root nodule bacteria. (4/348)

The root nodule bacteria (free-living cells) tested had higher susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the other genera of aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria tested. The catalase activities tended to have a positive correlation with H2O2 resistance among all bacteria tested. Addition of a catalase inhibitor such as 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole increased the susceptibility to H2O2. These results suggest that the lower catalase activity brings about the higher susceptibility of root nodule bacteria to H2O2. Root nodule bacteria seemed to have two or three catalase isozymes during growth and their catalase activities were higher in log phase than in stationary phase, contrary to other genera of bacteria tested.  (+info)

Photosynthetic bradyrhizobia from Aeschynomene spp. are specific to stem-nodulated species and form a separate 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism group. (5/348)

We obtained nine bacterial isolates from root or collar nodules of the non-stem-nodulated Aeschynomene species A. elaphroxylon, A. uniflora, or A. schimperi and 69 root or stem nodule isolates from the stem-nodulated Aeschynomene species A. afraspera, A. ciliata, A. indica, A. nilotica, A. sensitiva, and A. tambacoundensis from various places in Senegal. These isolates, together with 45 previous isolates from various Aeschynomene species, were studied for host-specific nodulation within the genus Aeschynomene, also revisiting cross-inoculation groups described previously by D. Alazard (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50:732-734, 1985). The whole collection of Aeschynomene nodule isolates was screened for synthesis of photosynthetic pigments by spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography analyses. The presence of puf genes in photosynthetic Aeschynomene isolates was evidenced both by Southern hybridization with a Rhodobacter capsulatus photosynthetic gene probe and by DNA amplification with primers defined from photosynthetic genes. In addition, amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis was performed on 45 Aeschynomene isolates, including strain BTAi1, and 19 reference strains from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, and other Bradyrhizobium sp. strains of uncertain taxonomic positions. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the photosynthetic strain ORS278 (LMG 12187) was determined and compared to sequences from databases. Our main conclusion is that photosynthetic Aeschynomene nodule isolates share the ability to nodulate particular stem-nodulated species and form a separate subbranch on the Bradyrhizobium rRNA lineage, distinct from B. japonicum and B. elkanii.  (+info)

Phosphorylation, dephosphorylation and DNA-binding of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum RegSR two-component regulatory proteins. (6/348)

Under low oxygen conditions, induction of many genes required for nitrogen fixation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum depends on the redox-responsive transcriptional activator NifA which is encoded in the fixR-nifA operon. Basal expression of this operon depends on the response regulator RegR and a DNA element located around position -68 in the fixR-nifA promoter region. To investigate the functional properties of RegR and the interaction with its putative cognate kinase, RegS, we overproduced and affinity-purified RegR and a truncated soluble variant of RegS (RegS(C)), both as N-terminally His(6)-tagged proteins. RegS(C) autophosphorylated when incubated with [gamma-(32)P]ATP, and it catalyzed the transfer of the phosphoryl label to RegR. The phosphorylated form of RegS(C) exhibited phosphatase activity on RegR-phosphate. Chemical stability tests and site-specific mutagenesis identified amino acids H219 and D63 of RegS and RegR, respectively, as the phosphorylated residues. Competition experiments with isolated domains demonstrated that the N-terminal but not the C-terminal domain of RegR interacts with RegS(C). Band-shift experiments revealed that phosphorylated RegR had at least eightfold enhanced DNA-binding activity compared with dephosphorylated RegR or the mutant protein RegR-D63N, which cannot be phosphorylated. In conclusion, the RegSR proteins of B. japonicum exhibit functional properties in vitro that are typical of two-component regulatory systems.  (+info)

Succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum is closely related to mitochondrial Sdh. (7/348)

The sdhCDAB operon, encoding succinate dehydrogenase, was cloned from the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Sdh from B. japonicum is phylogenetically related to Sdh from mitochondria. This is the first example of a mitochondrion-like Sdh functionally expressed in Escherichia coli.  (+info)

IS1631 occurrence in Bradyrhizobium japonicum highly reiterated sequence-possessing strains with high copy numbers of repeated sequences RSalpha and RSbeta. (8/348)

From Bradyrhizobium japonicum highly reiterated sequence-possessing (HRS) strains indigenous to Niigata and Tokachi in Japan with high copy numbers of the repeated sequences RSalpha and RSbeta (K. Minamisawa, T. Isawa, Y. Nakatsuka, and N. Ichikawa, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:1845-1851, 1998), several insertion sequence (IS)-like elements were isolated by using the formation of DNA duplexes by denaturation and renaturation of total DNA, followed by treatment with S1 nuclease. Most of these sequences showed structural features of bacterial IS elements, terminal inverted repeats, and homology with known IS elements and transposase genes. HRS and non-HRS strains of B. japonicum differed markedly in the profiles obtained after hybridization with all the elements tested. In particular, HRS strains of B. japonicum contained many copies of IS1631, whereas non-HRS strains completely lacked this element. This association remained true even when many field isolates of B. japonicum were examined. Consequently, IS1631 occurrence was well correlated with B. japonicum HRS strains possessing high copy numbers of the repeated sequence RSalpha or RSbeta. DNA sequence analysis indicated that IS1631 is 2,712 bp long. In addition, IS1631 belongs to the IS21 family, as evidenced by its two open reading frames, which encode putative proteins homologous to IstA and IstB of IS21, and its terminal inverted repeat sequences with multiple short repeats.  (+info)

'Bradyrhizobium' is a genus of bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain leguminous plants, such as soybeans and alfalfa. These bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which the plant can then use for growth. This process, known as nitrogen fixation, is important for maintaining soil fertility and is beneficial for agricultural production.

The name 'Bradyrhizobium' comes from the Greek words "brady," meaning slow, and "rhiza," meaning root, reflecting the slower growth rate of these bacteria compared to other rhizobia. The bacteria are typically rod-shaped and motile, with a single polar flagellum for movement. They are gram-negative and have a complex cell envelope that includes an outer membrane, peptidoglycan layer, and cytoplasmic membrane.

Bradyrhizobium species are able to form symbiotic relationships with leguminous plants by colonizing the root nodules of the plant. The bacteria enter the plant through root hairs or wounds on the root surface, and then migrate to the inner cortex of the root where they induce the formation of nodules. Once inside the nodule, the bacteria differentiate into bacteroids that are able to fix nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into ammonia, which is then used by the plant for growth. In return, the plant provides carbon and other nutrients to the bacteria.

Bradyrhizobium species are important for sustainable agriculture because they can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and improve soil health. They have also been studied for their potential use in bioremediation and as biofertilizers for non-leguminous crops.

Rhizobiaceae is a family of bacteria that have the ability to fix nitrogen. These bacteria are gram-negative, motile, and rod-shaped. They are commonly found in the root nodules of leguminous plants, where they form a symbiotic relationship with the plant. The bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen, while the plant provides the bacteria with carbon and a protected environment.

The most well-known genus of Rhizobiaceae is Rhizobium, which includes several species that are important for agriculture because of their ability to fix nitrogen in the root nodules of legumes. Other genera in this family include Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium.

It's worth noting that while Rhizobiaceae bacteria are generally beneficial, they can sometimes cause disease in plants under certain conditions. For example, some strains of Rhizobium can cause leaf spots on certain crops.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen gas (N2) in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other chemically reactive forms, making it available to plants and other organisms for use as a nutrient. This process is essential for the nitrogen cycle and for the growth of many types of plants, as most plants cannot utilize nitrogen gas directly from the air.

In the medical field, nitrogen fixation is not a commonly used term. However, in the context of microbiology and infectious diseases, some bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and this ability can contribute to their pathogenicity. For example, certain species of bacteria that colonize the human body, such as those found in the gut or on the skin, may be able to fix nitrogen and use it for their own growth and survival. In some cases, these bacteria may also release fixed nitrogen into the environment, which can have implications for the ecology and health of the host and surrounding ecosystems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Root nodules in plants refer to the specialized structures formed through the symbiotic relationship between certain leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, most commonly belonging to the genus Rhizobia. These nodules typically develop on the roots of the host plant, providing an ideal environment for the bacteria to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form that can be directly utilized by the plant for growth and development.

The formation of root nodules begins with the infection of the plant's root hair cells by Rhizobia bacteria. This interaction triggers a series of molecular signals leading to the differentiation of root cortical cells into nodule primordia, which eventually develop into mature nodules. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria reside within these nodules in membrane-bound compartments called symbiosomes, where they reduce atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia through an enzyme called nitrogenase.

The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with carbon sources and other essential nutrients required for their growth and survival within the nodules. The fixed nitrogen is then transported from the root nodules to other parts of the plant, enhancing its overall nitrogen nutrition and promoting sustainable growth without the need for external nitrogen fertilizers.

In summary, root nodules in plants are essential structures formed through symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, allowing leguminous plants to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form while also benefiting the environment by reducing the reliance on chemical nitrogen fertilizers.

Plant root nodulation is a type of symbiotic relationship between certain plants (mostly legumes) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, such as Rhizobia species. This process involves the formation of specialized structures called nodules on the roots of the host plant. The bacteria inhabit these nodules and convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form of nitrogen that plants can use for growth. In return, the plant provides the bacteria with carbon sources and a protected environment for growth. This mutualistic relationship helps improve soil fertility and promotes sustainable agriculture.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

Rhizobium is not a medical term, but rather a term used in microbiology and agriculture. It refers to a genus of gram-negative bacteria that can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia, which can then be used by plants as a nutrient. These bacteria live in the root nodules of leguminous plants (such as beans, peas, and clover) and form a symbiotic relationship with them.

The host plant provides Rhizobium with carbon sources and a protected environment within the root nodule, while the bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen. This mutualistic interaction plays a crucial role in maintaining soil fertility and promoting plant growth.

While Rhizobium itself is not directly related to human health or medicine, understanding its symbiotic relationship with plants can have implications for agricultural practices, sustainable farming, and global food security.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

"Acacia" is a scientific name for a genus of shrubs and trees that belong to the pea family, Fabaceae. It includes over 1,350 species found primarily in Australia and Africa, but also in Asia, America, and Europe. Some acacia species are known for their hardwood, others for their phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) or compound leaves, and yet others for their flowers, which are typically small and yellow or cream-colored.

It is important to note that "Acacia" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a botanical one. While some acacia species have medicinal uses, the name itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lespedeza" is not a medical term. It is a genus of plants commonly known as bush clover or lespedeza. These plants are native to warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world, including parts of North America, Asia, and Africa. They have been used in some traditional medicine practices, but there is no widely recognized medical definition associated with "Lespedeza." If you have any questions related to a specific medical term or concept, I'd be happy to help if I can!

"Pachyrhizus" is a genus of plants in the family Fabaceae, also known as the legume or pea family. The term itself does not have a specific medical definition, but two species within this genus, Pachyrhizus erosus (also known as Jicama) and Pachyrhizus tuberosus, have been used in traditional medicine.

Jicama, or Pachyrhizus erosus, is a root vegetable that has been used in traditional medicine for its potential diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. However, it's important to note that the tuberous roots are the only edible and medicinally useful part of the plant, while other parts of the plant contain rotenone, a toxic compound.

Pachyrhizus tuberosus, on the other hand, is not widely consumed or used in traditional medicine, but like Pachyrhizus erosus, its roots have been reported to possess potential medicinal properties such as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

As with any use of traditional remedies, it's crucial to consult a healthcare professional before incorporating these plants into a medical treatment plan, especially considering the limited scientific research on their safety and efficacy.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Hydrogenase is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is used to describe an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen (H2) and protons (H+) or vice versa. These enzymes are found in certain bacteria, algae, and archaea, and they play a crucial role in their energy metabolism, particularly in processes like hydrogen production and consumption.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the function of hydrogenase can be important in fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental science, which can have implications for human health in areas like infectious diseases, biofuels, and waste management.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

"Afipia" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. The name "Afipia" comes from the acronym for the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, where the bacterium was first isolated and studied.

Species of Afipia have been associated with various human diseases, including respiratory infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bacteria in the blood). However, these bacteria are not considered major pathogens and are only rarely implicated in human illness.

It's worth noting that the study of Afipia and other environmental bacteria is an active area of research, and our understanding of their role in human health continues to evolve.

"Sinorhizobium" is a genus of bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain leguminous plants, such as beans and alfalfa. These bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which the plant can then use for growth. This symbiotic relationship benefits both the plant and the bacteria - the plant receives a source of nitrogen, while the bacteria receive carbon and other nutrients from the plant.

The genus "Sinorhizobium" is part of the family Rhizobiaceae and includes several species that are important for agriculture and the global nitrogen cycle. Some examples of "Sinorhizobium" species include S. meliloti, which forms nodules on alfalfa and other Medicago species, and S. fredii, which forms nodules on soybeans and other Glycine species.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of nitrogen-fixing bacteria has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some "Sinorhizobium" species have been reclassified as members of other genera. However, the genus "Sinorhizobium" remains a valid and important group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Nitrogenase is not a medical term, but a biological term used in the field of microbiology and biochemistry. It refers to an enzyme complex found in certain bacteria and archaea that have the ability to fix nitrogen gas (N2) from the atmosphere into ammonia (NH3), a form of nitrogen that can be utilized by plants and other organisms for growth and development. This process is known as biological nitrogen fixation, which is essential for maintaining the global nitrogen cycle and supporting life on Earth.

The medical field may refer to nitrogenase in relation to human health in the context of understanding the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil fertility and their impact on agriculture and food production. However, there is no direct medical definition or application for nitrogenase.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

"Sinorhizobium fredii" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Rhizobiaceae. It has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in a symbiotic relationship with certain leguminous plants, particularly soybeans and other related species. This bacterium infects the roots of these plants and forms nodules where it converts nitrogen gas into ammonia, a form that can be used by the plant for growth.

"Sinorhizobium fredii" is widely distributed in soil and is known to have a broad host range, including many important agricultural crops. It has been studied extensively due to its potential use as a biofertilizer, which could help reduce the need for chemical nitrogen fertilizers and improve soil health.

It's worth noting that while "Sinorhizobium fredii" is an important bacterium in agriculture and environmental science, it can also be a pathogen of some plants under certain conditions. Therefore, understanding its biology and ecology is crucial for optimizing its benefits and minimizing any potential negative impacts.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Lupinus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for the group of plants commonly known as lupines or bluebonnets. Some people may use "lupinus" in a medical context to refer to an allergy or sensitivity to lupine beans or other parts of the lupine plant, which can cause symptoms such as rash, itching, and digestive issues. However, this is not a widely recognized medical condition and reactions to lupines are relatively rare. If you have any concerns about a potential allergy or sensitivity to lupines, it is best to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a type of synthetic auxin, which is a plant growth regulator. It is a white crystalline powder with a sour taste and mild characteristic odor. It is soluble in water, alcohol, and acetone, and has a melting point of 130-140°C.

2,4-D is a widely used herbicide that is primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in a variety of settings, including agriculture, lawns, and golf courses. It works by mimicking the natural plant hormone auxin, which causes uncontrolled growth in susceptible plants leading to their death.

In medicine, 2,4-D has been used experimentally as a cytotoxic agent for the treatment of cancer, but its use is not widespread due to its toxicity and potential carcinogenicity. It is important to handle this chemical with care, as it can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Alphaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes a diverse range of bacterial species that can be found in various environments, such as soil, water, and the surfaces of plants and animals. Some notable members of Alphaproteobacteria include the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which form symbiotic relationships with the roots of leguminous plants, as well as the pathogenic bacteria Rickettsia, which are responsible for causing diseases such as typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

The Alphaproteobacteria class is further divided into several orders, including Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Caulobacterales. These orders contain a variety of bacterial species that have different characteristics and ecological roles. For example, members of the order Rhizobiales are known for their ability to fix nitrogen, while members of the order Rhodobacterales include photosynthetic bacteria that can use light as an energy source.

Overall, Alphaproteobacteria is a diverse and important group of bacteria that play various roles in the environment and in the health of plants and animals.

'Cytisus' is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, also known as the pea or legume family. It includes several species of shrubs that are native to Europe and western Asia. Some common names for Cytisus plants include broom, genista, and gorse. These plants are characterized by their narrow, green leaves and showy, yellow or white flowers. They are often used as ornamental plants in gardens and landscaping due to their attractive appearance and ability to thrive in a variety of soil types and conditions. Some species of Cytisus have medicinal uses, such as Cytisus scoparius (also known as common broom), which has been used traditionally to treat a variety of health conditions including respiratory problems and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that the use of Cytisus or any other plant for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as these plants can also have potentially harmful side effects if not used properly.

Rhodobacter is not a medical term, but a genus of bacteria found in the environment. It is commonly found in aquatic environments and can perform photosynthesis, although it is not classified as a plant. Some species of Rhodobacter are capable of fixing nitrogen gas from the atmosphere, making them important contributors to the global nitrogen cycle.

While there may be some medical research into the potential uses or impacts of certain species of Rhodobacter, there is no widely recognized medical definition for this term. If you have any specific concerns about bacteria or infections, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information and advice.

Heme proteins are a type of protein that contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom contained in the center of a large organic ring called a porphyrin. The heme group gives these proteins their characteristic red color. Hemeproteins have various important functions in biological systems, including oxygen transport (e.g., hemoglobin), electron transfer (e.g., cytochromes), and enzymatic catalysis (e.g., peroxidases and catalases). The heme group can bind and release gases, such as oxygen and carbon monoxide, and can participate in redox reactions due to the ease with which iron can change its oxidation state.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Bradyrhizobiaceae is a family of bacteria that are gram-negative, aerobic, and often nitrogen-fixing. They are commonly found in soil and root nodules of leguminous plants. The most well-known genus in this family is Bradyrhizobium, which forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with plants such as soybeans and beans. Members of this family have a slow growth rate, hence the name "brady" which means slow in Greek.

Here's a medical definition from Stedman's Medical Dictionary:

Bradyrhizobiaceae \bra″dē-rīz″o-bi-a′se-ā″ (pl. fam. -ae \-ē) \fam. Nitrobacteraceae.

A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are often nitrogen fixing and commonly found in soil and root nodules of leguminous plants. The type genus is Bradyrhizobium.

Canthaxanthin is a type of carotenoid, which is a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in certain plants and animals. It has a yellow-to-reddish color and is used as a food additive (coloring agent) and as a dietary supplement. In the medical field, canthaxanthin has been studied for its potential effects on skin conditions such as sun sensitivity and keratosis; however, its use in these contexts is not widely accepted or recommended due to limited evidence of effectiveness and potential safety concerns.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens, and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense establish symbiosis with soybeans. ... nov., Bradyrhizobium glycinis sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium diversitatis sp. nov., isolated from a biodiversity hotspot of the ... Commercial inoculants of Bradyrhizobium are available. Bradyrhizobium has also been identified as a contaminant of DNA ... Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense nodulates Lespedeza. Bradyrhizobium canariense nodulates genistoid legumes endemic to the Canary ...
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it ...
Discover the impact of phosphorus supplementation and Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation on N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and Na uptake in ... Effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Supplementation with Phosphorus on Macronutrients Uptake in Cowpea (Vigna ... The current study was conducted to assess the effects of phosphorus supplementation and Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation on ... D. Nyoki and P. Ndakidemi, "Effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Supplementation with Phosphorus on ...
Findings suggest Bradyrhizobium elkanii LauBG38 as a promising biofertilizer for black gram cultivars. ... Discover the potential of indigenous Bradyrhizobium strains from Myanmar for black gram cultivation. Study their effectiveness ... cluster 1; Bs2 = Bradyrhizobium sp. cluster 2; By1 = Bradyrhizobium yunamingense cluster 1; Be1 = Bradyrhizobium elkanii ... cluster 1; Bs2 = Bradyrhizobium sp. cluster 2; By1 = Bradyrhizobium yunamingense cluster 1; Be1 = Bradyrhizobium elkanii ...
... Show full item record Title: Bradyrhizobium japonicum ... Zablotowicz, R. M., Upchurch, R. G., & Ligon, J. M. (1989). Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutants exhibiting superior soybean ...
The soybean plant plays an important role in our world by forming a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria Bradyrhizobium ... A possible alternative pathway for malate metabolism in Bradyrhizobium japonicum [abstract]. Ward, Luke ...
Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in nodulation in soybean roots inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain CPAC ... inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. To achieve this, we ...
BradyrhizobiumRhizobiaceaeSymbiosisNitrogen FixationSoybeansRoot Nodules, PlantPlant Root NodulationFabaceaeRhizobiumGenes, ... BradyrhizobiumRhizobiaceaeSoybeansFabaceaeRhizobiumAcaciaLespedezaPachyrhizusAfipiaSinorhizobiumPlants, MedicinalSinorhizobium ... Bradyrhizobium. A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate ...
Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. Hydrolase. 9brad-a0a0r3buj3. Hormone-sensitive_lipase_like. Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi Acetyl ... Taxonomy of Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. cellular organisms, Bacteria, Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, ... Bradyrhizobiaceae, Bradyrhizobium, Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi, NCBI Tax ID at NCBI: 280333, NCBI Tax ID in ESTHER for more genes ... Species Report for: Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. 3 Alpha/beta hydrolase fold proteins and 0 fragments are known to date in ...
Funciton: Ribose ABC transport system, ATP-binding protein RbsA (TC 3.A.1.2.1) ...
Allows to visualize regulon content in the context of metabolic pathways ...
Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS 285. Putative phenylacetate--coenzyme A ligase. Methanocella arvoryzae (strain DSM 22066 / NBRC 105507 ...
Bradyrhizobium commune sp. nov., isolated from nodules of a wide range of native legumes across the Australian continent ...
Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a Gram negative bacterium belonging to rhizobia group associated with roots of soybean and have the ... Different strains of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium have been reported to inhibit the growth of M. phaseolina (Deshwal et al., ... Antoun H., Beauchamp C.J., Goussard N., Chabot R. and Lalande R. (1998), Potential of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species as ... All the experiments were carried out in triplicates.Bradyrhizobium japonicum (RJ(s)TAL102) was collected from M.P. State Agro ...
To study the effect of dual inoculation of Bacillus subtilis and Bradyrhizobium japonicum along with graded levels of chemical ... To study the effect of dual inoculation of Bacillus subtilis and Bradyrhizobium japonicum along with graded levels of chemical ... The dual inoculation of Bacillus subtilis and Bradyrhizobium japonicum along with 75 % nitrogen and phosphorus significantly ... The dual inoculation of Bacillus subtilis and Bradyrhizobium japonicum along with 75 % nitrogen and phosphorus significantly ...
Most sequences were assigned to nifHDK of Bradyrhizobium species, including non-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. S23321 and ... Most sequences were assigned to nifHDK of Bradyrhizobium species, including non-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. S23321 and ... Most sequences were assigned to nifHDK of Bradyrhizobium species, including non-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. S23321 and ... Most sequences were assigned to nifHDK of Bradyrhizobium species, including non-nodulating Bradyrhizobium sp. S23321 and ...
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo Bradyrhizobium/enzimologia Ferroquelatase/metabolismo Nitrobenzoatos/farmacologia Oryza/ ... expressing Bradyrhizobium japonicum Fe-chelatase (BjFeCh) after treatment with acifluorfen (AF). During the photodynamic stress ... biosynthesis and protective responses to acifluorfen-induced photodynamic stress in transgenic rice expressing Bradyrhizobium ...
... to evaluate the effect of IRAT-FA3 Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain inoculum on the agronomic performance of five varieties of ... to evaluate the effect of IRAT-FA3 Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain inoculum on the agronomic performance of five varieties of ... Effect of inoculating seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the agronomic performance of five varieties of soybean (Glycine ... to evaluate the effect of IRAT-FA3 Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain inoculum on the agronomic performance of five varieties of ...
Evaluation of Bradyrhizobium Strain Rates for Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Soybean (Glycine Max L.) at Seka District, Jimma ... to determine appropriate rate of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains on nodulation and seed yield of soybean in south western ...
Our results suggest that legumes, such as lupin, should always be inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, especially if they are ... aim of a two-factorial field experiment was to determine how the inoculation of seeds/soil with preparations of Bradyrhizobium ... with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on Atmospheric Nitrogen Fixation in Soybeans (Glycine max (L.). Plants 2023, 12, 681. [Google ... Response of New Yellow Lupin Varieties to Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus under Central European Conditions by ...
Use of repetitive sequences and the polymerase chain reaction technique to classify genetically related Bradyrhizobium ... Use of repetitive sequences and the polymerase chain reaction technique to classify genetically related Bradyrhizobium ...
2015). Co-inoculation of soybean with Bradyrhizobium and Azospirillum promotes early nodulation. Am. J. Plant Sci. 6, 1641-1649 ... In recent years, several studies and field data have pointed out the benefit of co-inoculating Bradyrhizobium spp. and A. ... D) Total number of inoculant doses for BNF, Bradyrhizobium-based inoculant applied to soybean and Azospirillum-based inoculant ... Hungria, M., Nogueira, M. A., and Araujo, R. S. (2015). Soybean seed co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium spp. and Azospirillum ...
Transcription profiling of soybean nodulation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum - (Peer Reviewed Journal) Brechenmacher, L., Moon- ... Complete Transcriptome of the Soybean Root Hair Cell, a Single Cell Model, and its Alteration in Response to Bradyrhizobium ... Complete Transcriptome of the Soybean Root Hair Cell, a Single Cell Model, and its Alteration in Response to Bradyrhizobium ... Preliminary Analysis of Soybean Gene Expression Response to a Bradyrhizobium japonicum Type III Secretion System Mutant - ( ...
Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from soils by Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse ...
Contains Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteria. NOTE: Must be used within one season. Expiration date is stamped on the bag. Treats ...
Bradyrhizobium japonicum. ), although a slowed growth was observed when Ca2+ concentrations were also low. Wood et al. [18] did ... Bradyrhizobium. species (and their hosts) may be of particular interest due to their higher tolerance to low pH soils [17]. ... Bradyrhizobium. [72].. Microsymbionts and symbioses. . Through screening of acid-tolerant rhizobia strains present in these ... Bradyrhizobium. . However, nitrogenase activity in nodules formed at adequate temperatures may occur at a much wider range of ...
Species: BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot P23222 (Start-129) Domains ...
gi,27382932,ref,NP_774461.1, bll7821 [Bradyrhizobium japonicum] gi,27356105,dbj,BAC53086.1, bll7821 [Bradyrhizobium j.... ... gi,78696579,ref,ZP_00861088.1, probable fatty oxidation complex alpha subunit [Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1] >gi,78515286.... ...
Four selected Bradyrhizobium were characterized for their.... Author(s): Abdoulaye Soumare, Mbaye Wade, Francis Do Rego, Saliou ... Preliminary screening of cowpea-Bradyrhizobium symbiotic traits subjected to salinity stress in Senegal ...

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