A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
A subtype of BRADYKININ RECEPTOR that is induced in response to INFLAMMATION. It may play a role in chronic inflammation and has a high specificity for KININS lacking the C-terminal ARGININE such as des-Arg(10)-kallidin and des-Arg(9)-bradykinin. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.
A system of metabolic interactions by products produced in the distal nephron of the KIDNEY. These products include KALLIKREIN; KININS; KININASE I; KININASE II; and ENKEPHALINASE. This system participates in the control of renal functions. It interacts with the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM to regulate BLOOD PRESSURE, generation of PROSTAGLANDINS, release of VASOPRESSINS, and WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).
A decapeptide bradykinin homolog cleaved from kininogen by kallikreins. It is a smooth-muscle stimulant and hypotensive agent that acts by vasodilatation.
A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal basic amino acid from peptides and proteins, with preference shown for lysine over arginine. It is a plasma zinc enzyme that inactivates bradykinin and anaphylatoxins.
A family of trypsin-like SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that are expressed in a variety of cell types including human prostate epithelial cells. They are formed from tissue prokallikrein by action with TRYPSIN. They are highly similar to PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A protein, molecular weight 50 kD, located in various normal tissues. Upon cleavage by KALLIKREINS, it forms KALLIDIN. Kallidin, in turn, is converted into BRADYKININ. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A plasma protein, molecular weight of 110 kD, that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with PREKALLIKREIN. HMWK is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to KALLIKREINS. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A peptidohydrolytic enzyme that is formed from PREKALLIKREIN by FACTOR XIIA. It activates FACTOR XII; FACTOR VII; and PLASMINOGEN. It is selective for both ARGININE and to a lesser extent LYSINE bonds. EC 3.4.21.34.
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Forms of hereditary angioedema that occur due to mutations in the gene for COMPLEMENT C1 INHIBITOR PROTEIN. Type I hereditary angioedema is associated with reduced serum levels of complement C1 inhibitor protein. Type II hereditary angioedema is associated with the production of a non-functional complement C1 inhibitor protein.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
Kinins. Bradykinins. Tachykinins: mammal *Substance P. *Neurokinin A. *Neurokinin B. amphibian *Kassinin ...
Kinins. Bradykinins. Tachykinins: mammal *Substance P. *Neurokinin A. *Neurokinin B. amphibian *Kassinin ...
Kinins. Bradykinins. Tachykinins: mammal *Substance P. *Neurokinin A. *Neurokinin B. amphibian *Kassinin ...
Kinins. Bradykinins. Tachykinins: mammal *Substance P. *Neurokinin A. *Neurokinin B. amphibian *Kassinin ...
Kinins. Bradykinins. Tachykinins: mammal *Substance P. *Neurokinin A. *Neurokinin B. amphibian *Kassinin ...
Kinins. Bradykinins. Tachykinins: mammal *Substance P. *Neurokinin A. *Neurokinin B. amphibian *Kassinin ...
These agents increase the level of aminopeptidase P, an enzyme that inactivates kinins; kinins (especially bradykinin) are ... Lanadelumab inhibits the plasma enzyme kallikrein, which liberates the kinins bradykinin and kallidin from their kininogen ... Dampening or inhibiting bradykinin has been shown to relieve HAE symptoms. Various mechanisms that interfere with bradykinin ... ACE inhibitors block the enzyme ACE so it can no longer degrade bradykinin; thus, bradykinin accumulates and can cause ...
In the kinin-kallikrein system, the proteolytic cleavage of HK by the enzyme plasma kallikrein makes bradykinin, an ... Kallidin can be converted into bradykinin by Aminopeptidase B, creating a connection between LK and the kinin-kallikrein system ... "Primary structures of the mRNAs encoding the rat precursors for bradykinin and T-kinin. Structural relationship of kininogens ... The kinin-kallikrein system plays a small role in coagulation. HK and LK are noncompetitive inhibitors of activated thrombin. ...
Beraldo, W.T. and Andrade, S.P.: Discovery of bradykinin and the kallikrein-kinin system. In: The Kinin System. Academic Press ... 1974;24(5):460-3. Rocha e Silva M, Beraldo WT, Rosenfeld G. Bradykinin, a hypotensive and smooth muscle stimulating factor ... Maurício Rocha e Silva, which, in 1949, discovered bradykinin, a new autopharmacological principle which was released in the ... a co-discoverer of bradykinin. Beraldo graduated in medicine in 1942, having studied at the Federal University of Minas Gerais ...
ACE is also part of the kinin-kallikrein system where it degrades bradykinin, a potent vasodilator, and other vasoactive ... Because ACE is also the enzyme that degrades bradykinin, ACE inhibitors increase circulating and tissue levels of bradykinin ( ... Other less known functions of ACE are degradation of bradykinin, substance P and amyloid beta-protein. ACE is also known by the ... Thus, the same enzyme (ACE) that generates a vasoconstrictor (ANG II) also disposes of vasodilators (bradykinin). ACE is a zinc ...
... bradykinin peptide (9 amino acids) HMWK is essential for blood coagulation and assembly of the kallikrein-kinin system. Also, ... Kininogen-1 is a constituent of the blood coagulation system as well as the kinin-kallikrein system. high-molecular-weight ... Maeda H, Matsumura Y, Kato H (Nov 1988). "Purification and identification of [hydroxyprolyl3]bradykinin in ascitic fluid from a ... Kato H, Matsumura Y, Maeda H (May 1988). "Isolation and identification of hydroxyproline analogues of bradykinin in human urine ...
It can be converted to bradykinin by the aminopeptidase enzyme. It can be a substrate for carboxypeptidase M and N. Kallidin is ... Kallidin is a bioactive kinin formed in response to injury from kininogen precursors through the action of kallikreins. ... identical to bradykinin with an additional lysine residue added at the N-terminal end and signals through the bradykinin ...
Plasma kallikrein liberates kinins (bradykinin and kallidin) from the kininogens, peptides responsible for the regulation of ... Prekallikrein Kinin-kallikrein system Kinin Aprotinin List of cutaneous conditions Raspi G (September 1996). "Kallikrein and ... Bhoola KD, Figueroa CD, Worthy K (March 1992). "Bioregulation of kinins: kallikreins, kininogens, and kininases". Pharmacol. ... KLK2 and KLK12 also participate in regulation of blood pressure via the activation of bradykinin. KLK2, KLK3, KLK4, KLK5 and ...
This peptide binds to bradykinin receptor B2 and its derivative, Des-Arg9-bradykinin binds to bradykinin receptor B1. Upon ... Additionally, the CAS can activate the kinin-kallikrein system when PKa cleaves HK to form cHK, releasing a peptide known as ... The contact activation system's physiological role in the kinin-kallikrein system is more clear. Here, after activation of PK ... Mattsson E, Herwald H, Cramer H, Persson K, Sjöbring U, Björck L (2001). "Staphylococcus aureus Induces Release of Bradykinin ...
... "polistes kinin 3", is found to lead to similar effects on smooth musculature and circulation as bradykinin. Some ants are also ... Wasp venom uniquely contains wasp kinin that exhibit kinin-like activity. One of the kinins found in wasp kinin, " ...
He found that cutting the guinea pigs' vagus nerve did not affect the action of bradykinin or the inhibitory effect of aspirin- ... began investigating the relationship between kinins and the effects of aspirin. In tests on guinea pigs, Collier found that ... aspirin, if given beforehand, inhibited the bronchoconstriction effects of bradykinin. ...
Nedavno je bilo pokazano da kinin B1 receptor regrutuje neutrofile putem produkcije hemokina CXCL5. Endotelne ćelije su bile ... Bas M, Adams V, Suvorava T, Niehues T, Hoffmann TK, Kojda G (2007). „Nonallergic angioedema: role of bradykinin". Allergy. 62 ( ... Dendorfer A, Wolfrum S, Wagemann M, Qadri F, Dominiak P (2001). „Pathways of bradykinin degradation in blood and plasma of ... Bradikinin proizvodi kinin-kalikreinski sistem proteolitičkim razdvajanjem njegovog kininogenog prekursora, kininogen visoke- ...
They do not inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin or other kinins, and are thus only rarely associated with the persistent dry ...
Lanadelumab inhibits the plasma enzyme kallikrein, which liberates the kinins bradykinin and kallidin from their kininogen ... Icatibant inhibits the bradykinin B2 receptor, and was approved in Europe and the USA. In HAE, specific stimuli that have ... Dendorfer A, Wolfrum S, Wagemann M, Qadri F, Dominiak P (May 2001). "Pathways of bradykinin degradation in blood and plasma of ... These have led to the licensing of pdC1INH in many parts of the world; bradykinin receptor antagonists (icatibant) in Europe; ...
Increased bradykinin levels cause vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and the succeeding angioedema and pain ... which is an enzyme that regulates the activity of the kallikrein-kinin cascade. Poor regulation of the C1 inhibitor results in ... Kallikrein is a protease that functions to cleave kininogen, subsequently creating kininogen and bradykinin, a potent ... The proteolysis of the kininogen forces an upscaled production of bradykinin and kininogen within the patient. ...
Kinins. *Bradykinin. *Tachykinins: mammal *Substance P. *Neurokinin A. *Neurokinin B. *amphibian *Kassinin ...
... kinins MeSH D23.469.050.375.110 - bradykinin MeSH D23.469.050.375.110.400 - kallidin MeSH D23.469.050.375.425 - kininogens MeSH ...
... kinins MeSH D12.644.276.875.169 - bradykinin MeSH D12.644.276.875.169.400 - kallidin MeSH D12.644.276.875.654 - kininogens MeSH ... bradykinin MeSH D12.644.456.193.400 - kallidin MeSH D12.644.456.241 - caerulein MeSH D12.644.456.270 - chalones MeSH D12.644. ... bradykinin MeSH D12.644.400.095 - calcitonin MeSH D12.644.400.097 - calcitonin gene-related peptide MeSH D12.644.400.100 - ...
... which they called bradykinin. The substance, a short kinin with nine amino acids only, was detected in the blood plasma of dogs ... Bradykinin was to prove a new autopharmacological principle, i.e., a substance that is released in the body by a metabolic ... The discovery of bradykinin led to a new understanding of many physiological and pathological phenomena including circulatory ... one of the co-discoverers of bradykinin, together with Maurício Rocha e Silva and Wilson Teixeira Beraldo, in 1949. Rosenfeld ...
The kinin B1 and B2 receptors belong to G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Bradykinin is also thought to be the cause of ... Bradykinin (Greek brady-, slow; -kinin, kīn(eîn) to move) is a peptide that promotes inflammation. It causes arterioles to ... Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino ... The kinin-kallikrein system makes bradykinin by proteolytic cleavage of its kininogen precursor, high-molecular-weight ...
... and the kinin-kallikrein system (KKS). The heptapeptide angiotensin (1-7) also potentiates bradykinin action on B2 receptors. ... There are two Bradykinin receptors: the B1 receptor and the B2 receptor. Bradykinin receptor B1 (B1) is a G-protein coupled ... The bradykinin receptor family is a group of G-protein coupled receptors whose principal ligand is the protein bradykinin. ... The B1 receptor is one of two G protein-coupled receptors that have been found which bind bradykinin and mediate responses to ...
2005). "Kinin B1 receptors: key G-protein-coupled receptors and their role in inflammatory and painful processes". Br. J. ... "Entrez Gene: BDKRB1 bradykinin receptor B1". Seabrook GR, Bowery BJ, Hill RG (1995). "Bradykinin receptors in mouse and rat ... "Two B1 and B2 bradykinin receptor antagonists fail to inhibit the Ca2+ response elicited by bradykinin in human skin ... Bradykinin receptor B1 (B1) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the BDKRB1 gene in humans. Its principal ligand is ...
... and the kinin-kallikrein system (KKS). The heptapeptide angiotensin (1-7) also potentiates bradykinin action on B2 receptors. ... Bradykinin receptor B2 is a G-protein coupled receptor for bradykinin, encoded by the BDKRB2 gene in humans. The B2 receptor is ... "Two B1 and B2 bradykinin receptor antagonists fail to inhibit the Ca2+ response elicited by bradykinin in human skin ... "Entrez Gene: BDKRB2 bradykinin receptor B2". Duchêne J, Schanstra J, Cellier E, et al. (2002). "[30 years: Happy birthday, GPCR ...
... peptides (kallidin and bradykinin) are located in human blood and urine. There are two types of kinin receptors, B1 and ... A kinin is any of various structurally related polypeptides, such as bradykinin and kallidin. They are members of the autacoid ... Kinin act on axons to block nervous impulses, which leads to distal muscle relaxation. Kinin are also potent nerve stimulators ... Kinins. De Gruyter. 2011. ISBN 978-3-11-025235-4. Kinins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
These agents increase the level of aminopeptidase P, an enzyme that inactivates kinins;[22] kinins (especially bradykinin) are ... Lanadelumab inhibits the plasma enzyme kallikrein, which liberates the kinins bradykinin and kallidin from their kininogen ... Dampening or inhibiting bradykinin has been shown to relieve HAE symptoms. Various mechanisms that interfere with bradykinin ... ACE inhibitors block ACE, the enzyme that among other actions, degrades bradykinin. In hereditary angioedema, bradykinin ...
... , also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.[3] It makes the eye appear pink or reddish.[1] Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur.[1] The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning.[1] Swelling of the white part of the eye may also occur.[1] Itching is more common in cases due to allergies.[2] Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes.[1] The most common infectious causes are viral followed by bacterial.[2] The viral infection may occur along with other symptoms of a common cold.[1] Both viral and bacterial cases are easily spread between people.[1] Allergies to pollen or animal hair are also a common cause.[2] Diagnosis is often based on signs and symptoms.[1] Occasionally, a sample of the discharge is sent for culture.[1] Prevention is partly by handwashing.[1] Treatment depends on the underlying cause.[1] In the majority of viral cases, there is no ...
Kinin ... Bradykinin - complement (C3, C5a, MAC) - coagulation (Factor ...
... is an inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.[1] Symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort.[1] Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic.[1] Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold.[1] Acute bronchitis usually has a cough that lasts around three weeks.[4] In more than 90% of cases the cause is a viral infection.[4] These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by direct contact.[1] Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution.[1] A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis.[4][5] Treatment of acute bronchitis typically involves rest, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and NSAIDs to help with the fever.[6][7] Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years.[8] Most people with chronic ...
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... is inflammation of the brain.[5] Severity is variable.[1] Symptoms may include headache, fever, confusion, a stiff neck, and vomiting.[1] Complications may include seizures, hallucinations, trouble speaking, memory problems, and problems with hearing.[1] Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] Other causes include autoimmune diseases and certain medications.[2] In many cases the cause remains unknown.[2] Risk factors include a weak immune system.[2] Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and supported by blood tests, medical imaging, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.[2] Certain types are preventable with vaccines.[5] Treatment may include antiviral medications (such as acyclovir), anticonvulsants, and corticosteroids.[1] Treatment generally takes place in hospital.[1] Some people require artificial respiration.[1] Once the immediate problem is under control, rehabilitation may be required.[2] ...
Sagittal magnetic resonance images of ankle region: psoriatic arthritis. (a) Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) image, showing high signal intensity at the Achilles tendon insertion (enthesitis, thick arrow) and in the synovium of the ankle joint (synovitis, long thin arrow). Bone marrow oedema is seen at the tendon insertion (short thin arrow). (b, c) T1 weighted images of a different section of the same patient, before (panel b) and after (panel c) intravenous contrast injection, confirm inflammation (large arrow) at the enthesis and reveal bone erosion at tendon insertion (short thin arrows ...
Platelets release other proinflammatory factors like serotonin, bradykinin, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxane, and ... and substances such as kinins. Neutrophils phagocytise debris and kill bacteria by releasing free radicals in what is called a ...
In 1976, SEM images showed that there were homing receptors on microvilli-like tips on leukocytes that would allow white blood cells to get out of the blood vessel and get into tissue.[5] Since the 1990s the identity of ligands involved in leukocyte extravasation have been studied heavily. This topic was finally able to be studied thoroughly under physiological shear stress conditions using a typical flow chamber.[6] Since the first experiments, a strange phenomenon was observed. Binding interactions between the white blood cells and the vessel walls were observed to become stronger under higher force. Selectins (E-selection, L-selection, and P-selectin) were found to be involved in this phenomenon. The shear threshold requirement seems counterintuitive because increasing shear elevates the force applied to adhesive bonds and it would seem that this should increase the dislodging ability. Nevertheless, cells roll more slowly and more regularly until an optimal shear is reached where rolling ...
Bradykinins have been implicated in cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancers,[37] and bradykinin antagonists have ... Casokinins and lactokinins, breakdown products of casein and whey, occur naturally after ingestion of milk products, especially ... The inactivation of bradykinin and the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the lungs was thought to be caused by ... Bradykinins, the levels of which are increased by ACE inhibitor use, have been implicated in a number of cancer progression ...
The focus of treatment is to remove plaque. Therapy is aimed at the reduction of oral bacteria and may take the form of regular periodic visits to a dental professional together with adequate oral hygiene home care. Thus, several of the methods used in the prevention of gingivitis can also be used for the treatment of manifest gingivitis, such as scaling, root planing, curettage, mouth washes containing chlorhexidine or hydrogen peroxide, and flossing. Interdental brushes also help remove any causative agents. Powered toothbrushes work better than manual toothbrushes in reducing the disease.[15] The active ingredients that "reduce plaque and demonstrate effective reduction of gingival inflammation over a period of time" are triclosan, chlorhexidine digluconate, and a combination of thymol, menthol, eucalyptol, and methyl salicylate. These ingredients are found in toothpaste and mouthwash. Hydrogen peroxide was long considered a suitable over-the-counter agent to treat gingivitis. There has been ...
Plasma kallikrein liberates kinins (bradykinin and kallidin) from the kininogens,[4][5] peptides responsible for the regulation ... KLK2 and KLK12 also participate in regulation of blood pressure via the activation of bradykinin.[6] KLK2, KLK3, KLK4, KLK5 and ... "Bioregulation of kinins: kallikreins, kininogens, and kininases". Pharmacol. Rev. 44 (1): 1-80. PMID 1313585 ...
A lumbar puncture is done by positioning the person, usually lying on the side, applying local anesthetic, and inserting a needle into the dural sac (a sac around the spinal cord) to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). When this has been achieved, the "opening pressure" of the CSF is measured using a manometer. The pressure is normally between 6 and 18 cm water (cmH2O);[42] in bacterial meningitis the pressure is usually elevated.[8][41] In cryptococcal meningitis, intracranial pressure is markedly elevated.[45] The initial appearance of the fluid may prove an indication of the nature of the infection: cloudy CSF indicates higher levels of protein, white and red blood cells and/or bacteria, and therefore may suggest bacterial meningitis.[8] The CSF sample is examined for presence and types of white blood cells, red blood cells, protein content and glucose level.[8] Gram staining of the sample may demonstrate bacteria in bacterial meningitis, but absence of bacteria does not exclude bacterial ...
Some notable autacoids are: eicosanoids, angiotensin, neurotensin, NO (nitric oxide), kinins, histamine, serotonin, endothelins ...
Breast cancer may coincide with or mimic symptoms of mastitis. Only full resolution of symptoms and careful examination are sufficient to exclude the diagnosis of breast cancer. Lifetime risk for breast cancer is significantly reduced for women who were pregnant and breastfeeding. Mastitis episodes do not appear to influence lifetime risk of breast cancer. Mastitis does however cause great difficulties in diagnosis of breast cancer and delayed diagnosis and treatment can result in worse outcome. Breast cancer may coincide with mastitis or develop shortly afterwards. All suspicious symptoms that do not completely disappear within 5 weeks must be investigated. Breast cancer incidence during pregnancy and lactation is assumed to be the same as in controls. Course and prognosis are also very similar to age matched controls.[26][27] However diagnosis during lactation is particularly problematic, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Some data suggest that noninflammatory breast cancer ...
In both the acute and chronic forms, antibiotics are used if an infection is suspected. The treatment of choice is often azithromycin and cefixime to cover both gonorrhoeae and chlamydia. Fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended due to widespread resistance of gonorrhoeae to this class.[7] Doxycycline may be used as an alternative to azithromycin. In chronic epididymitis, a four- to six-week course of antibiotics may be prescribed to ensure the complete eradication of any possible bacterial cause, especially the various chlamydiae. For cases caused by enteric organisms (such as E. coli), ofloxacin or levofloxacin are recommended.[7] In children, fluoroquinolones and doxycycline are best avoided. Since bacteria that cause urinary tract infections are often the cause of epididymitis in children, co-trimoxazole or suited penicillins (for example, cephalexin) can be used. Household remedies such as elevation of the scrotum and cold compresses applied regularly to the scrotum may relieve the pain ...
Nonallergic rhinitis refers to rhinitis that is not due to an allergy. The category was formerly referred to as vasomotor rhinitis, as the first cause discovered was vasodilation due to an overactive parasympathetic nerve response. As additional causes were identified, additional types of nonallergic rhinitis were recognized. Vasomotor rhinitis is now included among these under the more general classification of nonallergic rhinitis.[14] The diagnosis is made upon excluding allergic causes.[15] It is an umbrella term of rhinitis of multiple causes, such as occupational (chemical), smoking, gustatory, hormonal, senile (rhinitis of the elderly), atrophic, medication-induced (including rhinitis medicamentosa), local allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) and idiopathic (vasomotor or non-allergic, non-infectious perennial allergic rhinitis (NANIPER), or non-infectious non-allergic rhinitis (NINAR).[16]. In vasomotor rhinitis,[17][18] certain nonspecific stimuli, ...
... refers to an underlying process that causes inflammation and injury of the heart. It does not refer to inflammation of the heart as a consequence of some other insult. Many secondary causes, such as a heart attack, can lead to inflammation of the myocardium and therefore the diagnosis of myocarditis cannot be made by evidence of inflammation of the myocardium alone.[20][21] Myocardial inflammation can be suspected on the basis of electrocardiographic (ECG) results, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and increased IgM (serology) against viruses known to affect the myocardium. Markers of myocardial damage (troponin or creatine kinase cardiac isoenzymes) are elevated.[11] The ECG findings most commonly seen in myocarditis are diffuse T wave inversions; saddle-shaped ST-segment elevations may be present (these are also seen in pericarditis).[11] The gold standard is the biopsy of the myocardium, in general done in the setting of angiography. A ...
Kinin. *Parathyroid hormone-related protein. *Semaphorin. *Somatomedin. *Tolloid-like metalloproteinase. *Tumor necrosis factor ...
... , also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.[8] Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.[1] Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur.[2][3] This typically lasts less than two weeks.[8] It is not related to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu".[9] Gastroenteritis is usually caused by viruses.[4] However, bacteria, parasites, and fungus can also cause gastroenteritis.[2][4] In children, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease.[10] In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes.[11][12] Eating improperly prepared food, drinking contaminated water, or close contact with a person who is infected can spread the disease.[2] Treatment is generally the same with or without a definitive diagnosis, so testing to confirm is usually not needed.[2] Prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste, and ...
... kinin 9 synonyms, kinin 9 pronunciation, kinin 9 translation, English dictionary definition of kinin 9. n. A biologically ... bradykinin. (redirected from kinin 9). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia. brad·y·ki·nin. (brăd′ĭ-kī′nĭn, -kĭn′ĭn). n.. A ... Kinin 9 - definition of kinin 9 by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/kinin+9 ... bradykinin. (ˌbrædɪˈkaɪnɪn; ˌbreɪdɪ-) n. (Physiology) a peptide in blood plasma that dilates blood vessels and causes ...
Identification of the Critical Residues of Bradykinin Receptor B1 for Interaction with the Kinins Guided by Site-Directed ...
Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins, consisting of nine amino ... Bradykinin is a 9-amino acid peptide chain. The amino acid sequence of bradykinin is: Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg ( ... The kinin-kallikrein system makes bradykinin by proteolytic cleavage of its kininogen precursor, high-molecular-weight ... Main article: Bradykinin receptor. *The B1 receptor (also called bradykinin receptor B1) is expressed only as a result of ...
Responses to T-kinin and bradykinin were inhibited by the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140, but were not altered by the B1 ... Responses to T-kinin and bradykinin were inhibited by the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140, but were not altered by the B1 ... Responses to T-kinin and bradykinin were inhibited by the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140, but were not altered by the B1 ... Responses to T-kinin and bradykinin were inhibited by the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140, but were not altered by the B1 ...
Kinins. Bradykinins. Tachykinins: mammal *Substance P. *Neurokinin A. *Neurokinin B. amphibian *Kassinin ...
... is a mixture of snake venom peptides which potentiate some of the pharmacological actions of bradykinin in vitro and in vivo( ... In: Sicuteri F., e Silva M.R., Back N. (eds) Bradykinin and Related Kinins. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol ... Bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) is a mixture of snake venom peptides which potentiate some of the pharmacological actions ... Greene L.J., Stewart J.M., Ferreira S.H. (1970) Bradykinin-Potentiating Peptides from the Venom of Bothrops Jararaca. ...
Kallikreins and kinins. Hypertension 1995. 26:221-229. View this article via: PubMed Google Scholar ... Targeted disruption of a B2 bradykinin receptor gene in mice eliminates bradykinin action in smooth muscle and neurons. J Biol ... In vitro, bradykinin treatment either increased or decreased ECM production, depending on the cell type used. Bradykinin ... Although, to our knowledge, nothing is known about the effect of bradykinin on uPA activity, bradykinin was found to be one of ...
Recent studies have suggested the possible involvement of the kallikrein-kinin cascade in gastric inflammatory diseases and ... Receptor, Bradykinin B2 * Receptors, Bradykinin / biosynthesis* * Receptors, Bradykinin / genetics * Stomach Neoplasms / ... Comparison of tissue kallikrein and kinin receptor expression in gastric ulcers and neoplasms Int Immunopharmacol. 2001 Nov;1( ... The aim of the study was to compare the expression of the serine protease, tissue kallikrein (TK) and kinin peptide receptors, ...
Since bradykinin is the most potent pain-producing agent of endogenous origin we have investigate its participation as a ... In: Sicuteri F., e Silva M.R., Back N. (eds) Bradykinin and Related Kinins. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol ... Since bradykinin is the most potent pain-producing agent of endogenous origin we have investigate its participation as a ... RICCIOPPO NETO, F., CORRADO, A.P. and KRIEGER, E.M. (1968). Stimulatory action of bradykinin and kallidin on the carotid ...
kallikrein-kinin system. the kallikrein-kinin system plays an important role in a number of physiological processes, including ... 1980) Pharmacology of bradykinin and related kinins. Pharmacol Rev 32:1-46. ... bradykinin (icatibant). This dose attenuated the renal blood flow response to 50 ng/kg of bradykinin in both age groups of ... this is associated with increased bradykinin binding capacity and a rise in bradykinin-induced release of PGE2 from isolated ...
Lipids released by damaged cells; intensify effects of histamine and kinins. May also stimulate emigration of phagocytes ... Kinins Polypeptides formed in blood, induce vasodilation and permeability.. Chemotactic.. Ex. bradykinin ...
DECARIE, A., ADAM, A. & COUTURE, R. (1996). Effects of captopril and Icatibant on bradykinin (BK) and des [Arg9] BK in ... MARCEAU, F., HESS, J.F. & BACHVAROV, D.R. (1998). The B1 receptors for kinins. Pharmacol. Rev., 50, 357-386. *PubMed, ... RAJASEKARIAH, P., WARLOW, R.S. & WALLS, R.S. (1997). High affinity bradykinin binding to human inflammatory cells. Biochem. Mol ... Houle, S., Papez, M. D., Ferazzini, M., Hollenberg, M. D. and Vergnolle, N. (2005), Neutrophils and the kallikrein-kinin system ...
... ... Bradykinin-related peptides up-regulate the expression of kinin B1 and B2 receptor genes in human promonocytic cell line U937. ...
First, we show that B1- and B2-kinin receptors form heteromers with nNOS and eNOS in thoracic aorta. To investigate the ... First, we show that B1- and B2-kinin receptors form heteromers with nNOS and eNOS in thoracic aorta. To investigate the ... Importantly, our results show that kinin receptors regulate ACh-induced relaxation via nNOS signaling in thoracic aorta with no ... Importantly, our results show that kinin receptors regulate ACh-induced relaxation via nNOS signaling in thoracic aorta with no ...
... bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting ... The present study was performed to: (a) evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg) and B2 ( ... Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues. Paulo Roberto Wille,1 ... These results indicate that kinins induce plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues through activation of B1 and B2 ...
Bradykinin (BK), which acts on the B2 receptor and slightly on B1, is produced when kallikrein releases it from HMWK. It is a ... The kinin-kallikrein system or simply kinin system is a poorly understood hormonal system with limited available research. It ... Duchene (2011). "Kallikrein-kinin kystem in inflammatory diseases". Kinins. De Gruyter. pp. 261-272. ISBN 978-3-11-025235-4. ... kinin [Gk] kīn(eîn) to move, set in motion. kallikrein [Gk ] kalli~ sweet and krein = kreos, flesh, named for the pancreatic ...
Kinin ex. bradykinin 18 A patient who is neutropenic or has a decreased immune response may not be able to mount an _______. ...
... primarily through the bradykinin receptor 2 pathway. Notably, bradykinin sensitization of TRPV1 in peptidergic nociceptors was ... primarily through the bradykinin receptor 2 pathway. Notably, bradykinin sensitization of TRPV1 in peptidergic nociceptors was ... We found that bradykinin notably enhances the excitability of peptidergic nociceptors, and sensitizes TRPV1, ... We found that bradykinin notably enhances the excitability of peptidergic nociceptors, and sensitizes TRPV1, ...
Regoli D, Barabe J: Pharmacology of bradykinin and related kinins. Pharmacol Rev 32:1-46, 1980. ... and inactivation of bradykinin (3), a nonapeptide belonging to a class of active peptides (kinins) that are released from ...
29 Most known effects of bradykinin are thought to be mediated via the B2 kinin receptor. Since kinins circulate at low levels ... Second, kinins may be involved in myocardial energy metabolism. It was found that perfusing the ischemic heart with bradykinin ... Kinins are oligopeptides containing the sequence of bradykinin. They are generated from precursor HMW and LMW kininogen by ... Two subtypes of kinin receptors, B1 and B2, have been characterized. Most of the known effects of kinins are mediated via ...
Kinin peptides (kallidin and bradykinin) are located in human blood and urine. There are two types of kinin receptors, B1 and ... A kinin is any of various structurally related polypeptides, such as bradykinin and kallidin. They are members of the autacoid ... Kinin act on axons to block nervous impulses, which leads to distal muscle relaxation. Kinin are also potent nerve stimulators ... Kinins. De Gruyter. 2011. ISBN 978-3-11-025235-4. Kinins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
Kinins (bradykinin, kallidin) are potent vasodilator peptides released by the proteolytic cleavage of kininogen by kallikrein.5 ... kinin B1 receptor. B2R. kinin B2 receptor. CNN1. calponin 1. MAPK. mitogen-activated protein kinase. MMP. metalloproteinase ( ... Kinins and kinin receptors: importance for the activation of leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:587-592. ... Kallikreins, kininogens and kinin receptors on circulating and synovial fluid neutrophils: role in kinin generation in ...
1980) Pharmacology of bradykinin and related kinins. Pharmacol Rev 32:1-46. ... 1995) Effect of enalaprilat on bradykinin and des-Arg9-bradykinin release after reperfusion of the ischaemic rat heart. Br J ... bradykinin. DMI. desipramine. EIPA. 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride. ANOVA. analysis of variance. KHS. Krebs-Henseleit ... Bradykinin Promotes Ischemic Norepinephrine Release in Guinea Pig and Human Hearts. Eiichiro Hatta, Ryushi Maruyama, Stuart J. ...
bradykinin receptor, beta 2. * Synonyms. B2, B(2), B2R, BK2R, kinin B2 ... J:16469 McIntyre P, et al., Cloned murine bradykinin receptor exhibits a mixed B1 and B2 pharmacological selectivity [published ... Homozygous null mutants are indistinguishable from normal littermates, but bradykinin response is eliminated in ileum, uterus, ...
Prostaglandins, primarily PGD2, cause congestion and rhinorrhea.20,21 Kinins are released after allergen challenge; bradykinin ... Nasal provocation with bradykinin induces symptoms of rhinitis and a sore throat. Am Rev Respir Dis.. (1988). ;137:613-616. ... Other mediators, including prostaglandins (PGs), kinins, and neuropeptides, have been found to be important in AR. ... Physiologic responses to intranasal dose-response challenges with histamine, methacholine, bradykinin, and prostaglandin in ...
Kinin system cascade produces what? What are its effects and how is it activated? Bradykinin Pain, vasodilation, increased ...
Molecular Cloning Of The Rat Bradykinin B2 Receptor Gene: Evidence Foralternative Splicing. In: KININ 93, 1993. GUARUJA, SP, ... Kinin Metabolism In The Lung And Mesenteric Vascular Beds In Normotensive And Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. In: KININ 93, ... C-Terminal Metabolism In Kinin Breakdown In The Mesenteric Vascular Bed. In: KININ 93, 1993. GUARUJA. p. 0-0. ... In: FOURTEENTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON KININS - KININ 95, 1995. ABSTRACTS. DENVER, COLORADO EUA. ...
Kallikreins, and Kinins. Some unanswered questions about system characteristics and roles in human disease. Hypertension. 1995; ... Leu8desArg9-bradykinin inhibits the angiogenic effect of bradykinin and interleukin-1 in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1993; 109: 14-17 ... Male (8-week-old) knockout mice lacking the bradykinin B2 receptor gene (B2−/−) and wild-type J129Sv/Bl6 controls (Jackson ... Gohlke P, Kuwer I, Schnell A, Amann K, Mall G, Unger T. Blockade of bradykinin B2 receptors prevents the increase in capillary ...
Kinin system. functions to activate and assist inflammatory cells;. Opsonins. mark antigen for destruction by innate immune ... Bradykinin. an inflammatory mediator that cause dilation of blood vessels, pain, and smooth muscle contraction, an increasing ...
Abeta can bind and activate proenzymes of the plasma kinin-forming cascade in a zinc-dependent reaction to release bradykinin ... Zinc-dependent activation of the plasma kinin-forming cascade by aggregated beta amyloid protein.. Shibayama Y1, Joseph K, ... Beta Amyloid proteins (Abeta) of 38, 40, and 42 amino acids long were assessed for their ability to activate the plasma kinin- ... There was rapid generation of bradykinin equal to the molar HK input indicating complete cleavage. Incubation of aggregated ...
  • These data suggest that vasodilator responses to T- kinin and bradykinin are mediated by kinin B 2 receptor stimulated release of nitric oxide from the endothelium, but that the activation of kinin B 1 receptors, the release of vasodilator prostaglandins, or the opening of K + (ATP) channels are not involved in the response to T-kinin in the mesenteric vascular bed of the cat. (elsevier.com)
  • Neto F.R., Reis D.S., Corrado A.P. (1970) Stimulation of Paravascular Intracranial Receptors by Bradykinin and Kallidin. (springer.com)
  • Two types of cell surface receptors mediate these varied physiological effects of kinins and are designated as B 1 and B 2 . (physiology.org)
  • In the kidney, B 2 receptors have been localized to cortical epithelium, medullary interstitium, and glomeruli and mesangial cells ( 13 ) and bradykinin, which activates B 2 receptors, is known to regulate renal hemodynamics as well as glomerular ultrafiltration and tubular function. (physiology.org)
  • There is an increase in mRNA expression of glomerular B 2 receptors over the first weeks of postnatal life in the rat kidney along with increased bradykinin binding capacity and a rise in bradykinin-induced release of PGE 2 from isolated glomeruli ( 2 ). (physiology.org)
  • The aim of the study was to compare the expression of the serine protease, tissue kallikrein (TK) and kinin peptide receptors, B1 and B2, in human gastric carcinoma and ulcers. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of tissue kallikrein and kinin receptors in both tumour and ulcer tissue and circulating neutrophils of cancer and ulcer patients was determined by immunolabelling techniques, using specific antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • B 1 - and B 2 -kinin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that play an important role in the vascular function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the participation of kinin receptors in the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vascular relaxation, focusing on the protein-protein interaction involving kinin receptors with endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and nNOS). (frontiersin.org)
  • Some vascular reactivity experiments were also performed in a double kinin receptors knockout mice (B 1 B 2 R −/− ). For pharmacological studies, selective B 1 - and B 2 -kinin receptors antagonists, NOS inhibitors and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic were used. (frontiersin.org)
  • First, we show that B 1 - and B 2 -kinin receptors form heteromers with nNOS and eNOS in thoracic aorta. (frontiersin.org)
  • Importantly, our results show that kinin receptors regulate ACh-induced relaxation via nNOS signaling in thoracic aorta with no changes in NO· donor-induced relaxation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together, our findings show that B 1 - and B 2 -kinin receptors regulate the endothelium-dependent vasodilation of ACh through nNOS activity and indicate that molecular disturbance of short-range interaction between B 1 - and B 2 -kinin receptors with nNOS might be involved in the oxidative pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results indicate that kinins induce plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues through activation of B 1 and B 2 receptors, and that LPS selectively enhances the kinin effect on the B 1 receptor in the duodenum, ileum, trachea and main and segmentar bronchi, and may increase B 1 receptor expression in these tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Kinins transmit their effects through G protein- coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of kinin receptors, B1 and B2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bradykinin is a potent vasodilator that acts through endothelial B2 kinin receptors to stimulate the release of nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. (hmdb.ca)
  • Intracellular recording methods with "sharp" microelectrodes were used to study actions of bradykinin (BK) on electrical behavior of morphologically identified neurons and the identification and localization of BK receptors in the submucosal plexus of guinea pig small intestine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2. Use according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the bradykinin antagonist is chosen from compounds which inhibit the synthesis and/or accelerate the catabolism of bradykinin, bradykinin neutralizers, bradykinin receptor blockers such as those which interfere with the effects of bradykinin by binding to its receptor (B1 or B2), compounds which inhibit the synthesis of bradykinin receptors or compounds involved in modulating the signal transduced by bradykinin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. Use according to either of the preceding claims, characterized in that the bradykinin antagonist is chosen from optionally modified, natural or synthetic peptides, natural or synthetic chemical molecules, antisense nucleic acids, ribozymes, anti-bradykinin antibodies, soluble bradykinin receptors, anti-bradykinin-receptor antibodies or bradykinin receptor antagonists. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • KININ RECEPTORS: B1 and B2 are the two receptors through which these peptides mediate their biological action. (pharmainfo.net)
  • Bradykinin has more affinity towards B2 receptors followed by lys-bradykinin and then by met-lys-bradykinin. (pharmainfo.net)
  • The vitreous specimens from DME patients containing higher amounts of PKal induced vascular permeability at a longer time point, mediated via bradykinin (BK) B1 or B2 receptors (B1Rs or B2Rs) but not via VEGF signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Formed kinins inhibit reabsorption of NaCl through bradykinin (BK)-B 2 receptors, localized along the CD. (mdpi.com)
  • Bradykinin receptors (there are two types ) can signal to attract neutrophils (giving it a role in allergy and inflammation), and its pathways have also shown up in the functioning of several types of cancer cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Kinins exert multiple pathophysiological functions, including vascular permeability and mitogenesis, by activating their cognate receptors, bradykinin subtype 1 receptor (B1R) and bradykinin subtype 2 receptor (B2R), which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tissue-specific expression pattern or contribution of the individual kinin receptors to pathological prostate cell growth is not known. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Little is known about expression pattern and contribution of the individual kinin receptors to pathological growth of the prostate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bradykinin receptors and their antagonists. (alfa.com)
  • Contribution of vanilloid receptors to the overt nociception induced by B2 kinin receptor activation in mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study we examined comparatively (diabetes class C vs normal pregnancy) correlations between placental HDC activity, histamine concentration, and placental bradykinin receptors B1 and B2 expression. (worldses.org)
  • HDC-dependent histamine elevation may change locally vascular properties by influence on bradykinin receptors expression. (worldses.org)
  • To determine the cellular distribution of active TK1, prokallikrein, and the kinin B 1 and B 2 receptors in oesophageal carcinoma by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation (ISH). (bmj.com)
  • Specific antibodies were used to determine the cellular localisation of TK1, prokallikrein, and the kinin B 1 and B 2 receptors in normal and oesophageal specimens by standard immunohistochemical techniques. (bmj.com)
  • Antisense probes for TK1 and the kinin B 1 and B 2 receptors were also used to localise mRNA. (bmj.com)
  • This is the first demonstration that TK1 and kinin B 1 and B 2 receptors are expressed in oesophageal carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • All of the clinically relevant effects of bradykinin appear to be mediated via the classical B 2 receptors and, wherever tested, were found to be reversible by B 2 receptor antagonists. (wipo.int)
  • Two major classes of bradykinin receptors, B 1 and B 2 , have been defined. (wipo.int)
  • The B- receptors are sensitive to the bradykinin metabolite des-Arg 9 -BK, and B 1 -mediated effects are blocked by the specific antagonist des-Arg 9 -Leu 8 -BK. (wipo.int)
  • Comparison with BALF from controls identifies a critical imbalance in RAS represented by decreased expression of ACE in combination with increases in ACE2, renin, angiotensin, key RAS receptors, kinogen and many kallikrein enzymes that activate it, and both bradykinin receptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • As such, the neurogenic inflammatory response can exacerbate classical inflammation via a positive feedback loop, with classical inflammatory mediators such as bradykinin and prostaglandins then further stimulating TRP receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bradykinin acts through cell surface receptors to elicit a series of biological responses, many of which have been well characterized at the whole organ or body level. (nih.gov)
  • These areas, together with questions concerning the nature and number of different types of bradykinin receptors, form the main bulk of current interest in bradykinin research and are the subject of this review. (nih.gov)
  • To examine the role of the cytoplasmic carboxy termini of human B1 and B2 kinin receptors (B1R and B2R) in the internalization of their respective ligands, des-ArglO-kallidin (DAK) and bradykinin (BK), both wild-type receptors, as well as a truncated B2R and chimeric receptors, were expressed as stable clones in CHO cells. (elsevier.com)
  • 5 Kinins, such as BK, activate kinin-B 2 receptors (B 2 R), which are constitutively expressed on endothelial cells (ECs), and kinin-B 1 receptors (B 1 R), whose expression is induced under stress conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, although studies on B 2 R or B 1 R knockout mice have established the role of kinin receptors in reparative angiogenesis, 7-9 no information is available on the importance of endogenous kallikrein in postischemic vascular healing. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 Bradykinin is one of the potent dilators of cerebral arteries, 6 and the effect is mediated by BK2 receptors present on the endothelium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Total RNA was extracted from the whole right kidney of mice, and the mRNA expression of the bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors and of megsin and nephrin was determined by quantitative RT-PCR as described ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The purified SAP2 was shown to cleave human kininogens, preferably the low molecular mass form (LK) and optimally in an acidic environment (pH 3.5-4.0), and to produce two kinins, Met-Lys-bradykinin and its derivative, {[}Hydroxyproline(3)]-Met-Lys-bradykinin, both of which are capable of interacting with cellular bradykinin receptors of the B2 subtype. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Additionally, albeit with a lower yield, des-Arg(9)-Met-Lys-bradykinin, an effective agonist of B1-subtype receptors, was released. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The actions of kinins are mediated by preferential binding to constitutively expressed kinin-B2 receptors or inducible kinin-B1 receptors. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • A feature of the kinin-B1 receptors is that they show low levels of expression, but are distinctly upregulated following tissue injury and inflammation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Because recent evidence suggested that kinin-B1 receptors may perform a protective role during inflammation, we investigated the specific occurrence of the kallikrein-kinin components in skin biopsies obtained from normal skin, patients undergoing surgery, basalioma, lichenificated atopic eczema, and psoriasis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The tissue was immunolabelled in order to determine the localisation of tissue pro-kallikrein, kallikrein, kininogen and kinin receptors. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Of the five types of tissue examined, upregulation of kinin-B1 receptors was observed only in skin biopsies obtained following surgery. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In essence, the expression of kinin-B1 receptors did not appear to be enhanced in the other biopsies. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Within the multiple steps of the inflammatory cascade in wound healing, our results suggest an important regulatory role for kinin-B1 receptors during the first phase of inflammation following injury. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Kallikreins (tissue and plasma kallikrein) are serine proteases that liberate kinins (BK and KD) from the kininogens, which are plasma proteins that are converted into vasoactive peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinins are small peptides produced from kininogen by kallikrein and are broken down by kininases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinins are peptides that are cleaved from kininogens by the process of kallikreins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinin are short lived peptides that cause pain sensation, arteriolar dilation, increase vascular permeability and cause contractions in smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinin peptides (kallidin and bradykinin) are located in human blood and urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACE catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and the breakdown of bradykinin (BK) into inactive peptides. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ACE gene regulates vascular tone through the activation of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor ( 1 , 2 ), and inactivation of bradykinin ( 3 ), a nonapeptide belonging to a class of active peptides (kinins) that are released from tissue to produce a variety of effects, including arterial vasodilatation and venoconstriction ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, it has been suggested that kinins, which are vasoactive peptides, are involved in the cardioprotective mechanism(s) of preconditioning. (ahajournals.org)
  • Improved production of proinflammatory bradykinin-related peptides the kinins has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontitis a common inflammatory disease of human being gingival tissues. (acmbcb.org)
  • Kinins are endogenous biological peptides that have potent vasodilatory properties. (pharmainfo.net)
  • Bradykinin and related kinins are a family of small peptides which act as mediators of pain and inflammation. (genecards.org)
  • The mitogenic kinin peptides formed by the serine protease, tissue kallikrein (TK1), stimulate the proliferation of tumour cells and, by increasing vascular permeability, enhance metastasis. (bmj.com)
  • Kallikreins are a group of serine proteases expressed in epithelial cells and neutrophils 1 that result in the release of the vasoactive peptides, kinins, from endogenous substrates called kininogens. (bmj.com)
  • 5, 6 Therefore, it is thought that TK1 may be implicated in the process of tumorigenesis, both as a serine protease and through the mitogenic and cellular actions of the kinin peptides. (bmj.com)
  • Abstract -Tissue kallikrein cleaves kininogen substrate to produce vasoactive kinin peptides that have been implicated in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 9 Tissue kallikrein cleaves low-molecular-weight kininogen to produce vasoactive kinin peptides. (ahajournals.org)
  • They implanted tiny beads soaked with Bradykinin peptides, rescuing not only mouth formation but also proper neural crest development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that bradykinin is a member of a group of locally produced peptides which may act in a paracrine fashion as microenvironmental modulators of cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Despite its putative involvement in the processing of bioactive peptides, among them the kinins, little is known about the physiological roles of both human forms of APP. (biochemj.org)
  • Bradykinin-related peptides, universal mediators of inflammation collectively referred to as the kinins, are often produced in excessive amounts during microbial infections. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • BK is the prototype of a family of powerful vasodilatory peptides, the kinins. (ahajournals.org)
  • The kinin-kallikrein system makes bradykinin by proteolytic cleavage of its kininogen precursor, high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK or HK), by the enzyme kallikrein . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bradykinin is a vasoactive kinin that is liberated from its substrate kininogen by the action of kallikrein, and is known to be involved in a wide range of biologic processes. (hmdb.ca)
  • Bradykinin is released from kininogen by plasma kallikrein. (abcam.com)
  • Different enzymes synthesize their respective Kinins from a kininogen. (pharmainfo.net)
  • Because TK1 released from tumour cells enzymatically generates mitogenic kinins from its endogenous substrate, kininogen, it is possible that third generation kinin receptor antagonists, which have been shown to be cytotoxic to cancer cells, may be useful therapeutic agents in this disease. (bmj.com)
  • 3,4 hKLK1 can exert its effects via kininogen cleavage, thus generating kinins (eg, bradykinin - BK or kallidin - kDa). (ahajournals.org)
  • Bradikinin proizvodi kinin-kalikreinski sistem proteolitičkim razdvajanjem njegovog kininogenog prekursora, kininogen visoke-molekulske-težine (HMWK ili HK), enzimom kalikrein . (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinin components were visualised in normal, diseased and traumatised skin, except that no labelling was observed for kininogen in normal skin. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Stimulatory action of bradykinin and kallidin on the carotid chemoreceptors. (springer.com)
  • Its important mediators bradykinin and kallidin are vasodilators and act on many cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • A kinin is any of various structurally related polypeptides, such as bradykinin and kallidin. (wikipedia.org)
  • During dermal injury and inflammation the serine proteases kallikreins cleave endogenous, multifunctional substrates (kininogens) to form bradykinin and kallidin. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • A class of drugs called ACE inhibitors , which are used to lower blood pressure, increase bradykinin (by inhibiting its degradation), further lowering blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased interstitial fibrosis in B2 -/- mice was accompanied by a decreased activity of plasminogen activators (PAs) and metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), enzymes involved in ECM degradation, suggesting that the protective effects of bradykinin involve activation of a B2 receptor/PA/MMP-2 cascade. (jci.org)
  • Inhibition of ACE with ACE inhibitors leads to decreased conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (a vasoconstrictor) but also to an increase in bradykinin due to decreased degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation pathway of BK by kinin-destroying enzymes in urine differs completely from that in plasma, so that ACE inhibitors are ineffective. (mdpi.com)
  • These imbalances cause bradykinin levels to increase - in fact, most of the proteins involved in bradykinin production and signaling are undetectable in such lung fluid under normal conditions, but go up sharply during coronavirus infection, while enzymes that are involved in bradykinin degradation go down. (sciencemag.org)
  • As with bradykinin, the enzymes involved in its production are all ramped up rather steeply in the coronavirus patient samples, and the ones involved in its degradation are all down. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bradykinin is used to lower blood pressure, increase bradykinin (by inhibiting its degradation) further lowering blood pressure. (alfa.com)
  • 6 Inhibition of ACE activity not only prevents formation of Ang II but also increases kinin levels by preventing kinin degradation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Through simultaneous inhibition of neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin converting enzyme, omapatrilat prevents enzymatic degradation of bradykinin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Detection of the degradation products of bradykinin by enzyme immunoassays as markers for the release of kinin in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Among other actions, it catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and the breakdown of bradykinin to kinin degradation products. (ahajournals.org)
  • the kallikrein-kinin system plays an important role in a number of physiological processes, including pain, inflammation, vascular permeability, and smooth muscle contractility. (physiology.org)
  • It is known that kinins are inflammatory mediators that cause dilation of blood vessels and increased vascular permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinin increase vascular permeability by acting on vascular endothelial cells to cause cell contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maxwell, G. M., Elliott, R. B., and Kneebone, G. M.: Effects of Bradykinin on Systemic and Coronary Vascular Bed on Intact Dog. (springer.com)
  • In addition to autocrine/paracrine signaling, a classic pathway of vasodilation and inflammation, plasma kallikrein (PKal)-kinin cascade, has recently been revealed to exert potent effects on retinal vascular hyperpermeability ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 12 ) demonstrate that the PKal-kinin-nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway promotes vascular hyperpermeability in DME, independent of the biological effects of VEGF. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The authors conducted interesting translational research to test the hypothesis that the PKal-kinin pathway had VEGF-independent effects on vascular permeability in DME. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Molecules in the PKal-kinin cascade derive from the serum, which allows researchers to hypothesize that VEGF initiates BRB disruption and then PKal-kinin cascade promotes vascular permeability. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These two major systems, PKal-kinin cascade and VEGF signaling, might promote the pathological effects reciprocally and concomitantly contribute to sustained vascular hyperpermeability in chronic pathogenesis of DME ( Fig. 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of the kinin system by kallikrein causes increased vascular permeability and vasodilation, and both lead to hypotension and shock. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To explore potential roles of the kallikrein-kinin system in vascular biology, we evaluated the effects of adenovirus-mediated human kallikrein gene delivery on the growth of primary cultured VSMCs and in balloon-injured rat artery in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results provide new insights into the role of the vascular kallikrein-kinin system and have significant implications for gene therapy to treat restenosis or atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • These studies suggest a protective role of the vascular kallikrein-kinin system in arterial thickening after vascular injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • This very atypical pattern of the RAS is predicted to elevate bradykinin levels in multiple tissues and systems that will likely cause increases in vascular dilation, vascular permeability and hypotension. (elifesciences.org)
  • Similarly, in the rat mesenteric assay, Ad.hKLK1 induced a mature neovasculature with increased vessel diameter through kinin-B 2 receptor-mediated recruitment of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas Ad.R53H-hKLK1 was ineffective. (ahajournals.org)
  • We found that bradykinin notably enhances the excitability of peptidergic nociceptors, and sensitizes TRPV1, primarily through the bradykinin receptor 2 pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • We hypothesized that such a proangiogenic effect of ACE inhibition may be mediated, in part, by bradykinin (BK) B 2 -receptor pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, VSOR activated by ROS in mouse astrocytes in response to stimulation with bradykinin, serves as the pathway for glutamate release to mediate astrocyte‐to‐neuron signalling. (deepdyve.com)
  • Proteomics approaches have discovered a new effect of carbonic anhydrase (CA)-I in the vitreous humor in PDR patients that increases pH and concomitantly activates the kallikrein-kinin pathway ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The kinin-kallikrein pathway can lead to the generation of bradykinin, a powerful vasoactive mediator, Dr. Sasisekharan and colleagues said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. (bireme.br)
  • Microarray analysis pointed to three highly expressed genes that also happen to be active participants in the Kinin-Kallikrein signaling pathway, best known in humans for its roles in regulating blood pressure, inflammation, and kidney function. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because the expression of two of the pathway genes yields the peptide Bradykinin, the researchers theorized that introducing Bradykinin into LOF embryos at the appropriate stage would allow them to develop normally. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Kinin-Kallikrein pathway ultimately produces the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). Not surprisingly, the scientists found reduced NO levels in their LOF embryos. (eurekalert.org)
  • She notes that certain blood pressure medications, which act on parts of the Kinin-Kallikrein pathway, can cause severe craniofacial defects in newborns if taken during pregnancy. (eurekalert.org)
  • 5 Overexpression of hKLK1 promotes a robust and persistent neovascularization through kinin-mediated activation of the Akt-eNOS pathway, and has recently been shown to display tissue specific VEGF dependency. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hydrolysis of plasminogen to plasmin by tPA activates the kinin pathway by converting Factor XII to Factor XIIa which will cause an increase in production of bradykinin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This kinin-forming activity depends on the activation of the fibrinolytic pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Kininogens contain a 9-11 amino acid bradykinin sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two kininogenases that convert kininogens into bradykinin: plasma kallikrein, also known as Fletcher factor, and glandular kallikrein, also known as tissue kallikrein. (hmdb.ca)
  • Bradykinin (BK) is a vasoactive nonapeptide released from kininogens by the proteolytic activity of kallikreins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • KININOGENS: -These are precursors of Kinins and mark their presence in plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid. (pharmainfo.net)
  • We have recently shown that the yeast Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen to humans, can exploit two mechanisms to enhance kinin levels at the sites of candidial infection, one depending on adsorption and activation of the endogenous kinin-generating system of the host on the fungal cell wall and the other relying on cleavage of kinin precursors, the kininogens, by pathogen-secreted proteases. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Abstract Kinins acting on the B 2 receptor appear to be involved in the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Abstract: Hyperhistaminaemia and increased bradykinin have been found in diabetic placentae. (worldses.org)
  • Although ACE inhibitors increase bradykinin concentrations in addition to their effect on angiotensin II formation, the role of bradykinin in renal fibrosis has not been studied. (jci.org)
  • citation needed] There are hypotheses that many of the ACE-inhibitors' beneficial effects are due to their influence on the kinin-kallikrein system. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10 nmol/kg) antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. (hindawi.com)
  • These data demonstrate that aggregated Abeta can bind and activate proenzymes of the plasma kinin-forming cascade in a zinc-dependent reaction to release bradykinin and is of sufficient potency to do so at physiologic concentrations of each protein and in the presence of naturally occurring protease inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Seki T., Yang H.Y.T., Levin Y., Jenssen T.A., Erdös E.G. (1970) Application of Water-Insoluble Complexes of Kininogenases, Inhibitors and Kininases to Kinin Research. (springer.com)
  • J.-V. Mombouli and P. M. Vanhoutte, "Heterogeneity of endothelium-dependent vasodilator effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: role of bradykinin generation during ACE inhibition," Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology , vol. 20, no. 9, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • People taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are getting bradykinin effects as well, because ACE is one of the enzymes involved in processing the larger precursor peptide down to bradykinin itself (as it does for angiotensin and its precusor). (sciencemag.org)
  • In fact, the dry cough that's a side effect of some ACE inhibitors may well be a bradykinin-mediated effect, via hypersensitivity of nerves in the upper airway. (sciencemag.org)
  • unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. (aafp.org)
  • The increase in local kinin accumulation may also be involved in the inhibition of neointima formation because icatibant, a bradykinin B 2 receptor antagonist, can partially block the protective effect of ACE inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using this approach, it was found that some bradykinin analogs are effective inhibitors of bradykinin. (wipo.int)
  • ACE inhibitors have 2 major pharmacological properties: they inhibit both the production of angiotensin II and the breakdown of kinins. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the other hand, ACE inhibitors are capable of inactivating kininase II, a kinin-degrading enzyme, which would result in accumulation of bradykinin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both, histamine and bradykinin are well known mediators of inflammation. (worldses.org)
  • The pain associated with inflammation results in part from the distortion of tissues caused by edema, and it also is induced by certain chemical mediators of inflammation, such as bradykinin, serotonin , and the prostaglandins . (britannica.com)
  • We show here that genetic ablation ( B2 -/- mice) or pharmacological blockade of the bradykinin B2 receptor increases UUO-induced interstitial fibrosis in mice, whereas transgenic rats expressing increased endogenous bradykinin show reduced UUO-induced interstitial fibrosis. (jci.org)
  • Since bradykinin is the most potent pain-producing agent of endogenous origin we have investigate its participation as a possible mediator in the stimulation of sensitive nerve endings. (springer.com)
  • Bradykinin is an important endogenous trigger of myocardial ischemic preconditioning (IPC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Deficiency of C1-INH permits plasma kallikrein activation, which leads to the production of the vasoactive peptide bradykinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bradykinin is formed by plasma kallikrein -Lysylbradykinin by tissue kallikreins and -Methionyllysylbradykinin by pepsin and pepsin like enzymes. (pharmainfo.net)
  • Kinins are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular homeostasis, inflammation, blood flow, and nociception. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This member of the kinin family has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes related to cardiovascular homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since bradykinin is an initial mediator of inflammation, VSOR might play a role in glia-neuron communication in the brain during inflammation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Intact kinin binds to bradykinin B 2 receptor in target tissues and exerts a broad spectrum of biological effects including vasodilation, blood pressure (BP) reduction, smooth muscle relaxation and contraction, pain induction, and inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that bradykinin induces pain and causes blood vessels to expand and become leaky which will lead to swelling and inflammation of the surrounding tissue. (elifesciences.org)
  • It is thought that bradykinin is converted to inactive metabolites by ACE, therefore inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased levels of bradykinin, which causes a dry cough via bronchoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with essential hypertension increases circulating plasma levels of bradykinin," American Journal of Hypertension , vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1044-1047, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • HAE is caused by an activation of the kinin system leading to elevated levels of bradykinin (a naturally occurring peptide hormone). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The B 1 receptor (also called bradykinin receptor B1 ) is expressed only as a result of tissue injury, and is presumed to play a role in chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinins are mostly produced at inflamed or injured tissue of the body and human body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, whereas the B2R is constitutively expressed and is thought to mediate most of the physiological actions of kinins, the B1R is generally not expressed under nonpathological conditions but undergoes marked up-regulation after cell injury and stress (14) , suggesting that B1R may become the dominant kinin receptor subtype in diseased tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Angiogenic properties of histamine and kinins may also be of great importance hin diabetic placental tissue. (worldses.org)
  • 3, 4 The increased kinin receptor expression seen as a result of oncogenic transformation 4 supports the notion that kinins play a mitogenic role in tumour tissue. (bmj.com)
  • Abnormality of the tissue kallikrein-kinin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disorders. (ahajournals.org)
  • Various bradykinin derivatives appear to exhibit different tissue specificity. (wipo.int)
  • However, little is known about the bradykinin receptor itself or its mechanisms of signal transduction, its function and its tissue distribution. (nih.gov)
  • 20,21 BK1R are inducible by inflammatory stimulation or tissue injury, and BK1R seem to play an injurious role in myocardial I/R. 22 BK2R is constitutively expressed and mediates most of the physiological actions of kinins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although astrocytes stimulated with bradykinin did not undergo cell swelling, the bradykinin‐activated current exhibited properties typical of VSOR: outward rectification, inhibition by osmotic shrinkage, sensitivity to DIDS, phloretin and DCPIB, dependence on intracellular ATP, and permeability to glutamate. (deepdyve.com)
  • 7 Therefore, the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition may also be attributed to increased kinin levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Antagonists of bradykinin have been used to study various cardiovascular effects that bradykinin exerts, either directly or via interaction with other vasoactive substances, by assessing the effects of chronic B 2 receptor inhibition of bradykinin on systemic or regional hemodynamics, cardiac function and other vasoactive systems. (wipo.int)
  • Inhibition of bradykinin abolished the effect of captopril on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is a member of the kinin family, a class of molecules sometimes considered to be locally acting hormones. (nih.gov)
  • Bradykinin is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on widely prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), also termed kininase II, inactivates a number of peptide mediators, including bradykinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • And the bradykinin B2 receptor forms an actual protein complex with angiotensin-converting enzyme itself, although all the functions behind this haven't been worked out. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, previous experiments in mice and computer simulations indicate that modest increases in angiotensin-converting enzyme have minimal effects on blood pressure and angiotensin II levels, although bradykinin decreases significantly, inferring that bradykinin is critical for protecting the kidney in diabetics. (pnas.org)
  • The B 2 R is widely and constitutively expressed in central and peripheral tissues and is activated by its preferential agonists bradykinin (BK) and Lys-BK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The importance of bradykinin demonstrated here bears strongly on how current drugs reduce diabetic nephropathy and suggests that B2 receptor-specific agonists merit consideration in this context. (pnas.org)
  • Enzymes that form kinins are known as kininogenases. (bmj.com)
  • Poststatin,a novel inhibitor of bradykinin‐degrading enzymes in rat urine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, there is compelling evidence that plasmin , a fibrinolytic enzyme, is able to generate bradykinin after HMWK cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bradykinin (BK), which acts on the B2 receptor and slightly on B1, is produced when kallikrein releases it from HMWK. (wikipedia.org)
  • HMWK is essential for blood coagulation and assembly of the kallikrein-kinin system. (nih.gov)
  • The pathophysiological potential of these kinins and des-Arg-kinin was also proven by presenting their ability to stimulate human promonocytic cells U937 to release proinflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • For example, bradykinin synthesis and B 2 -receptor gene expression are activated in the developing rat kidney ( 7 , 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • In addition, silencing αCGRP gene expression, but not substance P, drastically reduced bradykinin-induced TRPV1 sensitization in peptidergic nociceptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • PESQUERO, J B . Molecular structure and transcriptional regulation by nuclear factor-kappaB of the mouse kinin B1 receptor gene. (cnpq.br)
  • It has recently been reported that disruption of the bradykinin B 2 receptor gene in mice (B 2 −/− mice) increased BP, heart weight, and LV chamber dimension. (ahajournals.org)
  • In man, a common missense polymorphism in exon 3 of the hKLK1 gene (rs5515), replacing an active site arginine at position 53 with a histidine ( R53H-hKLK1 ), results in a major loss of kinin-forming activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • To test this inference, we have combined the following two mutations: a dominant mutation that leads to maturity onset diabetes, Akita ( 7 ), resulting from an amino acid change in the insulin 2 gene ( Ins2 C96Y ) ( 8 ), and a recessive knockout mutation ( Bdkrb2 - ) ( 9 ) in the gene coding for the bradykinin B2 receptor, the receptor predominantly expressed in the normal kidney. (pnas.org)
  • Responses to T-kinin and bradykinin were inhibited by the kinin B 2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140, but were not altered by the B 1 receptor antagonist des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK, the histamine H 1 antagonist pyrilamine, the histamine H 2 receptor antagonist cimetidine, or the H 3 receptor antagonist thioperamide. (elsevier.com)
  • Responses to T-kinin and bradykinin were inhibited by the kinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140, but were not altered by the B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK, the histamine H1 antagonist pyrilamine, the histamine H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine, or the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide. (elsevier.com)
  • Bradykinin may stimulate mast cell degranulation, increasing the local histamine level. (worldses.org)
  • Most of the physiological responses to bradykinin appear to be mediated through activation of the B 2 receptor, which is the most prevalent receptor subtype within the body. (physiology.org)
  • It has not been possible to further evaluate the physiological effects of bradykinin during fetal and newborn life in the mouse or rat due to the limits imposed by size and immaturity. (physiology.org)
  • In recent experiments in conscious, chronically instrumented lambs ( 16 ), we investigated some of the physiological effects of kinins on systemic and renal hemodynamics. (physiology.org)
  • Under physiological conditions, the bradykinin B2 (BKB2) receptor is constitutively expressed and mediates most of kinins' actions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, it remains controversial whether kinins play an essential role in regulating blood pressure (BP) and cardiac function under physiological conditions or in the pathophysiology of CHF. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hence, our inference that the causative link between genetic differences in ACE expression and diabetic nephropathy ( 5 , 6 ) is likely to be mediated by the ACE substrate bradykinin. (pnas.org)
  • Bradykinin is a potent endothelium -dependent vasodilator , leading to a drop in blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasodilator responses to T-kinin and bradykinin were attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(ω) Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but were not altered by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, sodium meclofenamate, or the K + (ATP) channel antagonist, U37883A. (elsevier.com)
  • This hypothesis is based upon the observation that bradykinin has been shown to be a potent coronary vasodilator (2) and in addition is known to cause pain (3). (springer.com)
  • Bradykinin dilates blood vessels via the release of prostacyclin , nitric oxide , and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have suggested the possible involvement of the kallikrein-kinin cascade in gastric inflammatory diseases and malignant transformation in peptic ulcers. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, experiments were designed to ask the question whether holistic changes known to occur in carcinoma would be reflected in the expression of the neutrophil kallikrein-kinin cascade. (nih.gov)
  • Oesophageal mucosal epithelial cells are derived from the epithelial cell germ layer, which expresses the kallikrein-kinin cascade. (bmj.com)
  • Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator . (wikipedia.org)
  • These data indicate that, as with other types of irritants, brevetoxin increases kinin levels in the airways and that this inflammatory mediator contributes to toxin-induced airway responses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reduced kinin activity can result in high blood pressure, sodium retention and the narrowing of blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bradykinin lowers blood pressure by dilating blood vessels, but it causes contraction of the smooth muscle in the lungs and in the gut. (sciencemag.org)
  • bradykinin , for example, causes contraction of most smooth muscles and has a very potent action in dilating certain blood vessels. (britannica.com)
  • There was rapid generation of bradykinin equal to the molar HK input indicating complete cleavage. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the role of endogenously produced bradykinin in modulating renal function during postnatal maturation, various parameters of glomerular and tubular function were measured for 1 h before and after intravenous injection of 12.5 μg/kg of the specific B 2 -receptor antagonist icatibant to conscious, chronically instrumented lambs aged ∼1 ( n = 7) and ∼6 wk ( n = 7). (physiology.org)
  • Previous studies in newborns of relatively altricial species, including rats and mice, provided evidence that various components of the renal kallikrein-kinin system are developmentally regulated ( 2 , 4 , 8 , 19 ). (physiology.org)
  • There is also an increase in renal cortical kallikrein activity as maturation proceeds in the rat, consistent with an enhancement of kinin production and subsequently B 2 -receptor activation ( 2 ). (physiology.org)
  • Excess sodium intake requires the renal kallikrein-kinin system for additional excretion. (mdpi.com)
  • The bradykinin system also has complex links to blood coagulation, which could tie in with some of the observed coronavirus pathology in that area as well. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recombinant tumor necrosis factor receptor p75 fusion protein (TNFR:Fc) alters endotoxin-induced activation of the kinin , fibrinolytic, and coagulation systems in normal humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It also interacts with proteins of the coagulation and kinin generating systems along with others. (primaryimmune.org)
  • SHIMUTA, S. I. . Evidence of a role of kinin B1 receptor in the regulation of gastric smooth muscle tone: impaired relaxation of stomach fundus in mice lacking the kinin B1 receptor. (cnpq.br)
  • Pretreatment of mouse astrocytes with either a ROS scavenger or an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor blocked bradykinin‐induced activation of VSOR, glutamate release and astrocyte‐to‐neuron signalling. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bei Bradykinin-vermittelten Angio demen sollte eine spezifische Therapie mit C1-Esterase-Inhibitor-Konzentraten oder Bradykinin-2-Rezeptor-Antagonisten erfolgen. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Hence, we investigated whether the effect of an ACE inhibitor on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation is mediated by the potentiation of bradykinin-mediated vasodilatation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In a previous study we defined the in vitro kinetics of activation of the contact system of human plasma in 116 healthy individuals as a reference for pathophysiological studies for ACE inhibitor-associated side effects in which the activation of the kinins system could be involved. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bradykinin is a physiologically and pharmacologically active peptide of the kinin group of proteins , consisting of nine amino acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta Amyloid proteins (Abeta) of 38, 40, and 42 amino acids long were assessed for their ability to activate the plasma kinin-forming cascade in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether kinin production is required for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness induced by cationic proteins, dose-response curves to methacholine were constructed before and 1 h after intratracheal instillation of either MBP or poly-L-lysine (100 micrograms). (jci.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that MBP and poly-L-lysine activate kallikrein and stimulate the generation of i-kinins in vivo, an effect that may be related to the cationic charge of these proteins. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, the ability of these proteins to increase airway responsiveness appears to be dependent on the generation of i-kinins. (jci.org)
  • Additionally, incubations using purified proteins of the fibrinolytic and the contact system pathways show that the rtPA kinin-forming capacity is mediated by plasmin. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13 Animal studies also showed that during the preconditioning procedure, outflow of kinins from the coronary sinus is rapidly increased, 14 15 along with increased release of cGMP, an indicator of nitric oxide production, and 6-keto-PGF 1α , a metabolite of prostacyclin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bradykinin: Kininogenase flabbergasted from the sprinkles of an aspiring indinavir to micronase in your appendectomy DESLORATADINE is why DESLORATADINE is a expressway of patients nitric of self-treatment, O'Donnell rampant. (libero.it)
  • Human eosinophil-granule major basic protein and synthetic polycations induce airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo dependent on bradykinin generation. (jci.org)
  • First, we sought to define and characterize the in vitro kinin-forming capacity of rtPA when incubated with human plasma at a concentration within the therapeutic concentration range of rtPA attained in blood in vivo during fibrinolysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The B 2 receptor is expressed constitutively and thought to mediate kinin responses under nonpathological and shortterm responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 10,13-16 BK is one of several oligopeptides called kinins that are produced by sympathetic nerve endings (ie, synaptosomes), myocytes, and endothelial cells in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • C1-INH also inhibits proteinases of the fibrinolytic, clotting, and kinin pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can only activate kinins after being activated itself by factor XIIa or other stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification of the kinin receptor family: from molecular mechanisms to pathophysiological consequences. (alfa.com)
  • Zinc-dependent activation of the plasma kinin-forming cascade by aggregated beta amyloid protein. (nih.gov)
  • Scott et al (11) suggested that the pain probably results from a direct irritant effect or an indirect effect via the kinin cascade. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate , though this finding has only been confirmed in-vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for this derives from studies of the interaction between bradykinin and its receptor, receptor-effector coupling systems and in vitro studies of the biological effects of bradykinin. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions - We conclude that rtPA used in vitro at a therapeutic concentration has the capacity to generate significant quantities of kinins from human plasma. (ahajournals.org)
  • Angioedema has been partly attributed to the nonapeptide bradykinin (BK), although its precise role has been poorly documented until now. (ahajournals.org)
  • In sheep, which is a relatively precocial species, the rate of kinin formation in plasma increases from fetal to newborn life ( 4 ), and there is an increase in urinary kallikrein excretion rate as gestation proceeds ( 19 ). (physiology.org)
  • In contrast, B 1 has higher affinity for kinin metabolites and its expression is induced in pathological conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Regulation of bradykinin B 2 -receptor expression by oestrogen," British Journal of Pharmacology , vol. 121, no. 8, pp. 1763-1769, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Kinins exert several biologic actions. (hmdb.ca)
  • They exert a variety of biological effects on the endothelium and peripheral circulation through their action on two bradykinin receptor subtypes: B1 and B2. (genecards.org)
  • These analogs generally have modifications or additions to one or more of the nine bradykinin amino acids. (wipo.int)
  • Bradykinin is a peptide consisting of nine amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Both angiotensin II and bradykinin are powerful vasoactive molecules with multiple acute and chronic effects on the cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • In severe cases, the elevation of bradykinin may result in angioedema , a medical emergency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overactivation of bradykinin is thought to play a role in a rare disease called hereditary angioedema , formerly known as hereditary angio-neurotic edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,4,9 ⇓ ⇓ In these different clinical situations, angioedema has been attributed, at least in part, to bradykinin (BK). (ahajournals.org)