A genus of spiral bacteria of the family Brachyspiraceae.
Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
A species of anaerobic, spiral bacteria that was formerly classified as Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Treponema hyodysenteriae (and for a short while, Serpula hyodysenteriae). This organism is the agent of swine dysentery.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.
A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.
Infections with bacteria of the family Desulfovibrionaceae.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

PCR amplification from fixed tissue indicates frequent involvement of Brachyspira aalborgi in human intestinal spirochetosis. (1/91)

PCR procedures amplifying portions of the 16S rRNA and NADH oxidase genes of Brachyspira aalborgi and Serpulina pilosicoli were applied to DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded human colonic or rectal tissues from 30 Norwegian, Australian, and U.S. patients, 16 of whom had histologic evidence of intestinal spirochetosis (IS). B. aalborgi-specific sequences were identified by PCR in 10 of the IS patients (62.5%) but none of the others, while S. pilosicoli sequences were not detected in tissues from any patient. Direct sequencing of products from three of the positive samples provided further confirmation of the presence of B. aalborgi. B. aalborgi may be a more common cause of intestinal spirochetosis than has been previously thought.  (+info)

Lipo-oligosaccharide profiles of Serpulina pilosicoli strains and their serological cross-reactivities. (2/91)

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of lipopolysaccharide-like material in the intestinal spirochaete Serpulina pilosicoli and the extent of antigenic cross-reactivity of this material in different strains of the species. Hot water-phenol, aqueous-phase extracts from five porcine and three human strains of S. pilosicoli, and from seven strains of four other Serpulina spp., were separated by SDS-PAGE and silver-stained profiles were obtained. All S. pilosicoli strains had a predominant band at c. 16 kDa. Some also had a partial ladder-like profile, consistent with the presence of semi-rough lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS); this was more obvious in Western immunoblot analysis. LOS from each S. pilosicoli strain was serologically distinct in immunoblot analysis and there was no cross-reactivity with other Serpulina spp. The serological diversity found amongst the LOS of S. pilosicoli strains may help to explain why individual people and animals can suffer repeated infections with different strains of the organism.  (+info)

Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs. (3/91)

Two groups of six 8-week-old pigs were challenged with 1x10(9) cfu Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli or Serpulina intermedia daily for 3 consecutive days to study the pathology of porcine colonic spirochetosis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with oligonucleotide probes targeting ribosomal RNA specific for B. pilosicoli and the genus Brachyspira/Serpulina. Six pigs served as noninoculated controls. The animals were euthanatized successively between postinoculation days 14 and 24. B. pilosicoli was reisolated in feces from all of the inoculated pigs; however, only two pigs developed transient watery diarrhea. S. intermedia was reisolated from four of the inoculated pigs, but clinical signs were not observed. Gross examination of the B. pilosicoli-infected pigs revealed dilated large intestines with a hyperemic mucosa, whereas the large intestines of the S. intermedia-inoculated pigs and the control pigs appeared normal. SEM examination of B. pilosicoli-infected pigs revealed degenerated epithelial cells and spirochetal colonization of the colonic mucosa in four pigs. By FISH, B. pilosicoli cells were found colonizing and invading the surface epithelium and the crypts in all the pigs. Spirochetal crypt colonization markedly exceeded the occurrence of spirochetes on the mucosal surface. SEM examination of S. intermedia-inoculated pigs revealed no abnormalities, and Serpulina cells were detected only sporadically in the otherwise normal-appearing mucosa of four pigs by FISH. The results provide further evidence that B. pilosicoli is associated with colitis in pigs, although the gross lesions are mild. The spirochete is capable of colonizing the large intestine, inducing mucosal damage, invasion of the crypt and surface epithelium, and focal infiltration of the lamina propria. In addition, the study shows the applicability of FISH for specific identification of B. pilosicoli in formalin-fixed tissue.  (+info)

Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of an immunogenic glucose-galactose MglB lipoprotein homologue from Brachyspira pilosicoli, the agent of colonic spirochetosis. (4/91)

Colonic spirochetosis (CS) is a newly emerging infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the pathogenic spirochete Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina) pilosicoli. The purpose of this study was to characterize an antigen that was recognized by antibodies present in sera of challenge-exposed pigs. The gene encoding the antigen was identified by screening a plasmid library of human B. pilosicoli strain SP16 (ATCC 49776) genomic DNA with hyperimmune and convalescent swine sera. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the cloned B. pilosicoli gene had a high degree of similarity and identity to glucose-galactose MglB lipoprotein. Located 106 bp downstream of the putative mglB gene was a 3'-truncated open reading frame with 73.8% similarity and 66.3% identity to mglA of Escherichia coli, suggesting a gene arrangement within an operon which is similar to those of other bacteria. A single copy of the gene was present in B. pilosicoli, and homologous sequences were widely conserved among porcine intestinal spirochetes Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira murdochii, and the avian Brachyspira alvinipulli, but not in porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, human Brachyspira aalborgi, and porcine Treponema succinifaciens. The deduced molecular weight of the mature MglB lipoprotein was consistent with expression by the cloned gene of a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000, as determined by Western blot analysis and [(3)H]palmitate labeling. Because mucin is the principal constituent of the colonic mucus gel and consists of glycoproteins that can serve as the substrate for growth and chemotaxis of B. pilosicoli in vitro, a role for MglB in mucosal localization of the spirochete appears consistent with the pathogenesis of CS. However, the presence of homologous sequences in closely related but nonpathogenic commensal spirochetes suggests that other virulence determinants may be required for pathogenesis.  (+info)

Evaluation of blood culture systems for detection of the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli in human blood. (5/91)

The anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli has been isolated from the bloodstream of French patients by manual blood culture systems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the automated and manual blood culture systems used in Australia are suitable for growth and detection of this organism. Strains of B. pilosicoli were added to human blood to give concentrations ranging from 1 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(1) spirochaetes/ml and 10-ml volumes were inoculated into the media. Three strains of B. pilosicoli grew slowly in all manual Hemoline and BBL Septi-Chek formulations tested. Subcultures taken between 2 and 10 days after inoculation yielded growth only after incubation for a further 5-8 days. Growth and automated detection were achieved in the BACTEC system with Anaerobic/F medium with or without Fastidious Organism Supplement. Minimum time to signal for nine strains varied between 5.6 and 14.9 days, with a minimum concentration of 10(1) spirochaetes/ml of blood being detected. None of nine strains gave a positive signal in the BacT/Alert system when FAN Anaerobic culture bottles were used; however, four strains were detected by subculture taken at 7 or 14 days after inoculation. When Anaerobic medium was used in the BacT/Alert system, two of three strains gave a signal and the other strain grew and was detected by subculture. Spirochaetaemias caused by B. pilosicoli may be unrecognised because detection time by the signal or subculture exceeds 5 days.  (+info)

Comparative prevalences of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli as etiologic agents of histologically identified intestinal spirochetosis in Australia. (6/91)

DNA from gastrointestinal biopsy specimens from 28 Australian patients with histologic evidence of intestinal spirochetosis (IS) was subjected to PCRs to amplify segments of the 16S rRNA and NADH oxidase genes of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli. B. aalborgi was identified in specimens from 24 (85.7%) patients and B. pilosicoli in those from 4 (14.3%) patients (2 of whom were also positive for B. aalborgi). For two patients, no product was amplified. This study demonstrates that B. aalborgi is much more commonly involved in histologically identified IS in Australian patients than is B. pilosicoli. This is the first report of amplification of B. pilosicoli DNA from humans with IS.  (+info)

Diagnostic examination of human intestinal spirochetosis by fluorescent in situ hybridization for Brachyspira aalborgi, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and other species of the genus Brachyspira (Serpulina). (7/91)

Human intestinal spirochetosis, characterized by end-on attachment of densely packed spirochetes to the epithelial surface of the large intestines as a fringe has been associated with the weakly beta-hemolytic spirochetes Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli. In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S or 23S rRNA of B. aalborgi, B. pilosicoli, and the genus Brachyspira was applied to 40 sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded intestinal biopsy specimens from 23 Danish and 15 Norwegian patients with histologic evidence of intestinal spirochetosis. Five biopsy specimens from patients without intestinal spirochetosis and three samples from pigs with experimental B. pilosicoli colitis were examined as well. In addition, the 16S ribosomal DNAs of two clinical isolates of B. aalborgi were sequenced, and a PCR procedure was developed for the identification of B. aalborgi in cultures. The genotypic characteristics of the two clinical isolates showed very high (99.5%) similarity with two existing isolates, the type strain of B. aalborgi and a Swedish isolate. Hybridization with the Brachyspira genus-specific probe revealed a brightly fluorescing fringe of spirochetes on the epithelia of 39 biopsy specimens, whereas 1 biopsy specimen was hybridization negative. The spirochetes in biopsy specimens from 13 Danish and 8 Norwegian patients (55.3%) were identified as B. aalborgi. The spirochetes in the biopsy specimens from the other 17 patients hybridized only with the Brachyspira probe, possibly demonstrating the involvement of as-yet-uncharacterized Brachyspira spirochetes in human intestinal spirochetosis.  (+info)

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of porcine Brachyspira (Serpulina) species isolates. (8/91)

No standardized method for susceptibility testing of Brachyspira spp. is currently available. A broth dilution procedure was evaluated and used to test the activities of six antimicrobial agents for 108 isolates of Swedish porcine Brachyspira spp. representing biochemical groups I, II, and III. Group I corresponds to Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, group II corresponds to B. intermedia, and group III corresponds to B. murdochii and B. innocens. A panel was designed with the antimicrobial agents dried in tissue culture trays with wells that allowed a liquid volume of 0.5 ml in each and agitation of the broth when incubated on a shaker. The MICs were determined by using brain heart infusion broth with 10% fetal calf serum. For 10 isolates, the results obtained in broth were compared to the MICs obtained on two different types of agar. Different inoculum densities and incubation times were also compared. The concentrations at which 90% of the B. hyodysenteriae isolates (n = 72) were inhibited in the broth dilution test by tiamulin (0.25 micro g/ml), tylosin (>256 micro g/ml), erythromycin (>256 micro g/ml), clindamycin (>4 micro g/ml), virginiamycin (4 micro g/ml), and carbadox (0.06 micro g/ml) were determined. The MICs tended to be lower in broth than on agar. Differences in inoculum densities and incubation times had little influence on the MICs. The evaluated broth dilution test was simple to perform, the end points were easily read, and the results were reproducible and reliable. No isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin were found among the Swedish isolates tested.  (+info)

'Brachyspira' is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including pigs, birds, and humans. These bacteria are gram-negative, anaerobic or microaerophilic, and spiral-shaped, which gives them their name ('brachys' meaning short and 'spira' meaning coil).

Some species of Brachyspira are known to cause intestinal diseases in animals, such as swine dysentery in pigs and hemorrhagic bowel disease in birds. In humans, Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira suanatina have been associated with cases of intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. However, the role of Brachyspira species in human health and disease is not well understood and requires further research.

It's worth noting that while Brachyspira bacteria can be pathogenic, they are also a normal part of the intestinal microbiota in many animals, and their presence alone does not necessarily indicate disease.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that includes several species known to cause infections in humans. The term "Spirochaetales infections" generally refers to diseases caused by these spirochete bacteria. The most well-known Spirochaetales infections include:

1. Syphilis - Caused by Treponema pallidum, syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It progresses through several stages, with symptoms ranging from painless sores to rashes, and may eventually affect the heart, brain, and other organs.

2. Lyme disease - Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted through tick bites, Lyme disease is an inflammatory illness that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as rash, fever, fatigue, and joint pain. In later stages, it may lead to neurological and cardiac complications if not treated promptly.

3. Leptospirosis - Caused by Leptospira spp., leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that humans usually acquire through exposure to infected animal urine or contaminated water. Symptoms can range from mild flu-like illness to severe complications, such as kidney and liver failure, meningitis, and respiratory distress.

4. Relapsing fever - Caused by Borrelia recurrentis and transmitted through the bite of lice, relapsing fever is characterized by recurring episodes of high fever, chills, headache, and muscle aches. The disease can be severe and may lead to complications such as myocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological issues.

5. Pinta - Caused by Treponema carateum, pinta is a tropical skin infection that primarily affects the outer layers of the skin, causing lesions and discoloration. While not typically life-threatening, it can lead to significant disfigurement if left untreated.

Treatment for Spirochaetales infections generally involves antibiotics, such as penicillin or doxycycline, depending on the specific infection and its severity. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, using insect repellent to prevent insect bites, avoiding contact with potentially infected animals, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms develop after potential exposure.

'Brachyspira hyodysenteriae' is a species of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is a primary cause of swine dysentery, a severe enteric disease in pigs. The bacteria colonize the large intestine and produce toxins that cause inflammation and diarrhea, often with mucus and blood in the feces. Infection can lead to weight loss, dehydration, and death in young pigs, resulting in significant economic losses for pig farmers.

The bacteria are difficult to control due to their ability to survive outside the host for extended periods and their resistance to many antibiotics. Good biosecurity practices, including strict sanitation measures and the use of vaccines, can help prevent the spread of swine dysentery in pig herds.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that are characterized by their unique spiral or corkscrew shape. This shape allows them to move in a flexing, twisting motion, which can be quite rapid. They are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet stain in the Gram staining method, and they have a unique structure with endoflagella (also known as axial filaments) located inside their outer membrane.

The Spirochaetales order includes several families and genera of bacteria, some of which are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic. The parasitic spirochetes can cause various diseases in humans and animals. For example, Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a serious sexually transmitted infection. Another species, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

It's important to note that spirochetes are a diverse group with varying characteristics and pathogenic potential. While some species can cause significant harm, others are not associated with diseases and play essential roles in various ecosystems.

Spirochaetaceae is a family of spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacteria known as spirochetes. These bacteria are characterized by their unique morphology, which includes a flexible helical shape and the presence of endoflagella, which are located inside the cell wall and run lengthwise along the entire length of the organism. This arrangement of flagella allows the spirochete to move in a corkscrew-like motion.

Spirochaetaceae includes several genera of medically important bacteria, such as:

* Treponema: This genus includes the bacterium that causes syphilis (Treponema pallidum) and other treponemal diseases like yaws and pinta.
* Borrelia: This genus includes the spirochetes responsible for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis).
* Leptospira: This genus contains the bacteria that cause leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted through the urine of infected animals.

Spirochetes are often found in aquatic environments and can be part of the normal microbiota of some animals, including humans. However, certain species can cause significant diseases in humans and animals, making them important pathogens. Proper identification and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing spirochetal infections.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Dysentery is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the intestine, particularly the colon, leading to severe diarrhea containing blood, mucus, and/or pus. It is typically caused by infectious agents such as bacteria (like Shigella, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli) or parasites (such as Entamoeba histolytica). The infection can be acquired through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person. Symptoms may also include abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential complications.

Intestinal diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the function or structure of the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or both. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. They can be caused by infections, inflammation, genetic disorders, or other factors. Some examples of intestinal diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and intestinal infections. The specific medical definition may vary depending on the context and the specific condition being referred to.

"Spirochaeta" is a genus of spirochete bacteria, characterized by their long, spiral-shaped bodies. These bacteria are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining method, and are typically motile, moving by means of endoflagella located within their outer membrane. Members of this genus are found in various environments, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial habitats. Some species are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic with animals. It is important to note that the medical significance of "Spirochaeta" species is limited compared to other spirochete genera like "Treponema," which includes the bacterium causing syphilis.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Bacterial shedding refers to the release or discharge of bacteria from an infected individual into their environment. This can occur through various routes, such as respiratory droplets when coughing or sneezing, or through fecal matter. The bacteria can then potentially spread to other individuals, causing infection and disease. It's important to note that not all bacteria that are shed cause illness, and some people may be colonized with certain bacteria without showing symptoms. However, in healthcare settings, bacterial shedding is a concern for the transmission of harmful pathogens, particularly in vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lawsonia bacteria" is not a recognized or established term in microbiology or medicine. Lawsonia is a genus of bacteria that contains only one species, which is called Lawsonia intracellularis. This bacterium is known to cause a disease in pigs called porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) and in horses called equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE).

However, if you're referring to a different term or concept, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

Desulfovibrionaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. While these bacteria are typically harmless and even beneficial to the body in small numbers, they can cause infections under certain circumstances.

Desulfovibrionaceae infections primarily occur in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplants. The bacteria can also cause infections in people who have recently undergone surgical procedures or have other underlying medical conditions.

Desulfovibrionaceae infections can manifest as a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the infection. Some possible symptoms include:

* Abdominal pain or cramping
* Diarrhea, which may be watery or contain blood
* Fever
* Chills
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Loss of appetite
* Headache

Desulfovibrionaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria. The specific antibiotic used may depend on the location and severity of the infection, as well as the individual's overall health status. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

It is important to note that Desulfovibrionaceae infections are relatively rare, and most people who carry these bacteria in their gut do not develop symptoms. However, if you experience any of the above symptoms and suspect you may have an infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Hippurates" is not a medical term or condition. It might refer to Hippocrates, who is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine." However, if you have a different context in mind, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Saskatchewan" is not a medical term. It is a province in Canada, located in the central part of the country. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Carbadox is a veterinary drug that belongs to the class of medications called antimicrobials. It is specifically an antimicrobial agent with both antibacterial and coccidiostat properties. Carbadox is used in the treatment and prevention of certain bacterial infections in swine (pigs). It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and killing coccidia, a type of parasite that can cause infection in pigs.

Carbadox is available as a feed additive and is typically administered to pigs through their food. It is important to note that carbadox is not approved for use in animals destined for human consumption in many countries, including the European Union, due to concerns about potential carcinogenicity and other safety issues.

It's worth mentioning that the use of carbadox in food-producing animals has been a topic of controversy and debate in recent years, with some experts calling for stricter regulations or a complete ban on its use due to concerns about antibiotic resistance and human health.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

A metagenome is the collective genetic material contained within a sample taken from a specific environment, such as soil or water, or within a community of organisms, like the microbiota found in the human gut. It includes the genomes of all the microorganisms present in that environment or community, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and other microbes, whether they can be cultured in the lab or not. By analyzing the metagenome, scientists can gain insights into the diversity, abundance, and functional potential of the microbial communities present in that environment.

Medical Definition of Microbiota:

The community of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microscopic life forms, that inhabit a specific environment or body part. In the human body, microbiota can be found on the skin, in the mouth, gut, and other areas. The largest concentration of microbiota is located in the intestines, where it plays an essential role in digestion, immune function, and overall health.

The composition of the microbiota can vary depending on factors such as age, diet, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental exposures. Dysbiosis, or imbalance of the microbiota, has been linked to various health conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.

Therefore, maintaining a healthy and diverse microbiota is crucial for overall health and well-being. This can be achieved through a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, stress management, and other lifestyle practices that support the growth and maintenance of beneficial microorganisms in the body.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

... is a genus of bacteria classified within the phylum Spirochaetota. Brachyspira species include pathogens in pigs, ... "Brachyspira". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-03-30. Sayers; et al. "Brachyspira ... In the U.S.A. Brachyspira-associated pig disease and isolation of Brachyspira species from swine with diarrheal disease largely ... Treponema and Brachyspira imply that Brachyspira is expected to: import carbohydrates and short fatty acids (6->3 carbons) for ...
... , formerly Serpulina hyodysenteriae and other binomial names, is a gram-negative anaerobic spirochete ... 615-673, ISBN 978-0-12-263951-7, retrieved 2023-03-22 "MeSH Browser: Brachyspira hyodysenteriae". meshb.nlm.nih.gov. v t e ( ...
... is an extinct species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mitromorphidae. This ... MolluscaBase (2018). Mitromorpha brachyspira (Suter, 1917) †. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www ...
... and proposals of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Comb. Nov., Brachyspira innocens Comb. Nov. and Brachyspira pilosicoli Comb. Nov". ... Mikosza AS, La T, Margawani KR, Brooke CJ, Hampson DJ (April 2001). "PCR detection of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira ... Hidalgo A, Rubio P, Osorio J, Carvajal A (December 2010). "Prevalence of Brachyspira pilosicoli and "Brachyspira canis" in dogs ... "Colonization and risk factors for Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli in humans and dogs on tea estates in Assam, ...
... and proposals of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Comb. Nov., Brachyspira innocens Comb. Nov. and Brachyspira pilosicoli Comb. Nov". ... Brachyspira innocens is a species of bacteria. It is thought to be a commensal bacterium. Ochiai S; Adachi Y; Mori K (1997). " ... Bacterio entry Straininfo entry GBIF entry Brachyspira innocens entry EOL entry v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... "Unification of the genera Serpulina and Brachyspira, ...
Mikosza AS, Hampson DJ (June 2001). "Human intestinal spirochetosis: Brachyspira aalborgi and/or Brachyspira pilosicoli?". ... "Comparative Prevalences of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli as Etiologic Agents of Histologically ... LSPN Bacterio.net "Brachyspira aalborgi" at the Encyclopedia of Life v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Brachyspira aalborgi is a species of bacteria, one of the causative agents of intestinal spirochetosis. Its cells are anaerobic ...
The Brachyspira holin (B-Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.55) consists of several proteins from the GTA holin of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae ... Portal: Biology As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.E.55 The Brachyspira holin (B-Hol) Family", which is ... "1.E.55 The Brachyspira holin (B-Hol) Family". TCDB. Retrieved 2016-03-29. ... to VSH-1 holin of Brachyspira pilosicoli. VSH-1 is thought to participate in cell lysis. These proteins range in size from ...
Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira intermedia". Veterinary Microbiology. 134 (3-4): 340-5. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.09.051 ... Brachyspira is a genus of spirochete; several species have been shown to carry homologous GTA gene clusters. Particles contain ... Brachyspira, and Rhodobacter species". Anaerobe. 13 (2): 43-9. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2007.03.004. PMID 17513139. Grüll MP, ... of genes associated with prophage-like gene transfer agents in the pathogenic intestinal spirochaetes Brachyspira ...
Hampson, David J. (2017-11-29). "The Spirochete Brachyspira pilosicoli, Enteric Pathogen of Animals and Humans". Clinical ... Brachyspira pilosicoli pathogen also appears to be responsible for many chronic intermittent watery diarrhea and is only ... its brush-border is stronger and longer that Brachyspira aalborgi's brush-border. It is unfortunately often not diagnosed as ... coproculture does not allow growth and 16S PCR panel primers do not match Brachyspira sequences. While viruses are associated ...
Human intestinal spirochetosis is caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira aalborgi. Porcine and avian intestinal ... spirochetosis are caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli.[citation needed] It is diagnosed by ...
Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira aalborgi, which cause intestinal spirochaetosis Salvarsan, the first partially organic ... 2014 Family Brachyspiraceae Paster 2012 Genus Brachyspira Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982 Genus ?"Ca. Maribrachyspira" Matsuyama et ...
Spirochetosis of the appendix, caused by Brachyspira aalborgi or Brachyspira pilosicoli, is not associated with appendicitis. ...
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Infection causes mild gastrointestinal signs in young pigs and can also ...
... brachyspira Suter, 1917: synonym of † Mitromorpha brachyspira (Suter, 1917) Borsonia coronadoi Dall, 1908: synonym of ...
3.A.1.20 Brachyspira Iron Transporter (BIT) 3.A.1.21 Siderophore-Fe3+ Uptake Transporter (SIUT) 3.A.1.24 The Methionine Uptake ...
... brachyspira (Suter, 1917) Mitromorpha braziliensis Mifsud, 2009 Mitromorpha brevispira Kilburn, 1986 Mitromorpha ...
... antibiotic for the treatment of swine dysentery associated with Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina or Treponema) Fasinex ( ...
... brachyspira (Möllendorff, 1894) Auriculastra dumasi (Cossmann, 1895) † Auriculastra duplicata (L. Pfeiffer, 1854) ...
The Brachyspira holin (B-Hol) Family 1.E.56 - The Putative 3 TMS Holin (3-Hol) Family 1.E.57 - The Actinobacterial Phage Holin ...
1801 Brachyspira L. Pfeiffer, 1855 †: synonym of Succinea (Brachyspira) L. Pfeiffer, 1855 represented as Succinea Draparnaud, ...
Brachyspira is a genus of bacteria classified within the phylum Spirochaetota. Brachyspira species include pathogens in pigs, ... "Brachyspira". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-03-30. Sayers; et al. "Brachyspira ... In the U.S.A. Brachyspira-associated pig disease and isolation of Brachyspira species from swine with diarrheal disease largely ... Treponema and Brachyspira imply that Brachyspira is expected to: import carbohydrates and short fatty acids (6->3 carbons) for ...
To the Editor: Anaerobic intestinal spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira colonize the large intestine (1). Most Brachyspira ... Hampson DJ, Oxberry SL, La T. Potential for Zoonotic Transmission of Brachyspira pilosicoli. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006 ... Hampson, D. J., Oxberry, S. L., & La, T. (2006). Potential for Zoonotic Transmission of Brachyspira pilosicoli. Emerging ... Hampson DJ, Oxberry SL, La T. Potential for Zoonotic Transmission of Brachyspira pilosicoli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(5):869- ...
Base of the evolutionary tree for Brachyspira aalborgi. ← parent Species Brachyspira aalborgi ...
Brachyspira culture. *Preferred sample - rectal swab. *Insert swab past anal sphincter, rotate one full turn, withdraw, and ...
Combined in-vitro and on-farm evaluation of commercial disinfectants used against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae * Gómez-García, M. ...
Association between Brachyspira and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea Karolina S. Jabbar, Brendan Dolan, Lisbeth Eklund, ...
Brachyspira) is present. It is of major interest to keep the gut microflora under control, because, to a certain extent, gut ...
241000510930 Brachyspira pilosicoli Species 0.000 description 1 * 101710023755 CHST11 Proteins 0.000 description 1 ...
A New Bacterium on the Block: How Brachyspira may be a factor for IBS. ...
A New Bacterium on the Block: How Brachyspira may be a factor for IBS. ...
What if pigs cant survive a Brachyspira infection? What if E.coli or Salmonella infections cannot be treated anymore because ...
Brachyspira innocens, as its name suggests, is not associated with disease and is commonly found in the hen. Brachyspira ... Brachyspira grow slowly and faecal culture and biochemical typing takes about 10-14 days to get a result. There is a rapid PCR ... The breakthrough occurred in the late nineties when researchers were able to distinguish between the different Brachyspira ...
Binkowski, Sabrina Katrin (2013) Investigation of virulent and avirulent Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates. PhD thesis, ...
An effective treatment for swine dysentery associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and swine pneumonia due to A. ... An effective treatment for swine dysentery associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and swine pneumonia due to A. ...
Hallamshire and furthermore cialis pills for sale osseointegrated stencil pro many oldfangled brachyspira. Decoct unboyishly ...
Abstract: The present invention relates generally to vaccine strains of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. In particular, the present ...
BmpB protein, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae 0 *Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins *Lipoproteins. Vet Microbiol 2000 Oct 1;76(3):245 ...
Presence and mechanisms of acquired antimicrobial resistance in Belgian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates belonging to ...
The MycGal dtec-qPCR comprises a series of species-specific targeted reagents designed for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by using qPCR. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is abacteriumbelonging to the familyMycoplasmataceae. This is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, chickens, game birds, pigeons, and passerine birds of all ages. M. gallisepticum is transmitted through the eggs of carrier hens. Most
Swine dysentery (Brachyspira hyodysenteriae). Swine Dysentery and Spirochaetal Colitis (Brachyspira [previously Serpulina and ... Treponema] hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli) Definition Swine dysentery (SD) is a severe, infectious disease ...
Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Brachyspira spp. isolated from wild rodents. Backhans, Annette; Johansson, Karl- ...
ALZOGUR®: control actions of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. News, NewsBy BUG. 18 October, 2019. ... ALZOGUR®: control actions of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Only with a management that integrates different hygienic methods can ... we interrupt the cycle of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The bacteria must be eliminated not only from the animal, but also ...
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment ...
The previously published rarity and specificity of Brachyspira to the gut was confirmed by its detectable presence in only one ...
Antibakteriális hatású kísérleti takarmányadalékok hatékonyságának vizsgálata Brachyspira hyodysenteriae-vel fertőzött ...
Brachyspira. Serpulina hyodysenteriae. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. B04 - Viruses. Vesicular stomatitis-Indiana virus. Vesicular ...
Brachyspira. Serpulina hyodysenteriae. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. B04 - Viruses. Vesicular stomatitis-Indiana virus. Vesicular ...
Brachyspira. Serpulina hyodysenteriae. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. B04 - Viruses. Vesicular stomatitis-Indiana virus. Vesicular ...
  • An effective treatment for swine dysentery associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and swine pneumonia due to A. pleuropneumoniae. (valleyvet.com)
  • ALZOGUR®: control actions of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Only with a management that integrates different hygienic methods can we interrupt the cycle of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. (andersensa.com)
  • Brachyspira hyodysenteriae detection in the large intestine of slaughtered pigs. (unibe.ch)
  • Transposon-associated lincosamide resistance lnu (C) gene identified in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae ST83. (unibe.ch)
  • Tratamento da disenteria suína causada por Brachyspira hyodysenteriae sensível à tiamulina. (dechra.pt)
  • Most Brachyspira species have a restricted host range, whereas Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina ) pilosicoli colonizes a variety of animal and bird species and humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Dendrogram showing relationships between 107 isolates of Brachyspira pilosicoli originating from various host species located in electrophoretic types (ETs) 1-80 and B. aalborgi NCTC 11492 T located in ET81. (cdc.gov)
  • Brachyspira pilosicoli and B. intermedia , are considered pathogenic (disease causing) and can cause depression of egg production of 5-6% and 10-12% respectively. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • All species within the genus Brachyspira are very closely related, but "B. corvi" , B. aalborgi and B. pilosicoli differ significantly from the other species. (slu.se)
  • General Information: Brachyspira pilosicoli is an anaerobic spirochete that colonizes the large intestine of various species of birds and animals and humans. (up.ac.za)
  • Tratamento da espiroquetose colónica suína (colite) causada por Brachyspira pilosicoli sensível à tiamulina. (dechra.pt)
  • Brachyspira is a genus of bacteria classified within the phylum Spirochaetota. (wikipedia.org)
  • permanent intracellular host = mitochondrion Brachyspira bacteria have evolved a parasitic lifestyle through genomic reduction (~2.5 to 3.3 Mb) compared to other gram negative bacteria (~5 Mb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once attached apically to the enterocyte, hidden to the natural and acquired immunity by the mucous layer and occupying a niche that other bacteria cannot use, Brachyspira most likely expresses at its apex porins [2] allowing it to import from the colonocyte's cytoplasm the amino acids and nucleic acids necessary to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Veterinary antibiotics used to treat pigs with dysentery due to Brachyspira species include the lincosamide lincomycin, the ionophore salinomycin, the quinoxaline carbadox, the pleuromodulins tiamulin and valnemulin, as well as the aminoglycoside gentamicin, an important antibiotic used in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the US, resistance of Brachyspira species collected 2008-2010 was common only against lincomycin (80% had MIC of 32 or 64), MIC's were moderately high against gentamicin, while resistance to valnemulin(4.7%) and tiamulin (3.2% of isolates) was yet uncommon, as reported in the only U.S. study to date, from Iowa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The breakthrough occurred in the late nineties when researchers were able to distinguish between the different Brachyspira species and the effects they had on layer production. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Seven species with standing in nomenclature has been described within genus Brachyspira . (slu.se)
  • Anaerobic intestinal spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira colonize the large intestine ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • While no Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) antimicrobial breakpoints for Brachyspira have been established, resistance to the pleuromodulins tiamulin and valnemulin is considered at MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Brachyspira spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • In Spain, 7.4% of Brachyspira isolates were reported to be venamulin-resistant and 17.6% were tiamulin-resistant in 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brachyspira grow slowly and faecal culture and biochemical typing takes about 10-14 days to get a result. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Brachyspira resistance to the above antibiotics has been increasingly reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is interesting to consider that Brachyspira could be the missing link between independent gram-negatives and eventually internalized organisms like Mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiplex qPCRs are promising diagnostic tools, as Brachyspira do not grow on conventional media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brachyspira may be a sexually transmittable disease in MSM communities via ano-oral route but also penetrative route. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Veterinary antibiotics used to treat pigs with dysentery due to Brachyspira species include the lincosamide lincomycin, the ionophore salinomycin, the quinoxaline carbadox, the pleuromodulins tiamulin and valnemulin, as well as the aminoglycoside gentamicin, an important antibiotic used in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brachyspira ( B. ) hyodysenteriae is widespread globally, and can cause mucohaemorrhagic colitis (swine dysentery, SD) with severe economic impact in infected herds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. (gstsvs.ch)
  • For the treatment and control of swine dysentery associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae when followed immediately by tylosin phosphate Type A medicated article in feed. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Comparison of sesion severity, distribution, and colonic mucin expression in pigs with acute swine dysentery following oral inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii" or Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. (nih.gov)
  • Detection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae or Brachyspira hampsonii, causative agents of swine dysentery (SD), by real time PCR. (tamu.edu)
  • In general, the injection of pigs, other than baby piglets, is laborious and is used primarily to treat clinically ill pigs either with acute respiratory infections such as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or enteric infections such as swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae , which may be too sick to eat or drink. (octagon-services.co.uk)
  • Swine (pigs for fattening): Treatment and prevention of swine dysentery caused by strains of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae susceptible to tiamulin. (pintaluba.com)
  • Analysis of genetic variation in Brachyspira aalborgi and related spirochaetes determined by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and NADH oxidase genes. (nih.gov)
  • Brachyspira aalborgi infection in four Australian children. (shengsci.com)
  • A 3.2 kb plasmid was found in B. intermedia strain PWS/A T . The plasmid was also present in the B. murdochii strain but not in nine other Brachyspira isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • That's a difficult ask to determine antibiotic sensitivity with Brachyspira because the organism doesn't grow particularly well on culture. (farmscape.ca)
  • They are also active against Spirochetes such as Brachyspira spp. (umn.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for intestinal spirochaetes of the genus Brachyspira. (slu.se)
  • Publications now tend to point out that Brachyspira colonization should not be considered harmless commensalism: Chronic diarrhea Irritable bowel syndrome Acute intestinal pain Ulcerative colitis Post translocation spirochetemia and cardiogenic shock Treament with 10 days co-amoxicilline 1g bid + metronidazole 500 tid seems to have very good results on abdominal symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brachyspira resistance to the above antibiotics has been increasingly reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a pilot study, when trying to treat Brachyspira with antibiotics, the researchers were not able to eradicate it because it was hiding inside the intestinal goblet cells, which secrete mucus. (gilmorehealth.com)
  • There are no vaccines for Brachyspira so treatment with antibiotics is the only option for non-organic flocks. (zootecnicainternational.com)
  • on a farrow-to-finish swine farm with a clinical history of Brachyspira -associated colitis. (cahfpets.ca)
  • Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae ist der Erreger der Schweinedysenterie (SD), einer schweren mukohämorrhagischen Durchfallerkrankung bei Schweinen weltweit. (gstsvs.ch)
  • They had to take biopsies from the intestine to detect the bacterial proteins of Brachyspira which was present deep in the mucus layers of the intestine. (gilmorehealth.com)
  • Brachyspira intermedia can cause production losses in chickens and strain PWS/A T now becomes the fourth genome to be completed in the genus Brachyspira . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiplex qPCRs are promising diagnostic tools, as Brachyspira do not grow on conventional media. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira. (bvsalud.org)
  • Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira. (bvsalud.org)
  • Escherichia coli es un patógeno asociado con infecciones en lechones en la fase posterior al destete, su patogenicidad está relacionada con la susceptibilidad del animal a las enterotoxinas bacterianas. (bvsalud.org)
  • El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad de contra E. coli, en la forma planctónico y sésil. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brachyspira is a spiral-shaped bacterium that is found in the bowels and is known to cause diarrhea in a range of animals. (irritablebowelsyndrome.net)
  • Thirty-one percent (19/62) of IBS patients had Brachyspira in their gut, but the bacterium was absent in the samples from the healthy individuals. (gilmorehealth.com)
  • This meant that the Brachyspira was in direct contact with the intestine and was likely a culprit for causing IBS-D symptoms in these volunteers. (irritablebowelsyndrome.net)
  • We're also going to investigate how Brachyspira causes symptoms, if any, in IBS. (gilmorehealth.com)
  • The researchers in this study suggest that short-term laxatives, prebiotics, or probiotics may be worth exploring in people who test positive for Brachyspira. (irritablebowelsyndrome.net)
  • This statement makes me cringe 'The researchers in this study suggest that short-term laxatives, prebiotics, or probiotics may be worth exploring in people who test positive for Brachyspira. (irritablebowelsyndrome.net)
  • Brachyspira was found in a third of the samples taken from people with IBS. (irritablebowelsyndrome.net)
  • Brachyspira was found in up-to thirty-one percent of IBS patients. (gilmorehealth.com)
  • Brachyspira are found in all production systems but can be worse in cage-free flocks, especially flocks that have access to outdoor areas that are difficult to clean and disinfect. (zootecnicainternational.com)
  • 11. Imprint cytology detects floating Brachyspira in human intestinal spirochetosis. (nih.gov)
  • Brachyspira can survive in environments with no air, which is one reason why it has been so difficult to detect and what makes this new study so significant. (irritablebowelsyndrome.net)