Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Combined Modality Therapy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional
Organs at Risk
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Comparison of the 5-year outcome and morbidity of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy versus transperineal permanent iodine-125 implantation for early-stage prostatic cancer. (1/1081)PURPOSE: To compare the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival outcome and incidence of late toxicity for patients with early-stage prostate cancer treated at a single institution with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or transperineal permanent implantation (TPI) with iodine-125 seeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with favorable-risk prostate cancer, defined as a pretreatment PSA of less than or equal to 10.0 ng/mL, Gleason score of 6 or lower, and stage less than or equal to T2b, were selected for this analysis. Between 1989 and 1996, 137 such patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 145 with TPI. The median ages of the 3D-CRT and TPI groups were 68 years and 64 years, respectively. The median dose of 3D-CRT was 70.2 Gy, and the median implant dose was 150 Gy. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined according to the American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology Consensus Statement, and toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity scoring scale. The median follow-up times for the 3D-CRT and TPI groups were 36 and 24 months, respectively. RESULTS: Eleven patients (8%) in the 3D-CRT group and 12 patients (8%) in the TPI group developed a biochemical relapse. The 5-year PSA relapse-free survival rates for the 3D-CRT and the TPI groups were 88% and 82%, respectively (P = .09). Protracted grade 2 urinary symptoms were more prevalent among patients treated with TPI compared with 3D-CRT. Grade 2 urinary toxicity, which was manifest after the implant and persisted for more than 1 year after this procedure, was observed in 45 patients (31%) in the TPI group. In these 45 patients, the median duration of grade 2 urinary symptoms was 23 months (range, 12 to 70 months). On the other hand, acute grade 2 urinary symptoms resolved within 4 to 6 weeks after completion of 3D-CRT, and the 5-year actuarial likelihood of late grade 2 urinary toxicity for the 3D-CRT group was only 8%. The 5-year actuarial likelihood of developing a urethral stricture (grade 3 urinary toxicity) for the 3D-CRT and TPI groups was 2% and 12%, respectively (P<.0002). Of 45 patients who developed grade 2 or higher urinary toxicity after TPI, the likelihood of resolution or significant improvement of these symptoms at 36 months from onset was 59%. The 5-year likelihood of grade 2 late rectal toxicity for the 3D-CRT and TPI patients was similar (6% and 11%, respectively; P = .97). No patient in either group developed grade 3 or higher late rectal toxicity. The 5-year likelihood of posttreatment erectile dysfunction among patients who were initially potent before therapy was 43% for the 3D-CRT group and 53% for the TPI group (P = .52). CONCLUSION: Both 3D-CRT and TPI are associated with an excellent PSA outcome for patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Urinary toxicities are more prevalent for the TPI group and subsequently resolve or improve in most patients. In addition to evaluating long-term follow-up, future comparisons will require detailed quality-of-life assessments to further determine the impact of these toxicities on the overall well-being and quality of life of the individual patient. (+info)
Pelvic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy compared with pelvic and para-aortic radiation for high-risk cervical cancer. (2/1081)BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We compared the effect of radiotherapy to a pelvic and para-aortic field with that of pelvic radiation and concurrent chemotherapy with fluorouracil and cisplatin in women with advanced cervical cancer. Between 1990 and 1997, 403 women with advanced cervical cancer confined to the pelvis (stages IIB through IVA or stage IB or IIa with a tumor diameter of at least 5 cm or involvement of pelvic lymph nodes) were randomly assigned to receive either 45 Gy of radiation to the pelvis and para-aortic lymph nodes or 45 Gy of radiation to the pelvis alone plus two cycles of fluorouracil and cisplatin (days 1 through 5 and days 22 through 26 of radiation). Patients were then to receive one or two applications of low-dose-rate intracavitary radiation, with a third cycle of chemotherapy planned for the second intracavitary procedure in the combined-therapy group. RESULTS: Of the 403 eligible patients, 193 in each group could be evaluated. The median duration of follow-up was 43 months. Estimated cumulative rates of survival at five years were 73 percent among patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy and 58 percent among patients treated with radiotherapy alone (P=0.004). Cumulative rates of disease-free survival at five years were 67 percent among patients in the combined-therapy group and 40 percent among patients in the radiotherapy group (P<0.001). The rates of both distant metastases (P<0.001) and locoregional recurrences (P<0.001) were significantly higher among patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The seriousness of side effects was similar in the two groups, with a higher rate of reversible hematologic effects in the combined-therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of chemotherapy with fluorouracil and cisplatin to treatment with external-beam and intracavitary radiation significantly improved survival among women with locally advanced cervical cancer. (+info)
Concurrent cisplatin-based radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. (3/1081)BACKGROUND AND METHODS: On behalf of the Gynecologic Oncology Group, we performed a randomized trial of radiotherapy in combination with three concurrent chemotherapy regimens -- cisplatin alone; cisplatin, fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea; and hydroxyurea alone -- in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Women with primary untreated invasive squamous-cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma of the cervix of stage IIB, III, or IVA, without involvement of the para-aortic lymph nodes, were enrolled. The patients had to have a leukocyte count of at least 3000 per cubic millimeter, a platelet count of at least 100,000 per cubic millimeter, a serum creatinine level no higher than 2 mg per deciliter (177 micromol per liter), and adequate hepatic function. All patients received external-beam radiotherapy according to a strict protocol. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of three chemotherapy regimens: 40 mg of cisplatin per square meter of body-surface area per week for six weeks (group 1); 50 mg of cisplatin per square meter on days 1 and 29, followed by 4 g of fluorouracil per square meter given as a 96-hour infusion on days 1 and 29, and 2 g of oral hydroxyurea per square meter twice weekly for six weeks (group 2); or 3 g of oral hydroxyurea per square meter twice weekly for six weeks (group 3). RESULTS: The analysis included 526 women. The median duration of follow-up was 35 months. Both groups that received cisplatin had a higher rate of progression-free survival than the group that received hydroxyurea alone (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The relative risks of progression of disease or death were 0.57 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.78) in group 1 and 0.55 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.75) in group 2, as compared with group 3. The overall survival rate was significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3, with relative risks of death of 0.61 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.85) and 0.58 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.81), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Regimens of radiotherapy and chemotherapy that contain cisplatin improve the rates of survival and progression-free survival among women with locally advanced cervical cancer. (+info)
Cisplatin, radiation, and adjuvant hysterectomy compared with radiation and adjuvant hysterectomy for bulky stage IB cervical carcinoma. (4/1081)BACKGROUND: Bulky stage IB cervical cancers have a poorer prognosis than smaller stage I cervical cancers. For the Gynecologic Oncology Group, we conducted a trial to determine whether weekly infusions of cisplatin during radiotherapy improve progression-free and overall survival among patients with bulky stage IB cervical cancer. METHODS: Women with bulky stage IB cervical cancers (tumor, > or =4 cm in diameter) were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy alone or in combination with cisplatin (40 mg per square meter of body-surface area once a week for up to six doses; maximal weekly dose, 70 mg), followed in all patients by adjuvant hysterectomy. Women with evidence of lymphadenopathy on computed tomographic scanning or lymphangiography were ineligible unless histologic analysis showed that there was no lymph-node involvement. The cumulative dose of external pelvic and intracavitary radiation was 75 Gy to point A (cervical parametrium) and 55 Gy to point B (pelvic wall). Cisplatin was given during external radiotherapy, and adjuvant hysterectomy was performed three to six weeks later. RESULTS: The relative risks of progression of disease and death among the 183 women assigned to receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin, as compared with the 186 women assigned to receive radiotherapy alone, were 0.51 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.75) and 0.54 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.86), respectively. The rates of both progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P=0.008) were significantly higher in the combined-therapy group at four years. In the combined-therapy group there were higher frequencies of transient grade 3 (moderate) and grade 4 (severe) adverse hematologic effects (21 percent, vs. 2 percent in the radiotherapy group) and adverse gastrointestinal effects (14 percent vs. 5 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Adding weekly infusions of cisplatin to pelvic radiotherapy followed by hysterectomy significantly reduced the risk of disease recurrence and death in women with bulky stage IB cervical cancers. (+info)
The Denolin Lecture 1998. Towards measurement of coronary blood flow in patients and its alteration by interventions. (5/1081)AIM: Several methods of measuring coronary blood flow in intact conscious man are reviewed, on the basis of personal contributions or the experiences of our teams. METHODS AND RESULTS: It is important to distinguish between global, regional and transmural blood flow measurements. The advantages and limitations of the following methods are discussed: diffusible inert and radioactive tracers, dye dilution, roentgendensitometry, magnetic resonance imaging and contrast echocardiography. In interventional cardiology it is most important to be able to measure flow through single coronary vessels. Information on coronary artery Doppler velocity during vasodilation and at rest is less useful than the concept of fractional flow reserve. This is based on pressure measurements under maximal vasodilation to ascertain the presence of borderline flow-limiting lesions. This information is necessary in order to decide whether to proceed with angioplasty or not. CONCLUSIONS: The historical design of percutaneous coronary angioplasty and beta-irradiation of coronary restenosis, established under the author's guidance, are put into perspective. The author pays tribute to many excellent colleagues who worked with him at the Zurich and Geneva University Hospitals. (+info)
Bromodeoxyuridine alternating with radiation for advanced uterine cervix cancer: a phase I and drug incorporation study. (6/1081)PURPOSE: Preclinical studies show a significant increase in the ratio of the radiosensitizer bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) in tumors versus the intestinal mucosa during the drug elimination period, compared with the ratio during drug infusion. We constructed a phase I study in patients with locally advanced cervix cancer, using alternating cycles of BUdR and radiation therapy (RT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with stage IIB to IVA cervix cancer participated. A treatment cycle consisted of a 4-day BUdR infusion followed by a week of pelvic RT, 15 Gy twice daily in 1.5-Gy fractions. After three cycles, additional BUdR was infused, followed by brachytherapy. The fraction of thymidine replaced by BUdR and the fraction of cells incorporating BUdR were determined in rectal mucosa and tumor biopsies at the end of the first BUdR infusion (day 5), at the middle of the first RT week (day 10), and at the time of brachytherapy. RESULTS: Dose-limiting toxicity was observed in one of 16 patients receiving 1,000 mg/m2/d x 4 days and in both patients receiving 1,333 mg/m2/d x 4 days each cycle. After a median follow-up of 39 months, 12 patients (66%) were free of pelvic disease and nine (50%) were alive and disease free. The ratio of tumor to rectum BUdR incorporation averaged 1.5 to 1.8 and did not differ significantly between day 5 and day 10. A trend toward reduced ratio was observed at brachytherapy. Drug-containing cells in rectal biopsies migrated from the crypts to the mucosal surface. CONCLUSION: In this schedule, 1,000 mg/m2/d is the maximum-tolerated dose of BUdR. BUdR incorporation levels in tumors were consistent with clinically significant radiosensitization. The migration of BUdR-containing rectal mucosa cells from the crypts to the surface at the time of RT suggests that this regimen may offer a relative sparing of the mucosa from radiosensitization. (+info)
Late coronary occlusion after intracoronary brachytherapy. (7/1081)BACKGROUND: Intracoronary brachytherapy appears to be a promising technology to prevent restenosis. Presently, limited data are available regarding the late safety of this therapeutic modality. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of late (>1 month) thrombosis after PTCA and radiotherapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: From April 1997 to March 1999, we successfully treated 108 patients with PTCA followed by intracoronary beta-radiation. Ninety-one patients have completed at least 2 months of clinical follow-up. Of these patients, 6.6% (6 patients) presented with sudden thrombotic events confirmed by angiography 2 to 15 months after intervention (2 balloon angioplasty and 4 stent). Some factors (overlapping stents, unhealed dissection) may have triggered the thrombosis process, but the timing of the event is extremely unusual. Therefore, the effect of radiation on delaying the healing process and maintaining a thrombogenic coronary surface is proposed as the most plausible mechanism to explain such late events. CONCLUSIONS: Late and sudden thrombosis after PTCA followed by intracoronary radiotherapy is a new phenomenon in interventional cardiology. (+info)
Proliferative potential of malignant glioma cells before and after interstitial brachytherapy. (8/1081)The viability of tumor cells in radionecrotic tissue after interstitial brachytherapy (BRTX) was evaluated using immunohistochemical markers of proliferative potential in primary and recurrent tumors. Tumor specimens from 30 patients with malignant gliomas (14 anaplastic astrocytomas, 16 glioblastomas) taken before and after BRTX were examined using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. Histological examination of specimens obtained by craniotomy or stereotactic biopsy after BRTX revealed tumor recurrence in 18 patients and radionecrosis in 12 patients including two with pure radionecrosis and 10 with a mixture of both tumor and radionecrosis. The MIB-1 index of the tumors with radionecrosis was 7.6 +/- 5.5%, and that of the primary tumors was 17.0 +/- 11.2%, showing a significant difference (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the MIB-1 index of the primary tumors with local recurrence after BRTX and the primary tumors which underwent radionecrosis. Although morphologically viable tumor cells were found in the radionecrotic tissue, BRTX causes a reduction in the proliferative potential of these tumor cells. (+info)
There are several types of radiation injuries, including:
1. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS): This occurs when a person is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation over a short period of time. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and damage to the bone marrow, lungs, and gastrointestinal system.
2. Chronic radiation syndrome: This occurs when a person is exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation over a longer period of time. Symptoms can include fatigue, skin changes, and an increased risk of cancer.
3. Radiation burns: These are similar to thermal burns, but are caused by the heat generated by ionizing radiation. They can cause skin damage, blistering, and scarring.
4. Ocular radiation injury: This occurs when the eyes are exposed to high levels of ionizing radiation, leading to damage to the retina and other parts of the eye.
5. Radiation-induced cancer: Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation can increase the risk of developing cancer, particularly leukemia and other types of cancer that affect the bone marrow.
Radiation injuries are diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, medical imaging (such as X-rays or CT scans), and laboratory tests. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the injury, but may include supportive care, medication, and radiation therapy to prevent further damage.
Preventing radiation injuries is important, especially in situations where exposure to ionizing radiation is unavoidable, such as in medical imaging or nuclear accidents. This can be achieved through the use of protective shielding, personal protective equipment, and strict safety protocols.
Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.
Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.
In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.
Benign vaginal neoplasms include:
1. Vaginal papilloma: A small, finger-like growth on the wall of the vagina.
2. Vaginal polyps: Growths that protrude from the wall of the vagina.
3. Vaginal cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that can develop in the vaginal wall.
Malignant vaginal neoplasms include:
1. Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that develops in the thin, flat cells that line the vagina.
2. Adenocarcinoma of the vagina: Cancer that develops in the glandular cells that line the vagina.
3. Melanoma of the vagina: Rare cancer that develops in the pigment-producing cells of the vagina.
4. Sarcoma of the vagina: Cancer that develops in the connective tissue of the vagina.
Causes and risk factors:
The exact cause of vaginal neoplasms is not known, but certain factors can increase the risk of developing them, such as:
1. HPV (human papillomavirus) infection: A common sexually transmitted virus that can lead to cancer.
2. Smoking: Can increase the risk of developing cancer.
3. Weakened immune system: Can increase the risk of developing cancer.
4. Family history of cancer: Can increase the risk of developing cancer.
The symptoms of vaginal neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but may include:
1. Abnormal bleeding or discharge
2. Pain during sex
3. Itching or burning sensation in the vagina
4. A lump or mass in the vagina
5. Difficulty urinating
6. Painful urination
7. Vaginal wall thickening
A diagnosis of vaginal neoplasm is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
The treatment of vaginal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, but may include:
1. Surgery: Removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue.
2. Radiation therapy: Use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Use of drugs to kill cancer cells.
4. Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus and/or vagina.
5. Pelvic exenteration: Removal of the pelvic organs, including the bladder, rectum, and reproductive organs.
The prognosis for vaginal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis.
Some possible complications of vaginal neoplasms include:
1. Recurrence of the cancer
3. Incontinence or other urinary problems
4. Sexual dysfunction
5. Emotional distress
There is no sure way to prevent vaginal neoplasms, but some risk factors can be reduced by:
1. Practicing safe sex to reduce the risk of HPV infection
2. Getting regular Pap smears to detect and treat precancerous changes early
3. Avoiding tobacco and limiting alcohol consumption
4. Maintaining a healthy diet and exercising regularly
5. Getting vaccinated against HPV if you are under 26 years old
Note: This information is intended for educational purposes only and should not be considered medical advice. If you have any concerns or questions about vaginal neoplasms, you should consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice and treatment.
Precancerous changes in the uterine cervix are called dysplasias, and they can be detected by a Pap smear, which is a routine screening test for women. If dysplasia is found, it can be treated with cryotherapy (freezing), laser therapy, or cone biopsy, which removes the affected cells.
Cervical cancer is rare in developed countries where Pap screening is widely available, but it remains a common cancer in developing countries where access to healthcare and screening is limited. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical precancerous changes and cancer.
Cervical cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. The prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer is good, but advanced-stage cancer can be difficult to treat and may have a poor prognosis.
The following are some types of uterine cervical neoplasms:
1. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when glandular cells on the surface of the cervix become abnormal and grow out of control.
2. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. There are several types of CIN, ranging from mild to severe.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cervical cancer and arises from the squamous cells that line the cervix.
4. Adnexal carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the glands or ducts near the cervix.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cervical cancer that grows rapidly and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
6. Micropapillary uterine carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that grows in a finger-like shape and can be difficult to diagnose.
7. Clear cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from clear cells and can be more aggressive than other types of cervical cancer.
8. Adenocarcinoma: This is a type of cervical cancer that arises from glandular cells and can be less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma.
9. Sarcoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the connective tissue of the cervix.
The treatment options for uterine cervical neoplasms depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. The following are some common treatments for uterine cervical neoplasms:
1. Hysterectomy: This is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus and may be recommended for early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
2. Cryotherapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
3. Laser therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laser to remove or destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
4. Cone biopsy: This is a surgical procedure to remove a small cone-shaped sample of tissue from the cervix to diagnose and treat early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
5. Radiation therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
6. Chemotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
7. Immunotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
8. Targeted therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to target specific genes or proteins that contribute to cancer growth and development and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
It is important to note that the choice of treatment will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Patients should discuss their treatment options with their doctor and develop a personalized plan that is right for them.
1. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of tongue cancer, accounting for about 90% of all cases. It usually starts on the front two-thirds of the tongue and can spread to other parts of the mouth and throat.
2. Verrucous carcinoma: This type of cancer is less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma but can still invade surrounding tissues. It typically occurs on the lateral or back part of the tongue.
3. Papillary carcinoma: This type of cancer is rare and usually affects young people. It starts in the mucous glands on the surface of the tongue and tends to grow slowly.
4. Lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can occur in various parts of the body, including the tongue. There are different subtypes of lymphoma that can affect the tongue, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that usually affects children and young adults. It tends to grow slowly and can occur anywhere on the tongue, but it is most common on the front part of the tongue.
The symptoms of tongue neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. Common symptoms include:
* A lump or mass on the tongue that may be painful or tender to the touch
* Bleeding or discharge from the tongue
* Difficulty speaking, swallowing, or moving the tongue
* Pain in the tongue or mouth that does not go away
* A sore throat or ear pain
If you suspect you may have a tongue neoplasm, it is important to see a doctor for an evaluation. A biopsy can be performed to determine the type of tumor and develop a treatment plan. Treatment options can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
Some common types of choroid neoplasms include:
1. Choroidal melanoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the pigment-producing cells of the choroid. It is the most common type of primary intraocular cancer and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
2. Choroidal hemangioma: A benign tumor that arises from the blood vessels of the choroid. It can cause changes in vision and may require treatment to prevent complications.
3. Choroidal naevus: A benign growth that occurs in the choroid and can be inherited. It is usually asymptomatic but can sometimes cause changes in vision.
4. Other rare types of choroid neoplasms include choroidal lymphoma, choroidal osteochondromatosis, and choroidal metastasis (metastasis of cancer from another part of the body to the choroid).
Choroid neoplasms can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT or MRI scans, and visual field testing. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the neoplasm, and may include observation, laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, or surgery.
Overall, choroid neoplasms are complex and varied conditions that require careful evaluation and treatment by an ophthalmologist or other eye care professional to prevent complications and preserve vision.
The symptoms of fat necrosis can vary depending on the location and extent of the affected tissue. In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all, while in others, there may be pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. If the condition becomes severe, it can lead to the formation of a fat necrosis mass or abscess, which can be painful and tender to the touch.
Fat necrosis is typically diagnosed through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.
Treatment of fat necrosis depends on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative measures such as rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to surgical intervention in more severe cases. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed if there is an underlying infection.
Preventing fat necrosis is challenging, but it can be minimized by avoiding trauma or injury to the affected area, maintaining good wound care, and managing any underlying medical conditions that may contribute to the development of the condition.
1) The patient was diagnosed with a rectal disease and was advised to make dietary changes to manage their symptoms.
2) The doctor performed a rectal examination to rule out any underlying rectal diseases that may be causing the patient's bleeding.
3) The patient underwent surgery to remove a rectal polyp and treat their rectal disease.
1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): The enlargement of the prostate gland can put pressure on the urethra and bladder, making it difficult to urinate.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland can cause urinary retention.
3. Bladder Outlet Obstruction: A blockage in the muscles of the bladder neck or urethra can prevent urine from flowing freely.
4. Neurological Disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injuries can disrupt the nerve signals that control urination, leading to urinary retention.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anesthetics, can cause urinary retention as a side effect.
6. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): UTIs can cause inflammation and scarring in the bladder or urethra, leading to urinary retention.
7. Impacted Stone: Kidney stones that are too large to pass can cause urinary retention if they become lodged in the ureter or bladder.
8. Bladder Cancer: Tumors in the bladder can grow and block the flow of urine, leading to urinary retention.
9. Urethral Stricture: A narrowing of the urethra can cause urinary retention by restricting the flow of urine.
Symptoms of urinary retention may include:
1. Difficulty starting to urinate
2. Weak or interrupted urine stream
3. Painful urination
4. Inability to fully empty the bladder
5. Frequent urination
6. Leaking of urine (incontinence)
7. Blood in the urine
Treatment for urinary retention depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, catheterization, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated urinary retention can lead to complications such as kidney damage or sepsis.
This definition of 'Neoplasm Recurrence, Local' is from the Healthcare Professionals edition of the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, copyright © 2007 by Merriam-Webster, Inc.
The exact cause of histiocytoma is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal growth of histiocytes in response to an underlying genetic mutation or exposure to certain environmental factors.
Symptoms of histiocytoma may include:
1. Redness and swelling of the affected area
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. A small, firm bump on the skin that may be raised or flat
4. Skin discoloration or pigmentation in the affected area
Histiocytoma can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsy, imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, MRI), or blood tests.
Treatment for histiocytoma usually involves surgical excision of the tumor, which can be performed under local anesthesia. In some cases, the tumor may recur after surgery, and radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be recommended to prevent recurrence. However, histiocytoma is generally a benign condition, and the prognosis is good if the tumor is completely removed.
It's important to note that histiocytoma should not be confused with malignant histiocytic disorders such as lymphoma or leukemia, which are cancerous conditions that can have more aggressive symptoms and a poorer prognosis if left untreated.
Uveal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including blurred vision, flashes of light, floaters, and eye pain. These tumors can also cause inflammation and swelling in the eye, which can lead to glaucoma or other complications.
Diagnosis of uveal neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options for uveal neoplasms depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of the disease. Surgery is often the first line of treatment for these tumors, and may involve removal of the affected tissue or the entire eye. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in some cases.
Overall, uveal neoplasms are serious conditions that can have a significant impact on vision and eye health. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to improving outcomes for patients with these tumors.
Some common types of urination disorders include:
1. Urinary incontinence: The loss of bladder control, resulting in the involuntary leakage of urine.
2. Overactive bladder: A condition characterized by sudden, intense urges to urinate, often with urgency and frequency.
3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): An enlarged prostate that can cause urinary frequency, hesitancy, and weak stream.
4. Interstitial cystitis: A chronic bladder condition characterized by recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder area, often accompanied by urinary frequency and pelvic pain.
5. Neurogenic bladder: A condition caused by damage to the nervous system that affects the bladder's ability to store and release urine normally.
Urination disorders can have a significant impact on quality of life, causing embarrassment, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Coronary restenosis is a common complication after coronary interventions, such as angioplasty or stenting. It is estimated that up to 20% of patients may experience restenosis within six months after treatment. If left untreated, restenosis can lead to chest pain, heart attack, or even death.
Treatment options for coronary restenosis include repeat angioplasty or stenting, medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers, or bypass surgery. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their symptoms and undergo regular follow-up appointments to prevent or diagnose restenosis early on.
Common types of genital neoplasms in females include:
1. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN): A precancerous condition that affects the vulva, the external female genital area.
2. Cervical dysplasia: Precancerous changes in the cells of the cervix, which can progress to cancer if left untreated.
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: Abnormal growth of the uterine lining, which can sometimes develop into endometrial cancer.
4. Endometrial adenocarcinoma: Cancer that arises in the glands of the uterine lining.
5. Ovarian cancer: Cancer that originates in the ovaries.
6. Vaginal cancer: Cancer that occurs in the vagina.
7. Cervical cancer: Cancer that occurs in the cervix.
8. Uterine leiomyosarcoma: A rare type of cancer that occurs in the uterus.
9. Uterine clear cell carcinoma: A rare type of cancer that occurs in the uterus.
10. Mesothelioma: A rare type of cancer that affects the lining of the abdominal cavity, including the female reproductive organs.
Treatment for genital neoplasms in females depends on the type and stage of the disease, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Arthur L. Jenkins
Bin (computational geometry)
Uganda Cancer Institute
Management of prostate cancer
Radiation treatment planning
Hoag (health network)
Lagos University Teaching Hospital
Partial breast brachytherapy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Prostate brachytherapy treatment
Brachytherapy (Radioactive Seed Implantation Therapy) in Prostate Cancer: Practice Essentials, Background, Indications
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Optimization Methods for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Treatment Planning - ProQuest
The Physics of Modern Brachytherapy for Oncology - 1st Edition - Dimos
Intraoperative Lung Brachytherapy | Upstate Cancer Center | SUNY Upstate Medical University
Prostate - American Brachytherapy Society
Low-Dose Brachytherapy | Northwestern Medicine
A multipurpose brachytherapy catheter to enable intratumoral injection - PubMed
Which first IMRT or Brachytherapy? - Cancer Survivors Network
Brachytherapy Reimbursement | Manage My Practice
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Image-guided brachytherapy in cervical cancer: Past, present and future - Fingerprint - Mayo Clinic
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Brachytherapy evolution as seen today. | Med Phys;50 Suppl 1: 21-26, 2023 Jun. | MEDLINE
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Glossary of Terms | National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering
Brachytherapy | The Patient's Path
American Brachytherapy Society1
- To ensure that patients and providers learn about and have access to all treatment options, the American Brachytherapy Society has been instrumental in promoting and supporting the continued incorporation of HDR GYN Brachytherapy in the curative approach to treating non-operable, locally advanced cervical cancer. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- Brachytherapy is a procedure to implant radioactive seeds (pellets) into the prostate gland to kill prostate cancer cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Brachytherapy is often used for men with prostate cancer that is found early and is slow-growing. (medlineplus.gov)
- Find out about high dose rate prostate brachytherapy and how it's used to treat prostate cancer. (christie.nhs.uk)
- In prostate cancer , brachytherapy involves the ultrasound- and template-guided insertion of radioactive seeds into the gland. (medscape.com)
- Brachytherapy for prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
- In the 1970s, several centers used brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
- In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the emergence of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and the development of template guidance led to the introduction of percutaneous brachytherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
- Along with radical prostatectomy , cryotherapy , and EBRT (also referred to as intensity-modulated radiation therapy [ IMRT ]), interstitial brachytherapy is a potentially curative treatment for localized prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
- Yet we believe that brachytherapy is the most effective form of radiation treatment for prostate cancer. (learnupon.com)
- A group of researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) reported in 2014 ( see this link ) on the outcomes of 42 patients with radio-recurrent prostate cancer treated with salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (sHDR-BT). (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- Data from a randomized clinical trial have shown that there is more than one way to reduce the size of a man's prostate (if such cytoreduction is needed) prior to treatment with permanent, radioactive pellets (permanent, low-dose brachytherapy) for localized prostate cancer. (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- Brachytherapy is a new form of treatment that helps address cancers and tumors located in various components of the body like prostate cancer, pores and skin, breast, cervix, and others. (101pressrelease.com)
- This type of brachytherapy is most commonly used for the treatment of prostate cancer. (versantphysics.com)
- Adding external-beam radiation to brachytherapy does not improve 5-year freedom from progression (FFP) for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer , but it does increase treatment toxicity. (medscape.com)
- Brachytherapy] alone can be considered a standard of care for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer," the authors concluded. (medscape.com)
- The impact of prostatectomy and brachytherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. (bvsalud.org)
- Brachytherapy (the term is derived from the Greek word brachys, which means brief or short) refers to cancer treatment with ionizing radiation delivered via radioactive material placed a short distance from, or within, the tumor. (medscape.com)
- Introduction Brachytherapy refers to radiation treatment where radioactive material is placed adjacent to, or directly into, the tumor tissue. (learnupon.com)
- The patients are referred for Brachytherapy having large tumor volumes requiring high doses of radiation for control. (lungcancersymptomsx.com)
- Brachytherapy is a type of internal radiation therapy in which seeds, ribbons, or capsules that contain a radiation source are placed in your body, in or near the tumor. (inspireoncology.com)
- Brachytherapy refers to radiation therapy that involves placing radioactive material directly into or adjacent to the tumor, rather than through external beams. (kskcancercenter.com)
- Through the use of brachytherapy, the radioactive source can be placed next to or directly into the tumor. (kskcancercenter.com)
- Brachytherapy can be administered using a multitude of techniques- all dependent on the tumor being treated. (kskcancercenter.com)
- The aim of this retrospective study was to report the results after ruthenium-106 (Ru-106) plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma in terms of tumor control, visual acuity, radiation-related complications, tumor recurrence, metastases, and patients' survival rate during 4 years' follow-up. (unina.it)
- Brachytherapy is a procedure that involves placing radioactive material sources inside the body, either directly inside or next to a tumor. (versantphysics.com)
- Brachytherapy targets the tumor directly, which increases exposure to the cancerous cells and reduces radiation exposure to the surrounding healthy cells. (versantphysics.com)
- Permanent brachytherapy is another type of LDR brachytherapy that involves inserting a needle filled with radioactive seeds into the tumor, with the help of an ultrasound or CT. (versantphysics.com)
- In HDR Brachytherapy, a high dose of radiation is delivered to the tumor in a short burst, lasting only a few minutes. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- 2 The addition of HDR GYN Brachytherapy to external beam radiotherapy increases the treatment efficacy, and is directly linked to enhanced tumor control and improved survival. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- Editor's note: Brachytherapy is a type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material is placed directly into or near a tumor. (cdc.gov)
- He chose to have brachytherapy, a kind of internal radiation therapy where seeds, ribbons, or capsules that contain a radiation source are placed in your body, in or near the tumor. (cdc.gov)
- Prostate brachytherapy is split into 2 main forms: low dose rate permanent seed brachytherapy and HDR brachytherapy, with or without external beam radiotherapy. (christie.nhs.uk)
- We will review payments for brachytherapy, a form of radiotherapy where a radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, to determine whether the payments are in compliance with Medicare requirements. (managemypractice.com)
- Several randomized clinical trials have established the superior oncological outcomes of the combination of external beam radiotherapy with a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost ( see this link ). (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- Radiotherapy (including brachytherapy) is the main treatment for advanced cervical cancer. (who.int)
- With the generous support of donor countries such as France, Japan, Monaco, Sweden, and the United States, the private sector and international financial institutions, Rays of Hope supports countries in the establishment and expansion of radiotherapy services, including brachytherapy, with a particular focus on more than 20 IAEA Member States that completely lack facilities for radiation treatment, most of which are in Africa. (who.int)
- In the other arm, 287 received external-beam radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) to the prostate and seminal vesicles followed by prostate brachytherapy (110 Gy if iodine-125, 100 Gy if palladium-103). (medscape.com)
- has reported 10-year oncological results on 974 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy monotherapy (using iodine-125 seeds) from 1998 to 2013. (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- Internal radiation or brachytherapy uses radioactive seeds placed within the prostate gland. (nyp.org)
- In some cases, low-dose brachytherapy is delivered in the form of permanent radioactive "seeds" that deliver their therapeutic dose of radiation over days or months. (nyp.org)
- Brachytherapy takes 30 minutes or more, depending on the type of therapy you have. (medlineplus.gov)
- Brachytherapy has fewer complications and side effects than standard radiation therapy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Brachytherapy candidates with a significant risk of extraprostatic extension should be treated with supplemental intensity-modulated radiation therapy. (medscape.com)
- Interest in brachytherapy waned in the early 1980s because of these results, the advent of more advanced external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) equipment, and the development of the nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. (medscape.com)
- The ASCENDE-RT trial showed that oncological outcomes were improved among both intermediate-risk and high-risk men who were treated with external beam radiation (EBRT) and a brachytherapy boost (LDR-BT) to the prostate and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) ( see this link ). (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- When Jeff Demanes at the California Endocurietherapy Center, then in Oakland, CA, started doing high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) as a monotherapy (i.e., without any additional external beam therapy or hormone therapy), he arbitrarily chose a treatment schedule of 42 Gy delivered in six treatments or fractions. (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- RTOG 0232 was a large clinical trial conducted to determine whether low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) alone was of equal benefit compared to external beam radiation therapy with a brachytherapy boost (EBRT + LDR-BT) in intermediate-risk patients. (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- A retrospective analysis of oncological outcomes among modern-era patients with a Gleason score of 9 or 10 demonstrates a clear advantage to a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with a brachytherapy (BT) boost to the prostate and short-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- HDR brachytherapy treatments are performed in a radiation therapy vault. (versantphysics.com)
- 1 While the majority of patients with early stages of cervical cancer are cured with surgery, those with advanced stages are still curable when High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy is used in combination with daily pelvic External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- HDR GYN Brachytherapy is used to "boost" the radiation dose to the cervical cancer following pelvic external beam radiation therapy treatments. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- A noteworthy study of over 7,000 patients with non-operable, locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy between 1988 to 2009 found that patients who received HDR GYN Brachytherapy as part of their cancer treatment had higher rates of survival than patients who received external beam radiation alone. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- Internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy). (cdc.gov)
- It's also called implant radiation therapy, internal radiation therapy, and radiation brachytherapy. (cdc.gov)
- Methods: From a nationwide cohort of 90 955 US radiologic technologists who completed a mailed questionnaire during 1994-1998, 22 039 reported ever performing diagnostic radionuclide procedures, brachytherapy, radioactive iodine therapy, or other radionuclide therapy. (cdc.gov)
- Lorenzo's brachytherapy procedure took 45 minutes, and he was able to go home immediately. (cdc.gov)
- Codes describing the modalities of brachytherapy procedures. (fhir.org)
- Today, brachytherapy is a standard technique in the treatment of a large number of malignancies and often used in combination with EBRT. (kskcancercenter.com)
- Patients with non-operable, locally advanced cervical cancer have some of the highest cure rates compared to other advanced cancers, but only if HDR GYN Brachytherapy is a part of their treatment. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- HDR GYN Brachytherapy is a treatment that delivers higher doses of radiation to the cervical cancer while minimizing the radiation exposure to nearby tissues, such as the bladder and rectum. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- Other treatment options that do not include HDR GYN Brachytherapy, such as using alternative types of external beam radiation, are not as successful as brachytherapy for curing non-operable, locally advance cervical cancer. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- The use of HDR GYN Brachytherapy is critical in the successful treatment of non-operable, locally advanced cervical cancer and has been used for over a century. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- HDR GYN Brachytherapy remains a critical treatment component for non-operable, locally advanced cervical cancer. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- Unfortunately, there has been a decline in the use of HDR GYN Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer in the United States , with a prior survey showing over one-third of patients do not receive brachytherapy. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- The general public needs to be aware of the much higher cure rates when HDR GYN Brachytherapy is used in the treatment of non-operable, locally advanced cervical cancer. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- It is our hope that all patients with advanced cervical cancer will be seen by a radiation oncologist who has an expertise in brachytherapy. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- It is critical that women diagnosed with locally advanced cervical cancer be informed of their treatment options and understand that the incorporation of HDR GYN Brachytherapy results in improved disease control and survival. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- I had five weekly sessions of chemotherapy in conjunction with 30 daily radiation treatments, followed by five brachytherapy treatments. (cdc.gov)
- Internal or surface radiation treatment that irradiates a treatment volume in short pulses (typically 10 to 30 minutes in every hour) with a stronger source than low dose rate brachytherapy (typically treatment rates up to 3 Gy/hour). (fhir.org)
- What is ocular brachytherapy? (calgaryeyefoundation.org)
- And then in the 1990s, medical research revealed the power of ocular brachytherapy. (calgaryeyefoundation.org)
- The ideal solution is the precise application of radiation to tumours and not to surrounding tissue, and this is what ocular brachytherapy allows. (calgaryeyefoundation.org)
- The CALGARY EYE FOUNDATION is pleased to help patients with some travel costs as they undergo ocular brachytherapy treatment. (calgaryeyefoundation.org)
- The choice between seed brachytherapy and HDR brachytherapy will depend on your tumour and other factors. (christie.nhs.uk)
- For appropriately selected patients, brachytherapy appears to offer cancer control comparable to that achieved with these other techniques. (medscape.com)
- The publication of the ASCENDE-RT clinical trial ( discussed here ) has led to a revision in the brachytherapy guidelines ( available here ) issued jointly by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Cancer Care Ontario (CCO). (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- The Brachytherapy treatment is given through the segment of the tube that lies against the cancer. (lungcancersymptomsx.com)
- In addition to Brachytherapy, there are also other treatment options available and performed by cancer specialists. (lungcancersymptomsx.com)
- Brachytherapy implants can be temporary or permanent, depending on the type of treatment needed. (versantphysics.com)
- In this series, we include presentations from the leading experts in the field of brachytherapy to discuss long-term disease outcomes, toxicity, socioeconomic issues, training, and new developments in the field. (learnupon.com)
- Patients with a high probability of organ-confined disease are appropriately treated with brachytherapy alone. (medscape.com)
- A total of 355 eyes from 355 patients have been treated with Ru-106 plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma between February 2011 and March 2020. (unina.it)
- However, there are recommended radiation safety precautions for both patients and medical professionals during a brachytherapy treatment. (versantphysics.com)
- At 4 years after treatment, the survival rate was 12% higher in patients receiving brachytherapy. (appliedradiationoncology.com)
- Low-dose rate brachytherapy is the most common type of treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- High-dose rate brachytherapy lasts about 30 minutes. (medlineplus.gov)
- Is there an optimal treatment schedule for high-dose-rate brachytherapy? (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- Protocols for high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) monotherapy vary. (prostatecancerinfolink.net)
- In other cases, computer guided high dose rate brachytherapy is used to precisely deliver a highly radioactive source to the target area. (nyp.org)
- Another type of prostate brachytherapy is called high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. (nyp.org)
- Brachytherapy followed by low-dose radiation. (cdc.gov)
- Brachytherapy - this is a type of radiation treatment that is implanted into the patient at the time of surgery. (thoracics.org)
- Your consultant will discuss with you the best form of brachytherapy for your circumstances as well as other treatment options. (christie.nhs.uk)
- Because of the targeted nature of brachytherapy, it is best used for cancers that have not metastasized. (versantphysics.com)
- Modern brachytherapy techniques have largely eliminated the initial radiation exposure dangers that existed several decades ago. (versantphysics.com)
- Although proponents of brachytherapy claim better quality-of-life results, the evidence supporting this claim is mixed. (medscape.com)