The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)
A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Paralysis of an infant resulting from injury received at birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.
A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.
Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)
Benign or malignant tumors which arise from the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Papillomas (see PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS) and carcinomas are the most common histologic subtypes, and tend to seed throughout the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Clinical features include headaches, ataxia and alterations of consciousness, primarily resulting from associated HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072; J Neurosurg 1998 Mar;88(3):521-8)
A complex network of nerve fibers including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and visceral afferents. The celiac plexus is the largest of the autonomic plexuses and is located in the abdomen surrounding the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Self-administered health questionnaire developed to obtain details of the medical history as an adjunct to the medical interview. It consists of 195 questions divided into eighteen sections; the first twelve deal with somatic complaints and the last six with mood and feeling patterns. The Index is used also as a personality inventory or in epidemiologic studies.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
A condition caused by an apical lung tumor (Pancoast tumor) with involvement of the nearby vertebral column and the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Symptoms include pain in the shoulder and the arm, and atrophy of the hand.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Pain during the period after surgery.
X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.
A usually benign neoplasm that arises from the cuboidal epithelium of the choroid plexus and takes the form of an enlarged CHOROID PLEXUS, which may be associated with oversecretion of CSF. The tumor usually presents in the first decade of life with signs of increased intracranial pressure including HEADACHES; ATAXIA; DIPLOPIA; and alterations of mental status. In children it is most common in the lateral ventricles and in adults it tends to arise in the fourth ventricle. Malignant transformation to choroid plexus carcinomas may rarely occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p667; DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072)
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.

Use of positron emission tomography in evaluation of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients. (1/462)

18-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has previously been used successfully to image primary and metastatic breast cancer. In this pilot study, 19 breast cancer patients with symptoms/signs referrable to the brachial plexus were evaluated with 18FDG-PET. In 11 cases computerized tomography (CT) scanning was also performed. Of the 19 patients referred for PET study, 14 had abnormal uptake of 18FDG in the region of the symptomatic plexus. Four patients had normal PET studies and one had increased FDG uptake in the chest wall that accounted for her axillary pain. CT scans were performed in 9 of the 14 patients who had positive brachial plexus PET studies; six of these were either normal or showed no clear evidence of recurrent disease, while three CTs demonstrated clear brachial plexus involvement. Of two of the four patients with normal PET studies, one has had complete resolution of symptoms untreated while the other was found to have cervical disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The remaining two patients almost certainly had radiation-induced plexopathy and had normal CT, MRI and PET study. These data suggest that 18FDG-PET scanning is a useful tool in evaluation of patients with suspected metastatic plexopathy, particularly if other imaging studies are normal. It may also be useful in distinguishing between radiation-induced and metastatic plexopathy.  (+info)

Source of inappropriate receptive fields in cortical somatotopic maps from rats that sustained neonatal forelimb removal. (2/462)

Previously this laboratory demonstrated that forelimb removal at birth in rats results in the invasion of the cuneate nucleus by sciatic nerve axons and the development of cuneothalamic cells with receptive fields that include both the forelimb-stump and the hindlimb. However, unit-cluster recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of these animals revealed few sites in the forelimb-stump representation where responses to hindlimb stimulation also could be recorded. Recently we reported that hindlimb inputs to the SI forelimb-stump representation are suppressed functionally in neonatally amputated rats and that GABAergic inhibition is involved in this process. The present study was undertaken to assess the role that intracortical projections from the SI hindlimb representation may play in the functional reorganization of the SI forelimb-stump field in these animals. The SI forelimb-stump representation was mapped during gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor blockade, both before and after electrolytic destruction of the SI hindlimb representation. Analysis of eight amputated rats showed that 75.8% of 264 stump recording sites possessed hindlimb receptive fields before destruction of the SI hindlimb. After the lesions, significantly fewer sites (13.2% of 197) were responsive to hindlimb stimulation (P < 0.0001). Electrolytic destruction of the SI lower-jaw representation in four additional control rats with neonatal forelimb amputation did not significantly reduce the percentage of hindlimb-responsive sites in the SI stump field during GABA-receptor blockade (P = 0.98). Similar results were obtained from three manipulated rats in which the SI hindlimb representation was silenced temporarily with a local cobalt chloride injection. Analysis of response latencies to sciatic nerve stimulation in the hindlimb and forelimb-stump representations suggested that the intracortical pathway(s) mediating the hindlimb responses in the forelimb-stump field may be polysynaptic. The mean latency to sciatic nerve stimulation at responsive sites in the GABA-receptor blocked SI stump representation of neonatally amputated rats was significantly longer than that for recording sites in the hindlimb representation [26.3 +/- 8.1 (SD) ms vs. 10.8 +/- 2.4 ms, respectively, P < 0.0001]. These results suggest that hindlimb input to the SI forelimb-stump representation detected in GABA-blocked cortices of neonatally forelimb amputated rats originates primarily from the SI hindlimb representation.  (+info)

Nerve injury associated with anesthesia: a closed claims analysis. (3/462)

BACKGROUND: Nerve injury associated with anesthesia is a significant source of morbidity for patients and liability for anesthesiologists. To identify recurrent and emerging patterns of injury we analyzed the current American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Closed Claims Project Database and performed an in-depth analysis of claims for nerve injury that were entered into the database since the authors' initial report of the subject. METHODS: The ASA Closed Claims Database is a standardized collection of case summaries derived from the closed claims files of professional liability insurance companies. Claims for nerve injury that were not included in the authors' 1990 report were reviewed in-depth. RESULTS: Six hundred seventy (16% of 4,183) claims were for anesthesia-related nerve injury. The most frequent sites of injury were the ulnar nerve (28%), brachial plexus (20%), lumbosacral nerve root (16%), and spinal cord (13%). Ulnar nerve (85%) injuries were more likely to have occurred in association with general anesthesia, whereas spinal cord (58%) and lumbosacral nerve root (92%) injuries were more likely to occur with regional techniques. Ulnar nerve injury occurred predominately in men (75%) and was also more apt to have a delayed onset of symptoms (62%) than other nerve injuries. Spinal cord injuries were the leading cause of claims for nerve injury that occurred in the 1990s. CONCLUSION: New strategies for prevention of nerve damage cannot be recommended at this time because the mechanism for most injuries, particularly those of the ulnar nerve, is not apparent.  (+info)

Respiratory effects of low-dose bupivacaine interscalene block. (4/462)

In this double-blind study, interscalene brachial plexus (ISBP) block was performed in 11 volunteers using 10 ml of either 0.25% (n = 6) or 0.5% (n = 5) bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:200,000. Diaphragmatic excursion, respiratory function and neural function were assessed for 90 min. Our results showed that hemidiaphragmatic excursion declined significantly after block in the 0.5% group and paradoxical movement during inspiration was more common than in the 0.25% group. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s declined significantly in the 0.5% group (mean 74.6 (SD 13.0)% and 78.2 (19.9)% of baseline, respectively) but not in the 0.25% group. Sensory anaesthesia in the upper limb was found consistently in both groups, although biceps paralysis occurred earlier after 0.5% bupivacaine. We conclude that ISBP block using 10 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine provided upper limb anaesthesia to pinprick in C5-6 dermatomes with only occasional interference with respiratory function.  (+info)

Migraine complicated by brachial plexopathy as displayed by MRI and MRA: aberrant subclavian artery and cervical ribs. (5/462)

This article describes migraine without aura since childhood in a patient with bilateral cervical ribs. In addition to usual migraine triggers, symptoms were triggered by neck extension and by arm abduction and external rotation; paresthesias and pain preceded migraine triggered by arm and neck movement. Suspected thoracic outlet syndrome was confirmed by high-resolution bilateral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brachial plexus. An unsuspected aberrant right subclavian artery was compressed within the scalene triangle. The aberrant subclavian artery splayed apart the recurrent laryngeal and vagus nerves, displaced the esophagus anteriorly, and effaced the right stellate ganglia and the C8-T1 nerve roots. Scarring and fibrosis of the left scalene triangle resulted in acute angulation of the neurovascular bundle and diminished blood flow in the subclavian artery and vein. A branch of the left sympathetic ganglia was displaced as it joined the C8-T1 nerve roots. Left scalenectomy and rib resection confirmed the MRI and MRA findings; the scalene triangle contents were decompressed, and migraine symptoms subsequently resolved.  (+info)

Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. (6/462)

MRI was performed on the spinal roots, brachial and lumbar plexuses of 14 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Hypertrophy of cervical roots and brachial plexus was demonstrated in eight cases, six of whom also had hypertrophy of the lumbar plexus. Of 11 patients who received gadolinium, five of six cases with hypertrophy and one of five without hypertrophy demonstrated enhancement. All patients with hypertrophy had a relapsing-remitting course and a significantly longer disease duration. Gross onion-bulb formations were seen in a biopsy of nerve from the brachial plexus in one case with clinically evident nodular hypertrophy. We conclude that spinal root and plexus hypertrophy may be seen on MRI, particularly in cases of CIDP of long duration, and gadolinium enhancement may be present in active disease.  (+info)

Effect of brachial plexus co-activation on phrenic nerve conduction time. (7/462)

BACKGROUND: Diaphragm function can be assessed by electromyography of the diaphragm during electrical phrenic nerve stimulation (ES). Whether phrenic nerve conduction time (PNCT) and diaphragm electrical activity can be reliably measured from chest wall electrodes with ES is uncertain. METHODS: The diaphragm compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was recorded using an oesophageal electrode and lower chest wall electrodes during ES in six normal subjects. Two patients with bilateral diaphragm paralysis were also studied. Stimulations were deliberately given in a manner designed to avoid or incur co-activation of the brachial plexus. RESULTS: For the oesophageal electrode the PNCT was similar with both stimulation techniques with mean (SE) values of 7.1 (0.2) and 6.8 (0.2) ms, respectively (pooled left and right values). However, for surface electrodes the PNCT was substantially shorter when the brachial plexus was activated (4.4 (0.1) ms) than when it was not (7.4 (0.2) ms) (mean difference 3.0 ms, 95% CI 2.7 to 3.4, p<0.0001). A small short latency CMAP was recorded from the lower chest wall electrodes during stimulation of the brachial plexus alone. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that lower chest wall electrodes only accurately measure PNCT when care is taken to avoid stimulating the brachial plexus. A false positive CMAP response to phrenic stimulation could be caused by inadvertent stimulation of the brachial plexus. This finding may further explain why the diaphragm CMAP recorded from chest wall electrodes can be unreliable with cervical magnetic stimulation during which brachial plexus activation occurs.  (+info)

Rapid loss of dorsal horn lectin binding after massive brachial plexus axotomy in young rats. (8/462)

Lectins are proteins with binding affinities for specific sugars in complex glycoconjugates, some of which have been implicated in limiting synaptic plasticity or modulating nerve growth and guidance. We studied the expression of the glycoconjugate recognized by the isolectin B4 of Griffonia simplicifolia (Gs-IB4) in spinal dorsal horns after massive axotomy of the brachial plexus in weanling rats. Gs-IB4+ binding sites in Rexed's lamina II were rapidly reduced after massive peripheral axotomy. This rapid loss suggests that multiple nerve lesions minimize the number of intact fibers that converge with lesioned fibers into the same cord segments and thus may prevent the plastic changes accompanying the lesion of single nerves.  (+info)

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck region and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb. It is formed by the ventral rami (branches) of the lower four cervical nerves (C5-C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1). In some cases, contributions from C4 and T2 may also be included.

The brachial plexus nerves exit the intervertebral foramen, pass through the neck, and travel down the upper chest before branching out to form major peripheral nerves of the upper limb. These include the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves, which further innervate specific muscles and sensory areas in the arm, forearm, and hand.

Damage to the brachial plexus can result in various neurological deficits, such as weakness or paralysis of the upper limb, numbness, or loss of sensation in the affected area, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Brachial plexus neuropathies refer to a group of conditions that affect the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck and travels down the arm. These nerves are responsible for providing motor and sensory function to the shoulder, arm, and hand.

Brachial plexus neuropathies can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, compression, inflammation, or tumors. The condition can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, weakness, or paralysis in the affected arm and hand.

The specific medical definition of brachial plexus neuropathies is:

"A group of conditions that affect the brachial plexus, characterized by damage to the nerves that results in motor and/or sensory impairment of the upper limb. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with causes including trauma, compression, inflammation, or tumors."

Brachial plexus neuritis, also known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome or neuralgic amyotrophy, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck and travels down the arm, controlling movement and sensation in the shoulder, arm, and hand.

In Brachial plexus neuritis, the insulating covering of the nerves (myelin sheath) is damaged or destroyed, leading to impaired nerve function. The exact cause of this condition is not fully understood, but it can be associated with viral infections, trauma, surgery, or immunological disorders.

Symptoms of Brachial plexus neuritis may include sudden onset of severe pain in the shoulder and arm, followed by weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles. There may also be numbness, tingling, or loss of sensation in the affected areas. In some cases, recovery can occur spontaneously within a few months, while others may experience persistent weakness or disability. Treatment typically involves pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, corticosteroids or other medications to reduce inflammation.

Birth injuries refer to damages or injuries that a baby suffers during the birthing process. These injuries can result from various factors, such as mechanical forces during delivery, medical negligence, or complications during pregnancy or labor. Some common examples of birth injuries include:

1. Brachial plexus injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and feeling in the arms and hands, often caused by excessive pulling or stretching during delivery.
2. Cephalohematoma: A collection of blood between the skull and the periosteum (the membrane covering the bone), usually caused by trauma during delivery.
3. Caput succedaneum: Swelling of the soft tissues of the baby's scalp, often resulting from pressure on the head during labor and delivery.
4. Fractures: Broken bones, such as a clavicle or skull fracture, can occur due to mechanical forces during delivery.
5. Intracranial hemorrhage: Bleeding in or around the brain, which can result from trauma during delivery or complications like high blood pressure in the mother.
6. Perinatal asphyxia: A lack of oxygen supply to the baby before, during, or immediately after birth, which can lead to brain damage and other health issues.
7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the eye), often caused by pressure on the head during delivery.
8. Spinal cord injuries: Damage to the spinal cord, which can result in paralysis or other neurological issues, may occur due to excessive force during delivery or medical negligence.

It's important to note that some birth injuries are unavoidable and may not be a result of medical malpractice. However, if a healthcare provider fails to provide the standard of care expected during pregnancy, labor, or delivery, they may be held liable for any resulting injuries.

The choroid plexus is a network of blood vessels and tissue located within each ventricle (fluid-filled space) of the brain. It plays a crucial role in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection and nourishment to the brain and spinal cord.

The choroid plexus consists of modified ependymal cells, called plexus epithelial cells, that line the ventricular walls. These cells have finger-like projections called villi, which increase their surface area for efficient CSF production. The blood vessels within the choroid plexus transport nutrients, ions, and water to these epithelial cells, where they are actively secreted into the ventricles to form CSF.

In addition to its role in CSF production, the choroid plexus also acts as a barrier between the blood and the central nervous system (CNS), regulating the exchange of substances between them. This barrier function is primarily attributed to tight junctions present between the epithelial cells, which limit the paracellular movement of molecules.

Abnormalities in the choroid plexus can lead to various neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF) or certain types of brain tumors.

Obstetric paralysis is a specific type of paralysis that can occur as a result of complications during childbirth. It is also known as "birth paralysis" or "puerperal paralysis."

The condition is typically caused by nerve damage or trauma to the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves that runs from the spinal cord in the neck and provides movement and sensation to the shoulders, arms, and hands. Obstetric paralysis can occur when the brachial plexus is stretched or compressed during childbirth, particularly in difficult deliveries where forceps or vacuum extraction may be used.

There are several types of obstetric paralysis, including:

* Erb's palsy: This type of obstetric paralysis affects the upper brachial plexus and can cause weakness or paralysis in the arm, particularly the shoulder and elbow.
* Klumpke's palsy: This type of obstetric paralysis affects the lower brachial plexus and can cause weakness or paralysis in the hand and forearm.
* Total brachial plexus injury: This is a rare but severe form of obstetric paralysis that involves injury to all of the nerves in the brachial plexus, resulting in complete paralysis of the arm.

The severity of obstetric paralysis can vary widely, from mild weakness to complete paralysis. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own within a few months, while in other cases, surgery or physical therapy may be necessary to help restore function.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

The musculocutaneous nerve is a peripheral nerve that originates from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, composed of contributions from the ventral rami of spinal nerves C5-C7. It provides motor innervation to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the upper arm: the coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and brachialis. Additionally, it gives rise to the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, which supplies sensory innervation to the skin on the lateral aspect of the forearm.

A nerve transfer is a surgical procedure where a functioning nerve is connected to an injured nerve to restore movement, sensation or function. The functioning nerve, called the donor nerve, usually comes from another less critical location in the body and has spare nerve fibers that can be used to reinnervate the injured nerve, called the recipient nerve.

During the procedure, a small section of the donor nerve is carefully dissected and prepared for transfer. The recipient nerve is also prepared by removing any damaged or non-functioning portions. The two ends are then connected using microsurgical techniques under a microscope. Over time, the nerve fibers from the donor nerve grow along the recipient nerve and reinnervate the muscles or sensory structures that were previously innervated by the injured nerve.

Nerve transfers can be used to treat various types of nerve injuries, including brachial plexus injuries, facial nerve palsy, and peripheral nerve injuries. The goal of the procedure is to restore function as quickly and efficiently as possible, allowing for a faster recovery and improved quality of life for the patient.

The cervical plexus is a network of nerves that arises from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the first four cervical spinal nerves (C1-C4) and a portion of C5. These nerves form a series of loops and anastomoses (connections) that give rise to several major and minor branches.

The main functions of the cervical plexus include providing sensory innervation to the skin on the neck, shoulder, and back of the head, as well as supplying motor innervation to some of the muscles in the neck and shoulders, such as the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius.

Some of the major branches of the cervical plexus include:

* The lesser occipital nerve (C2), which provides sensory innervation to the skin over the back of the head and neck.
* The great auricular nerve (C2-C3), which provides sensory innervation to the skin over the ear and lower part of the face.
* The transverse cervical nerve (C2-C3), which provides sensory innervation to the skin over the anterior and lateral neck.
* The supraclavicular nerves (C3-C4), which provide sensory innervation to the skin over the shoulder and upper chest.
* The phrenic nerve (C3-C5), which supplies motor innervation to the diaphragm, the major muscle of respiration.

Overall, the cervical plexus plays a crucial role in providing sensory and motor innervation to the neck, head, and shoulders, allowing for normal movement and sensation in these areas.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

The myenteric plexus, also known as Auerbach's plexus, is a component of the enteric nervous system located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a network of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells (neuroglia) that lies between the inner circular layer and outer longitudinal muscle layers of the digestive system's muscularis externa.

The myenteric plexus plays a crucial role in controlling gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and blood flow, primarily through its intrinsic nerve circuits called reflex arcs. These reflex arcs regulate peristalsis (the coordinated muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract) and segmentation (localized contractions that mix and churn the contents within a specific region of the gut).

Additionally, the myenteric plexus receives input from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, allowing for central nervous system regulation of gastrointestinal functions. Dysfunction in the myenteric plexus has been implicated in various gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, achalasia, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

Intercostal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that originate from the thoracic spinal cord (T1 to T11) and provide sensory and motor innervation to the thorax, abdomen, and walls of the chest. They run between the ribs (intercostal spaces), hence the name intercostal nerves.

Each intercostal nerve has two components:

1. The lateral cutaneous branch: This branch provides sensory innervation to the skin on the side of the chest wall and abdomen.
2. The anterior cutaneous branch: This branch provides sensory innervation to the skin on the front of the chest and abdomen.

Additionally, each intercostal nerve also gives off a muscular branch that supplies motor innervation to the intercostal muscles (the muscles between the ribs) and the upper abdominal wall muscles. The lowest intercostal nerve (T11) also provides sensory innervation to a small area of skin over the buttock.

Intercostal nerves are important in clinical practice, as they can be affected by various conditions such as herpes zoster (shingles), rib fractures, or thoracic outlet syndrome, leading to pain and sensory changes in the chest wall.

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a group of disorders that occur when the blood vessels or nerves in the thoracic outlet, the space between the collarbone (clavicle) and the first rib, become compressed. This compression can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the neck, shoulder, arm, and hand.

There are three types of TOS:

1. Neurogenic TOS: This is the most common type and occurs when the nerves (brachial plexus) that pass through the thoracic outlet become compressed, causing symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the arm and hand.
2. Venous TOS: This type occurs when the veins that pass through the thoracic outlet become compressed, leading to swelling, pain, and discoloration of the arm.
3. Arterial TOS: This is the least common type and occurs when the arteries that pass through the thoracic outlet become compressed, causing decreased blood flow to the arm, which can result in pain, numbness, and coldness in the arm and hand.

TOS can be caused by a variety of factors, including an extra rib (cervical rib), muscle tightness or spasm, poor posture, repetitive motions, trauma, or tumors. Treatment for TOS may include physical therapy, pain management, and in some cases, surgery.

The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the most mobile joint in the human body. It is a ball and socket synovial joint that connects the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade). The shoulder joint allows for a wide range of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. It is surrounded by a group of muscles and tendons known as the rotator cuff that provide stability and enable smooth movement of the joint.

Mepivacaine is a local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling before and during surgical procedures. It works by blocking the nerve signals in your body. Mepivacaine has a faster onset of action compared to bupivacaine but has a shorter duration of action. It can be used for infiltration, peripheral nerve block, and epidural anesthesia.

The medical definition of Mepivacaine is:

A amide-type local anesthetic with fast onset and moderate duration of action. Its molar potency is similar to that of procaine, but its duration of action is approximately 50% longer. It has been used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is metabolized in the liver by hydrolysis.

It's important to note that mepivacaine, like any other medication, can have side effects and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

The clavicle, also known as the collarbone, is a long, slender bone that lies horizontally between the breastbone (sternum) and the shoulder blade (scapula). It is part of the shoulder girdle and plays a crucial role in supporting the upper limb. The clavicle has two ends: the medial end, which articulates with the sternum, and the lateral end, which articulates with the acromion process of the scapula. It is a common site of fracture due to its superficial location and susceptibility to direct trauma.

The submucosal plexus, also known as Meissner's plexus, is a component of the autonomic nervous system located in the submucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a network of nerve fibers and ganglia that primarily regulates local reflexes and secretions, contributing to the control of gut motility, blood flow, and mucosal transport.

Meissner's plexus is part of the enteric nervous system (ENS), which can operate independently from the central nervous system (CNS). The ENS consists of two interconnected plexuses: Meissner's submucosal plexus and Auerbach's myenteric plexus.

Meissner's plexus is responsible for regulating functions such as absorption, secretion, vasodilation, and local immune responses in the gastrointestinal tract. Dysfunction of this plexus can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other motility-related conditions.

Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by binding to the opiate receptors in the brain, which reduces the perception of pain. Butorphanol is available as an injectable solution and a nasal spray.

The medical definition of 'Butorphanol' is:

A synthetic opioid analgesic with agonist-antagonist properties. It is used in the management of moderate to severe pain, as a veterinary analgesic, and for obstetrical analgesia. Butorphanol has a high affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor, a lower affinity for the mu-opioid receptor, and little or no affinity for the delta-opioid receptor. Its actions at the mu-opioid receptor are antagonistic to those of morphine and other mu-opioid agonists, while its actions at the kappa-opioid receptor are similar to those of other opioids.

Butorphanol has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect. It may cause respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and other side effects common to opioid analgesics. Butorphanol is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

A contracture, in a medical context, refers to the abnormal shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissue, which can result in limited mobility and deformity of joints. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as injury, prolonged immobilization, scarring, neurological disorders, or genetic conditions.

Contractures can cause significant impairment in daily activities and quality of life, making it difficult for individuals to perform routine tasks like dressing, bathing, or walking. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, casting, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the contracture.

Thoracic nerves are the 12 paired nerves that originate from the thoracic segment (T1-T12) of the spinal cord. These nerves provide motor and sensory innervation to the trunk and abdomen, specifically to the muscles of the chest wall, the skin over the back and chest, and some parts of the abdomen. They also contribute to the formation of the sympathetic trunk, which is a part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates unconscious bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. Each thoracic nerve emerges from the intervertebral foramen, a small opening between each vertebra, and splits into anterior and posterior branches to innervate the corresponding dermatomes and myotomes.

A meningocele is a type of neural tube defect that results in the herniation of the meninges (the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) through a defect in the vertebral column. The meninges protrude as a sac-like structure, which may be covered by skin or a thin layer of tissue. Meningoceles usually do not contain neural tissue, but cerebrospinal fluid is present within the sac. They are typically asymptomatic unless there is compression of surrounding structures or infection. Treatment generally involves surgical repair to prevent potential complications such as meningitis or neurological damage.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) neoplasms refer to tumors that originate in the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as schwannomas and neurofibromas, grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, such as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), can invade nearby tissues and may metastasize (spread) to other organs.

PNS neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include pain, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the affected area. In some cases, PNS neoplasms may not cause any symptoms until they become quite large. Treatment options for PNS neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Choroid plexus neoplasms are rare types of brain tumors that arise from the choroid plexus, which are clusters of blood vessels in the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) of the brain. These tumors can be benign (choroid plexus papilloma) or malignant (choroid plexus carcinoma). Choroid plexus neoplasms most commonly occur in children under the age of 2, but they can also affect adults. Symptoms may include increased head circumference, hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain), vomiting, and developmental delays. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy for malignant tumors.

The celiac plexus, also known as the solar plexus or autonomic plexus, is a complex network of nerves located in the abdomen, near the stomach and other digestive organs. It plays a crucial role in regulating various automatic functions of the body, such as digestion, absorption, and secretion.

The celiac plexus is formed by the union of several splanchnic nerves that arise from the spinal cord and pass through the diaphragm to reach the abdomen. These nerves carry sensory information from the organs in the abdomen to the brain, as well as motor impulses that control the function of these organs.

In some medical procedures, such as celiac plexus block or neurolysis, the celiac plexus may be targeted to relieve chronic pain associated with conditions like pancreatitis, cancer, or abdominal surgery. These procedures involve injecting anesthetic or neurolytic agents into the area around the celiac plexus to interrupt nerve signals and reduce pain.

The lumbosacral plexus is a complex network of nerves that arises from the lower part of the spinal cord, specifically the lumbar (L1-L5) and sacral (S1-S4) roots. This plexus is responsible for providing innervation to the lower extremities, including the legs, feet, and some parts of the abdomen and pelvis.

The lumbosacral plexus can be divided into several major branches:

1. The femoral nerve: It arises from the L2-L4 roots and supplies motor innervation to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, as well as sensation to the anterior and medial aspects of the leg and thigh.
2. The obturator nerve: It originates from the L2-L4 roots and provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and sensation to the inner aspect of the thigh.
3. The sciatic nerve: This is the largest nerve in the body, formed by the union of the tibial and common fibular (peroneal) nerves. It arises from the L4-S3 roots and supplies motor innervation to the muscles of the lower leg and foot, as well as sensation to the posterior aspect of the leg and foot.
4. The pudendal nerve: It originates from the S2-S4 roots and is responsible for providing motor innervation to the pelvic floor muscles and sensory innervation to the genital region.
5. Other smaller nerves, such as the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerves, also arise from the lumbosacral plexus and supply sensation to various regions in the lower abdomen and pelvis.

Damage or injury to the lumbosacral plexus can result in significant neurological deficits, including muscle weakness, numbness, and pain in the lower extremities.

The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat, triangular bone located in the upper back region of the human body. It serves as the site of attachment for various muscles that are involved in movements of the shoulder joint and arm. The scapula has several important features:

1. Three borders (anterior, lateral, and medial)
2. Three angles (superior, inferior, and lateral)
3. Spine of the scapula - a long, horizontal ridge that divides the scapula into two parts: supraspinous fossa (above the spine) and infraspinous fossa (below the spine)
4. Glenoid cavity - a shallow, concave surface on the lateral border that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint
5. Acromion process - a bony projection at the top of the scapula that forms part of the shoulder joint and serves as an attachment point for muscles and ligaments
6. Coracoid process - a hook-like bony projection extending from the anterior border, which provides attachment for muscles and ligaments

Understanding the anatomy and function of the scapula is essential in diagnosing and treating various shoulder and upper back conditions.

In anatomical terms, the shoulder refers to the complex joint of the human body that connects the upper limb to the trunk. It is formed by the union of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), scapula (shoulder blade), and humerus (upper arm bone). The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket type of synovial joint, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation.

The shoulder complex includes not only the glenohumeral joint but also other structures that contribute to its movement and stability, including:

1. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint: where the clavicle meets the acromion process of the scapula.
2. The coracoclavicular (CC) ligament: connects the coracoid process of the scapula to the clavicle, providing additional stability to the AC joint.
3. The rotator cuff: a group of four muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that surround and reinforce the shoulder joint, contributing to its stability and range of motion.
4. The biceps tendon: originates from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and passes through the shoulder joint, helping with flexion, supination, and stability.
5. Various ligaments and capsular structures that provide additional support and limit excessive movement in the shoulder joint.

The shoulder is a remarkable joint due to its wide range of motion, but this also makes it susceptible to injuries and disorders such as dislocations, subluxations, sprains, strains, tendinitis, bursitis, and degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis. Proper care, exercise, and maintenance are essential for maintaining shoulder health and function throughout one's life.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

Shoulder dislocation is a medical condition where the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) gets displaced from its normal position in the glenoid fossa of the scapula (shoulder blade). This can occur anteriorly, posteriorly, or inferiorly, with anterior dislocations being the most common. It is usually caused by trauma or forceful movement and can result in pain, swelling, bruising, and limited range of motion in the shoulder joint. Immediate medical attention is required to relocate the joint and prevent further damage.

A tendon transfer is a surgical procedure where a healthy tendon is moved to rebalance or reinforce a muscle that has become weak or paralyzed due to injury, disease, or nerve damage. The transferred tendon attaches to the bone in a new position, allowing it to power a different movement or stabilize a joint. This procedure helps restore function and improve mobility in the affected area.

An amide is a functional group or a compound that contains a carbonyl group (a double-bonded carbon atom) and a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is connected to the carbonyl carbon atom by a single bond, and it also has a lone pair of electrons. Amides are commonly found in proteins and peptides, where they form amide bonds (also known as peptide bonds) between individual amino acids.

The general structure of an amide is R-CO-NHR', where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Amides can be classified into several types based on the nature of R and R' substituents:

* Primary amides: R-CO-NH2
* Secondary amides: R-CO-NHR'
* Tertiary amides: R-CO-NR''R'''

Amides have several important chemical properties. They are generally stable and resistant to hydrolysis under neutral or basic conditions, but they can be hydrolyzed under acidic conditions or with strong bases. Amides also exhibit a characteristic infrared absorption band around 1650 cm-1 due to the carbonyl stretching vibration.

In addition to their prevalence in proteins and peptides, amides are also found in many natural and synthetic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, and polymers. They have a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and materials science.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

The Cornell Medical Index is a standardized medical history questionnaire that was widely used in healthcare settings to gather comprehensive information about a patient's health status, medical history, and lifestyle. The questionnaire consists of over 180 questions covering various aspects of a person's health, including symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, hospitalizations, surgeries, allergies, family medical history, social habits, and psychological factors.

The Cornell Medical Index was first developed in the 1940s by Dr. John P. Peters and his colleagues at Cornell University Medical College (now Weill Cornell Medicine) as a tool to help physicians gather and organize patient information more efficiently. The questionnaire was designed to be completed by the patient or their family members, and it typically took about 20-30 minutes to complete.

The use of the Cornell Medical Index has declined in recent years due to the advent of electronic health records and other digital tools for collecting patient information. However, it remains a valuable resource for healthcare providers seeking to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their patients' medical histories and health status.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

The median nerve is one of the major nerves in the human body, providing sensation and motor function to parts of the arm and hand. It originates from the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck. The median nerve travels down the arm, passing through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues into the forearm and hand.

In the hand, the median nerve supplies sensation to the palm side of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also provides motor function to some of the muscles that control finger movements, allowing for flexion of the fingers and opposition of the thumb.

Damage to the median nerve can result in a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

The torso refers to the central part of the human body, which is composed of the spine, ribcage, and the abdomen. It does not include the head, neck, arms, or legs. In anatomical terms, it is often used to describe the area between the neck and the pelvis.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

Pancoast syndrome is a constellation of symptoms resulting from the invasion and compression of various neurological and vascular structures at the apex (top) of the lung, most commonly caused by a specific type of lung cancer known as Pancoast tumor or superior sulcus tumor. The syndrome is characterized by shoulder pain, Horner's syndrome (meiosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis), and weakness or atrophy of the hand muscles due to involvement of the lower brachial plexus.

The elbow joint, also known as the cubitus joint, is a hinge joint that connects the humerus bone of the upper arm to the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion and extension movements of the forearm, as well as some degree of rotation. The main articulation occurs between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, while the radial head of the radius also contributes to the joint's stability and motion. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons surround and support the elbow joint, providing strength and protection during movement.

Acquired joint deformities refer to structural changes in the alignment and shape of a joint that develop after birth, due to various causes such as injury, disease, or wear and tear. These deformities can affect the function and mobility of the joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion. Examples of conditions that can lead to acquired joint deformities include arthritis, infection, trauma, and nerve damage. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the deformity and alleviate symptoms.

The pectoralis muscles are a group of chest muscles that are primarily involved in the movement and stabilization of the shoulder joint. They consist of two individual muscles: the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor.

1. Pectoralis Major: This is the larger and more superficial of the two muscles, lying just under the skin and fat of the chest wall. It has two heads of origin - the clavicular head arises from the medial half of the clavicle (collarbone), while the sternocostal head arises from the anterior surface of the sternum (breastbone) and the upper six costal cartilages. Both heads insert onto the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus (upper arm bone). The primary actions of the pectoralis major include flexion, adduction, and internal rotation of the shoulder joint.

2. Pectoralis Minor: This is a smaller, triangular muscle that lies deep to the pectoralis major. It originates from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs near their costal cartilages and inserts onto the coracoid process of the scapula (shoulder blade). The main function of the pectoralis minor is to pull the scapula forward and downward, helping to stabilize the shoulder joint and aiding in deep inspiration during breathing.

Together, these muscles play essential roles in various movements such as pushing, pulling, and hugging, making them crucial for daily activities and athletic performance.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Myelography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the spinal cord and surrounding structures, such as the spinal nerves, intervertebral discs, and the spinal column. This procedure involves the injection of a contrast dye into the subarachnoid space, which is the area surrounding the spinal cord filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The dye outlines the spinal structures, making them visible on X-ray or CT scan images.

The primary purpose of myelography is to diagnose various spinal conditions, including herniated discs, spinal stenosis, tumors, infection, and traumatic injuries. It can help identify any compression or irritation of the spinal cord or nerves that may be causing pain, numbness, weakness, or other neurological symptoms.

The procedure typically requires the patient to lie flat on their stomach or side while the radiologist inserts a thin needle into the subarachnoid space, usually at the lower lumbar level. Once the contrast dye is injected, the patient will be repositioned for various X-ray views or undergo a CT scan to capture detailed images of the spine. After the procedure, patients may experience headaches, nausea, or discomfort at the injection site, but these symptoms usually resolve within a few days.

The term "upper extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the hand. This includes the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The upper extremity is responsible for various functions such as reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects, making it an essential part of a person's daily activities.

The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve (XI), has both a cranial and spinal component. It primarily controls the function of certain muscles in the back of the neck and shoulder.

The cranial part arises from nuclei in the brainstem and innervates some of the muscles that help with head rotation, including the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The spinal root originates from nerve roots in the upper spinal cord (C1-C5), exits the spine, and joins the cranial part to form a single trunk. This trunk then innervates the trapezius muscle, which helps with shoulder movement and stability.

Damage to the accessory nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles, causing symptoms such as difficulty turning the head, weak shoulder shrugging, or winged scapula (a condition where the shoulder blade protrudes from the back).

Medical illustration is a specialized field of visual art that involves the creation of accurate and detailed images to help communicate medical or scientific information. These illustrations are often used in textbooks, journal articles, educational materials, legal exhibits, and medical marketing materials to clearly and effectively convey complex concepts and procedures related to the human body, health, and disease.

Medical illustrators typically have a strong background in both art and science, with many holding advanced degrees in fields such as biology, anatomy, or medical illustration. They use a variety of traditional and digital media to create their work, including pencils, pens, paint, 3D modeling software, and graphic design tools.

Medical illustrations can depict a wide range of subjects, from the microscopic structure of cells and tissues to the intricate workings of medical devices and procedures. They may also be used to visualize surgical techniques, patient anatomy, or disease processes, making them an essential tool for medical education, research, and communication.

A choroid plexus papilloma is a rare, benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the choroid plexus, which are clusters of blood vessels and specialized cells in the ventricles of the brain. These tumors can occur at any age but are more common in children under the age of 10.

Choroid plexus papillomas arise from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The tumor grows slowly and tends to block the flow of CSF, leading to increased intracranial pressure and symptoms such as headaches, vomiting, irritability, and developmental delays in children.

The medical definition of choroid plexus papilloma is: "A benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the ependymal cells of the choroid plexus in the ventricles of the brain. The tumor can obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and cause increased intracranial pressure."

It is important to note that while choroid plexus papillomas are generally benign, they can still cause significant symptoms due to their location in the brain and the obstruction of CSF flow. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy if necessary.

Respiratory paralysis is a condition characterized by the inability to breathe effectively due to the failure or weakness of the muscles involved in respiration. This can include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and other accessory muscles.

In medical terms, it's often associated with conditions that affect the neuromuscular junction, such as botulism, myasthenia gravis, or spinal cord injuries. It can also occur as a complication of general anesthesia, sedative drugs, or certain types of poisoning.

Respiratory paralysis is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention, as it can lead to lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and buildup of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) in the body, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

An echidna is not a medical term, but rather it is the name given to a type of mammal that is native to Australia and New Guinea. Echidnas are also known as spiny anteaters because they have sharp spines on their bodies and feed on ants and termites.

Echidnas are unique among mammals because they lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like most other mammals do. The egg is incubated in the female's pouch, where it hatches after about 10 days. The newly hatched baby, called a puggle, is then cared for and fed by the mother's milk until it is ready to leave the pouch and fend for itself.

There are two species of echidnas: the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the long-beaked echidna (Zaglossus bruijni). Both species are protected under Australian law, and they play an important role in the ecosystem by controlling insect populations.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

In the context of medicine, "needles" are thin, sharp, and typically hollow instruments used in various medical procedures to introduce or remove fluids from the body, administer medications, or perform diagnostic tests. They consist of a small-gauge metal tube with a sharp point on one end and a hub on the other, where a syringe is attached.

There are different types of needles, including:

1. Hypodermic needles: These are used for injections, such as intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), or intravenous (IV) injections, to deliver medications directly into the body. They come in various sizes and lengths depending on the type of injection and the patient's age and weight.
2. Blood collection needles: These are used for drawing blood samples for diagnostic tests. They have a special vacuum-assisted design that allows them to easily penetrate veins and collect the required amount of blood.
3. Surgical needles: These are used in surgeries for suturing (stitching) wounds or tissues together. They are typically curved and made from stainless steel, with a triangular or reverse cutting point to facilitate easy penetration through tissues.
4. Acupuncture needles: These are thin, solid needles used in traditional Chinese medicine for acupuncture therapy. They are inserted into specific points on the body to stimulate energy flow and promote healing.

It is essential to follow proper infection control procedures when handling and disposing of needles to prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens and infectious diseases.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

The axillary artery is a major blood vessel in the upper limb. It is the continuation of the subclavian artery and begins at the lateral border of the first rib, where it becomes the brachial artery. The axillary artery supplies oxygenated blood to the upper extremity, chest wall, and breast.

The axillary artery is divided into three parts based on the surrounding structures:

1. First part: From its origin at the lateral border of the first rib to the medial border of the pectoralis minor muscle. It lies deep to the clavicle and is covered by the scalene muscles, the anterior and middle scalene being the most important. The branches arising from this portion are the superior thoracic artery and the thyrocervical trunk.
2. Second part: Behind the pectoralis minor muscle. The branches arising from this portion are the lateral thoracic artery and the subscapular artery.
3. Third part: After leaving the lower border of the pectoralis minor muscle, it becomes the brachial artery. The branches arising from this portion are the anterior circumflex humeral artery and the posterior circumflex humeral artery.

The axillary artery is a common site for surgical interventions such as angioplasty and stenting to treat peripheral arterial disease, as well as for bypass grafting in cases of severe atherosclerosis or occlusion.

... Mind map showing branches of brachial plexus Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep ... Plexus Nerve plexus Cranial nerve Spinal nerve List of anatomy mnemonics The brachial plexus surrounds the brachial artery. ... Brachial Plexus Injury/Illustration, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Learn the Brachial Plexus in Five Minutes or ... "Brachial Plexus Anatomy". Medscape. WebMD. Retrieved 29 Nov 2015. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brachial plexus. ...
"Perivascular techniques of brachial plexus block". Plexus anesthesia: perivascular techniques of brachial plexus block. Vol. I ... Although brachial plexus block is not without risk, it usually affects fewer organ systems than general anesthesia. Brachial ... performed the first brachial plexus block. Using a surgical approach in the neck, Halsted applied cocaine to the brachial ... The brachial plexus is most compact at the level of the trunks formed by the C5-T1 nerve roots, so nerve block at this level ...
A brachial plexus injury (BPI), also known as brachial plexus lesion, is an injury to the brachial plexus, the network of ... The rate of brachial plexus injury has been increasing.[when?] OBPP, also known as obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, occurs ... Brachial Plexus Hand Surgery at eMedicine Midha, R (1997). "Epidemiology of brachial plexus injuries in a multitrauma ... Brachial plexus lesions can be divided into three types: An upper brachial plexus lesion, which occurs from excessive lateral ...
The right brachial plexus with its short branches, viewed from in front. Levator scapulae muscle Brachial plexus. Deep ... Brachial plexus. Deep dissection. Anterolateral view Levator claviculae muscle Stiff neck - commonly caused by pain in the ... Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their branches. ...
"Zur anästhesierung des plexus brachialis" [On anesthesia of the brachial plexus]. Zentralblatt für Chirurgie (in German). 38: ... de Pablo, JS; Diez-Mallo, J (1948). "Experience with Three Thousand Cases of Brachial Plexus Block: Its Dangers: Report of a ... The following year, William Halsted (1852-1922) performed the first brachial plexus block. Also in 1885, James Leonard Corning ... Kulenkampff, D; Persky, MA (1928). "Brachial Plexus Anæsthesia". Annals of Surgery. 87 (6): 883-91. doi:10.1097/00000658- ...
At his birth, Jimmy sustained a brachial plexus injury, rendering his right arm useless. He began to play the trumpet at age 5 ... "Birth Brachial Plexus Injury , Gillette Children's Specialty Healthcare". www.gillettechildrens.org. "Edwin Franko Goldman , ...
Brachial plexus palsy occurs in 0.4 to 5.1 infants per 1000 live birth. Head trauma and brain damage during delivery can lead ... Andersen J, Watt J, Olson J, Van Aerde J (February 2006). "Perinatal brachial plexus palsy". Paediatr Child Health. 11 (2): 93- ...
The brachial plexus is the plexus of nerves that lies between the neck and axilla and controls the motion of the arm and hand. ... The brachial plexus may be stretched and damaged during a difficult delivery. In minor cases, the nerves heal and full use of ... Brachial plexus injuries occur in 1-3 children per 1,000 live births. See Erb's palsy and Klumpke's palsy. Brain damage may be ... "Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy". Boston Children's Hospital. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December ...
... at the Wayback Machine The type of shoulder injury suffered by DeLoach is known as Brachial Plexus Injury. The brachial plexus ... United Brachial Plexus Network; Retrieved April 9, 2007 "United States Navy Biography; Retrieved: April 8, 2007". Archived from ... DeLoach has actively participated with UBPN (United Brachial Plexus Network) Camp 2007 in Auburn, Washington as an invited ... is an arrangement of nerve fibers (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit ...
Diagram of the brachial plexus. The subclavian nerve can be seen branching from where C5 and C6 join to form the upper trunk. ( ... The subclavian nerve, also known as the nerve to the subclavius, is small branch of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. It ... The subclavian nerve is a branch of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. It contains axons derived from the ventral rami of ... Label at top right). The right brachial plexus. The subclavian nerve is not visible, but the muscle it innervates called the ...
Shoulder dystocia and neonatal brachial plexus palsy. 38 (4): 189-193. doi:10.1053/j.semperi.2014.04.003. PMID 24863023. ... Zafeiriou DI, Psychogiou K (April 2008). "Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy". Pediatric Neurology. 38 (4): 235-242. doi:10.1016 ... a delivery emergency that may lead to further injury such as brachial plexus palsy. Scalp and facial injuries leading to ...
Brachial plexus.Deep dissection. Brachial plexus.Deep dissection.Anterolateral view (Articles with short description, Short ... The upper (superior) trunk is part of the brachial plexus. It is formed by joining of the ventral rami of the fifth (C5) and ...
"Gross Anatomy: THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS". Archived from the original on 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2009-11-02. v t e (Articles with short ...
"NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries: Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. September 29, 2008 ... Beghi E, Kurland LT, Mulder DW, Nicolosi A (1985). "Brachial plexus neuropathy in the population of Rochester, Minnesota, 1970- ... For instance, a six-year-old could have brachial neuritis for only around six months, but a person in their early 50s could ... manifests as a set of symptoms most likely resulting from autoimmune inflammation of unknown cause of the brachial plexus. ...
Raj, Phulchand (1973). "Infraclavicular brachial plexus - a new approach". Anesth Analg. 52: 897-904. doi:10.1213/00000539- ... anesthesia The use of the nerve stimulator with standard unsheathed needles in nerve blockage Infraclavicular brachial plexus ...
In brachial plexus avulsions, the brachial plexus (a bundle of nerves that communicates signals between the spine and the arms ... Erb's Palsy (Brachial Plexus Birth Injury). Retrieved January 15, 2009, from [4]. Binder, D. K., Lu, D. C., & Barbaro, N. M. ( ... One common cause of brachial plexus avulsions is when a baby's shoulders rotate in the birth canal during delivery, which ... Shoulder trauma during motor vehicle collisions is another common cause of brachial plexus avulsions. Detachment of the nerves ...
Wilkinson, M. C. P.; Birch, R.; Bonney, G. (1 October 1993). "Brachial plexus injury: when to amputate?". Injury. 24 (9): 603- ... Progressive muscular atrophy Yeoman, P. M.; Seddon, H. J. (August 1961). "Brachial Plexus Injuries: Treatment of the Flail Arm ... Flail limb can occur in cases of traumatic injury to the brachial plexus or in people with motor neuron diseases such as ...
The brachial plexus is a bundle of nerves innervating the shoulder and arm and can be blocked at different levels depending on ... Interscalene brachial plexus blocks can be done before shoulder, arm, and elbow surgery. The interscalene block is done at the ... "Ultrasound-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block". Upper Extremity. NYSORA. Retrieved 14 August 2017. Steenberg, J.; Møller, A. ... Ultrasound is particularly well suited for regional anesthesia, since many of the anesthesia targets (e.g. brachial plexus, ...
Polcaro, Lauren; Charlick, Matthew; Daly, Daniel (2022-08-22). "Anatomy, Head and Neck, Brachial Plexus". StatPearls. PMID ... Lower subscapular nerve The subscapular nerves originate from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. These nerves are part ...
Above and to its lateral side are the upper trunks of the brachial plexus and the omohyoid muscle. Below, it rests on the upper ... Above the artery is the brachial plexus. Below the artery is the pleura. The subclavian vein lies below and anterior to the ... Behind, it lies on the lowest trunk of the brachial plexus, which intervenes between it and the scalenus medius muscle. ... Magnetic Resonance Angiography; view from the front Right subclavian artery Brachial plexus and subclavian artery Aberrant ...
Raikin S, Froimson MI (1997). "Bilateral brachial plexus compressive neuropathy (crutch palsy)". J Orthop Trauma. 11 (2): 136- ... to the chest at or below the clavicle-The radial nerve is the terminal branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. A ... is broken because it runs through the radial groove on the lateral border of this bone along with the deep brachial artery. ...
PMS results from the brachial plexus being compressed under the pectoralis minor while TOS involves compression of the bundle ... Sanders, Richard; Annest, Stephen (2017). "Pectoralis Minor Syndrome: Subclavicular Brachial Plexus Compression". Diagnostics. ...
Brachial plexus injury Unnava, Partha (2017-08-24). "Why it's important for crutches not to touch your armpits". Medium. ... Crutch paralysis is a form of paralysis which can occur when either the radial nerve or part of the brachial plexus, containing ... Raikin, Steven; Froimson, Mark I. (February 1997). "Bilateral Brachial Plexus Compressive Neuropathy (Crutch Palsy)". Journal ...
... which together form the brachial plexus). Next, the signal goes down the median nerve branch of the brachial plexus and ... Brachial Plexus Anatomy at eMedicine Sammer, Douglas M.; Chung, Kevin C. (2009). "Tendon Transfers Part I: Principles of ...
If there is brachial plexus irritation with pain and numbness, excision of the clavicular fragments can be performed to ... On rare occasions, brachial plexus irritation can occur. Scoliosis, spina bifida and syringomyelia have also been described. ...
Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury. 7 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1749-7221-7-2. PMC 3395866. PMID 22296879. " ...
"Simulation of the Length Change in Muscles during the Arm Rotation for the Upper Brachial Plexus Injury". Converging Clinical ... Kinematic and Kinetic simulation of Upper Brachial Plexus Injury in the Arm Rotation. Open Conference on Future Trends in ... Modeling and Simulation of Upper Brachial Plexus Injury. IEEE Systems Journal (Q1). doi:10.1109/JSYST.2014.2387426. Cecilia E. ... Skeletal Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Upper Limb of Human Shoulder under Brachial Plexus Injury. Advances in ...
Cranial nerve mnemonics Spinal nerve Plexus Nerve plexus Brachial plexus Standring, Susan; Borley, Neil R. (2008). "Overview of ... Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury. 7 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1749-7221-7-2. PMC 3395866. PMID 22296879. Nicki ...
It has been used in the evaluation of brachial plexus birth palsy. "scapular line - definition from Biology-Online.org". www. ... Waters; Smith, G. R.; Jaramillo, D. (1998). "Glenohumeral deformity secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy". The Journal of ...
Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury. 9 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/1749-7221-9-1. PMC 3896705. PMID 24410760. Atlas ... For descriptive purposes this plexus is usually divided into three parts: lumbar plexus sacral plexus pudendal plexus Injuries ... Lumbosacral plexus Deep dissection. Lumbosacral plexus Deep dissection. Portal: Anatomy v t e (Wikipedia articles incorporating ... The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves, sacral nerves, and coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar ...
Brachial plexus Mind map showing branches of brachial plexus Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep ... Plexus Nerve plexus Cranial nerve Spinal nerve List of anatomy mnemonics The brachial plexus surrounds the brachial artery. ... Brachial Plexus Injury/Illustration, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center Learn the Brachial Plexus in Five Minutes or ... "Brachial Plexus Anatomy". Medscape. WebMD. Retrieved 29 Nov 2015. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brachial plexus. ...
Brachial plexus injuries occur due to shoulder trauma, tumors, or inflammation. Some injuries heal without treatment, others ... Brachial Plexus Injury (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Brachial plexus injury in newborns (Medical ... The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that sends signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Damage to the ... Some brachial plexus injuries may heal without treatment. Many children who are injured during birth improve or recover by 3 to ...
Learn about the expertise for brachial plexus injuries at the OHSU Nerve Center in Portland, Oregon. With timely care, our ... What is the brachial plexus?. The brachial plexus is a bundle of five intersecting nerves. You have two brachial plexuses, one ... What are brachial plexus injuries?. Brachial plexus injuries occur when this nerve bundle is damaged. Most brachial plexus ... Brachial Plexus Injury Dr. Joel Solomon The OHSU Nerve Center offers the highest level of expertise for brachial plexus ...
Were researching brachial plexus injuries by exploring muscle growth, muscle tissue preservation, and surgical and treatment ... Recent Research From the Brachial Plexus Team. As a leader in evidence-based medicine, Cincinnati Childrens Brachial Plexus ... The Brachial Plexus Center features active clinical research and multicenter research studies. Learn more about on-going ... Our clinical studies examine surgical and treatment outcomes for children with brachial plexus injuries (BPBI) including data ...
The first known description of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (BPP) dates from 1779 when Smellie reported the case of an infant ... A systematic review of brachial plexus surgery for birth-related brachial plexus injury. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003 Feb. 38(2):57- ... encoded search term (Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsies) and Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsies What to Read Next on Medscape ... Histopathological basis of Horners syndrome in obstetric brachial plexus palsy differs from that in adult brachial plexus ...
CHOC offers the only pediatric Brachial Plexus Program in Orange County, providing surgery, and occupational and therapy ... Frequently Asked Questions About Brachial Plexus. What is the brachial plexus?. The brachial plexus is a group of nerves on ... How is brachial plexus nerve damage diagnosed?. At your childs first appointment with the Brachial Plexus Program, a pediatric ... What happens when the brachial plexus is damaged?. The brachial plexus can be damaged in many ways--from pressure, stress or ...
Click here to learn more about the various treatment options offered by our healthcare team at the HSS Center for Brachial ... Center for Brachial Plexus and Traumatic Nerve Injury. *About Brachial Plexus and Traumatic Nerve Injury *Conditions and ... Brachial Plexus Injury Treatments. Patients who have been diagnosed with a brachial plexus injury and require surgery can ... In brachial plexus injury, one common type of free muscle transfer involves transplantation of the gracilis muscle, a long ...
CC BY 4.0 · J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj 2022; 17(01): e10-e11. DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1747960 ...
Contact the Brachial Plexus Injury Program. Do you have a question about our Brachial Plexus Injury Program or the services we ...
Use our free directory to instantly connect with verified Brachial Plexus attorneys. ... Compare the best Brachial Plexus lawyers near you. ... Top Brachial Plexus Lawyers Near You. Find Brachial Plexus ... What Is Brachial Plexus?. If your child suffered a brachial plexus injury during birth, it is important to contact an attorney ... Brachial Plexus Attorneys. Injuries to the brachial plexus are often preventable and if your child suffered damage it could be ...
... The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm ... see Brachial Plexus Birth Injuries). The severity of a brachial plexus injury is determined by the type of damage done to the ... Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms may include a limp or paralyzed arm; lack of muscle ... Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, tumors, or inflammation. There is a rare syndrome called ...
B) View of the brachial plexus (BP) at the supraclavicular fossa. When identification of the brachial plexus at the ... the brachial plexus is identified posterior and superficial to the subclavian artery (Figure 5-B). From here, the brachial ... Quantitative architecture of the brachial plexus and surrounding compartments, and their possible significance for plexus nerve ... The brachial plexus at the interscalene level is seen lateral to the carotid artery and internal jugular vein, between the ...
Short description: Brachial plexus injury.. *ICD-9-CM 953.4 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM S14.3XXA Injury of brachial plexus, initial encounter ... Injury to nerve roots and spinal plexus 953- ... plexus - see Injury, nerve, plexus, spinal. *. root 953.9. *. ...
The arm has three major nerves running down to the hand from the brachial plexus. The ulnar, radial and median. If you have ...
A Study to Evaluate Neurostimulation to Treat Chronic Upper Limb Pain After Brachial Plexus Injury. Overview. Tab Title ... Neuropathic pain of the upper limb ≥ 3 months following brachial plexus avulsion injury. ... study is designed to assess the degree to which high-frequency spinal cord stimulation may help with pain after brachial plexus ... to undergo trial of high-frequency spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain due to brachial plexus ...
The brachial plexus nerves are located at the upper part of the arm near the shoulder. Brachial plexus injuries are incredibly ... If your child has suffered a brachial plexus injury at the hands of a negligent doctor, please dont hesitate to contact Levin ... Erbs Palsy is a brachial plexus injury. ...
1st Theoretical & Practical International Course in Peripheral Nerve & Brachial Plexus Surgery. (30/11/2016 - 3/12/2016) / ...
Disorders of the brachial plexus lead to loss of function of the fingers and thumb, wrist, arm or shoulder. This dysfunction ... Disorders of the brachial plexus lead to loss of function of the fingers and thumb, wrist, arm or shoulder. This dysfunction ... Typically after a brachial plexus injury, the shoulder joint can become contracted in a turned in (internal rotation) position ... can take months and years to complete regardless of the need for surgical intervention for treatment after a brachial plexus ...
Rettig, H.C. (2007, May 31). An Evaluation of Two "New" Approaches of the Brachial: Plexus for Anaesthesia of the Upper ... An Evaluation of Two "New" Approaches of the Brachial: Plexus for Anaesthesia of the Upper Extremity. Publication. Publication ... Een klinische evaluatie van twee "nieuwe benaderingen voor blokkade van de plexus brachialis bij operaties aan de bovenste ...
MRI studies and surgical findings in 2010 confirmed that Marcus sustained a brachial plexus rupture and avulsion at C5-C7. ... Cruzs defense further maintained that brachial plexus injuries, even to this severity, can occur in some newborns as the baby ... Cook County Jury Finds for Obstetrician in Medical Malpractice Case for Baby Harmed with Brachial Plexus Injury During Labor ... Kreisman Law Offices has been handling birth trauma injury cases, brachial plexus injury lawsuits, hospital negligence cases, ...
Brachial Plexus and Lumbosacral Plexus Disorders - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the ... Brachial Plexus and Lumbosacral Plexus Disorders By Michael Rubin , MDCM, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center ... Because several nerve roots intertwine within the plexus (see figure Plexuses Plexuses ), the symptom pattern does not fit the ... breast or lung cancer for the brachial plexus and intestinal or genitourinary tumors for the lumbosacral plexus) ...
... brachial, BRACHIAL PLEXUS Houston, Houston Brachial Plexus, USA BRACHIAL PLEXUS, BRACHIAL PLEXUS IN US. dr nath Help Brachial ... Brachial, Plexus, Surgery, Brachial Plexus, erbs palsy surgery, erbs palsy, erbs palsy surgery, Dr nath brachial plexus, dr ... Top Most surgeon of brachial Plexus, No 1 brachial Plexus, Dr Nath Erbs palsy, erbs palsy treatment by dr nath, Brachial and ... brachial plexus surgery, erbs palsy, brachial plexus injury, anatomy, erbs palsy treatment, erbs palsy, Obstetrical Brachial ...
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Sometimes, brachial plexus injuries happen to babies during childbirth. ... The brachial plexus can be injured in many different ways--from pressure, stress, or being stretched too far. The nerves may ...
Birth Injury - Shoulder Dystocia with Brachial Plexus Injury Caused by Sacrum - Image ... Birth Injury - Shoulder Dystocia with Brachial Plexus Injury Caused by Sacrum - Image ... plexus, plexuses, radius, rheumatology, scapula, scapulae, shoulder, shoulders, skeletal, skeleton, skeletons, ulna, upper, ... antebrachium, anterior, arm, arthrosis, blade, blades, bone, bones, brachial, brachium, carpal, carpals, extremities, extremity ...
The first known description of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (BPP) dates from 1779 when Smellie reported the case of an infant ... A systematic review of brachial plexus surgery for birth-related brachial plexus injury. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003 Feb. 38(2):57- ... encoded search term (Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsies) and Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsies What to Read Next on Medscape ... Histopathological basis of Horners syndrome in obstetric brachial plexus palsy differs from that in adult brachial plexus ...
Le bloc interscalénique consiste à placer une aiguille dans le plexus brachial (approche intrafasciale conventionnelle) par le ... afin de permettre la diffusion de lanesthésique local au sein des racines nerveuses du plexus brachial. Cette technique permet ...
If your baby suffered a brachial plexus injury during birth, call San Antonio birth injury attorneys at 210-366-4949 today. ... Brachial Plexus Neuroma A neuroma is also known as a pinched nerve. This type of injury occurs when an injured brachial plexus ... Brachial Plexus Rupture This type of injury occurs when the brachial plexus nerves are partially or completely torn. A rupture ... Brachial Plexus Avulsion This is the most severe brachial plexus injury. It occurs when the nerves completely separate from the ...
Disorders of peripheral nerves can lead to loss of function due to weakness, sensory changes or pain of the affected limb(s) or trunk.

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