Fimicolous Histeridae coleoptera in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. (1/31)Fecal masses recently excreted and/or almost dry were collected weekly in a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, from May 1990 to April 1992. The feces were conditioned in 15-liter opaque plastic buckets, containing lateral and top openings, where flasks were fastened for capturing Histeridae beetles present in these masses. Three thousand two hundred ninety-nine specimens were collected belonging to 11 species in the Genus: Phelister, Hister, Euspilotus, Acritus, and Xerosaprinus. The most frequent, constant, and abundant species were Phelister sp. nr. carinifrons and P. haemorrhous. (+info)
Symmetric pollen mitosis I and suppression of pollen mitosis II prevent pollen development in Brachiaria jubata (Gramineae). (2/31)Microsporogenesis and pollen development were analyzed in a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) accession of the forage grass Brachiaria jubata (BRA 007820) from the Embrapa Beef Cattle Brachiaria collection that showed partial male sterility. Microsporocytes and pollen grains were prepared by squashing and staining with 0.5% propionic carmine. The meiotic process was typical of polyploids, with precocious chromosome migration to the poles and laggards in both meiosis I and II, resulting in tetrads with micronuclei in some microspores. After callose dissolution, microspores were released into the anther locule and appeared to be normal. Although each microspore initiated its differentiation into a pollen grain, in 11.1% of them nucleus polarization was not observed, i.e., pollen mitosis I was symmetric and the typical hemispherical cell plate was not detected. After a central cytokinesis, two equal-sized cells showing equal chromatin condensation and the same nuclear shape and size were formed. Generative cells and vegetative cells could not be distinguished. These cells did not undergo the second pollen mitosis and after completion of pollen wall synthesis each gave rise to a sterile and uninucleate pollen grain. The frequency of abnormal pollen mitosis varied among flowers and also among inflorescences. All plants were equally affected. The absence of fertile sperm cells in a considerable amount of pollen grains in this accession of B. jubata may compromise its use in breeding and could explain, at least in part, why seed production is low when compared with the amount of flowers per raceme. (+info)
Effect of the tropical grass Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf on microbial population and activity in petroleum-contaminated soil. (3/31)The effect of the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria brizantha on numbers of bacteria, fungi and degraders of alkanes, aromatics, cycloalkanes and crude oil in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated savannah soil was evaluated. Substrate induced soil respiration and soil pH were compared between planted and unplanted soil. B. brizantha had a mostly increasing effect on microbial numbers. As an exception, growth of bacteria was not or negatively affected. Microbial respiration and pH were always lower in planted than in unplanted soil. Low pH may result from enhanced oil degradation in planted soil leading to an accumulation of organic acids. A comparable stimulation of crude oil degraders and fungi in planted soil points to the importance of fungi. Since they tolerate lower pH values than bacteria, they are considered to play a central role in oil degradation. Given that the enhancement of crude oil degradation under the influence of B. brizantha could not clearly be correlated to microbial numbers and activity, other factors like oxygen availability, plant enzymes and synergistic degradation by microbial consortia have to be considered. (+info)
Evidence of allopolyploidy in Brachiaria brizantha (Poaceae: Paniceae) through chromosome arrangement at metaphase plate during microsporogenesis. (4/31)In the hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) accession B176 of Brachiaria brizantha, one cytological characteristic differentiated it from the other accessions previously analyzed with the same ploidy level. Nearly 40% of meiocytes displayed the chromosome set arranged at two metaphase plates at the poles of the cell, close to the membrane. In these cells, both metaphase plates were arranged in an angle to form a typical tripolar spindle. Therefore, cells did not show normal chromosome segregation at anaphase I. Only nine univalent chromosomes migrated from each plate to the opposite pole with the remainder staying immobile on the plate. As a result of such spindle orientation and chromosome behavior, trinucleate telophases I were recorded. After telophase, cytokinesis eliminated the small nuclei into a microcyte. The second division proceeded normally, with the presence of microcytes in all phases. The origin of such an abnormality was explained on the hexaploid level of the accession which could have resulted by chromosome doubling of a triploid derived from species that did not display the same behavior for spindle organization. The high percentage of meiotic abnormalities recorded in this accession compromises fertility and renders it inadequate for the breeding program. (+info)
Microsporogenesis in Brachiaria dictyoneura (Fig. & De Not.) Stapf (Poaceae: Paniceae). (5/31)Microsporogenesis was analyzed in five accessions of Brachiaria dictyoneura presenting x = 6 as the basic chromosome number. All accessions were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 24) with chromosome pairing in bi-, tri-, and quadrivalents. The recorded meiotic abnormalities were those typical of polyploids, including precocious chromosome migration to the poles, laggard chromosomes, and micronucleus formation. The frequency of these abnormalities, however, was lower than those reported for other polyploid accessions previously analyzed for other Brachiaria species. Cell fusion and absence of cytokinesis were also recorded in some accessions, leading to restitutional nucleus formation in some cells. Genetically unbalanced microspores, binucleate, and 2n microspores were found among normal meiotic products as results from these abnormalities. The limitation in using these accessions as pollen donor in interspecific crosses with sexual species with x = 7 or x = 9 in breeding programs is discussed. (+info)
Evidence of programmed cell death during microsporogenesis in an interspecific Brachiaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) hybrid. (6/31)Morphological changes have been investigated during plant programmed cell death (PCD) in the last few years due to the new interest in a possible apoptotic-like phenomenon existing in plants. Although PCD has been reported in several tissues and specialized cells in plants, there have been few reports of its occurrence during microsporogenesis. The present study reports a typical process of PCD during meiosis in an interspecific Brachiaria hybrid leading to male sterility. In this hybrid, some inflorescences initiated meiosis but it was arrested in zygotene/pachytene. From this stage, meiocytes underwent a severe alteration in shape showing substantial membrane blebbing; the cytoplasm became denser at the periphery; the cell nucleus entered a progressive stage of chromatin disintegration, and then the nucleolus disintegrated, and the cytoplasm condensed and shrunk. The oldest flowers of the raceme showed only the callose wall in the anthers showing obvious signs of complete sterility. (+info)
Abnormal cytokinesis in microsporogenesis of Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae: Paniceae). (7/31)Microsporogenesis was evaluated in the Brachiaria humidicola collection of the Embrapa Beef Cattle Center, represented by 60 accessions. One accession (H121) presented an abnormal pattern of cytokinesis that had never been reported in this genus. Among 900 meiocytes analyzed in the first division, 10.7% underwent precocious and multiple cytokinesis in metaphase I, fractionating the genome and the cytoplasm into two or more parts. The expected cytokinesis after telophase I did not occur. The abnormal meiocytes from the first division entered the second division but the second cytokinesis after telophase II was also abnormal. Among the 857 meiocytes analyzed in the second division, 10.9% presented abnormal, incomplete or total absence of cytokinesis. Dyads and binucleated microspores were recorded among the meiotic products. The use of this accession in the Embrapa breeding program is compromised. (+info)
Microsporogenesis in sexual Brachiaria hybrids (Poaceae). (8/31)Three sexual interspecific hybrids of Brachiaria (HBGC076, HBGC009, and HBGC014) resulting from crosses between B. ruziziensis (female genitor) and B. decumbens and B. brizantha (male genitors) produced by Embrapa Beef Cattle in the 1980s were cytologically analyzed by conventional methods for meiotic studies. The cytogenetic analysis showed the occurrence of common meiotic abnormalities among them. The most frequent abnormalities were those related to irregular chromosome segregation due to polyploidy. Other abnormalities, such as chromosome stickiness, absence of cytokinesis, irregular cytokinesis, abnormal spindle orientation, and abnormal nucleolus disintegration, were found in the three hybrids, while, chromosome disintegration was detected only in HBGC014. All the abnormalities, except for abnormal nucleolus disintegration, can cause unbalanced gamete formation, leading to pollen sterility. Multivalent chromosome association at diakinesis revealed genome affinity between the two parental species in the hybrids, suggesting some possibility for gene introgression. Presently, the Brachiaria breeding program has the objective of releasing, primarily, apomictic hybrids as new cultivars since they do not segregate but preserve the genetic makeup indefinitely. Besides, they result in homogeneous pastures which are easier to manage. The sexual hybrids, however, are paramount in the breeding program: they work as 'bridges' to introgress traits of interest into the apomictic genotypes. The cytogenetic analyses of these three hybrids substantiate their maintenance in the breeding program due to low frequency of meiotic abnormalities, complemented by interesting agronomic traits. They may be used in crosses to generate new cultivars in the future. (+info)
Brachiaria is a genus of tropical and subtropical grasses that are native to Africa, but have since been introduced and naturalized in many other parts of the world. They are important pasture grasses for grazing livestock, particularly in areas with low soil fertility and high temperatures. Some species of Brachiaria have also been found to have potential as cover crops and for erosion control.
There is no medical definition of 'Brachiaria' as it is a term used in botany and agriculture, not medicine.
Strongyloidea is a superfamily of parasitic nematode (roundworm) worms that includes several medically important genera such as Strongyloides and Rhabditis. These parasites are known to infect humans and other animals, causing a variety of symptoms depending on the species and the location of the infection in the body.
The genus Strongyloides contains several species that can infect humans, including S. stercoralis, S. fuelleborni, and S. kellyi. These parasites are known to cause strongyloidiasis, a disease characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloating, as well as skin rashes and respiratory symptoms in some cases.
The life cycle of Strongyloides species is complex and involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The worms can infect humans through contact with contaminated soil or water, and can then reproduce within the human body, causing ongoing infection and potentially serious complications if left untreated.
Treatment for strongyloidiasis typically involves administration of anti-parasitic drugs such as ivermectin or albendazole, which can help to eliminate the infection and prevent further transmission.
Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.
In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.
Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.
During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.
Gametogenesis is the biological process by which haploid gametes, or sex cells (sperm and egg cells), are produced through the meiotic division of diploid germ cells. In females, this process is called oogenesis, where an oogonium (diploid germ cell) undergoes mitosis to form an oocyte (immature egg cell). The oocyte then undergoes meiosis I to form a secondary oocyte and a polar body. After fertilization by a sperm cell, the secondary oocyte completes meiosis II to form a mature ovum or egg cell.
In males, this process is called spermatogenesis, where a spermatogonium (diploid germ cell) undergoes mitosis to form primary spermatocytes. Each primary spermatocyte then undergoes meiosis I to form two secondary spermatocytes, which subsequently undergo meiosis II to form four haploid spermatids. The spermatids then differentiate into spermatozoa or sperm cells through a process called spermiogenesis.
Gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity, as it involves the random segregation of chromosomes during meiosis and the recombination of genetic material between homologous chromosomes.
Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.
In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:
The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.
Polyploidy is a condition in which a cell or an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, unlike the typical diploid state where there are only two sets (one from each parent). Polyploidy can occur through various mechanisms such as errors during cell division, fusion of egg and sperm cells that have an abnormal number of chromosomes, or through the reproduction process in plants.
Polyploidy is common in the plant kingdom, where it often leads to larger size, increased biomass, and sometimes hybrid vigor. However, in animals, polyploidy is less common and usually occurs in only certain types of cells or tissues, as most animals require a specific number of chromosomes for normal development and reproduction. In humans, polyploidy is typically not compatible with life and can lead to developmental abnormalities and miscarriage.
List of Poaceae genera
List of plants of Burkina Faso
Bela "Bert" Grof
List of Ngorongoro Crater plants
Mole National Park
Kingdom of Dagbon
Tortuguero National Park
Mimosa in Australia
List of invasive species in Portugal
List of Poaceae of South Africa
Ancient Egyptian agriculture
Brachiaria - Wikipedia
Brachiaria villosa (Lam.) A.Camus - The Plant List
Flora of Zimbabwe: Google maps: Brachiaria brizantha
Brachiaria ramosa - Browntop Millet
Brachiaria reptans in Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal @ efloras.org
Identification of lamb flocks susceptible and resistant against Brachiaria poisoning - [scite report]
CRÉAC'H 1949 | Plant References | Purdue University Famine Foods
Brachiaria subulifolia Clayton - Plazi TreatmentBank
Qué significa la palabra Brachiaria ? - BioDic
Brachiaria species- INDONESIA - eFlora of India
African Plants - A Photo Guide - Brachiaria falcifera (Trin.) Stapf
Guntur V. Subbarao: The wheat field that could change the world | TED Talk
Acervo Digital: Produção, características morfológicas e valor nutritivo de cultivares de Brachiaria brizantha submetidas a...
Efeito residual de calcário, nitrogênio e zinco na produção de matéria seca de Brachiaria decumbens em condições de campo
Nitrogen fertilization in different hybrids of Brachiaria brizantha | Scientific Electronic Archives
Acervo Digital: Influência da distribuição espacial do milho e da Brachiaria brizantha consorciados sobre a população de...
RI UFLA: Glyphosate e nitrgênio no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas
Benih Rumput » Rumput Brachiaria • www.tanijaya.com - Suplier Benih Tanaman Kayu & Legume Cover Crop
RI UFLA: Response of brachiaria grass to selenium forms applied in a tropical soil
Performance of associations of Desmodium canum/Brachiaria spp. In the Oxisol savannas of Colombia | Tropical Agriculture...
C4 grasses prosper as carbon dioxide eliminates desiccation in warmed semi-arid grassland | Nature
Diego Noleto Luz Pequeno - CIMMYT
Tolerance of hybrids of the genus Brachiaria to various greenhouse saline conditions in Santa Elena, Oaxaca | REVISTA...
Repositório Institucional UFC: Influência da adubação com npk na produção e composição química de brachiaria brizantha cv mg-4.
PDF) A dynamic online documentation of Italian ascomycetes with hosts and substrates: www.italianmicrofungi.org
A mutation in the spindle checkpoint arresting meiosis II in Brachiaria ruziziensis. | Genome;46(4): 724-8, 2003 Aug. |...
African Journal of Agricultural Research - nitrate reductase activity and corn hybrid yields intercropped with brachiaria...
- This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Brachiaria (family Poaceae ). (theplantlist.org)
- O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência de utilização do herbicida glyphosate associado com adubação nitrogenada no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas. (ufla.br)
- The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of the herbicide glyphosate associated with nitrogen fertilization in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in elephant grass stocking piles. (ufla.br)
- O presente trabalho foi realizado nos Departamentos de Ciências dos Solos e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza-CE, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizanta (Hochst ex A. Rich) Stapf. (ufc.br)
- This work was carried out in the Departments of Soil Science and Animal Science of the Federal University of Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza-CE, to evaluate the production and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizanta (Hochst ex A. Rich) Stapf. (ufc.br)
- Brachiaria ramosa (Linnaeus) Stapf, in Oliver, Fl. (usf.edu)
- Brachiaria regularis (Nees von Esenbeck) Stapf, var. (usf.edu)
- Brachiaria distachyos (Linnaeus) Stapf, in Olivar, Fl. (usf.edu)
- Ecological processes related to invasion by brachiaria (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf. (fapesp.br)
- Brachiaria is the most widely used tropical grass in Central and South America, with about 40 million hectares planted in Brazil alone. (wikipedia.org)
- Brachiaria is the single most important genus of forage grass for pastures in the tropics. (wikipedia.org)
- Mexico has put effort into improving its trade in Brachiaria cultivars, and the grass is thought to have made a positive impact on its milk and beef industries. (wikipedia.org)
- This work discovers for the first time plant-produced nitrification inhibitors (released from root systems) of a tropical pasture grass, Brachiaria humidicola , and demonstrates its impact on reducing nitrogen leakage and nitrous oxide emissions from fields. (ted.com)
- The association between glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application) and nitrogen (225 kg/ha/ano) was efficient in the control brachiaria grass in established elephant grass stocking piles. (ufla.br)
- To 30 cm depth, C stocks increased during this time to 49.3 Mg ha -1 in the grass-only pasture and 52.4 Mg ha -1 in the mixed pasture which suggests that the presence of the legume enhanced C accumulation under the Brachiaria pastures. (uky.edu)
- Ten species of common pasture type grass (Brachiaria spp. (latinamericanpost.com)
- The adoption of the push-pull technology has resulted in combating the pest Fall Army Worm, improved the soil fertility and increased the maize yields and the productivity of the farmer's cattle - which eat the companion grass Brachiaria. (norad.no)
- Wide expanses of the tropics, especially the Neotropics, have been converted to Brachiaria pasture to support livestock. (wikipedia.org)
- In the Paragominas area of Brazil, however, native forest outcompetes cultivated stands of Brachiaria and other exotic forage grasses, and ranchers struggle to maintain pasture cover. (wikipedia.org)
- The objective of this study was to investigate the change in carbon stocks in soil following deforestation of the Atlantic forest in the South of Bahia State (Brazil) and replacement with productive pastures of Brachiaria humidicola either in monoculture or with the introduction of the forage legume Desmodium ovalifolium . (uky.edu)
- A recent phylogenetic analysis concluded that Brachiaria and Urochloa are a monophyletic group, along with Eriochloa and Melinis, and that further molecular and morphological work is needed to establish clear relationships. (wikipedia.org)
- In the meantime, Brachiaria and Urochloa plants are usually not difficult to distinguish from one another. (wikipedia.org)
- Forty-five lambs were used in the growth phase in pastures of Brachiaria spp. (scite.ai)
- O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso num arranjo fatorial com três cultivares de Brachiaria brizantha (Marandu, Xaraés e BRS Piatã) e duas alturas de resíduo (15 e 25 cm), no total de seis tratamentos com quatro repetições (parcelas de 20 m2). (unesp.br)
- The experimental design was a complete randomized blocks in a factorial arrangement with three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (Marandu, Xaraés and BRS Piatã) and two stubble heights (15 and 25 cm), in the total six treatments with four replications (20 m² plots). (unesp.br)
- The objective of that of this work valued different doses of Nitrogen (N) at hybrids of Brachiaria for a better development of the plant. (edu.br)
- Some species of Brachiaria were probably first introduced unintentionally to the Americas in the colonial period, from slave ships. (wikipedia.org)
- Brachiaria are C4 species and can tolerate drier conditions and more light exposure than some other plants. (wikipedia.org)
- In India, the native B. ramosa is an important food source for the Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and Brachiaria species are forage for other local herbivores. (wikipedia.org)
- Introduced species such as Brachiaria grasses can degrade habitat and compete with native species. (wikipedia.org)
- Native species may also utilize exotic Brachiaria as a food resource, such as the rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), a native rodent of the caatinga. (wikipedia.org)
- Brachiaria cultivars can grow in infertile and acidic soils. (wikipedia.org)
- AdubaÃ§Ã£o Nitrogenada para Pastagens do GÃªnero Brachiaria em Solos do Cerrado. (edu.br)
- Brachiaria can grow in many environments, from swamps to shady forest to semidesert, but generally do best in savannas and other open tropical ecosystems such as in East Africa. (wikipedia.org)
- A mutation in the spindle checkpoint arresting meiosis II in Brachiaria ruziziensis. (bvsalud.org)
- Cytological characterization of BRA005568 accession of Brachiaria ruziziensis (2n = 2x = 18) showed a totally unexpected high frequency of abnormal meiotic products, from triads to hexads, and also tetrads with micro nuclei or microcytes. (bvsalud.org)
- Analysis of the 13 C abundance of samples taken to 100 cm depth in 1997 revealed that there was significant accumulation of organic matter derived from the Brachiaria to a depth of 50 cm in the soil and this material was of high C:N ratio (22-27). (uky.edu)
- Brachiaria are annual or perennial grasses, most lacking rhizomes. (wikipedia.org)
- In Brazil, 80 million hectares of native habitat have been planted with African grasses, mostly Brachiaria. (wikipedia.org)
- The area planted with Brachiaria during this period was about 6.5% of the total surface of permanent grasses in Mexico, 12.5% in Honduras, 1% in Nicaragua, 18.7% in Costa Rica, and 0.1% in Panama. (wikipedia.org)
- The evaluated variables were a height, natural matter, dry matter, organic matter and mineral matter, being which height and natural matter presented results with significant differences between both Hybrids in study, being Brachiaria Convert HD 364 and Mavuno. (edu.br)
- Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência da distribuição espacial da cultura do milho com Brachiaria brizantha, cultivados em consórcio no sistema plantio direto na palha, sobre a população de plantas daninhas. (unesp.br)
- Agricultural pests of Brachiaria include spittlebugs, leafcutter ants, and mound-building termites. (wikipedia.org)
- This work aimed to evaluate the influence of intercropping modalities of corn with Brachiaria brizantha in two sowing spacings under no-tillage system on the weed population. (unesp.br)
- In the Kora National Reserve in Kenya, Brachiaria dominates the ground layer along with Aristida. (wikipedia.org)
- The study evaluate the frequency of poisoning by Brachiaria spp. (scite.ai)
- This study was designed to assess the influence of genetic resistance against brachiaria poisoning in sheep. (scite.ai)
- Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich. (co.zw)
- EPS of 2.4% bw treatment, was an efficient nutritional strategy to minimize the effects of poisoning in lambs fed on Brachiaria spp. (scite.ai)
- In the present work, the effects of adding selenate and selenite on Se biofortification, antioxidant activity and anatomy alterations in Brachiaria brizantha were evaluated. (ufla.br)