The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Techniques for controlling bleeding.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.
The act of constricting.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The act of dilating.
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
A condition chiefly characterized by thickening of the skin of the head and distal extremities, deep folds and furrows of the skin of the forehead, cheeks, and scalp, SEBORRHEA; HYPERHIDROSIS; periostosis of the long bones, digital clubbing, and spadelike enlargement of the hands and feet. It is more prevalent in the male, and is usually first evident during adolescence. Inheritance is primarily autosomal recessive, but an autosomal dominant form exists.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Glucose in blood.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Evaluation of the contour of the PULSE waves which vary in different parts of the circulation and depend on physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions of the individual.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).
Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.

Disease pattern in cranial and large-vessel giant cell arteritis. (1/1777)

OBJECTIVE: To identify variables that distinguish large-vessel giant cell arteritis (GCA) with subclavian/axillary/brachial artery involvement from cranial GCA. METHODS: Seventy-four case patients with subclavian/axillary GCA diagnosed by angiography and 74 control patients with temporal artery biopsy-proven GCA without large vessel involvement matched for the date of first diagnosis were identified. Pertinent initial symptoms, time delay until diagnosis, and clinical symptoms, as well as clinical and laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis, were recorded by retrospective chart review. Expression of cytokine messenger RNA in temporal artery tissue from patients with large-vessel and cranial GCA was determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Distribution of disease-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles in patients with aortic arch syndrome and cranial GCA was assessed. RESULTS: The clinical presentation distinguished patients with large-vessel GCA from those with classic cranial GCA. Upper extremity vascular insufficiency dominated the clinical presentation of patients with large-vessel GCA, whereas symptoms related to impaired cranial blood flow were infrequent. Temporal artery biopsy findings were negative in 42% of patients with large-vessel GCA. Polymyalgia rheumatica occurred with similar frequency in both patient groups. Large-vessel GCA was associated with higher concentrations of interleukin-2 gene transcripts in arterial tissue and overrepresentation of the HLA-DRB1*0404 allele, indicating differences in pathogenetic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: GCA is not a single entity but includes several variants of disease. Large-vessel GCA produces a distinct spectrum of clinical manifestations and often occurs without involvement of the cranial arteries. Large-vessel GCA requires a different approach to the diagnosis and probably also to treatment.  (+info)

Endothelial function in Marfan syndrome: selective impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation. (2/1777)

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular complications of Marfan syndrome arise due to alterations in the structural and functional properties of fibrillin, a constituent of vascular connective tissues. Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are closely associated with arterial endothelial cells, indicating a possible functional role for fibrillin in the endothelium. Plasma concentrations of endothelial cell products are elevated in Marfan subjects, which indirectly indicates endothelial dysfunction. This study directly assessed flow- and agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent brachial artery reactivity in Marfan subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 20 Marfan and 20 control subjects, brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and blood pressure were measured by ultrasonic wall tracking, Doppler ultrasound, and photoplethysmography, respectively. Measurements were taken during hand hyperemia (a stimulus for endothelium-derived nitric oxide [NO] release in the upstream brachial artery) and after sublingual administration of the endothelium-independent vasodilator nitroglycerin. In 9 Marfan and 6 control subjects, the above parameters were also assessed during intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin (agonists that stimulate NO production) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an inhibitor of NO production). Flow-mediated responses differed markedly between Marfan and control subjects (-1.6+/-3.5% versus 6. 50+/-4.1%, respectively; P<0.0001), whereas nitroglycerin produced similar vasodilation (14.2+/-5.7% versus 15.2+/-7.8%; P=NS). Agonist-induced vasodilation to incremental intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin were not significantly different between Marfan and control subjects, and intra-arterial L-NMMA produced similar reductions in brachial artery diameter in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate impaired flow-mediated but preserved agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Marfan subjects and suggest preservation of basal NO release. Selective loss of flow-mediated dilation suggests a role for fibrillin in endothelial cell mechanotransduction.  (+info)

Flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility of the brachial artery in renal allograft recipients. (3/1777)

BACKGROUND: Alterations of large artery function and structure are frequently observed in renal allograft recipients. However, endothelial function has not yet been assessed in this population. METHODS: Flow-mediated vasodilation is a useful index of endothelial function. We measured the diameter and distensibility of the brachial artery at rest using high-resolution ultrasound and Doppler frequency analysis of vessel wall movements in the M mode. Thereafter, changes in brachial artery diameter were measured during reactive hyperemia (after 4 min of forearm occlusion) in 16 cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients and 16 normal controls of similar age and sex ratio. Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was measured to assess endothelium-independent vasodilation. Brachial artery blood pressure was measured using an automatic sphygmomanometer, and brachial artery flow was estimated using pulsed Doppler. RESULTS: Distensibility was reduced in renal allograft recipients (5.31 +/- 0. 74 vs. 9.10 +/- 0.94 x 10-3/kPa, P = 0.003, mean +/- sem), while the brachial artery diameter at rest was higher (4.13 +/- 0.14 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.14 mm, P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilation was significantly reduced in renal allograft recipients (0.13 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.08 mm or 3 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 3%, both P < 0.001). However, nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was similar in renal allograft recipients and controls (0.76 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.09 mm, NS, or 19 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 2%, NS). There were no significant differences in brachial artery flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia between both groups. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility in renal allograft recipients remained significant after correction for serum cholesterol, creatinine, parathyroid hormone concentrations, end-diastolic diameter, as well as blood pressure levels, and were also present in eight renal allograft recipients not treated with cyclosporine. Flow-mediated vasodilation was not related to distensibility in either group. CONCLUSIONS: The results show impaired endothelial function and reduced brachial artery distensibility in renal allograft recipients. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility are not attributable to a diminished brachial artery vasodilator capacity, because endothelium-independent vasodilation was preserved in renal allograft recipients.  (+info)

Endothelial dysfunction by acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia: restoration by folic acid. (4/1777)

Recent evidence demonstrates that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In patients with chronic hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia, endothelial function is impaired. However, whether hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia per se is a cause or an epiphenomenon of endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of methionine-induced acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia on human endothelial function. In healthy volunteers we administered methionine (0.1 g/kg body weight, per os), a substrate of homocyst(e)ine, with or without folic acid (20 mg, per os) and examined flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery by high-resolution ultrasonography as a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. We also measured plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine before and 3, 8 and 24 h after methionine loading. Methionine administration increased plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine by four times the basal level at 8 h (P<0.0001, ANOVA). The plasma levels returned to baseline at 24 h. Flow-mediated vasodilatation was significantly decreased to half of the baseline value at 8 h and returned to baseline at 24 h (P<0.0001, ANOVA), whereas endothelium-independent vasodilatation by glyceryl trinitrate was not affected by the methionine loading. Co-administration of folic acid did not attenuate methionine-induced hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia but completely prevented endothelial dysfunction. Our results suggest that in humans a methionine-rich diet may acutely impair endothelial function, which can be prevented by folic acid supplementation.  (+info)

Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia: an effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. (5/1777)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a major and independent risk factor for vascular disease. The mechanisms by which homocysteine promotes atherosclerosis are not well understood. We hypothesized that elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with rapid onset endothelial dysfunction, which is mediated through oxidant stress mechanisms and can be inhibited by the antioxidant vitamin C. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 17 healthy volunteers (10 male and 7 female) aged 33 (range 21 to 59) years. Brachial artery diameter responses to hyperemic flow (endothelium dependent), and glyceryltrinitrate (GTN, endothelium independent) were measured with high resolution ultrasound at 0 hours (fasting), 2 hours, and 4 hours after (1) oral methionine (L-methionine 100 mg/kg), (2) oral methionine preceded by vitamin C (1g/day, for 1 week), and (3) placebo, on separate days and in random order. Plasma homocysteine increased (0 hours, 12.8+/-1.4; 2 hours, 25.4+/-2.5; and 4 hours, 31. 2+/-3.1 micromol/l, P<0.001), and flow-mediated dilatation fell (0 hours, 4.3+/-0.7; 2 hours, 1.1+/-0.9; and 4 hours, -0.7+/-0.8%) after oral L-methionine. There was an inverse linear relationship between homocysteine concentration and flow-mediated dilatation (P<0. 001). Pretreatment with vitamin C did not affect the rise in homocysteine concentrations after methionine (0 hours, 13.6+/-1.6; 2 hours, 28.3+/-2.9; and 4 hours, 33.8+/-3.7 micromol/l, P=0.27), but did ameliorate the reduction in flow-mediated dilatation (0 hours, 4. 0+/-1.0; 2 hours, 3.5+/-1.2 and 4 hours, 2.8+/-0.7%, P=0.02). GTN-induced endothelium independent brachial artery dilatation was not affected after methionine or methionine preceded by vitamin C. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that an elevation in homocysteine concentration is associated with an acute impairment of vascular endothelial function that can be prevented by pretreatment with vitamin C in healthy subjects. Our results support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of homocysteine on vascular endothelial cells are mediated through oxidative stress mechanisms.  (+info)

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (6/1777)

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning. (7/1777)

PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease.  (+info)

Normal pregnancy is associated with enhanced endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation. (8/1777)

Normal pregnancy is characterized by reduced systemic vascular resistance, which may be mediated by nitric oxide (NO). We compared endothelial vasomotor function in 71 normal pregnant women (13 in first, 29 in middle, and 29 in last trimester) to 37 healthy age-matched controls. With external ultrasound, brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, during reactive hyperemia [with increased flow causing endothelium-dependent dilation (FMD)], and after sublingual nitroglycerin (causing endothelium-independent dilation). Compared with controls, resting flow and brachial artery diameter were significantly higher during the middle and last trimesters. Reactive hyperemia was reduced in all pregnant groups. FMD increased from the first trimester (by 26%), reaching the highest value in the last trimester (to 47% above nonpregnant values). FMD was significantly correlated to pregnancy status (nonpregnant or pregnant) and to vessel size. Nitroglycerin-induced dilation was similar in pregnant and nonpregnant women. A longitudinal study of eight women evaluated in the first, middle, and last trimesters confirmed an increase in FMD throughout pregnancy. The study supports the idea that basal and stimulated NO activity is enhanced in normal pregnancy and may contribute to the decrease in peripheral resistance.  (+info)

Synonyms for Brachial Artery ultrasound Normalization of Forearm Flow in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Brachial Artery ultrasound Normalization of Forearm Flow. 1 word related to Banff: Alberta. What are synonyms for Brachial Artery ultrasound Normalization of Forearm Flow?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of cold pressor and flow-mediated brachial artery diameter responses with the presence of coronary artery disease. AU - Corretti, Mary C.. AU - Plotnick, Gary D.. AU - Vogel, Robert A.. PY - 1995/4/15. Y1 - 1995/4/15. N2 - Flow-mediated brachial and coronary artery vasoactivity are abnormal in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiac risk factors. Cold pressor coronary artery vasoactivity is abnormal in patients with CAD, but brachial artery responses have not been studied. This study assesses whether cold pressor and flow-mediated brachial artery vasoactivity correlate independently with the presence of CAD. We studied 50 men (27 who were clinically normal, 23 with angiographically proven CAD) aged 23 to 59 years. With use of 7.5 MHz ultrasound, we measured brachial artery diameter and Doppler flow velocity at baseline, during contralateral ice water hand immersion (cold pressor), after 5 minutes of ipsilateral blood pressure cuff occlusion ...
HIV-infected subjects on a stable protease inhibitor (PI) containing antiretroviral regimen with plasma HIV RNA ,500 copies/mL, who have LDL cholesterol levels ,130 mg/dL or fasting triglycerides levels ,200 mg/dL, will be randomized (1:1) to continue their current antiretroviral regimen or to switch the PI to atazanavir (ATV). Brachial artery reactivity will be measured before (at entry) and 12 and 24 weeks after subjects are randomized.. ARM A: Switch current PI to atazanavir 400 mg once daily plus current , 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 24 weeks.. Subjects currently on ritonavir (RTV) (400 mg BID or greater) or RTV-boosted PI (,400 mg/day) , or tenofovir (TDF) as backbone NRTI therapy, will switch to ATV 300 mg boosted with RTV 100mg once daily.. ARM B: Continue current antiretroviral regimen (single or RTV-boosted PI plus , 2 NRTIs) for 24 weeks. Brachial artery reactivity in response to two vasoactive stimuli (increased forearm blood flow and ...
HIV-infected subjects on a stable protease inhibitor (PI) containing antiretroviral regimen with plasma HIV RNA ,500 copies/mL, who have LDL cholesterol levels ,130 mg/dL or fasting triglycerides levels ,200 mg/dL, will be randomized (1:1) to continue their current antiretroviral regimen or to switch the PI to atazanavir (ATV). Brachial artery reactivity will be measured before (at entry) and 12 and 24 weeks after subjects are randomized.. ARM A: Switch current PI to atazanavir 400 mg once daily plus current , 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 24 weeks.. Subjects currently on ritonavir (RTV) (400 mg BID or greater) or RTV-boosted PI (,400 mg/day) , or tenofovir (TDF) as backbone NRTI therapy, will switch to ATV 300 mg boosted with RTV 100mg once daily.. ARM B: Continue current antiretroviral regimen (single or RTV-boosted PI plus , 2 NRTIs) for 24 weeks. Brachial artery reactivity in response to two vasoactive stimuli (increased forearm blood flow and ...
Markus Juonala;Costan G. Magnussen;Alison Venn;Seana Gall;Mika Kähönen;Tomi Laitinen;Leena Taittonen;Terho Lehtimäki;Eero Jokinen;Cong Sun;Jorma S.A. Viikari;Terence Dwyer;Olli T. Raitakari ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating oxidized LDL: determinants and association with brachial flow-mediated dilation. AU - van der Zwan, L.P.. AU - Teerlink, T.. AU - Dekker, J.M.. AU - Henry, R.M.A.. AU - Jakobs, C.A.J.. AU - Heine, R.J.. AU - Scheffer, P.G.. AU - Stehouwer, C.D.A.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. U2 - 10.1194/jlr.P800030-JLR200. DO - 10.1194/jlr.P800030-JLR200. M3 - Article. C2 - 18802196. VL - 50. SP - 342. EP - 349. JO - Journal of Lipid Research. JF - Journal of Lipid Research. SN - 0022-2275. IS - 2. ER - ...
New Findings. What is the central question of this study?. We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate different exercise-induced brachial artery shear rate patterns compared with control subjects.. What is the main finding and its importance?. Moderate-intensity cycle exercise in HF patients is associated with an attenuated increase in brachial artery anterograde and mean shear rate and skin temperature. Differences between HF patients and control subjects cannot be explained fully by differences in workload. HF patients demonstrate a less favourable shear rate pattern during cycle exercise compared with control subjects.. Repeated elevations in shear rate (SR) in conduit arteries, which occur during exercise, represent a key stimulus to improve vascular function. We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate distinct changes in SR in response to moderate-intensity cycle exercise compared with healthy control subjects. We examined brachial artery SR during 40 min ...
The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm. It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the lower margin of teres major muscle. It continues down the ventral surface of the arm until it reaches the cubital fossa at the elbow. It then divides into the radial and ulnar arteries which run down the forearm. In some individuals, the bifurcation occurs much earlier and the ulnar and radial arteries extend through the upper arm. The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow, medial to the tendon of the biceps, and, with the use of a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) often used to measure the blood pressure. The brachial artery is closely related to the median nerve; in proximal regions, the median nerve is immediately lateral to the brachial artery. Distally, the median nerve crosses the medial side of the brachial artery and lies anterior to the elbow joint. Profunda brachii artery (deep brachial artery) Superior ...
This study demonstrated that treatment with a single dose of commonly used antihypertensive and antianginal medication lowers blood pressure and heart rate, but has no effect on resting brachial artery size, FMD, NMD, and the reproducibility of FMD. These results were obtained when healthy patients received single doses of specific agents for the first time and when patients on chronic therapy for CAD are studied before and after receiving their clinically prescribed medications. These findings suggest that acute alterations in systemic hemodynamics and/or local resting arterial tone induced by these medications do not alter the capacity of the brachial artery to respond to endothelium-derived and exogenous vasodilators.. No previous study examined the specific question addressed in the current study. In most prior studies of endothelial function in human subjects, all vasoactive medications were withheld for at least 24 h, and a recent paper recommended withholding medications for four ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of cigar smoking on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy young adults. AU - Santo-Tomas, Minerva. AU - Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco. AU - Machado, Humberto. AU - Aldrich, Harry R.. AU - Lamas, Gervasio A.. AU - Lieberman, Eric H.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Cigar smoking has become a quickly growing trend among teenagers, women, and young adults. The objective was to explore whether cigar smoking affects flow-mediated vasodilation in healthy, non-smoking young adults. Methods: This was a prospective randomized trial with open design. It was performed in a cardiology teaching program in a private community hospital that serves as a major referral center within the greater Miami area. Apparently healthy, non-smoking young adult cardiology trainees and staff between the ages of 20 and 45 years were randomly assigned to a cigar smoking group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 14). The main outcome measures were the difference in percent diameter ...
BACKGROUND Impaired arterial dilatation response to nitroglycerin has been observed in adults with risk factors for atherosclerosis and in patients with established atherosclerotic disease. This defect parallels changes in vascular endothelial function and may be attributed to increased oxidative stress. Because atherosclerosis begins in childhood, we examined the correlates of nitrate-mediated dilatation (NMD) in children, including brachial artery endothelial function, oxidized LDL, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). METHODS AND RESULTS Brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilatation (FMD) and nitrate-mediated smooth muscle function, IMT of the carotid bulb, and brachial artery and oxidized LDL were measured in 142 children (mean age, 11 years; range, 8 to 17 years), including 87 healthy children, 41 diabetic children, and 14 children with familial hypercholesterolemia. NMD correlated directly with FMD (r=0.46, P|0.001) and inversely with brachial artery baseline
Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to transient arterial occlusion was determined with ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery with an 11 MHz linear array ultrasound transducer connected to an ATL Apogee 800 plus duplex ultrasound machine (Advanced Technology Laboratories, Bothell, Washington) adapted from previously published methods (15,16). The axial resolution of the 11 MHz transducer is capable of detection of changes in brachial artery diameter of ,0.1 mm. Arterial diameter (cm) was determined as the internal dimension of the vessel wall, from trailing edge to leading edge of the anterior and posterior intimal markings, respectively (to confirm full alignment of the ultrasound beam with the maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the brachial artery in its long axis). Brachial artery blood flow velocity was determined with a 1.2 mm pulsed Doppler ultrasound sampling volume placed in the center of the image of the vessel lumen with internal software ...
The proposed mechanistic link between the age-related attenuation in vascular function and free radicals is an attractive hypothesis; however, direct evidence of free radical attenuation and a concomitant improvement in vascular function in the elderly is lacking. Therefore, this study sought to test the hypothesis that ascorbic acid (AA), administered intra-arterially during progressive handgrip exercise, improves brachial artery (BA) vasodilation in a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent manner, by mitigating free radical production. BA vasodilation (Doppler ultrasound) and free radical outflow [electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy] were measured in seven healthy older adults (69 ± 2 yr) during handgrip exercise at 3, 6, 9, and 12 kg (∼13-52% of maximal voluntary contraction) during the control condition and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition via N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), AA, and coinfusion of l-NMMA + AA. Baseline BA diameter was not altered by any of the treatments, while L
The higher incidence of cardiovascular events in the morning is accompanied by an increased vascular tone. However, there are few published studies designed to evaluate the diurnal variation of vascular and endothelial parameters in healthy subjects. In the present investigation, we evaluated the diurnal variation in brachial artery diameter (BAD), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent dilation (NFMD) in a homogeneous sample of healthy non-smoker young men. Fifty subjects aged 20.8 ± 0.3 years (range: 18 to 25 years) were investigated by brachial artery ultrasound. Exclusion criteria were female gender and evidence of clinically significant health problems, including obesity. Volunteers were asked to rest and avoid fat meals as well as alcoholic beverages 48 h before and until completion of the evaluations. BAD, FMD and NFMD were measured at 7 am, 5 pm, and 10 pm and tested by repeated measures ANOVA. BAD was smaller at 7 am (mean ± SEM, 3.8 ± 0.1 mm) in comparison with 5 ...
The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of AT versus RT on remodeling of the brachial artery in subjects with CHF. Our principal finding was that RT increased artery diameter, decreased wall thickness, and consequently decreased the wall:lumen ratio of the brachial artery, whereas AT increased artery diameter without modifying wall thickness or wall:lumen ratio. This suggests that RT may be superior to AT in inducing remodeling of the brachial artery wall. In contrast to these benefits of exercise training, the control group exhibited an increased wall:lumen ratio and a trend for increased wall thickness across the 12 weeks of the study.. We contend that changes in brachial artery wall thickness, diameter, and wall:lumen ratio are indicative of systemic vascular remodeling, given that the upper limbs were not heavily involved in the exercises undertaken. It is likely, therefore, that systemic hemodynamic responses to bouts of exercise, which, in turn, modulate shear stress, a ...
BACKGROUND: While recent reports suggest that both flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery (BA), endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima media thickness (IMT) in the carotid artery correlate with the extent of coronary artery
Context Early detection of severe sepsis is crucial for successful outcome. We hypothesized that the progression of sepsis to severe sepsis is preceded by vascular leakage, which may be caused by neutrophil-derived mediators such as heparin-binding protein (HBP). Also, vascular leakage can be assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and reactive hyperemia. Thus, both HBP and brachial artery reactivity may predict the progression of sepsis to severe sepsis and septic shock. Aim The aim of the study was to identify the role of both HBP and brachial artery reactivity as predictors of morbidity and mortality in critically ill septic patients. Settings and design This is an observational prospective controlled study. Patients and methods Patients were classified into two groups. Group I included 40 patients with evident sepsis. Group II included 10 critically ill nonseptic patients who constituted the control group. HBP blood samples were collected at three time points over 6 days after admission. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans. T2 - Association with age and habitual exercise. AU - DeVan, Allison E.. AU - Umpierre, Daniel. AU - Harrison, Michelle L.. AU - Lin, Hsin Fu. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Renzi, Christopher P.. AU - Dhindsa, Mandeep. AU - Hunter, Stacy D.. AU - Tanaka, Hirofumi. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Advancing age is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Endothelial dysfunction accompanied by increased oxidative stress and inflammation with aging may predispose older arteries to greater ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Because coronary artery ischemia cannot be induced safely, the effects of age and habitual endurance exercise on endothelial I/R injury have not been determined in humans. Using the brachial artery as a surrogate model of the coronary arteries, endothelial function, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), was measured before and after 20 min of continuous forearm occlusion in young ...
BACKGROUND: A phenomenon of endothelial impairment, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, has been observed in young people. We identified subjects with persistently reduced, or declining, endothelial function during adolescence and early adulthood, without apparent cardiovascular risk, and investigated the clinical relevance of this finding. METHODS: Endothelial vasomotor responses were assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) at age 15 years in 47 subjects (22 males) who returned for a repeated measurement at age 25. Subjects underwent quantification of left ventricular mass (LVM) and function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, central arterial stiffness by applanation tonometry, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness using ultrasound on their visit at age 25. RESULTS: Individuals with low average FMD over 10-year period, although normotensive, had 5 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and, significantly greater LVM (73.48 ± 7.73 vs. 56.25 ± 9.54 g/m(2
Background A phenomenon of endothelial impairment, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, has been observed in young people. We identified subjects with persistently reduced, or declining, endothelial function during adolescence and early adulthood, without apparent cardiovascular risk, and investigated the clinical relevance of this finding.MethodsEndothelial vasomotor responses were assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) at age 15 years in 47 subjects (22 males) who returned for a repeated measurement at age 25. Subjects underwent quantification of left ventricular mass (LVM) and function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, central arterial stiffness by applanation tonometry, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness using ultrasound on their visit at age 25. Results Individuals with low average FMD over 10-year period, although normotensive, had 5 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and, significantly greater LVM (73.48 ± 7.73 vs. 56.25 ± 9.54 g/m 2 , P
BACKGROUND: A phenomenon of endothelial impairment, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, has been observed in young people. We identified subjects with persistently reduced, or declining, endothelial function during adolescence and early adulthood, without apparent cardiovascular risk, and investigated the clinical relevance of this finding. METHODS: Endothelial vasomotor responses were assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) at age 15 years in 47 subjects (22 males) who returned for a repeated measurement at age 25. Subjects underwent quantification of left ventricular mass (LVM) and function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, central arterial stiffness by applanation tonometry, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness using ultrasound on their visit at age 25. RESULTS: Individuals with low average FMD over 10-year period, although normotensive, had 5 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and, significantly greater LVM (73.48 ± 7.73 vs. 56.25 ± 9.54 g/m(2
Vascular ultrasound is a specialist form of diagnostic imaging involving the study of the peripheral vascular system and its diseases including peripheral arterial disease, chronic venous disease (varicose veins), and acute venous disease (deep vein thrombosis). Performing vascular ultrasound scans requires expertise in B-mode, colour Doppler, and pulse wave Doppler modalities coupled with a sound knowledge of vascular anotomy, haemodynamics, vascular disease, and both endovascular and surgical vascular procedures.. South East Vascular Ultrasound has been providing a dedicated specialist vascular imaging service to the south eastern suburbs for over 14 years with locations in Richmond (The Epworth Centre), Blackburn, Waverley, and Bentleigh. The senior sonographer is Stephen Wood who has over 20 years experience as a dedicated vascular sonographer.. South East Vascular Ultrasound is fully accredited under the Australian Government Department of Healths Diagnostic Imaging Accreditation Scheme. ...
Background: A metabolic syndrome associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease has been seen in HIV (+) individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Functional vascular changes can be non-invasively assessed and may precede the development of atherosclerosis.. Methods: We measured carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) by vascular ultrasonography in 61 HIV (+) patients (mean age 41.8 ± 13 yrs, 88.5 % male) attending a tertiary care center, in 30 patients with angiographically documented CAD (positive control) and in 30 healthy subjects. Both control groups had similar age, sex and atherosclerotic risk factors to HIV infected patients. Carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV-Complior apparatus) was also measured in HIV (+) patients.. Results: By ANOVA, HIV patients had higher IMT than healthy controls and similar IMT to matched CAD patients (0.64±0.2 vs. 0.54±0.05 vs .0.66±0.08 mm respectively, ...
In the coronary circulation, angiography of coronary artery responses to vasoactive agents may be used to test for endothelial function, and venous occlusion plethysmography and ultrasonography are used to assess endothelial function of peripheral vessels in humans.[3]. A non-invasive method to measure endothelial dysfunction is % Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) as measured by Brachial Artery Ultrasound Imaging (BAUI).[6] Current measurements of endothelial function via FMD vary due to technical and physiological factors. Furthermore, a negative correlation between percent flow mediated dilation and baseline artery size is recognised as a fundamental scaling problem, leading to biased estimates of endothelial function.[7]. A non-invasive, FDA-approved device for measuring endothelial function that works by measuring Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) is Itamar Medicals EndoPAT™.[8][9] It has shown an 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity to diagnose coronary artery disease when compared against the ...
A method and system are provided for detecting various vascular conditions using an occlusive arm cuff plethysmograph. The system includes data acquisition hardware, including the occlusive arm cuff plethysmograph, for obtaining arterial and endothelial function data from a patient, processing means utilizing application or analysis software for analyzing the arterial and endothelial function data, and a database of computer models, such as brachial artery pressure versus lumen area curves (P-A curves) and brachial artery pressure versus compliance curves (P-C curves), developed by analyzing data for a plurality of subjects where their vascular conditions were known. The processing means diagnoses and predicts various vascular conditions pertaining to the patient by comparing or correlating the analyzed arterial and endothelial function data with the computer models stored within the database and presents the findings on a display.
Enhanced instrumentation allows you to scan for early detection of disease. Offering a vascular health screening adds value to your comprehensive eye health exam and expands your scope of practice.. In March I purchased a carotid artery ultrasound screening system for vascular fitness. The system allows my office to perform a non-invasive procedure which measures the thickness of the carotid artery intima layer-widely accepted as an ideal indicator for early detection of cardiovascular disease. Studies show that by evaluating the carotid artery intima thickness (CIMT) physicians obtain a good indicator of vascular disease elsewhere in the body. The ultrasound technology employed is a B-scan which is safe and can be repeated as many times as needed. In addition to measuring the artery thickness, the screening protocol also results in the reporting of the presence of plaques, their characteristics, whether soft and fibrous or hard and calcified, and the percentage of stenosis.. CIMT allows us to ...
The study, which looked at intermediate-risk participants (FRS _5%-_20%) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), found that overall CAC, ABI, high-sensitivity CRP, and family history were independently associated with incident CHD in multivariable analyses (HR, 2.60 [95% CI, 1.94-3.50]; HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.95]; HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.00-1.64]; and HR, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.38-3.42], respectively). CAC had the highest improvement in both the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves and net reclassification improvement when added to the Framingham Risk Score/Reynolds score, while brachial flow-mediated dilation had the least. Carotid intima-media thickness and brachial flow-mediated dilation were not associated with incident CHD in multivariable analyses, according to the authors. ...
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AIM: Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is to examine post-cuff deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5 min forearm ischaemia every 2 weeks across 8-weeks of a handgrip exercise training regimen. METHODS: Post-deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5-min of ischaemia were examined before, after and every 2-weeks across an 8-week handgrip training programme in healthy young men (n = 11) using echo-Doppler. RESULTS: The magnitude of dilation increased at week 2-4-6, but returned towards baseline values at week 8 (anova: P = 8.001). The time-to-peak diameter (42 +/- 15s) demonstrated a significant prolongation at week 4 (77 +/- 32s), but returned towards baseline values at weeks 6 and 8 (anova: P , 0.001). The ...
We fed 10 healthy, normolipidemic subjects five meals containing 900 kcal and 50 g fat. Three meals contained different fat sources: olive oil, canola oil, and salmon. Two olive oil meals also contained antioxidant vitamins (C and E) or foods (balsamic vinegar and salad). We measured serum lipoproteins and glucose and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), an index of endothelial function, before and 3 h after each meal ...
Abstract 1255 Joseph Yeboah, Gregory L Burke, John R Crouse, Wake Forest Univ Sch of Med, Winston Salem, NC; Joao A Lima, John Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD; Craig Johnson, Univ of Washington, Seattle, WA; Joseph F Polak, Tufts-New England Medical Ctr, Boston, MA; Aaron Folsom, Univ of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Wendy Post, John Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD; David M Herrington, Wake Forest Univ Sch of Med, Winston Salem, NC. ...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension often co-exist and both are associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesised that AF would further worsen endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in hypertension patients compared to those without AF. In a cross-sectional comparison, we measured brachial artery diameter at rest and during reactive hyperaemia following 5 min of arterial occlusion in two patient groups: AF (and hypertension) (n = 61) and hypertension control groups (n = 33). The AF (and hypertension) subgroups: permanent AF (n = 30) and paroxysmal AF (n = 31) were also assessed. The permanent AF patients received heart rate and blood pressure (BP) control optimisation and were then followed up after eight weeks for repeat FMD testing. There was no significant difference in FMD between AF (and hypertension) group and hypertension control group (4.6%, 95% CI [2.6-5.9%] vs 2.6%, 95% CI [1.9-5.3%]; p = 0.25). There was a significant difference in FMD between permanent AF ...
BACKGROUND: Although obesity has long been recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor, only in recent years has the role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) been evaluated. In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, we related VAT and other obesity indices to endothelium-dependent vasodilation in both capacitance and resistance arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this population-based study, 1016 subjects aged 70 were evaluated by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine (EDV) and brachial artery ultrasound to assess flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Intra-abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were determined by magnetic resonance imaging in a random sample of 287 subjects. EDV, but not FMD, was inversely related to VAT, SAT, BMI and the waist/hip ratio (r=-0.23, -0.16, -0.21 and -0.11, respectively, p=0.05-0.001 after adjustment for gender). In multiple regression analysis however, only VAT was an independent predictor of EDV. ...
Moderate-to-severe kidney dysfunction is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Gradations of normal or mildly reduced kidney function may also associate with ASCVD risk.We conducted a secondary analysis using baseline data from the Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Cardiovascular Health (ENCORE) trial. Participants were sedentary, overweight and obese adults with unmedicated pre-hypertension or Stage I hypertension and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The Pooled Cohorts Equations were used to estimate a 10-year risk for first ASCVD event. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were measured to assess subclinical atherosclerosis and vascular endothelial function, respectively. Using linear regression, we examined the association between eGFR and ASCVD risk, IMT and FMD.Participants (N = 139) were predominantly women (65%), white (60%), with a mean age of 52.0 ± 9.6 years ...
BACKGROUND: Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, partly due to systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. B-cells play an important pathogenic role in the inflammatory process that drives RA disease activity. Rituximab, a chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody that depletes B-cells, is an effective therapy for RA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether B-cell depletion with rituximab reduces systemic inflammation and improves macrovascular (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) endothelial function in RA patients.. METHODS AND RESULTS: RA patients received a single course of rituximab (1000 mg IV infusion at baseline and on day 15). FMD, reactive hyperemia, inflammatory markers, and clinical assessments were performed at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Twenty patients (95% female, median age 54 years) completed the study. Following treatment, FMD improved from a baseline ...
Results Body weight was reduced (P , 0.0001) by ADF-HF (5 ± 1%) and by ADF-LF (4 ± 1%). Fat mass decreased (P , 0.0001) by ADF-HF (5 ± 1 kg) and ADF-LF (4 ± 1 kg). Fat free mass remained unchanged. Waist circumference decreased (P , 0.001) by ADF-HF (7 ± 1 cm) and ADF-LF (7 ± 1 cm). FMD decreased (P , 0.05) in ADF-HF (2 ± 2%) and increased (P , 0.05) in ADF-LF (2 ± 2%). Adiponectin increased (P , 0.05) in ADF-HF (43 ± 7%) and in ADF-LF (51 ± 7%). Leptin decreased (P , 0.05) in ADF-HF (32 ± 5%) and in ADF-LF (30 ± 3%). Resistin decreased (P , 0.05) in ADF-HF (23 ± 5%) and ADF-LF (27 ± 4%). Increases in adiponectin were associated with augmented FMD post-treatment in the ADF-LF group only (r = 0.34, P = 0.03). Leptin and resistin were not correlated with changes in FMD. ...
Continued From Above... The brachial artery stems from the axillary artery and moves along the humerus (upper arm bone) down to the elbow. It gives rise to the deep brachial artery, which curves around the back of the humerus to supply blood to the triceps muscles. Shorter branches pass into various other muscles on the front of the upper arm, and others descend down each side of the elbow to join arteries in the forearms.. ...
Background Premenopausal women have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, which may partly be due to a protective effect of estrogen on endothelial function. Animal studies suggest that estrogen may also improve the relationship between shear rate ( SR ) and endothelial function. We aimed to explore the relationship between endothelial function (ie, flow-mediated dilation [ FMD ]) and SR (ie, SR area under the curve [ SRAUC ]) in women versus men, and between pre- versus postmenopausal women. Methods and Results Brachial artery FMD and SRAUC were measured in accordance with expert-consensus guidelines in 932 healthy participants who were stratified into young adults (18-40 years, 389 men, 144 women) and older adults (,40 years, 260 men, 139 women). Second, we compared premenopausal (n=173) and postmenopausal women (n=110). There was evidence of a weak correlation between SRAUC and FMD in all groups but older men, although there was variation in strength of outcomes. Further exploration ...
Looking for online definition of ankle/brachial blood pressure index in the Medical Dictionary? ankle/brachial blood pressure index explanation free. What is ankle/brachial blood pressure index? Meaning of ankle/brachial blood pressure index medical term. What does ankle/brachial blood pressure index mean?
The broken guide wire could get stuck anywhere during coronary artery angiography, but the broken guide wire in the brachial artery is extremely rare. In this report, we describe our experience with a case of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCABG) concomitant with the retrieval of a broken guide wire stuck in the brachial artery: a 56-year-old male patient was referred to our hospital because of tri-vessel disease and a broken guide wire stuck in the right brachial artery. He received OPCABG concomitant with the retrieval of the broken guide wire stuck in the brachial artery under general anesthesia. The patient was discharged uneventfully, and 12 months follow-up showed an excellent surgical outcome. Open surgery is an effective means for treating patients with a guide wire stuck in the brachial artery during percutaneous coronary intervention.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Impact of Exercise Training on Conduit Artery Wall Thickness and Remodeling in Chronic Heart Failure Patients. AU - Maiorana, A.J.. AU - Naylor, Louise. AU - Exterkate, A.. AU - Swart, A.. AU - Thijssen, D.H.J.. AU - Lam, K.. AU - ODriscoll, G.. AU - Green, Daniel. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Exercise training is an important adjunct to medical therapy in chronic heart failure, but the extent to which exercise impacts on conduit artery remodeling is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training modalities on arterial remodeling in patients with chronic heart failure. We randomized 36 untrained subjects with chronic heart failure to resistance training (58.8 +/- 3.5 years), aerobic training (61.3 +/- 2.8 years), or an untrained control group (64.4 +/- 2.4 years). Peak oxygen consumption during cycle ergometry increased after 12 weeks in both the resistance and aerobic training (P. AB - Exercise training is an important ...
We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBFACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBFACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P,0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with ...
We have shown that physiological increments of 2 to 3 μmol/L in plasma homocysteine after low-dose oral methionine and dietary animal protein induce vascular endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we observed an inverse and dynamic relationship between plasma homocysteine and endothelial function.. We found evidence of impaired flow-mediated dilatation within 2 hours of high dose oral methionine (100 mg/kg), the dietary precursor of homocysteine. Regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between homocysteine concentration and flow-mediated dilatation. Previous studies show that brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation is endothelium dependent16 and is largely mediated by the release of nitric oxide.17 Our findings therefore imply that vascular endothelial nitric oxide activity may be impaired during acutely elevated homocysteine concentrations. Previous studies have shown that high dose methionine, which elevates plasma homocysteine concentrations to more than 2- to 3-fold normal, is ...
In this population-based study of persons free of clinical cardiovascular disease, we show that wider retinal venular caliber is associated with reduced brachial FMD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our study suggests that retinal venular caliber may reflect underlying systemic endothelial dysfunction, and that this may provide a novel explanation of why retinal venular caliber predicts incident stroke and other cardiovascular events.. To our best knowledge, there has only been one published study with which to compare our findings. An analysis from the Hoorn study of 256 persons 60 to 85 years of age (of 631 eligible, with 6 missing retinal photographs and 52 missing FMD) showed that after controlling for age, sex, glucose tolerance, baseline diameter, and increase in peak systolic velocity, wider venules were associated with reduced brachial FMD,17 although this was not statistically significant.. Our study findings may provide additional insights into previously ...
Although uric acid (UA) is considered as an antioxidant, the relationship between serum UA levels and cardiovascular diseases is not clear yet. Higher brachial artery resting diameter (BD), impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), decreased aortic distensibility (AoD), and increased aortic stiffness index (AoSI) and elastic modulus (AoEM) are predictors for development and/or progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, BD, FMD, carotid IMT, AoD, AoSI and AoEM were studied in healthy subjects with UA concentrations in physiological range. ...
Abstract. OBJECTIVE:. Impaired endothelial function in obesity may reduce blood flow to sites of metabolism, contributing to impaired fat oxidation and insulin resistance. This study investigated the effects of cocoa flavanols and regular exercise, interventions known to improve endothelial function, on cardiometabolic function and body composition in obese individuals.. DESIGN:. Overweight and obese adults were randomly assigned to high-flavanol cocoa (HF, 902 mg flavanols), HF and exercise, low-flavanol cocoa (LF, 36 mg flavanols), or LF and exercise for 12 weeks (exercise duration was 3 x 45 min per week at 75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0 and 12 weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), supine blood pressure (BP) and fasting plasma insulin, and glucose levels were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Insulin sensitivity/resistance was determined using the modified homeostasis model assessment ...
Advantages of Vascular ultrasound for varicose veins treatment Vascular ultrasound uses sound waves to evaluate the bodys circulatory system and helps identify blockages in arteries and veins, and to detect blood clots so that get Varicose Vein Treatment Nyc on time. This test usually includes a Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and provides an image of the soft tissues that do not appear on X-ray images. This procedure requires little or no special preparation. However, occasionally, you may be asked to fast beforehand. Leave the jewels at home and wear loose and comfortable clothes. You could be asked to put on a robe. This test is suggested by top varicose vein doctor in New York. What is vascular ultrasound?  Ultrasound by varicose vein doctor in New York is safe and painless, and produces images of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ultrasound, involves the use of a ...
Aims: To investigate the association between intima-media thickness of brachial and common carotid arteries and factors of the coagulation- and fibrinolysis system with diastolic dysfunction in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. Patients and methods: One hundred and five patients, men (72 %) and women (28%) aged between 32-73 years with a history of previous acute myocardial infarction were included. An age-matched control group with no cardiovascular risk factors was used as a comparison. B-mode ultrasound of common carotid and brachial arteries and echocardiography were evaluated in all subjects. Calculated intima-media area (cIMa) of the common carotid and brachial arteries and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were examined. Factors of the coagulation- and fibrinolysis system were also measured. Results: Prothrombin fragment 1+2 was significantly higher in patients with previous myocardial infarction compared to the control group ( ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age and sex relationship with flow-mediated dilation in healthy children and adolescents. AU - Hopkins, N.D.. AU - Dengel, D.R.. AU - Stratton, G.. AU - Kelly, A.S.. AU - Steinberger, J.. AU - Zavala, H.. AU - Marlatt, K.. AU - Perry, D.. AU - Naylor, Louise. AU - Green, Daniel J. PY - 2015/10/15. Y1 - 2015/10/15. N2 - Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive technique used to measure conduit artery vascular function. Limited information is available on normative FMD values in healthy children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess relationships between age and sex with FMD across childhood and adolescence. Nine hundred and seventy-eight asymptomatic children (12 ± 3 yr, range 6-18 yr, 530 male) underwent ultrasonic brachial artery assessment before and after 5 min of forearm ischemia. Sex differences in FMD and baseline artery diameter were assessed using mixed linear models. Baseline artery diameter ...
The consumption of fiber-rich foods may negate the deleterious effects of high-fat meals on postprandial triglyceridemia and endothelial function. Despite supportive data in adults, little is known about the effects of high-fat and high-fiber foods on cardiovascular health parameters in pediatric populations. In this crossover trial, male and female adolescents (n = 10; 14.1 + 2.6 years; range 10–17 years) consumed (1) low-fat, low-fiber, (2) low-fat, high-fiber, (3) high-fat, low-fiber, and (4) high-fat, high-fiber breakfast meals in randomized order, each following an overnight fast. Baseline and 4 h post-meal blood was obtained for determination of glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Endothelial function was assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Postprandial FMD was not significantly changed after any meal. However, regression analyses revealed a significant inverse relationship between the change in 4 h triglyceride concentration and change in 4 h FMD for the
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of redox balance. AU - Ives, Stephen J.. AU - Harris, Ryan A.. AU - Witman, Melissa A.H.. AU - Fjeldstad, Anette S.. AU - Garten, Ryan S.. AU - Mcdaniel, John. AU - Wray, D. Walter. AU - Richardson, Russell S.. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by low pulmonary function, inflammation, free radical production, vascular dysfunction, and subsequently a greater incidence of cardiovascular disease. By administering an acute oral antioxidant cocktail to patients with COPD (n=30) and controls (n=30), we sought to determine the role of redox balance in the vascular dysfunction of these patients. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, patients with COPD and controls were ingested placebo or the antioxidant cocktail (vitamin C, vitamin E, α-lipoic acid) after which brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity were assessed using ultrasound Doppler. The ...
We hypothesized that pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes have cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detectable differences in thoracic aortic wall properties and hemodynamics leading to significant local differences in indices of wall shear stress, when compared with age-matched control subjects without diabetes. Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes were recruited from Childrens Hospital of Wisconsin and compared with controls. All underwent morning CMR scanning, 4-limb blood pressure, brachial artery reactivity testing, and venipuncture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics modeling with fluid-structure interaction, based on CMR data, determined regional time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). Twenty type 1 diabetic subjects, median age 15.8 years (11.6-18.4) and 8 controls 15.4 years (10.3-18.2) were similar except for higher glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and triglycerides for type 1 diabetic subjects. Lower flow-mediated dilation was seen for those with type
Impaired vascular reactivity and arterial stiffening are manifestations of vascular dysfunction in the presence of CV risk factors or established CV disease. Whereas stiffening predominantly affects the central elastic arteries, impaired reactivity to various stimuli can be demonstrated in the microvasculature and conduit arteries of several arterial beds. The results of the present study demonstrate that impaired forearm microvascular function and brachial artery reactivity are associated with increased arterial stiffness.. Normal resting flow and hyperemic response reflect the integrity of vascular function in the microcirculation. Elevated resting forearm blood flow may represent a state of hyperperfusion, analogous to the increased renal blood flow and glomerular hyperfiltration noted in early stages of diabetes,18 essential hypertension,19 and obesity.20 Reactive hyperemia is attributable mainly to ischemia-induced local release of vasodilator substances, including nitric oxide.21,22 We23 ...
A vascular ultrasound is a noninvasive ultrasound method (also called a duplex study) used to examine the circulation in the blood vessels of the body. Advertising Policy Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy Vascular ultrasound … |a class=
Author: Sanjay Vikani, Pankaj Maheria, Kuldeep Suthar, Satish Patel. Category: Anatomy. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Introduction: Brachial artery is the continuation of the axillary artery at the distal border of teres major. It ends at the level of neck of radius by dividing into radial & ulnar arteries. A detailed description of the vascular pattern of upper limbs especially their variations in their origin & branching pattern is of utmost importance anatomically in general and clinically in particular.. Objective: This study is more informative to know the arterial pattern in this part of Central Gujarat. The primary objective of the study is to establish pattern of human brachial artery &its origin, length, course, branches, and the measurement of the point of origin of branches of the brachial artery. The study also includes the pattern of variations in origin as well as branching. Materials and Method: This is a morphological study in which the study was carried out in 25 cadavers by ...
This study demonstrates that under normal physiological conditions, different types of flow stimulus elicit different mechanisms of conduit artery dilatation in humans. Dilatation, in response to transient increases in blood flow, is largely mediated by synthesis of NO, whereas sustained dilatation during a prolonged hyperemic stimulus is unaffected by L-NMMA, indicating an NO-independent mechanism. Furthermore, in patients with hypercholesterolemia, these pathways were differentially affected, with a selective abnormality only of the NO-dependent component. Our findings indicate that the mechanisms of conduit artery FMD in vivo are more complex than previously thought and have important implications for the design and interpretation of endothelial function tests and the treatment of vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease.. In the present study, pharmacological blockade of physiological pathways was used to probe the mechanisms that regulate radial artery diameter under different blood ...
Results Thirty four women and ten men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 53±13 [18-76] years. The onset of symptoms was mono-articular in 54.5%, oligo-articular in 11.3% and polyarticular in 34.2% of cases. The mean duration of the disease was 11.2±7.6 [2-24] months. Radiographs showed epiphyseal bone demineralization in 12 cases. Ultrasound showed at least one synovitis in 39 patients, 17 of which associated with Doppler hyperhemia. More than 5 joints were involved in 32 patients and bone erosions were detected in 19 cases. High resolution ultrasound allowed confirmation of early RA in 43.1% of cases since it showed bone erosions in 19 patients with inflammatory rheumatism, elsewhere ultrasound has helped the diagnosis of early inflammatory rheumatism since it showed polysynovitis in 14 of 24 patients showing a mono-articular clinical involvement.. ...
Subjects will be instrumented while in supine position and this position is maintained while baseline data is collected for five minutes. The table will then be titled to 80 degrees, placing subjects in a head-up tilt position at a rate of approximately 7 degrees per second. Subjects will remain in this position for 15 minutes or until they exhibit symptoms of presyncope. Total time at 80 degrees head-up tilt will be recorded. During the test, blood pressure, electrocardiography (ECG) and Doppler ultrasound of blood flow velocity at the suprasternal notch will be continuously measured. Finger arterial blood pressure will be sampled at 200Hz using a photoplethysmography device. This device uses a hydrostatic adjustment routine to provide an accurate estimation of blood pressure independent of sensor location with respect to the heart. Oscillometric brachial artery pressure will be measured every minute by using a cuff placed around the upper arm. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure will be ...
Any hard surface will reflect sound. Some hard materials will exhibit a degree of absorption if they have a porous or irregular surface. A room with no furnishings carpets or curtains (drapes for our american cousins) will be acousticaly very lively and sound terrible. Curtains and soft furnishings will improve matters a lot. Further improvements could be made by hanging tapestries (decorative rugs) or curtains on the wall. If that is not good enough specialist sound deadening materials can be used (at great expense). It`s worth remembering that sound will be relflected at the same angle as the source, ie if the source is at 45deg to a reflective surface the reflected sound will come off at 45 deg. Sound deadening materials exploit this by having lots of wedges at right angles to each other ...
What do elite athletes and remote preconditioning have in common? With the 2012 London Olympic Games underway, our Consulting Editor David Gutterman interviews lead author Dick Thijssen (Liverpool John Moores University) and expert Michael Widlansky (Medical College of Wisconsin) about the work by Bailey et al, which investigates how a preconditioning ischemic stimulus applied to the legs could provide protection against endothelial dysfunction in the arms after intense exercise. Could the observation that improved performance times on a 5K run after remote preconditioning lead to new training techniques to improve performance for Olympic athletes? Is this tantamount to doping? Listen in and find out. Tom G. Bailey, Gurpreet K. Birk, N. Timothy Cable, Greg Atkinson, Daniel J. Green, Helen Jones, and Dick H.J. Thijssen Remote Ischemic Preconditoning Prevents Reduction in Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation after Strenuous Exercise Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published online June 22, ...
There a monk ran into an arena and stopped a gladiator fight in mid battle. This was the period in which merchants from Tuscany Scale, Bonaccorsi and Rieti purchased houses in the city. The Muslims knew that they were following the truth, and so nothing the united kingdom iranian mature online dating site else mattered. From that point, the report said the violence escalated Chilean players dismantled the armrests and footrests from the bus seats, and smashed the windows in order to spit at and throw these objects, plus D-cell batteries, clothes hangers, and cans of deodorant at the police. It was also speculated that the severe obstructive disease of the right brachial artery and its branches may have contributed to a locally reduced immune response. My English professor, praised my writing and characterization. High latency is most irritating when playing VST instruments and when monitoring through the computer, i. En zo gaat het door, met de Arabische gitaarlijn in Stormvogel, Spectacles dat ...
Overview. During the course, participants will be presented to an intensive series of short lectures focussed on technical aspects of the different US examinations, commenting them while performing one in the same room on selected patients. After the break, participants will have the opportunity to practice their skills under supervision (4 participants /1 tutor/ station) on patients and silicone models for US guided puncture. Hands-on sessions will take 5 hours each day.. The course is preceded by an on-line blended learning module that will introduce the participants to the basic knowledge of ultrasound and the standards of the different examinations. Most prominent topics and all presentations will be available on-line to enable participants to prepare for the hands-on workshop.. What will you learn?. The objective of this course is to make the participant aware of the science behind, technical and practical aspects of some of the most common vascular ultrasound examinations, including ...
OBJECTIVE--To assess a non-invasive test for endothelial dysfunction, an important early event in the atherogenic process. METHODS--Using high resolution ultrasound, the accuracy of detecting small changes in vessel diameter was assessed using phantom arteries, and the same equipment was then used to measure flow mediated dilatation in the brachial artery of 40 healthy adults aged 22-51 years, studied on four occasions; intervals between scans were 1-2 days, 1-2 weeks, and 2-4 months. RESULTS--Differences between pairs of phantom arteries with diameters 0.1-0.2 mm apart were correctly estimated in 162 of 264 cases (61%); no measurement by any of four independent observers was , 0.1 mm in error, and the mean error was 0.04 mm. For in vivo scans, the overall coefficient of variation for flow mediated dilatation was 1.8% (1.6% for women, 1.9% for men, P = 0.18). In 34/40 subjects (85%), all values for flow mediated dilatation were within 2.5% of the overall mean for each subject. A nested ...
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether interrelationship among lipid profiles including nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol ..
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Neurochemical mechanisms of nitroglycerin-induced neuronal activation in rat brain: A pharmacological investigation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Leg artery ultrasound education showing how to, scanning protocol, normal anatomy, anatomic variants, doppler, criteria, femoral, popliteal, abis, tibial, peroneal, arteries
In young women, superimposing CPT on FMD resulted in 1) a significant dilation during occlusion and reduction in peak diameter (Fig. 3), 2) an alteration in the postocclusion SR profile (Fig. 5) and 3) an ∼20% decrease in normalized popliteal FMD, when data were calculated relative to occlusion (Fig. 6). When FMD was calculated relative to rest, normalized FMD was not significantly influenced by adrenergic stimulation in young women. By contrast, popliteal dilation estimated relative to rest or occlusion was not significantly blunted in older women after superimposition of CPT on FMD (Fig. 6). These findings underscore the importance of analyzing FMD with respect to both resting and occlusion diameters since changes in conduit artery diameter during occlusion occur through different mechanisms as those evoked by reactive hyperemia and may affect estimation and assessment of endothelium-dependent dilation. Additionally, the application of CPT on FMD in the popliteal artery in young women did ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM S45.101S - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the vascular effects of tibolone on climateric women measured by flow-mediated evaluation of the brachial artery...
I dont know if I ever explained why I see him. A few years ago I noticed my left eye was funny. Vision was like looking through cracked glass or a broken dirty screen. Not quite sure how to describe it. Went to eye doctor and she ran all sorts of tests, check for diabetes--no, ran dye up my arm--went just fine took a temporal artery biopsy--no trouble, did and MRI--found nothing so she sent me to Dr. Leo. He order ekg, eeg, and a carotid artery ultrasound. All tests came back normal, but I go yearly to make sure there is no change. Ok by me. Just had a real good friend have a heart attack Fri, and its not looking to good at the moment ...
Learn your risk for heart attack and stroke. This vascular workup includes carotid artery ultrasound, heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation) test, blood pressure
Dr. Philip Liebson from the Rush University Medical Center moderated the topic Contrast Echocardiography and Carotid Vascular Ultrasound with Drs. Steven B. Feinstein from Rush University Medical Center, and Michael Main from St. Lukes Mid America Heart Institute participating. The discussion focused primarily on: (1) the development of various contrast agents, (2) use of
Antioxidants protect NO synthase-the enzyme that produces the artery-relaxing signal, nitric oxide. This may explain why those who eat especially antioxidant-rich plant foods have improved flow-mediated dilation of the brachial arteries.
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_______ act to restore normal heart rhythm in a heart that has been skipping beats. A. Artery vasodilators B. Antiarrhythmics C. Anticoagulants D. Drugs to lower cholesterol
The brachial artery. The suprascapular, axillary, and radial nerves. Sadan AY; Ibrahim TEKDEMIR; Ugur SAYLI; Alaittin ELHAN; K ... is a broad but shallow oblique depression for the radial nerve and deep brachial artery. It is located on the center of the ...
From the brachial plexus, it travels behind the third part of the axillary artery (part of the axillary artery distal to the ... The brachial artery. Cutaneous nerves of right upper extremity. Superficial palmar nerves. Nerves of the left upper extremity. ... It continues to move along with posterior interosseous artery(a deep branch of common interosseous artery which is a branch of ... it runs behind the brachial artery and then enters the lower triangular space to reach the radial sulcus of back of the humerus ...
Artery. Brachial artery. Nerve. Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)[1]. Actions. *Flexes elbow[1] ...
This will occlude the brachial artery. In the absence of blood flow, the patient's hypocalcemia and subsequent neuromuscular ...
The biceps brachii tendon The brachial artery. The artery usually bifurcates near the apex (inferior part) of the cubital fossa ... During blood pressure measurements, the stethoscope is placed over the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. The artery runs ... the brachial artery and the median nerve). Statistically, the antecubital fossa is the least tender region for peripheral ... The brachial pulse may be palpated in the cubital fossa just medial to the tendon. The area just superficial to the cubital ...
The blood supply is from the brachial artery. The posterior compartment of the arm is also known as the "extensor compartment ... It is perforated by the radial nerve and profunda branch of the brachial artery. The medial intermuscular septum, is thicker ... It is perforated by the ulnar nerve, the superior ulnar collateral artery, and the posterior branch of the inferior ulnar ... collateral artery. The anterior compartment of the arm is also known as the flexor compartment of the arm as its main action is ...
The main artery in the arm is the brachial artery. This artery is a continuation of the axillary artery. The point at which the ... The brachial artery gives off an unimportant branch, the deep artery of arm. This branching occurs just below the lower border ... The artery then continues on to anastamose with the recurrent radial branch of the brachial artery, providing a diffuse blood ... The brachial artery continues to the cubital fossa in the anterior compartment of the arm. It travels in a plane between the ...
Reconstruction of brachial artery pressure from noninvasive finger pressure measurements. Circulation, 94(8), 1870-5. http:// ... The non-linear effect of the vascular wall decreases in bigger arteries. It is well known that good access to a "big" artery is ... Detecting pressure changes inside an artery from the outside is difficult, whereas volume and flow changes of the artery can ... As the volume of the finger artery is clamped on a constant diameter, the method is also known as "Volume Clamped Method". The ...
decreased pulsation of one or both brachial arteries. *at least 10 mmHg systolic difference in both arms ... Classically involves arteries of lungs and skin, but may be generalized. At least 4 criteria yields sensitivity and specificity ... Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Systemic vasculitis of medium and small arteries, including venules and arterioles. ... bruit over one or both carotid arteries or abdominal aorta. *arteriographic narrowing of aorta, its primary branches, or large ...
The brachial plexus and the subclavian artery pass anterior to it. The posterior scalene, (Latin: scalenus posterior) is the ... The brachial plexus and subclavian artery pass between the anterior and middle scalenes. The subclavian vein and phrenic nerve ... The passing of the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery through the space of the anterior and middle scalene muscles ... Since the nerves of the brachial plexus pass through the space between the anterior and middle scalene muscles, that area is ...
It crosses the ulnar artery (branch of brachial artery) while being separated by the deep head of the pronator teres. It then ... The median nerve continues in the cubital fossa medial to the brachial artery and passes between the two heads of the pronator ... Inside the cubital fossa, the median nerve passes medial to the brachial artery. The median nerve gives off an articular branch ... It gives vascular branches to the wall of the brachial artery. These vascular branches carry sympathetic fibers. It innervates ...
Brachial veins - In human anatomy, the brachial veins are venae comitantes of the brachial artery in the arm proper. Because ... Iliac artery, external - The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries ... Carotid artery, internal - The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in ... Radial artery - In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm. Radial nerve - is ...
"How to assess mean blood pressure properly at the brachial artery level". Journal of Hypertension. 25 (4): 751-755. doi:10.1097 ... The rise in pulse pressure with age is attributed to increased stiffness of the arteries. An age-related rise in blood pressure ... It is normally 5-10 mmHg Normally, the pressure in the pulmonary artery is about 15 mmHg at rest. Increased blood pressure in ... Mean blood pressure drops over the whole circulation, although most of the fall occurs along the small arteries and arterioles ...
... these levels inversely relate to brachial artery FMD in the same population. While it is not known if reported endothelial ... WISE Study Group) (July 2008). "Diabetes mellitus, hypothalamic hypoestrogenemia, and coronary artery disease in premenopausal ...
It is posterior to the brachial plexus, and the axillary artery and vein. This takes it deep to the clavicle. It rests on the ... Brachial plexus Brachial plexus with courses of spinal nerves shown Long_thoracic_nerve at the Duke University Health System's ... 487-500, doi:10.1016/b978-1-4557-2672-1.00031-3, ISBN 978-1-4557-2672-1, retrieved October 25, 2020 The right brachial plexus ( ... "The major subdivisions and terminal nerves of the brachial plexus." Long Thoracic Nerve - BlueLink Anatomy - University of ...
The bell of the stethoscope should be placed over the brachial artery when taking a blood pressure manually: the pressure meter ... The brachial arteries may be palpated underneath the biceps tendon. The radial pulses can be found on the forearm, above the ... except for the carotid arteries; deep palpation of both carotid arteries can cut off blood flow to the brain. The carotid ... The renal arteries, which branch off at the same level of the 1st or 2nd lumbar vertebra, should be examined for thrills or ...
From the brachial plexus, it travels behind the third part of the axillary artery (part of the axillary artery distal to the ... It continues to move along with posterior interosseous artery(a deep branch of common interosseous artery which is a branch of ... it runs behind the brachial artery and then enters the lower triangular space to reach the radial sulcus of back of the humerus ... The radial nerve originates as a terminal branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It goes through the arm, first ...
The pulse of the brachial artery can be felt in the medial bicipital groove. It should be distinguished from the bicipital ...
A non-invasive method to measure endothelial dysfunction is % Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) as measured by Brachial Artery ... Small artery compliance or stiffness can be assessed simply and at rest and can be distinguished from large artery stiffness by ... Since NO maintains low tone and high compliance of the small arteries at rest, a reduction of age-dependent small artery ... "Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization". BMC ...
His death certificate recorded that the brachial artery in his left arm had been severed. It gave his age as twenty. No one was ...
The brachial plexus of nerves lies above the artery, and in close contact with it. Passing transversely behind the clavicle are ... Just above the level of the clavicle, the third portion of the subclavian artery curves lateralward and downward from the ... but in some cases it rises as high as the artery, and has even been seen to pass with that vessel behind the Scalenus anterior ... which form a plexus in front of the artery, and occasionally a small vein which crosses the clavicle from the cephalic. The ...
The median nerve is closely related to the brachial artery within the arm. The nerve enters the cubital fossa medial to the ... which are on either side of the axillary artery and fuse together to create the nerve anterior to the artery.[citation needed] ... It is formed in the axilla by a branch from the medial and lateral chords of the brachial plexus, ...
"Variation of method for measurement of brachial artery pressure significantly affects ankle-brachial pressure index values". ... hardening of the arteries) which results in less or incompressible arteries, as the stiff arteries produce falsely elevated ... The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) is the ratio of the blood pressure at the ankle to the ... The pressures in each foot's posterior tibial artery and dorsalis pedis artery are measured with the higher of the two values ...
... compression on brachial plexus and/or subclavian artery caused by muscle growth). Cervical rib syndrome (compression on ... brachial plexus and/or subclavian artery caused by bone growth). Costoclavicular syndrome (narrowing between the clavicle and ... Arterial TOS is due to compression of the subclavian artery. This is less than one percent of cases. Venous TOS is due to ... In cases where the first rib (or a fibrous band extending from the first rib) is compressing a vein, artery, or the nerve ...
To determine FMD, brachial artery dilation following a transient period of forearm ischemia is measured using ultrasound. ... Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) refers to dilation (widening) of an artery when blood flow increases in that artery. The primary ...
Many important structures relate to the sternocleidomastoid, including the common carotid artery, accessory nerve, and brachial ... The internal carotid artery to reach both the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the trapezius. After a signal reaches the ...
The bicipital aponeurosis is superficial to the brachial artery and the median nerve, but deep to the median cubital vein. This ... It reinforces the cubital fossa, helping to protect the brachial artery and the median nerve running underneath. Some ... These individuals are at risk for accidental injury to the ulnar artery during venipuncture. ... "The superficial ulnar artery--a potential hazard in patients with difficult venous access". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 94 ...
The neurovascular bundle consisting of the axillary artery, axillary vein and brachial plexus is ligated and cut. The area of ...
Brachial Plexus Anatomy at eMedicine *^ Sammer, Douglas M.; Chung, Kevin C. (2009). "Tendon Transfers Part I: Principles of ... The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar ... which together form the brachial plexus). Next, the signal goes down the median nerve branch of the brachial plexus and ...
Central retinal artery occlusion. *Branch retinal artery occlusion. *Retinopathy *diabetic. *hypertensive. *Purtscher's ...
Talk:Brachial plexus. *Talk:Brachial veins. *Talk:Brachialis muscle. *Talk:Brachiocephalic artery ...
Brachial. Forearm (before cubital fossa). *profunda brachii *radial collateral. *medial collateral. *ulnar collateral *superior ... The radial recurrent artery arises from the radial artery immediately below the elbow. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Radial_recurrent_artery&oldid=870897958" ...
Prevention includes the use of breast milk and probiotics.[2] A 2012 policy by the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended feeding preterm infants human milk, finding "significant short- and long-term beneficial effects," including reducing the rate of NEC by a factor of two or more.[10] Small amounts of oral feeds of human milk starting as soon as possible, while the infant is being primarily fed intravenously, primes the immature gut to mature and become ready to receive greater intake by mouth.[11] Human milk from a milk bank or donor can be used if mother's milk is unavailable. The gut mucosal cells do not get enough nourishment from arterial blood supply to stay healthy, especially in very premature infants, where the blood supply is limited due to immature development of the capillaries, so nutrients from the lumen of the gut are needed. A Cochrane review in 2014 found that supplementation of probiotics enterally "prevents severe NEC as well as all-cause mortality in preterm ...
Iliac artery)的章節內首次提及陰部神經及陰部管[24]。 ... 臂叢(英语:Template:Brachial plexus). *
... coronary artery disease, heart arrhythmia and peripheral artery disease. Radiation-induced fibrosis, vascular cell damage and ... injury to the plexus nerves presents as radiation-induced brachial plexopathy or radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy ... These treatments begin by guiding a catheter up through the femoral artery in the leg, navigating to the desired target site ... Another example is the injection of yttrium-90 radioactive glass or resin microspheres into the hepatic artery to radioembolize ...
Coronary artery angioscopy, which first was used to reveal the presence of a blood clot in the coronary arteries of patients ... In this technique, a flexible fiberoptic catheter inserted directly into an artery.[1] It can be helpful in diagnosing e.g. ... Forrester JS, Litvack F, Grundfest W, Hickey A (1987). "A perspective of coronary disease seen through the arteries of living ...
The interposition of a Teflon pad between the trochlear nerve and a compressing artery and vein at the nerve's exit from the ...
... an air-filled pressure cuff wrapped around the arm compresses the brachial artery to a point where blood can no longer flow. ... Ophthalmic artery (OA) - a unique vessel with intracranial and extracranial segments is used as pressure sensor and as a ... At the pressure balance point, where pressure in the cuff equals systolic artery pressure, a 'whooshing' noise can be heard as ... The Cerepress™ measures blood pressure in the eye's central retinal vein (CRV) and blood velocity in the ophthalmic artery, ...
These form part of the brachial plexus, comprising the ventral rami of spinal nerves C5-C8 and thoracic nerve T1.[1][2][3] ... Brachial-Plexus-Injuries at NINDS. *. Watt AJ, Niederbichler AD, Yang LJ, Chung KC (2007). "Wilhelm Heinrich Erb, M.D. (1840 to ... In 1861, Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne coined the term "obstetric palsy of the brachial plexus" after analyzing four ... The renowned British obstetrician William Smellie is credited with the first medical description of an obstetric brachial ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
Brachial plexopathy Brachial plexopathy is a common product of Pancoast tumor, lymphoma and breast cancer, and can produce ... Abdominal and urogenital hollow organs Inflammation of artery walls and tissue adjacent to nerves is common in tumors of ... Fibrosis around the brachial or lumbosacral plexus Radiotherapy may produce excessive growth of the fibrous tissue (fibrosis) ... around the brachial or lumbosacral plexui (clusters of nerves), which can result in damage to the nerves over time (6 months to ...
brachial artery (en) Arteria erradial. ulnar artery (en) Nerbioa. muskulokutaneo. axillary nerve (en) radial nerve (en) nerbio ...
precerebral: Anterior spinal artery syndrome. *Vertebrobasilar insufficiency *Subclavian steal syndrome. *brainstem: medulla * ...
Here the shark pumps blood to its gills via the ventral aorta artery where it branches into afferent brachial arteries. ... Reoxygenation takes place in the gills and the reoxygenated blood flows into the efferent brachial arteries, which come ... In some fish, a rete mirabile allows for an increase in muscle temperature in regions where this network of vein and arteries ... The rete mirabile ("wonderful net"), the intertwining of veins and arteries in the body's periphery, transfers heat from venous ...
ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... Brachial. Forearm (before cubital fossa). *profunda brachii *radial collateral. *medial collateral. *ulnar collateral *superior ... The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins: *The inner layer ... In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated (95-100%) with oxygen. In all veins apart from ...
Anterior humeral circumflex artery. *Posterior humeral circumflex artery. Brachial artery[edit]. *Profunda brachii artery * ... internal carotid artery[edit]. *ophthalmic artery *Orbital group *Lacrimal artery *lateral palpebral arteries ... common hepatic artery *proper hepatic artery *Terminal branches *right hepatic artery *Cystic artery ... posterior tibial artery *fibular artery (sometimes from popliteal artery) *communicating branch to the anterior tibial artery ...
In the United States, there is no standard definition of the term 'stillbirth'.[33] In the U.S., the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002 specifies that any breathing, heartbeat, pulsating umbilical cord, or confirmed voluntary muscle movement indicate live birth rather than stillbirth.[40] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collects statistical information on "live births, fetal deaths, and induced termination of pregnancy" from 57 reporting areas in the United States. Each reporting area has different guidelines and definitions for what is being reported; many do not use the term "stillbirth" at all. The federal guidelines suggest (at page 1) that fetal death and stillbirth can be interchangeable terms. The CDC definition of "fetal death" is based on the definition promulgated by the World Health Organization in 1950 (see section above on Canada). Researchers are learning more about the long term psychiatric sequelae of traumatic birth and believe the effects may be ...
Blood pressure readings on legs are often 10-20% higher than those on the brachial artery.[7] ... A PICC is inserted in a peripheral vein in the arm, such as the cephalic vein, basilic vein or brachial vein, and then advanced ...
Single umbilical artery. Length of gestation. and fetal growth. *Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age ...
The arteries supplying the joint are derived from an extensive circulatory anastomosis between the brachial artery and its ... The superior and inferior ulnar collateral branches of the brachial artery and the radial and middle collateral branches of the ... The lymphatic drainage at the elbow is through the deep nodes at the bifurcation of the brachial artery, the superficial nodes ... the radial recurrent branch of the radial artery; and the interosseous recurrent branch of the common interosseous artery.[14] ...
The abnormal spiral arteries lead decreased level of oxygen diffusion through the placental villus,[5] which cause chronic ... Abnormalities present within the spiral arteries lead to higher velocities in blood, in turn causes the maternal villi to shred ... where the terminal part of the spinal arteries does not dilate. This leads to decrease oxygen carried past the maternal villi ...
The deltoid is supplied by the posterior circumflex humeral artery and the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial artery which ... It additionally gives off extensions to the deep brachial fascia. Furthermore, the deltoid fascia contributes to the brachial ... and the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.[citation needed] ... Artery. thoracoacromial artery, anterior and posterior humeral ... branches from the axillary artery.[18]. Nerve supplyEdit. The deltoid is innervated by the axillary nerve.[18] The axillary ...
This arises from the junction of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves, from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. ... Artery. thoracoacromial trunk, clavicular branch. Nerve. subclavian nerve. Actions. depression of clavicle. elevation of first ... The right brachial plexus (infraclavicular portion) in the axillary fossa; viewed from below and in front. ... The subclavius protects the underlying brachial plexus and subclavian vessels from a broken clavicle - the most frequently ...
The ideal blood pressure in the brachial artery, where standard blood pressure cuffs measure pressure, is ,120/80 mmHg. Other ... The smaller arteries and arterioles have higher resistance, and confer the main blood pressure drop across major arteries to ... In the innominate artery, the average reading is 110/70 mmHg, the right subclavian artery averages 120/80 and the abdominal ... The shear stress at the wall that is associated with blood flow through an artery depends on the artery size and geometry and ...
These three nerves branch off the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The nerves that innervate teres major consist of ... Together with teres minor muscle, teres major muscle forms the axillary space, through which several important arteries and ...
... where it divides into the radial and ulnar arteries. Source for information on brachial artery: A Dictionary of Nursing ... an artery that extends from the axillary artery at the armpit, down the side and inner surface of the upper arm to the elbow, ... brachial artery n. an artery that extends from the axillary artery at the armpit, down the side and inner surface of the upper ... www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/brachial-artery ...
Continued From Above... The brachial artery stems from the axillary artery and moves along the humerus (upper arm bone) down to ... It gives rise to the deep brachial artery, which curves around the back of the humerus to supply blood to the triceps muscles. ... and others descend down each side of the elbow to join arteries in the forearms. ...
Profunda brachii artery (deep brachial artery) Superior ulnar collateral artery Inferior ulnar collateral artery Radial artery ... The brachial artery can be palpated midway along the medial side of the arm. Femoral artery, a leg-based artery with a similar ... The biceps head is lateral to the brachial artery. The median nerve is medial to the brachial artery for most of its course. ... the median nerve crosses the medial side of the brachial artery and lies anterior to the elbow joint. The brachial artery gives ...
The brachial artery continues from the axillary artery at the shoulder and travels down the underside of the arm. ... The brachial artery is a major blood vessel located in the upper arm and is the main supplier of blood to the arm and hand. ... These are the two main branches of the brachial artery. The brachial arterys other branches are: *the inferior ulnar ... superior ulnar arteries. The brachial arterys pulse can be felt on the elbows front side. This is why blood pressure is ...
These results suggest that the brachial circulation may serve as a reasonable surrogate for studying atherosclerosis, ... Atherosclerosis is common in the human brachial artery and is significantly correlated with both coronary and carotid disease. ... Results: Atherosclerotic lesions of any grade were found in the brachial artery in 39 (75%) subjects, common carotid artery in ... as was severity in the brachial and carotid arteries (r = 0.53, p = 0.0001) and the carotid and coronary arteries (r = 0.69, p ...
Background: Brachial artery measures of arterial distensibility have been demonstrated to be independent risk factors for ... revealing that brachial artery measures were the strongest predictor of CAC. For women, brachial artery (BA) resistance was the ... Background: Brachial artery measures of arterial distensibility have been demonstrated to be independent risk factors for ... Measures of brachial artery distensibility in relation to coronary calcification. *Budoff M ...
Deep brachial artery synonyms, Deep brachial artery pronunciation, Deep brachial artery translation, English dictionary ... definition of Deep brachial artery. n. pl. ar·ter·ies 1. Anatomy Any of the muscular elastic tubes that form a branching system ... observed the continuation of the superficial brachial artery as radial artery and deep brachial artery as ulnar artery. ... arteria brachialis, brachial artery - the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into ...
... the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries at the ... n. the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries at ...
Brachial. profunda brachii (radial collateral, medial collateral) - ulnar collateral artery (superior, inferior) ... The brachial artery has several branches along its course. These supply the muscles of the upper arm, such as biceps brachii ... The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow and, with the use of a stethoscope and ... The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the upper arm. ... Profunda brachii artery (also known as the deep brachial artery ...
Once the distal ends of the dilator and the guiding catheter are placed near the ostium of the coronary artery, the dilator and ... the radial artery in the arm to be approximately 2 French sizes smaller in diameter as compared to the hole that would be ... place the guiding catheters distal end in the ostium of a coronary artery. Any of several well known procedures can then be ... the guiding catheter with straightening dilator as described herein allows the hole in the wall of the femoral artery in the ...
... Santvana Kohli, ... "Anatomic Variation of Subclavian Artery Visualized on Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block," Case Reports in ...
... brachial artery explanation free. What is brachial artery? Meaning of brachial artery medical term. What does brachial artery ... Looking for online definition of brachial artery in the Medical Dictionary? ... brachial artery. The main artery of the arm. The brachial artery is a continuation of the axillary artery and it runs on the ... brachial artery. the principal artery of the upper arm that is the continuation of the axillary artery. It has three branches ...
Brachial artery reactivity assessed by noninvasively measuring brachial artery diameter and flow velocities in response to ... Percentage Change in Brachial Artery Flow Mediated (FMD) Vasodilation Between Arms From Baseline to Week 24 [ Time Frame: ... Brachial artery reactivity in response to two vasoactive stimuli (increased forearm blood flow and nitroglycerin) will be ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate the change in brachial artery reactivity in HIV-infected subjects with elevated lipid ...
1. brachial artery (n.). the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into the radial ...
Brachial artery blood velocity and diameter were simultaneously recorded during exercise using Doppler ultrasonography. Blood ... flow was calculated using the cross-sectional area of the brachial artery and time-averaged mean blood velocity. RESULTS: Mean ...
Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the brachiocephalic arteries using the right brachial artery ... Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the brachiocephalic arteries using the right brachial artery ... Brachial Artery*. Brachiocephalic Trunk*. Catheterization, Peripheral / methods*. Cerebral Angiography / methods. ... Catheterization was unsuccessful for four patients; two of them elderly hypertensive men with tortuous brachial arteries, and ...
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http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#Brachial_Artery Sage Bionetworks Synapse Ontology LOOM ... http://www.co-ode.org/ontologies/galen#BrachialArtery Galen Ontology LOOM http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/MESH/D001916 ...
Open Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Upper Arteries range. ... ICD-10-PCS code 03S70ZZ for Reposition Right Brachial Artery, ... Reposition Right Brachial Artery, Open Approach 03S70ZZ. ICD-10 ... Includes: Inferior ulnar collateral artery , Profunda brachii , Superior ulnar collateral artery","3")>Brachial Artery, Right ... Upper Arteries. Definition: Moving to its normal location, or other suitable location, all or a portion of a body part. ...
Blood flow volume in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and brachial artery (BA), the heart rate and the blood pressure were ... Blood flow volume in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and brachial artery (BA), the heart rate and the blood pressure were ... Changes of Blood Flow Volume in the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Brachial Artery with Abdominal Thermal Stimulation,. ... Changes of Blood Flow Volume in the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Brachial Artery with Abdominal Thermal Stimulation. ...
Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Upper Arteries range. ... ICD-10-PCS code 03983ZZ for Drainage of Left Brachial Artery, ... Drainage of Left Brachial Artery, Percutaneous Approach 03983ZZ ... Includes: Inferior ulnar collateral artery , Profunda brachii , Superior ulnar collateral artery","3")>Brachial Artery, Left. ... ICD-10-PCS code 03983ZZ for Drainage of Left Brachial Artery, Percutaneous Approach is a medical classification as listed by ...
We report a case of a 49-year-old male who developed a deep brachial artery pseudoaneurysm following an arthroscopic shoulder ... that pseudoaneurysm formation after arthroscopic procedures is rare and pseudoaneurysms of the deep brachial artery have yet to ...
... while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD), compliance (BAC), and resistance (BAR ... The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, ... Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing ... while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD), compliance (BAC), and resistance (BAR ...
We report the unusual variation of an additional muscular branch of the brachial artery entrapping the median nerve in the ... Knowledge of the vascular dissimilarity of the brachial artery and its division, and possible neurovascular entrapment is ... Vollala, R.V., Nagabhooshana, S. and Bhatt, M.S. (2008) Trifurcation of Brachial Artery with Variant Course of Radial Artery: ... Absence of the Brachial Artery: Report of A Rare Human Variation and Review of Upper Extremity Artery Anomalies. Journal of ...
We report the unusual variation of an additional muscular branch of the brachial artery entrapping the median nerve in the ... Knowledge of the vascular dissimilarity of the brachial artery and its division, and possible neurovascular entrapment is ... We calculated that the diameter of the brachial artery was 6.24 mm. We noted that the terminal branches of the brachial artery ... The brachial artery terminates by dividing into the radial and ulnar arteries at the level of the neck of the radius. In the ...
Effect of an Apple Polyphenol Extract on Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Vasodilatory Function. The safety and scientific ... The effect of an apple polyphenol extract rich in epicatechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers on brachial artery flow-mediated ...
Characterization of Endothelial Dysfunction as a Function of Hyperaemia of the Brachial Artery During Cardiac Surgery (GLYNO). ... Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report ... Characterization of Endothelial Dysfunction as a Function of Hyperaemia of the Brachial Artery During Cardiac Surgery. ... of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Jan 16;39(2):257-65. Erratum in: J Am Coll ...
Endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation in coronary and brachial arteries in suspected coronary artery disease. Am J ... 5 Impaired brachial artery FMD is predictive of endothelial dysfunction in the coronary circulation.6 Therefore, brachial ... Brachial artery FMD was documented with the use of ultrasound in the MESA study during the first examination. Of the 6814 MESA ... Brachial artery vasodilator function and systemic inflammation in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation 2004;110:3604-9. ...
1. Hyperemic Brachial Artery Blood Flow Velocity. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Hyperemic Brachial Artery Blood ... Doppler recordings of blood flow velocity during hyperemia were analysed in the brachial artery. In the carotid artery, intima- ... Brachial artery hyperemic blood flow velocities are related to carotid atherosclerosis. Järhult, Susann J. Uppsala University, ... CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the hyperemic systolic to diastolic blood flow velocity ratio in the brachial artery is ...
  • brachial artery n. an artery that extends from the axillary artery at the armpit, down the side and inner surface of the upper arm to the elbow, where it divides into the radial and ulnar arteries. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The brachial artery stems from the axillary artery and moves along the humerus (upper arm bone) down to the elbow. (innerbody.com)
  • It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the lower margin of teres major muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brachial artery gives rise to the following branches: Profunda brachii artery (deep brachial artery) Superior ulnar collateral artery Inferior ulnar collateral artery Radial artery (a terminal branch) Ulnar artery (a terminal branch) Nutrient branches to the humerus It also gives rise to important anastomotic networks of the elbow and (as the axillary artery) the shoulder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axillary artery and its branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brachial artery continues from the axillary artery at the shoulder and travels down the underside of the arm. (healthline.com)
  • It originates just below the shoulder at the axillary artery, and branches into two smaller arteries, the radial and ulnar arteries, at the elbow. (healthline.com)
  • It is a continuation of the axillary artery and it originates from the lower margin of teres major muscle and continues down the arm, until it reaches the cubital fossa at the elbow . (wikidoc.org)
  • These supply the muscles of the upper arm, such as biceps brachii muscle and triceps brachii muscle , and contribute to important anastomotic networks of the elbow and (as the axillary artery) the shoulder. (wikidoc.org)
  • the principal artery of the upper arm that is the continuation of the axillary artery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The brachial artery is a continuation of the third part of the axillary artery and is superficial throughout its course in the arm. (scirp.org)
  • Subsequently, it descends along the lateral side of the third part of the axillary artery and the proximal part of the brachial artery. (scirp.org)
  • It may arise at the same origin of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (separately), or from the axillary artery , either proximal to the lattismus dorsi tendon or at the distal aspect of the artery 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • As a continuation of the axillary artery , it begins at the inferior border of the teres major tendon and it ends at the level of the neck of the radius about 1cm distal to the elbow joint . (kenhub.com)
  • Sometimes, small slender arteries connect the brachial artery to the axillary artery and these are referred to as vasa aberrantia . (kenhub.com)
  • We know that the subclavian artery brings oxygenated blood from the heart toward the arm, and then continues on to turn into the axillary artery . (kid-facts.com)
  • This printed 3D left shoulder specimen consists of the scapula, humerus (sectioned near midshaft) and clavicle (sectioned at midshaft) with the superficial muscles around the shoulder joint, the rotator cuff muscles and the axillary artery as it progresses distally to become the brachial artery. (gtsimulators.com)
  • The axillary artery below the inferior border of the clavicle can be seen to give off the thoracoacromial branch anteriorly and just slightly more distally the suprascapular artery can be seen passing posteriorly. (gtsimulators.com)
  • Below the inferior border of teres major the axillary artery becomes the brachial artery. (gtsimulators.com)
  • The axillary artery becomes the brachial artery beyond the lower margin of the teres major muscle. (gtsimulators.com)
  • However, a common practice is to remain on the ipsilateral nondominant limb and proceed with a forearm loop or upper arm brachial artery-to-axillary vein arteriovenous graft (AVG). (thoracickey.com)
  • The decision to implant a forearm loop or brachial-axillary AVG depends on the existing arterial and venous anatomy. (thoracickey.com)
  • When placing a brachial-axillary AVG, the preference is to position the graft posterior to the median nerve to avoid kinking, which can occur if the graft is draped anteriorly over the nerve. (thoracickey.com)
  • A brachial-axillary AVG is a more proximal option usually reserved after failure of a forearm graft without the possibility for endovascular or surgical revision. (thoracickey.com)
  • Additional options include axillary artery-to-axillary vein grafts, chest wall grafts, or the hemodialysis reliable outflow (HeRO, Hemosphere, Eden Prairie, Minn.) "graft catheter" device. (thoracickey.com)
  • It gives rise to the deep brachial artery, which curves around the back of the humerus to supply blood to the triceps muscles. (innerbody.com)
  • The deep brachial artery (or deep artery of arm) is also known as the profunda artery . (healthline.com)
  • The deep brachial artery is deep within the arm, and runs parallel to the humerus. (healthline.com)
  • We report a case of a 49-year-old male who developed a deep brachial artery pseudoaneurysm following an arthroscopic shoulder debridement and lysis of adhesions. (ovid.com)
  • A review of the literature demonstrates that pseudoaneurysm formation after arthroscopic procedures is rare and pseudoaneurysms of the deep brachial artery have yet to be reported. (ovid.com)
  • The deep brachial artery or profunda brachii artery is a large branch of the brachial artery , located in the arm . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The deep brachial artery is a branch of the brachial artery , originating from its posteromedial aspect, distal to the teres major 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The deep brachial artery courses through the radial groove close to the radial nerve , first between the long and medial heads of the triceps brachii, then deep to the lateral head in the spiral groove, before dividing into its terminal branches 1,2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The main branches of the deep brachial artery are its two terminal branches, the middle collateral and radial collateral arteries 1,2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The deep brachial artery primarily supplies the triceps brachii . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The origin of the deep brachial artery may vary. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The radial sulcus ( also known as the musculospiral groove, radial groove, or spiral groove) is a broad but shallow oblique depression for the radial nerve and deep brachial artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective catheterization of the brachiocephalic arteries via the right brachial artery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the brachiocephalic arteries using the right brachial artery approach was successfully performed for 169 of 173 patients, 33 of whom were outpatients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ICD-10-PCS code 03S70ZZ for Reposition Right Brachial Artery, Open Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Upper Arteries range. (aapc.com)
  • We report on the treatment of a patient with severe paravalvular regurgitation following CoreValve implantation by prolonged snare traction from the right brachial artery. (invasivecardiology.com)
  • Using right brachial artery access with a 7 Fr sheath, a 20 mm nitinol loop snare (Andramed/Reutlingen) was advanced towards the CoreValve prosthesis and used to grab the valvular frame at one of the delivery anchors. (invasivecardiology.com)
  • 60?days before the patient reached our service, he was submitted to a cardiac catheterization performed by another medical team, since the catheter was placed in the right brachial artery near the cubital fossa, we suspected an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm, which was confirmed by his clinical history and physical exam. (plexusmd.com)
  • This led to a strong suspicion of an acute thrombosis of the right brachial artery. (qscience.com)
  • Ultrasound demonstrates marked dilatation of the brachial artery with turbulent flow but no evidence of mural thrombus. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Ultrasound scan demonstrate fusiform aneurysmal dilatation of brachial artery adjacent to the fistula with synthetic vein graft associated with large surrounding hematoma.There is thrombus in the synthetic vein graft as well.Findings are in keeping with mycotic aneurysm of brachial artery. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Ultrasound assessment of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) during reactive hyperaemia is a reproducible method for the assessment of endothelial dysfunction. (bmj.com)
  • Peak and average shear rate, blood velocity and diameter was measured with ultrasound Doppler in the brachial artery of the non-dominant arm during incremental handgrip exercise to exhaustion in 21 healthy sedentary men. (bibsys.no)
  • Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation was measured at follow-up with ultrasound. (ahajournals.org)
  • B-mode ultrasound of common carotid and brachial arteries and echocardiography were evaluated in all subjects. (uio.no)
  • Background Ultrasound assessment of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation is emerging as a useful clinical tool. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Ultrasound examination of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) has emerged as a valuable noninvasive method for assessing endothelial function and is developing into a potentially useful tool in the clinical setting (2) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • ultrasound shows brachial artery with low resistive pattern. (healthtap.com)
  • The aim of this study is to determine whether noninvasive evaluation of respiratory variation of brachial artery peak velocity flow measured using Doppler ultrasound could predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, Brennan and colleagues [ 7 ], using a hand-carried Doppler ultrasound at the bedside, demonstrated that respiratory variations in brachial artery peak velocity (ΔVpeak brach ), measured by clinicians with minimal ultrasound expertise, were closely correlated with radial artery pulse pressure variations (ΔPP rad ), a well-known parameter of fluid responsiveness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With use of 7.5 MHz ultrasound, we measured brachial artery diameter and Doppler flow velocity at baseline, during contralateral ice water hand immersion (cold pressor), after 5 minutes of ipsilateral blood pressure cuff occlusion (flow-mediated), and after nitroglycerin administration. (elsevier.com)
  • One-stop-shop" ultrasound diagnosis of functional, structural and physicomechanical properties of the brachial artery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1 Ultrasound guidance has been shown to reduce the complications from femoral artery access performed for cardiology and vascular surgery interventions. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • In addition, the technician will use a Doppler ultrasound device to produce images of those arteries. (proactivehv.com)
  • We measured brachial artery compliance and incremental elastic modulus (E(inc)) in eight normal subjects (age, 22 to 51 years) by using intravascular ultrasound. (umn.edu)
  • A 35F 30-MHz intravascular ultrasound catheter was placed through a sheath into the brachial artery, and intraarterial pressure, cross- sectional area, and wall thickness were measured simultaneously under baseline conditions and after the administration of intra-arterial nitroglycerin (100 μg) and norepinephrine (1.2 μg). (umn.edu)
  • Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, using high-resolution ultrasound. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study provided the opportunity to prospectively assess the association between endothelial vasodilation function, evaluated by ultrasound study of the brachial artery, and the incidence of diabetes among apparently healthy initially nondiabetic postmenopausal women. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ultrasound-Guided Subclavian Perivascular Brachial Plexus Block Using 0.5% Bupivacaine with Dexmedetomidine as an Adjuvant: A Prospective Randomize. (nih.gov)
  • All patients were administered subclavian perivascular brachial plexus block under ultrasound guidance. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 124 healthy nonsmokers had endothelial function assessed using ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Diameter measurement of the brachial artery using flow-mediated dilation of post menopausal women, before and after use of tibolone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a reliable, non-invasive method of assessing endothelial function. (bmj.com)
  • 5 , 6 Among children and adolescents, we 7 and others 8 have shown that second-hand smoke impairs brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a noninvasive marker of endothelial function. (ahajournals.org)
  • In 44 patients with ESRD and 25 control subjects, brachial artery (BA) compliance and BA diameter changes (flow-mediated dilation [FMD[) were evaluated in response to local shear rate and SS changes during hand warming-induced hyperemia. (asnjournals.org)
  • High SS induces acute changes of the conduit artery function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD]) ( 4 ) and arterial remodeling with modified arterial wall properties ( 5 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Methods To determine whether a single dose of a vasoactive drug influences brachial reactivity, we examined flow-mediated dilation and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation in 73 healthy subjects (age 27 ± 6 years). (onlinejacc.org)
  • However, there was no significant effect of treatment on brachial artery dilation. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In patients with coronary artery disease on chronic treatment, taking prescribed medications reduced blood pressure and heart rate, but had no significant effect on brachial artery dilation. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Because of the increased presence of sitting, we recently studied the effects of 3 hours of sitting on lower extremity (superficial femoral artery [SFA]) endothelial function and discovered that 3 hrs of prolonged sitting decreased mean and antegrade shear rates in the SFA and also impaired endothelial function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD)[ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions: These data are compatible with the possibility that cigar smoking may have an acute effect on endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated brachial artery dilation and do not support the possibility of an immediate effect on endothelium-independent vasodilation. (elsevier.com)
  • VEF was estimated following 5 min brachial artery occlusions by hyperemic flow-mediated dilation (FMD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serum markers of iron stores, whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) during oral glucose tolerance testing, and flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery were determined in all subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we assessed insulin sensitivity during an oral glucose tolerance test and measured flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery in a prospective cross-sectional study of nondiabetic high- and low-frequency voluntary blood donors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Clinical assessment of endothelial function involves the measurement of dilation of conductance arteries during periods of acute increases in shear stress, believed to be almost entirely mediated by NO release, or measurement of agonist-induced vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
  • It then divides into the radial and ulnar arteries which run down the forearm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below the cubital fossa, the brachial artery divides into two arteries running down the forearm: the ulnar and radial. (healthline.com)
  • It then ends by dividing into the radial and ulnar arteries which run down the forearm . (wikidoc.org)
  • The diameter of the artery will be measured before and one month after use of Tibolone and, in both situations, before and after the use of a cuff in the forearm. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the presented case the brachial artery bifurcates as usual in the cubital fossa, but both radial and ulnar arteries are superficial for the length of the forearm, then they resume typical paths as they cross the wrist. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brachial artery reactivity in response to two vasoactive stimuli (increased forearm blood flow and nitroglycerin) will be assessed by measuring brachial artery diameter. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Background: The purpose was to examine the temporal response of the brachial artery diameter following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion in young men. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: Sixteen young (28 ± 8 yrs) and fifteen older (85 ± 8 yrs) men underwent high-resolution ultrasonography of the brachial artery before and after five minutes of forearm occlusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: Examination of the temporal response of the brachial artery diameter following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion reveals a biphasic pattern in all participants. (elsevier.com)
  • The median nerve and coracobrachialis muscle lie laterally to the brachial artery at its proximal aspect whereas the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm and the ulnar nerve lie medially to the artery proximally. (kenhub.com)
  • 1 state, "…forearm and hand perfusion via collaterals usually is insufficient if acute occlusion of the brachial artery occurs. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • He later developed vascular insufficiency of the forearm and a stent had to be placed in the brachial artery at the site of calcified thrombus inside the pseudo- aneurysm to produce the patency of the artery and ensure adequate blood flow to forearm and hand . (bvsalud.org)
  • In the forearm, radial artery had more superficial course than ulnar artery. (biomedres.info)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the arterial access site is over the radial artery in the arm. (google.com)
  • two of them elderly hypertensive men with tortuous brachial arteries, and two of them middle-aged obese women for whom arterial puncture could not be performed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Selective catheterizations of both common carotid arteries were successfully performed in all but one patient, a woman whose aberrant right subclavian artery prevented bilateral common carotid arterial catheterizations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD), compliance (BAC), and resistance (BAR). (dovepress.com)
  • The largest arterial trunk is the aorta aorta , primary artery of the circulatory system in mammals, delivering oxygenated blood to all other arteries except those of the lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although breast arterial calcification (BAC) was shown to be related with coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT), but the association between BAC and brachial intima-media thickness (B-IMT) has not been evaluated yet. (springermedizin.at)
  • FMD, as assessed by brachial artery (BA) diameter changes ( 10 ), enables examination of the arterial response to local flow independent of the maneuver that is used to induce flow changes ( 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Usually the hand has two arches of arterial flow connecting the Ulnar and Radial arteries, in a deep and superficial pattern. (healthtap.com)
  • The third woman presented with a symptomatic occlusion of the basilar artery and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis and angioplasty, followed at a later date by a second intra-arterial thrombolysis procedure. (elsevier.com)
  • Located within the anterior compartment, the brachial artery constitutes the main arterial supply of the arm . (kenhub.com)
  • Brachial arterial pressure monitoring during cardiac surgery rarely causes complications. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • From the experimental results it is shown that, when arterial pressure distal to the cuff is always lower than cuff pressure, flow in the artery under the cuff becomes supercritical near the cuff downstream margin and no reflection occurs there and the reflected wave from the peripheral vascular system of the arm does not propagate beyond the cuff downstream margin. (asme.org)
  • The ankle brachial index (ABI), which is the ratio of ankle to brachial systolic blood pressure, is a simple useful method for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is a highly specific method for assessment of vascular risk in otherwise asymptomatic patients [ 1 ]. (e-aps.org)
  • Pseudo- aneurysm of the brachial artery is relatively rare condition affecting the arterial vessels of the limbs . (bvsalud.org)
  • A strong palpable pulse is required to provide adequate inflow, and a weak pulse may indicate a proximal defect of the artery or heavily calcified vessels, neither of which allows ample flow to support hemodialysis and both of which may predispose the patient to arterial steal syndrome. (thoracickey.com)
  • However, brachial plexus palsy following arterial puncture is a rare complication of this procedure. (journaldatabase.info)
  • Wall thickness and wall:lumen ratio have been used in peripheral conduit arteries to reflect arterial remodeling, 11 , - , 13 a process that may depend on exercise-mediated changes in systemic hemodynamics and arterial shear stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the carotid artery, intima-media thickness (IMT) was recorded together with an assessment of echogenicity by the Grey scale median (GSM) method in both overt plaques and in the intima-media complex (IM-GSM). (diva-portal.org)
  • Aims: To investigate the association between intima-media thickness of brachial and common carotid arteries and factors of the coagulation- and fibrinolysis system with diastolic dysfunction in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. (uio.no)
  • Furthermore, the guiding catheter with straightening dilator as described herein allows the hole in the wall of the femoral artery in the groin, or even more advantageously, the radial artery in the arm to be approximately 2 French sizes smaller in diameter as compared to the hole that would be created if an introducer sheath is also used. (google.com)
  • A statistically significant increase was achieved in the brachial artery basal lumen diameter, brachial artery lumen diameter after nitrate administration and post-flow brachial artery lumen diameter measured after nebivolol treatment compared to pretreatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brachial artery blood velocity and diameter were simultaneously recorded during exercise using Doppler ultrasonography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We calculated that the diameter of the brachial artery was 6.24 mm. (scirp.org)
  • We calculated that the diameter of the brachial artery was 7.54 mm. (scirp.org)
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that age, sex, hypertension, and brachial artery diameter were independent predictors of brachial IMT. (ahajournals.org)
  • The diameter of the right arm brachial artery was measured by high resolution ultrasonography, at rest and during reactive hyperaemia. (portlandpress.com)
  • During cold pressor stimulation, mean brachial artery diameter increased 0.36 ± 2.93% in normal subjects but decreased 2.38 ± 3.32% in the CAD subjects (p = 0.006). (elsevier.com)
  • Corretti, MC , Plotnick, GD & Vogel, RA 1995, ' Correlation of cold pressor and flow-mediated brachial artery diameter responses with the presence of coronary artery disease ', The American journal of cardiology , vol. 75, no. 12, pp. 783-787. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Following release of the pressure cuff the brachial artery diameter exhibits a temporal biphasic response. (elsevier.com)
  • Initially, there is a significant reduction in brachial diameter (NIL) compared to baseline (BASE), followed by a rapid increase to a PEAK at 41 sec post release. (elsevier.com)
  • The main outcome measures were the difference in percent diameter increase in the brachial artery after reactive hyperemia and sublingual nitroglycerin between members of the cigar smoking and control groups at baseline, measured after cigar smoking, and at 5 hours. (elsevier.com)
  • Percent diameter increase in the brachial artery was measured with the use of high-resolution ultrasonography. (elsevier.com)
  • We observed a 2.5% increase in brachial artery diameter with hyperemia after cigar smoking compared with a 9.4% increase in the control group, P = .045. (elsevier.com)
  • Insulin increased brachial artery diameter and flow in the lean but not in the obese group. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this randomized, controlled trial of patients with stable CHF was to directly compare the effects of RT and AT on the wall thickness, diameter, and wall:lumen ratio of the brachial artery, a conduit vessel that is not prone to atherosclerosis and that reflects the impact of repeated bouts of exercise on systemic changes in hemodynamics and wall shear stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • terminates in the cubital fossa (elbow level) by bifurcating into radial and ulnar arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Splits into the radial and ulnar arteries at the cubital fossa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the cubital fossa, the bicipital aponeurosis, which separates the artery from the median cubital vein, crosses it superficially. (scirp.org)
  • We noted that the terminal branches of the brachial artery were 36 mm away from the trochlear process of the humerus, and confirmed it based on its location in the cubital fossa. (scirp.org)
  • The first exception to this is at the cubital fossa, where the bicipital aponeurosis, which is the aponeurosis of the biceps brachii muscle, covers the artery, and separates it from the median cubital vein . (kenhub.com)
  • In the present case we report the high division of brachial artery above the cubital fossa, superficial course of ulnar artery associated with the origin of common interosseous artery from the radial artery in a male cadaver. (journalcra.com)
  • Normally brachial artery divides into it's terminal branches namely radial and ulnar arteries at the neck of the radius in the cubital fossa. (biomedres.info)
  • In cubital fossa, biceps tendon was flanked by ulnar and radial arteries on medial and lateral sides respectively. (biomedres.info)
  • This study was designed to test whether the effects of prolonged sitting on brachial artery (BA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are similar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Axial pattern flaps, using the deep circumflex iliac artery, superficial brachial and cranial superficial epigastric direct cutaneous arteries in the dog', Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research , 18(3), pp. 216-220. (ac.ir)
  • Deep circumflex iliac axial pattern flap, superficial brachial axial pattern flap and cranial superficial epigastric axial pattern flap were chosen to close the skin defect in case 1, case 2 and case 3, respectively. (ac.ir)
  • artery of the neck, the brachial artery inside the elbow, and the radial artery in the wrist. (britannica.com)
  • Shorter branches pass into various other muscles on the front of the upper arm, and others descend down each side of the elbow to join arteries in the forearms. (innerbody.com)
  • The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow, medial to the tendon of the biceps, and, with the use of a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff), often used to measure the blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distally, the median nerve crosses the medial side of the brachial artery and lies anterior to the elbow joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right upper limb, anterior view, brachial artery and elbow . (wikidoc.org)
  • The major artery located medially in the upper arm, midway between the elbow and shoulder. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The distance between the muscular branch and elbow joint was 143.41 mm, which confirmed the location of muscular artery as being exactly at the center of the arm. (scirp.org)
  • The brachial artery is the blood vessel that transports blood between the shoulder and elbow. (azcentral.com)
  • Many investigators have recently studied endothelial and vascular function in the brachial circulation in humans to further their understanding of coronary artery disease and early atherogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • 5 Impaired brachial artery FMD is predictive of endothelial dysfunction in the coronary circulation. (bmj.com)
  • 6 Therefore, brachial artery FMD has emerged as an attractive non-invasive technique for the study of endothelial function as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. (bmj.com)
  • State-of-the-art information is presented and insights are provided into the strengths and limitations of high-resolution ultrasonography of the brachial artery to evaluate vasomotor function, with guidelines for its research application in the study of endothelial physiology. (nih.gov)
  • Coronary endothelial function has been shown to improve under lipid-lowering and antioxidant therapy, but the effect of additive vitamin E supplementation in the brachial artery is unknown. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In fact lower extremity exercise also improves brachial artery endothelial function which may explain the antiatherogenic effect of exercise[ 13 ] However, at the lower end of the physical activity continuum, it is unknown if lower extremity inactivity affects upper extremity endothelial function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the presence of our recent findings on the impairment of endothelial function on sitting[ 5 ], it is interesting to study whether upper extremity (brachial artery [BA]) endothelial function is also affected on prolonged sitting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease of large and medium-sized muscular arteries and is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and the buildup of lipids, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris within the intima of the vessel wall. (medscape.com)
  • This study assessed the effects of ingesting purple grape juice on endothelial function and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). (ahajournals.org)
  • Recovery of FMD was not jeopardized by repeated catheterization, which suggests the potential of the brachial artery to recover endothelial function after repeated transradial procedures. (endothelix.com)
  • The radial and ulnar arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • it terminates by splitting into the radial and ulnar arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The brachial artery terminates by dividing into the radial and ulnar arteries at the level of the neck of the radius. (scirp.org)
  • Femoral artery, a leg-based artery with a similar function Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • As medical knowledge advanced, however, students of anatomy realized that arteries carry blood and only the windpipe and bronchial tubes carry air. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This manuscript traces the history of changes in preferred upper extremity puncture sites for renal artery stenting as our understanding of anatomy, techniques, technology and pharmacology, each separately and their confluence, has improved. (minervamedica.it)
  • 5 reviewed the angiographic anatomy and concluded that "routes of collateral flow enable the distal extremity to be perfused even in the face of brachial artery laceration, thrombosis, or external compression. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • To review the evidence on the ability of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality independent of Framingham Risk Score (FRS) factors in asymptomatic adults and on the benefits and harms of treating screen-detected adults with PAD. (annals.org)
  • Ankle brachial index, or ABI, is a screening test for peripheral artery disease (PAD). (proactivehv.com)
  • No special preparations are needed before undergoing an ankle brachial index. (proactivehv.com)
  • During the ankle brachial index test, you will lie down on a table, and a technician will measure your blood pressure in both arms. (proactivehv.com)
  • An ankle brachial index takes a few minutes and is painless. (proactivehv.com)
  • Results are often available immediately after the ankle brachial index test. (proactivehv.com)
  • Even if the results show no signs of peripheral artery disease, regular ankle brachial index testing may be required if you are at risk of developing peripheral artery disease. (proactivehv.com)
  • If you have any questions about Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) , please do not hesitate to call us at 901.297.4000 . (proactivehv.com)
  • The median nerve is medial to the brachial artery for most of its course. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brachial artery can be palpated midway along the medial side of the arm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The median nerve is formed by medial and lateral roots from the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus respectively, and runs down the arm from the axilla at the inferior margin of the teres major muscle. (scirp.org)
  • In the middle of the arm, opposite the coracobrachialis insertion, the nerve crosses tangentially in front of the artery and runs along the medial side of the brachial artery. (scirp.org)
  • The brachial artery runs medial to the humerus proximally, before moving more anteriorly to lie between the epicondyles of the humerus. (kenhub.com)
  • The attachments of the coracobrachialis and the brachialis muscles, as well as the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle, also lie posterior to the brachial artery. (kenhub.com)
  • The brachial artery may diverge from its usual course along the medial aspect of the biceps and run more medially towards the medial epicondyle of the humerus. (kenhub.com)
  • branches , lateral circumflex femoral, medial circumflex femoral, terminating in three or four perforating arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Its main branches include the deep brachial (profunda brachii) artery and the superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the arm, it gives rise to muscular branches to the muscles of the arm, nutrient artery to the humerus, profundabrachii artery, and superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries. (scirp.org)
  • Associations of depressive symptoms and brachial artery reactivity among police officers. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of this cross sectional study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and brachial artery reactivity (BAR) in an understudied population: police officers. (cdc.gov)
  • Brachial artery reactivity will be measured before (at entry) and 12 and 24 weeks after subjects are randomized. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conclusions Recent administration of commonly used nonnitrate vasoactive drugs has no significant effect on brachial reactivity. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Although brachial artery reactivity appears promising, its broad use has been limited by lack of standardized methodology. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The grade of lesion severity in the brachial and coronary arteries was significantly correlated (r = 0.41, p = 0.003), as was severity in the brachial and carotid arteries (r = 0.53, p = 0.0001) and the carotid and coronary arteries (r = 0.69, p = 0.0001). (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS: The SDFV ratio was related to the number of carotid arteries affected by plaque (P = 0.018) and inversely to plaque echogenicity (P = 0.0003). (diva-portal.org)
  • Other important arteries are the subclavian and brachial arteries of the shoulder and arm, the carotid arteries that lead to the head, the coronary arteries that nourish the heart itself, and the iliac and femoral arteries of the abdomen and lower extremities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Strong pulsations of the right subclavicular and right carotid arteries were palpated. (qscience.com)
  • The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brachial artery is a major blood vessel located in the upper arm and is the main supplier of blood to the arm and hand. (healthline.com)
  • We present a rare case of brachial artery aneurysm in a 7-month-old boy. (ovid.com)
  • After excision of the aneurysm, the brachial artery was reconstructed with an interposition saphenous vein graft. (ovid.com)
  • Brachial artery catheterization to facilitate endovascular grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysm: safety and rationale. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Through this case report, we aim to present a rare presentation of a young male patient diagnosed with Behçet disease revealed by an isolated brachial artery aneurysm. (longdom.org)
  • Mycotic Aneurysm of Brachial Artery in Case of Aplastic Anemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • At this point, it divides into the ulnar and radial arteries . (kenhub.com)
  • In this case, the artery divides into three branches referred to as the ulnar, radial and common interosseous arteries. (kenhub.com)
  • Lowering the levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients with coronary artery disease resulted in a decrease in cardiac events even in patients with average serum cholesterol levels (8-12) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Flow-mediated brachial and coronary artery vasoactivity are abnormal in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiac risk factors. (elsevier.com)
  • In some individuals, the bifurcation occurs much earlier and the ulnar and radial arteries extend through the upper arm. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report the unusual variation of an additional muscular branch of the brachial artery entrapping the median nerve in the middle of the arm. (scirp.org)
  • Samberkar, S. , Kassim, N. , M. Zin, S. and Samberkar, P. (2014) Entrapment of the Median Nerve by a Muscular Branch of the Brachial Artery: A Case Report. (scirp.org)
  • During the dissection, we found an additional muscular branch of the brachial artery entrapping the median nerve in the center of the arm ( Figure 1 ). (scirp.org)
  • Right arm: At 143.41 mm away from the coracoid process, we observed that the muscular branch of the brachial artery wound closely over the median nerve ( Figure 2 ). (scirp.org)
  • Ciervo, A., Kahn, M. and Pangilinan, A.J. (2001) Absence of the Brachial Artery: Report of A Rare Human Variation and Review of Upper Extremity Artery Anomalies. (scirp.org)
  • This study assesses whether cold pressor and flow-mediated brachial artery vasoactivity correlate independently with the presence of CAD. (elsevier.com)
  • The brachial artery's pulse can be felt on the elbow's front side. (healthline.com)
  • The pulsating movement of blood, or pulse pulse, alternate expansion and contraction of artery walls as heart action varies blood volume within the arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Additional symptoms for brachial artery obstruction include sensitivity to cold, discoloration as fingers turn pale or blue, lack of pulse in the wrist, bluish or slow-growing finger nails, arm hair reduction, and a loss of muscle strength. (azcentral.com)
  • In case of an emergency and when you don't have a stethoscope, check a pulse on the large brachial artery of the infant's arm. (livestrong.com)
  • At constant pressure, nitroglycerin-induced smooth muscle relaxation increased brachial artery compliance and decreased pulse- wave velocity without significantly altering E(inc). (umn.edu)
  • this, in turn, becomes the brachial artery as it passes down the upper arm. (britannica.com)
  • These are the two main branches of the brachial artery. (healthline.com)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Tibolone in Flow-Mediated Dilatation of the brachial artery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To further elucidate the possibility of such a defect in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon, we determined flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. (portlandpress.com)
  • in proximal regions, the median nerve is immediately lateral to the brachial artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compression of the median nerve and brachial artery by accessory muscle slips leading to clinical neurovasculopathy has been reported. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulae were 114, 10 had Radial artery with Median antebrachial vein, 02 had Radial artery with venacomitant and 55 were Antecubital arteriovenous fistula made by anastomosis between Brachiocephalic, Basalic, Median cubital and 1 anastomosis were brachial artery with venacomitant (Table-I). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • George, M.B. and Nayak, B.S. (2008) Median Nerve and Brachial Artery Entrapment in the Abnormal Brachialis Muscle-A Case Report. (scirp.org)
  • Kumar, H., Srijit, D. and Gaur, S. (2007) Entrapment of the Median Nerve and the Brachial Artery by the Lacertus Fibrosus. (scirp.org)
  • We used the axilla as the landmark and then dissected the anterior compartment of the arm to expose the course, distribution, and termination of the brachial artery and median nerve. (scirp.org)
  • The second exception is when the median nerve crosses the brachial artery near the distal attachment of the coracobrachialis. (kenhub.com)
  • At the distal aspect of the brachial artery, the basilic vein and median nerve lie medially. (kenhub.com)
  • The left and right anterior spinal arteries are initially branches from the vertebral arteries, but as they descend to the hindbrain-spinal cord junction, they merge into a single midline artery that runs along the ventral surface of the spinal cord (in the anterior median sulcus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study consisted of two screening visits and two experimental visits involving measurement of brachial artery FMD over the course of 6 h on consecutive days as subjects performed their normal daily activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first case in our hospital in which we have reported with acute brachial artery thrombosis and DKA. (qscience.com)
  • The brachial artery was punctured anteriorly (Seldinger technique of double puncture was avoided) with a 21 gauge needle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The anterior circumflex humeral artery is located near the armpit. (healthline.com)
  • 7 reported a case of a 6-yr-old child with a supracondylar humeral fracture that resulted in complete brachial artery transection. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • The anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries are hidden from view when viewed from in front, however the latter artery can be seen deep to the posterior fibres of deltoid as it emerges though quadrangular space. (gtsimulators.com)
  • The present invention is a method for using an improved guiding catheter that eliminates the need for an introducer sheath or a separate Tuohy-Borst 'Y' adaptor, thus reducing the time and expense for performing artery opening procedures. (google.com)
  • The guiding catheter plus dilator can then be used in a manner similar to an introducer sheath to percutaneously enter the artery by being advanced over a previously placed guide wire. (google.com)
  • Once the distal ends of the dilator and the guiding catheter are placed near the ostium of the coronary artery, the dilator and guide wire are withdrawn which allows the guiding catheter to assume its normal bent shape (e.g., a Judkin's bend) near its distal end. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 wherein the artery into which the guiding catheter system's distal end is placed is a coronary artery. (google.com)
  • 9 reported a case of simultaneous embolic occlusion of brachial and cerebral arteries, resulting in a stroke and limb ischemia (there was no brachial artery catheter in this case). (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • With the deletion of code 36120, code 36140, Introduction of Needle or catheter, brachial retrograde artery, will be revised to describe upper or lower extremity and will become a stand-alone code. (acr.org)
  • Subclavian artery catheterization: a new approach for endovascular procedures. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The brachial artery can also form anastomoses or branches more proximal than usual . (kenhub.com)
  • Background -In vitro, the flavonoid components of red wine and purple grape juice are powerful antioxidants that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation of vascular rings derived from rat aortas and human coronary arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chronic reduction in iron stores in response to frequent blood donation is associated with improved vascular function in the brachial artery and biochemical evidence of decreased oxidative stress ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We sought to assess the prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions in the human brachial artery. (nih.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis is common in the human brachial artery and is significantly correlated with both coronary and carotid disease. (nih.gov)
  • Atherosclerotic lesions of any grade were found in the brachial artery in 39 (75%) subjects, common carotid artery in 51 (98%) and left anterior descending coronary artery in 52 (100%), and the prevalence and severity of disease increased with age in all three arteries. (nih.gov)
  • Calculated intima-media area (cIMa) of the common carotid and brachial arteries and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were examined. (uio.no)
  • Conclusions: Diastolic dysfunction is correlated to cIMa of common carotid and brachial arteries, systolic blood pressure and Prothrombin fragment 1+2 in patients with myocardial infarction. (uio.no)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transradial access for renal artery intervention. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An experimental study to determine the optimal access route for renal artery interventions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Stent placement in the renal artery: three-year experience with the Palmaz stent. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Stenting of a renal artery stenosis achieves better relief of the obstructive lesion than balloon angioplasty. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The superior adrenal artery is a branch of the inferior phrenic artery, the middle adrenal artery is a branch of the aorta, and the inferior adrenal artery is a branch of the renal artery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The addition of dexmedetomidine to 0.5% bupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block shortens the onset time and prolongs both the duration of the block and analgesia. (nih.gov)
  • When measuring FMD and nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the brachial artery, IMT can also be simultaneously assessed in the same brachial artery. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the 1990s, high-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery to assess endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was developed. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in coronary and peripheral arteries of patients with hypercholesterolemia. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution brachial artery ultrasonography. (ahajournals.org)
  • This artery supplies blood to the muscles of the upper arm and to the shaft of the humerus. (healthline.com)
  • It can also supply the nutrient artery of the humerus 1,2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • In this case, the brachial artery passes posterior to the supracondylar process of the humerus before running through, or posterior to, the pronator teres muscle . (kenhub.com)
  • There are other reports of supracondylar humerus fractures with interruption of the brachial artery, suggesting that the collateral circulation may be adequate to prevent hand ischemia. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • We report a case of brachial plexus palsy due to compression by right subclavian pseudoaneurysm as a result of internal jugular vein cannulation in chronic renal failure patient. (journaldatabase.info)
  • Doppler recordings of blood flow velocity during hyperemia were analysed in the brachial artery. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ultrasonographic doppler measurements of the Brachial artery were made on the 1016 men and women aged 70 included in the prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) study. (diva-portal.org)
  • The anterior tibial artery is one of the most critical arteries of the lower leg. (healthline.com)