Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Hemostatic Techniques: Techniques for controlling bleeding.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Constriction: The act of constricting.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Musculocutaneous Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Embolectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic: A condition chiefly characterized by thickening of the skin of the head and distal extremities, deep folds and furrows of the skin of the forehead, cheeks, and scalp, SEBORRHEA; HYPERHIDROSIS; periostosis of the long bones, digital clubbing, and spadelike enlargement of the hands and feet. It is more prevalent in the male, and is usually first evident during adolescence. Inheritance is primarily autosomal recessive, but an autosomal dominant form exists.Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Pulse Wave Analysis: Evaluation of the contour of the PULSE waves which vary in different parts of the circulation and depend on physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions of the individual.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Punctures: Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.Nails, Malformed: Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.

Disease pattern in cranial and large-vessel giant cell arteritis. (1/1777)

OBJECTIVE: To identify variables that distinguish large-vessel giant cell arteritis (GCA) with subclavian/axillary/brachial artery involvement from cranial GCA. METHODS: Seventy-four case patients with subclavian/axillary GCA diagnosed by angiography and 74 control patients with temporal artery biopsy-proven GCA without large vessel involvement matched for the date of first diagnosis were identified. Pertinent initial symptoms, time delay until diagnosis, and clinical symptoms, as well as clinical and laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis, were recorded by retrospective chart review. Expression of cytokine messenger RNA in temporal artery tissue from patients with large-vessel and cranial GCA was determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Distribution of disease-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles in patients with aortic arch syndrome and cranial GCA was assessed. RESULTS: The clinical presentation distinguished patients with large-vessel GCA from those with classic cranial GCA. Upper extremity vascular insufficiency dominated the clinical presentation of patients with large-vessel GCA, whereas symptoms related to impaired cranial blood flow were infrequent. Temporal artery biopsy findings were negative in 42% of patients with large-vessel GCA. Polymyalgia rheumatica occurred with similar frequency in both patient groups. Large-vessel GCA was associated with higher concentrations of interleukin-2 gene transcripts in arterial tissue and overrepresentation of the HLA-DRB1*0404 allele, indicating differences in pathogenetic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: GCA is not a single entity but includes several variants of disease. Large-vessel GCA produces a distinct spectrum of clinical manifestations and often occurs without involvement of the cranial arteries. Large-vessel GCA requires a different approach to the diagnosis and probably also to treatment.  (+info)

Endothelial function in Marfan syndrome: selective impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation. (2/1777)

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular complications of Marfan syndrome arise due to alterations in the structural and functional properties of fibrillin, a constituent of vascular connective tissues. Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are closely associated with arterial endothelial cells, indicating a possible functional role for fibrillin in the endothelium. Plasma concentrations of endothelial cell products are elevated in Marfan subjects, which indirectly indicates endothelial dysfunction. This study directly assessed flow- and agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent brachial artery reactivity in Marfan subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 20 Marfan and 20 control subjects, brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and blood pressure were measured by ultrasonic wall tracking, Doppler ultrasound, and photoplethysmography, respectively. Measurements were taken during hand hyperemia (a stimulus for endothelium-derived nitric oxide [NO] release in the upstream brachial artery) and after sublingual administration of the endothelium-independent vasodilator nitroglycerin. In 9 Marfan and 6 control subjects, the above parameters were also assessed during intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin (agonists that stimulate NO production) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an inhibitor of NO production). Flow-mediated responses differed markedly between Marfan and control subjects (-1.6+/-3.5% versus 6. 50+/-4.1%, respectively; P<0.0001), whereas nitroglycerin produced similar vasodilation (14.2+/-5.7% versus 15.2+/-7.8%; P=NS). Agonist-induced vasodilation to incremental intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin were not significantly different between Marfan and control subjects, and intra-arterial L-NMMA produced similar reductions in brachial artery diameter in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate impaired flow-mediated but preserved agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Marfan subjects and suggest preservation of basal NO release. Selective loss of flow-mediated dilation suggests a role for fibrillin in endothelial cell mechanotransduction.  (+info)

Flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility of the brachial artery in renal allograft recipients. (3/1777)

BACKGROUND: Alterations of large artery function and structure are frequently observed in renal allograft recipients. However, endothelial function has not yet been assessed in this population. METHODS: Flow-mediated vasodilation is a useful index of endothelial function. We measured the diameter and distensibility of the brachial artery at rest using high-resolution ultrasound and Doppler frequency analysis of vessel wall movements in the M mode. Thereafter, changes in brachial artery diameter were measured during reactive hyperemia (after 4 min of forearm occlusion) in 16 cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients and 16 normal controls of similar age and sex ratio. Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was measured to assess endothelium-independent vasodilation. Brachial artery blood pressure was measured using an automatic sphygmomanometer, and brachial artery flow was estimated using pulsed Doppler. RESULTS: Distensibility was reduced in renal allograft recipients (5.31 +/- 0. 74 vs. 9.10 +/- 0.94 x 10-3/kPa, P = 0.003, mean +/- sem), while the brachial artery diameter at rest was higher (4.13 +/- 0.14 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.14 mm, P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilation was significantly reduced in renal allograft recipients (0.13 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.08 mm or 3 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 3%, both P < 0.001). However, nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was similar in renal allograft recipients and controls (0.76 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.09 mm, NS, or 19 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 2%, NS). There were no significant differences in brachial artery flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia between both groups. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility in renal allograft recipients remained significant after correction for serum cholesterol, creatinine, parathyroid hormone concentrations, end-diastolic diameter, as well as blood pressure levels, and were also present in eight renal allograft recipients not treated with cyclosporine. Flow-mediated vasodilation was not related to distensibility in either group. CONCLUSIONS: The results show impaired endothelial function and reduced brachial artery distensibility in renal allograft recipients. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility are not attributable to a diminished brachial artery vasodilator capacity, because endothelium-independent vasodilation was preserved in renal allograft recipients.  (+info)

Endothelial dysfunction by acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia: restoration by folic acid. (4/1777)

Recent evidence demonstrates that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In patients with chronic hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia, endothelial function is impaired. However, whether hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia per se is a cause or an epiphenomenon of endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of methionine-induced acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia on human endothelial function. In healthy volunteers we administered methionine (0.1 g/kg body weight, per os), a substrate of homocyst(e)ine, with or without folic acid (20 mg, per os) and examined flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery by high-resolution ultrasonography as a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. We also measured plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine before and 3, 8 and 24 h after methionine loading. Methionine administration increased plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine by four times the basal level at 8 h (P<0.0001, ANOVA). The plasma levels returned to baseline at 24 h. Flow-mediated vasodilatation was significantly decreased to half of the baseline value at 8 h and returned to baseline at 24 h (P<0.0001, ANOVA), whereas endothelium-independent vasodilatation by glyceryl trinitrate was not affected by the methionine loading. Co-administration of folic acid did not attenuate methionine-induced hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia but completely prevented endothelial dysfunction. Our results suggest that in humans a methionine-rich diet may acutely impair endothelial function, which can be prevented by folic acid supplementation.  (+info)

Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia: an effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. (5/1777)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a major and independent risk factor for vascular disease. The mechanisms by which homocysteine promotes atherosclerosis are not well understood. We hypothesized that elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with rapid onset endothelial dysfunction, which is mediated through oxidant stress mechanisms and can be inhibited by the antioxidant vitamin C. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 17 healthy volunteers (10 male and 7 female) aged 33 (range 21 to 59) years. Brachial artery diameter responses to hyperemic flow (endothelium dependent), and glyceryltrinitrate (GTN, endothelium independent) were measured with high resolution ultrasound at 0 hours (fasting), 2 hours, and 4 hours after (1) oral methionine (L-methionine 100 mg/kg), (2) oral methionine preceded by vitamin C (1g/day, for 1 week), and (3) placebo, on separate days and in random order. Plasma homocysteine increased (0 hours, 12.8+/-1.4; 2 hours, 25.4+/-2.5; and 4 hours, 31. 2+/-3.1 micromol/l, P<0.001), and flow-mediated dilatation fell (0 hours, 4.3+/-0.7; 2 hours, 1.1+/-0.9; and 4 hours, -0.7+/-0.8%) after oral L-methionine. There was an inverse linear relationship between homocysteine concentration and flow-mediated dilatation (P<0. 001). Pretreatment with vitamin C did not affect the rise in homocysteine concentrations after methionine (0 hours, 13.6+/-1.6; 2 hours, 28.3+/-2.9; and 4 hours, 33.8+/-3.7 micromol/l, P=0.27), but did ameliorate the reduction in flow-mediated dilatation (0 hours, 4. 0+/-1.0; 2 hours, 3.5+/-1.2 and 4 hours, 2.8+/-0.7%, P=0.02). GTN-induced endothelium independent brachial artery dilatation was not affected after methionine or methionine preceded by vitamin C. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that an elevation in homocysteine concentration is associated with an acute impairment of vascular endothelial function that can be prevented by pretreatment with vitamin C in healthy subjects. Our results support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of homocysteine on vascular endothelial cells are mediated through oxidative stress mechanisms.  (+info)

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (6/1777)

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning. (7/1777)

PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease.  (+info)

Normal pregnancy is associated with enhanced endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation. (8/1777)

Normal pregnancy is characterized by reduced systemic vascular resistance, which may be mediated by nitric oxide (NO). We compared endothelial vasomotor function in 71 normal pregnant women (13 in first, 29 in middle, and 29 in last trimester) to 37 healthy age-matched controls. With external ultrasound, brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, during reactive hyperemia [with increased flow causing endothelium-dependent dilation (FMD)], and after sublingual nitroglycerin (causing endothelium-independent dilation). Compared with controls, resting flow and brachial artery diameter were significantly higher during the middle and last trimesters. Reactive hyperemia was reduced in all pregnant groups. FMD increased from the first trimester (by 26%), reaching the highest value in the last trimester (to 47% above nonpregnant values). FMD was significantly correlated to pregnancy status (nonpregnant or pregnant) and to vessel size. Nitroglycerin-induced dilation was similar in pregnant and nonpregnant women. A longitudinal study of eight women evaluated in the first, middle, and last trimesters confirmed an increase in FMD throughout pregnancy. The study supports the idea that basal and stimulated NO activity is enhanced in normal pregnancy and may contribute to the decrease in peripheral resistance.  (+info)

Synonyms for Brachial Artery ultrasound Normalization of Forearm Flow in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Brachial Artery ultrasound Normalization of Forearm Flow. 1 word related to Banff: Alberta. What are synonyms for Brachial Artery ultrasound Normalization of Forearm Flow?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of cold pressor and flow-mediated brachial artery diameter responses with the presence of coronary artery disease. AU - Corretti, Mary C.. AU - Plotnick, Gary D.. AU - Vogel, Robert A.. PY - 1995/4/15. Y1 - 1995/4/15. N2 - Flow-mediated brachial and coronary artery vasoactivity are abnormal in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiac risk factors. Cold pressor coronary artery vasoactivity is abnormal in patients with CAD, but brachial artery responses have not been studied. This study assesses whether cold pressor and flow-mediated brachial artery vasoactivity correlate independently with the presence of CAD. We studied 50 men (27 who were clinically normal, 23 with angiographically proven CAD) aged 23 to 59 years. With use of 7.5 MHz ultrasound, we measured brachial artery diameter and Doppler flow velocity at baseline, during contralateral ice water hand immersion (cold pressor), after 5 minutes of ipsilateral blood pressure cuff occlusion ...
HIV-infected subjects on a stable protease inhibitor (PI) containing antiretroviral regimen with plasma HIV RNA ,500 copies/mL, who have LDL cholesterol levels ,130 mg/dL or fasting triglycerides levels ,200 mg/dL, will be randomized (1:1) to continue their current antiretroviral regimen or to switch the PI to atazanavir (ATV). Brachial artery reactivity will be measured before (at entry) and 12 and 24 weeks after subjects are randomized.. ARM A: Switch current PI to atazanavir 400 mg once daily plus current , 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 24 weeks.. Subjects currently on ritonavir (RTV) (400 mg BID or greater) or RTV-boosted PI (,400 mg/day) , or tenofovir (TDF) as backbone NRTI therapy, will switch to ATV 300 mg boosted with RTV 100mg once daily.. ARM B: Continue current antiretroviral regimen (single or RTV-boosted PI plus , 2 NRTIs) for 24 weeks. Brachial artery reactivity in response to two vasoactive stimuli (increased forearm blood flow and ...
HIV-infected subjects on a stable protease inhibitor (PI) containing antiretroviral regimen with plasma HIV RNA ,500 copies/mL, who have LDL cholesterol levels ,130 mg/dL or fasting triglycerides levels ,200 mg/dL, will be randomized (1:1) to continue their current antiretroviral regimen or to switch the PI to atazanavir (ATV). Brachial artery reactivity will be measured before (at entry) and 12 and 24 weeks after subjects are randomized.. ARM A: Switch current PI to atazanavir 400 mg once daily plus current , 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 24 weeks.. Subjects currently on ritonavir (RTV) (400 mg BID or greater) or RTV-boosted PI (,400 mg/day) , or tenofovir (TDF) as backbone NRTI therapy, will switch to ATV 300 mg boosted with RTV 100mg once daily.. ARM B: Continue current antiretroviral regimen (single or RTV-boosted PI plus , 2 NRTIs) for 24 weeks. Brachial artery reactivity in response to two vasoactive stimuli (increased forearm blood flow and ...
Markus Juonala;Costan G. Magnussen;Alison Venn;Seana Gall;Mika Kähönen;Tomi Laitinen;Leena Taittonen;Terho Lehtimäki;Eero Jokinen;Cong Sun;Jorma S.A. Viikari;Terence Dwyer;Olli T. Raitakari ...
New Findings. What is the central question of this study?. We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate different exercise-induced brachial artery shear rate patterns compared with control subjects.. What is the main finding and its importance?. Moderate-intensity cycle exercise in HF patients is associated with an attenuated increase in brachial artery anterograde and mean shear rate and skin temperature. Differences between HF patients and control subjects cannot be explained fully by differences in workload. HF patients demonstrate a less favourable shear rate pattern during cycle exercise compared with control subjects.. Repeated elevations in shear rate (SR) in conduit arteries, which occur during exercise, represent a key stimulus to improve vascular function. We explored whether heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate distinct changes in SR in response to moderate-intensity cycle exercise compared with healthy control subjects. We examined brachial artery SR during 40 min ...
The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm. It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the lower margin of teres major muscle. It continues down the ventral surface of the arm until it reaches the cubital fossa at the elbow. It then divides into the radial and ulnar arteries which run down the forearm. In some individuals, the bifurcation occurs much earlier and the ulnar and radial arteries extend through the upper arm. The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow, medial to the tendon of the biceps, and, with the use of a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) often used to measure the blood pressure. The brachial artery is closely related to the median nerve; in proximal regions, the median nerve is immediately lateral to the brachial artery. Distally, the median nerve crosses the medial side of the brachial artery and lies anterior to the elbow joint. Profunda brachii artery (deep brachial artery) Superior ...
This study demonstrated that treatment with a single dose of commonly used antihypertensive and antianginal medication lowers blood pressure and heart rate, but has no effect on resting brachial artery size, FMD, NMD, and the reproducibility of FMD. These results were obtained when healthy patients received single doses of specific agents for the first time and when patients on chronic therapy for CAD are studied before and after receiving their clinically prescribed medications. These findings suggest that acute alterations in systemic hemodynamics and/or local resting arterial tone induced by these medications do not alter the capacity of the brachial artery to respond to endothelium-derived and exogenous vasodilators.. No previous study examined the specific question addressed in the current study. In most prior studies of endothelial function in human subjects, all vasoactive medications were withheld for at least 24 h, and a recent paper recommended withholding medications for four ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of cigar smoking on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy young adults. AU - Santo-Tomas, Minerva. AU - Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco. AU - Machado, Humberto. AU - Aldrich, Harry R.. AU - Lamas, Gervasio A.. AU - Lieberman, Eric H.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Cigar smoking has become a quickly growing trend among teenagers, women, and young adults. The objective was to explore whether cigar smoking affects flow-mediated vasodilation in healthy, non-smoking young adults. Methods: This was a prospective randomized trial with open design. It was performed in a cardiology teaching program in a private community hospital that serves as a major referral center within the greater Miami area. Apparently healthy, non-smoking young adult cardiology trainees and staff between the ages of 20 and 45 years were randomly assigned to a cigar smoking group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 14). The main outcome measures were the difference in percent diameter ...
BACKGROUND Impaired arterial dilatation response to nitroglycerin has been observed in adults with risk factors for atherosclerosis and in patients with established atherosclerotic disease. This defect parallels changes in vascular endothelial function and may be attributed to increased oxidative stress. Because atherosclerosis begins in childhood, we examined the correlates of nitrate-mediated dilatation (NMD) in children, including brachial artery endothelial function, oxidized LDL, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). METHODS AND RESULTS Brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilatation (FMD) and nitrate-mediated smooth muscle function, IMT of the carotid bulb, and brachial artery and oxidized LDL were measured in 142 children (mean age, 11 years; range, 8 to 17 years), including 87 healthy children, 41 diabetic children, and 14 children with familial hypercholesterolemia. NMD correlated directly with FMD (r=0.46, P|0.001) and inversely with brachial artery baseline
Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to transient arterial occlusion was determined with ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery with an 11 MHz linear array ultrasound transducer connected to an ATL Apogee 800 plus duplex ultrasound machine (Advanced Technology Laboratories, Bothell, Washington) adapted from previously published methods (15,16). The axial resolution of the 11 MHz transducer is capable of detection of changes in brachial artery diameter of ,0.1 mm. Arterial diameter (cm) was determined as the internal dimension of the vessel wall, from trailing edge to leading edge of the anterior and posterior intimal markings, respectively (to confirm full alignment of the ultrasound beam with the maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the brachial artery in its long axis). Brachial artery blood flow velocity was determined with a 1.2 mm pulsed Doppler ultrasound sampling volume placed in the center of the image of the vessel lumen with internal software ...
The proposed mechanistic link between the age-related attenuation in vascular function and free radicals is an attractive hypothesis; however, direct evidence of free radical attenuation and a concomitant improvement in vascular function in the elderly is lacking. Therefore, this study sought to test the hypothesis that ascorbic acid (AA), administered intra-arterially during progressive handgrip exercise, improves brachial artery (BA) vasodilation in a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent manner, by mitigating free radical production. BA vasodilation (Doppler ultrasound) and free radical outflow [electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy] were measured in seven healthy older adults (69 ± 2 yr) during handgrip exercise at 3, 6, 9, and 12 kg (∼13-52% of maximal voluntary contraction) during the control condition and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition via N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), AA, and coinfusion of l-NMMA + AA. Baseline BA diameter was not altered by any of the treatments, while L
The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of AT versus RT on remodeling of the brachial artery in subjects with CHF. Our principal finding was that RT increased artery diameter, decreased wall thickness, and consequently decreased the wall:lumen ratio of the brachial artery, whereas AT increased artery diameter without modifying wall thickness or wall:lumen ratio. This suggests that RT may be superior to AT in inducing remodeling of the brachial artery wall. In contrast to these benefits of exercise training, the control group exhibited an increased wall:lumen ratio and a trend for increased wall thickness across the 12 weeks of the study.. We contend that changes in brachial artery wall thickness, diameter, and wall:lumen ratio are indicative of systemic vascular remodeling, given that the upper limbs were not heavily involved in the exercises undertaken. It is likely, therefore, that systemic hemodynamic responses to bouts of exercise, which, in turn, modulate shear stress, a ...
BACKGROUND: While recent reports suggest that both flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery (BA), endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima media thickness (IMT) in the carotid artery correlate with the extent of coronary artery
Context Early detection of severe sepsis is crucial for successful outcome. We hypothesized that the progression of sepsis to severe sepsis is preceded by vascular leakage, which may be caused by neutrophil-derived mediators such as heparin-binding protein (HBP). Also, vascular leakage can be assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and reactive hyperemia. Thus, both HBP and brachial artery reactivity may predict the progression of sepsis to severe sepsis and septic shock. Aim The aim of the study was to identify the role of both HBP and brachial artery reactivity as predictors of morbidity and mortality in critically ill septic patients. Settings and design This is an observational prospective controlled study. Patients and methods Patients were classified into two groups. Group I included 40 patients with evident sepsis. Group II included 10 critically ill nonseptic patients who constituted the control group. HBP blood samples were collected at three time points over 6 days after admission. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans. T2 - Association with age and habitual exercise. AU - DeVan, Allison E.. AU - Umpierre, Daniel. AU - Harrison, Michelle L.. AU - Lin, Hsin Fu. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Renzi, Christopher P.. AU - Dhindsa, Mandeep. AU - Hunter, Stacy D.. AU - Tanaka, Hirofumi. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Advancing age is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Endothelial dysfunction accompanied by increased oxidative stress and inflammation with aging may predispose older arteries to greater ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Because coronary artery ischemia cannot be induced safely, the effects of age and habitual endurance exercise on endothelial I/R injury have not been determined in humans. Using the brachial artery as a surrogate model of the coronary arteries, endothelial function, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), was measured before and after 20 min of continuous forearm occlusion in young ...
BACKGROUND: A phenomenon of endothelial impairment, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, has been observed in young people. We identified subjects with persistently reduced, or declining, endothelial function during adolescence and early adulthood, without apparent cardiovascular risk, and investigated the clinical relevance of this finding. METHODS: Endothelial vasomotor responses were assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) at age 15 years in 47 subjects (22 males) who returned for a repeated measurement at age 25. Subjects underwent quantification of left ventricular mass (LVM) and function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, central arterial stiffness by applanation tonometry, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness using ultrasound on their visit at age 25. RESULTS: Individuals with low average FMD over 10-year period, although normotensive, had 5 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and, significantly greater LVM (73.48 ± 7.73 vs. 56.25 ± 9.54 g/m(2
Background: A metabolic syndrome associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease has been seen in HIV (+) individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Functional vascular changes can be non-invasively assessed and may precede the development of atherosclerosis.. Methods: We measured carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) by vascular ultrasonography in 61 HIV (+) patients (mean age 41.8 ± 13 yrs, 88.5 % male) attending a tertiary care center, in 30 patients with angiographically documented CAD (positive control) and in 30 healthy subjects. Both control groups had similar age, sex and atherosclerotic risk factors to HIV infected patients. Carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV-Complior apparatus) was also measured in HIV (+) patients.. Results: By ANOVA, HIV patients had higher IMT than healthy controls and similar IMT to matched CAD patients (0.64±0.2 vs. 0.54±0.05 vs .0.66±0.08 mm respectively, ...
In the coronary circulation, angiography of coronary artery responses to vasoactive agents may be used to test for endothelial function, and venous occlusion plethysmography and ultrasonography are used to assess endothelial function of peripheral vessels in humans.[3]. A non-invasive method to measure endothelial dysfunction is % Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) as measured by Brachial Artery Ultrasound Imaging (BAUI).[6] Current measurements of endothelial function via FMD vary due to technical and physiological factors. Furthermore, a negative correlation between percent flow mediated dilation and baseline artery size is recognised as a fundamental scaling problem, leading to biased estimates of endothelial function.[7]. A non-invasive, FDA-approved device for measuring endothelial function that works by measuring Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) is Itamar Medicals EndoPAT™.[8][9] It has shown an 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity to diagnose coronary artery disease when compared against the ...
A method and system are provided for detecting various vascular conditions using an occlusive arm cuff plethysmograph. The system includes data acquisition hardware, including the occlusive arm cuff plethysmograph, for obtaining arterial and endothelial function data from a patient, processing means utilizing application or analysis software for analyzing the arterial and endothelial function data, and a database of computer models, such as brachial artery pressure versus lumen area curves (P-A curves) and brachial artery pressure versus compliance curves (P-C curves), developed by analyzing data for a plurality of subjects where their vascular conditions were known. The processing means diagnoses and predicts various vascular conditions pertaining to the patient by comparing or correlating the analyzed arterial and endothelial function data with the computer models stored within the database and presents the findings on a display.
Enhanced instrumentation allows you to scan for early detection of disease. Offering a vascular health screening adds value to your comprehensive eye health exam and expands your scope of practice.. In March I purchased a carotid artery ultrasound screening system for vascular fitness. The system allows my office to perform a non-invasive procedure which measures the thickness of the carotid artery intima layer-widely accepted as an ideal indicator for early detection of cardiovascular disease. Studies show that by evaluating the carotid artery intima thickness (CIMT) physicians obtain a good indicator of vascular disease elsewhere in the body. The ultrasound technology employed is a B-scan which is safe and can be repeated as many times as needed. In addition to measuring the artery thickness, the screening protocol also results in the reporting of the presence of plaques, their characteristics, whether soft and fibrous or hard and calcified, and the percentage of stenosis.. CIMT allows us to ...
The study, which looked at intermediate-risk participants (FRS _5%-_20%) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), found that overall CAC, ABI, high-sensitivity CRP, and family history were independently associated with incident CHD in multivariable analyses (HR, 2.60 [95% CI, 1.94-3.50]; HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.95]; HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.00-1.64]; and HR, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.38-3.42], respectively). CAC had the highest improvement in both the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves and net reclassification improvement when added to the Framingham Risk Score/Reynolds score, while brachial flow-mediated dilation had the least. "Carotid intima-media thickness and brachial flow-mediated dilation were not associated with incident CHD in multivariable analyses," according to the authors. ...
We fed 10 healthy, normolipidemic subjects five meals containing 900 kcal and 50 g fat. Three meals contained different fat sources: olive oil, canola oil, and salmon. Two olive oil meals also contained antioxidant vitamins (C and E) or foods (balsamic vinegar and salad). We measured serum lipoproteins and glucose and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), an index of endothelial function, before and 3 h after each meal ...
Abstract 1255 Joseph Yeboah, Gregory L Burke, John R Crouse, Wake Forest Univ Sch of Med, Winston Salem, NC; Joao A Lima, John Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD; Craig Johnson, Univ of Washington, Seattle, WA; Joseph F Polak, Tufts-New England Medical Ctr, Boston, MA; Aaron Folsom, Univ of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Wendy Post, John Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD; David M Herrington, Wake Forest Univ Sch of Med, Winston Salem, NC. ...
BACKGROUND: Although obesity has long been recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor, only in recent years has the role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) been evaluated. In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, we related VAT and other obesity indices to endothelium-dependent vasodilation in both capacitance and resistance arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this population-based study, 1016 subjects aged 70 were evaluated by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine (EDV) and brachial artery ultrasound to assess flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Intra-abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were determined by magnetic resonance imaging in a random sample of 287 subjects. EDV, but not FMD, was inversely related to VAT, SAT, BMI and the waist/hip ratio (r=-0.23, -0.16, -0.21 and -0.11, respectively, p=0.05-0.001 after adjustment for gender). In multiple regression analysis however, only VAT was an independent predictor of EDV. ...
Moderate-to-severe kidney dysfunction is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Gradations of normal or mildly reduced kidney function may also associate with ASCVD risk.We conducted a secondary analysis using baseline data from the Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Cardiovascular Health (ENCORE) trial. Participants were sedentary, overweight and obese adults with unmedicated pre-hypertension or Stage I hypertension and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The Pooled Cohorts Equations were used to estimate a 10-year risk for first ASCVD event. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were measured to assess subclinical atherosclerosis and vascular endothelial function, respectively. Using linear regression, we examined the association between eGFR and ASCVD risk, IMT and FMD.Participants (N = 139) were predominantly women (65%), white (60%), with a mean age of 52.0 ± 9.6 years ...
Results Body weight was reduced (P , 0.0001) by ADF-HF (5 ± 1%) and by ADF-LF (4 ± 1%). Fat mass decreased (P , 0.0001) by ADF-HF (5 ± 1 kg) and ADF-LF (4 ± 1 kg). Fat free mass remained unchanged. Waist circumference decreased (P , 0.001) by ADF-HF (7 ± 1 cm) and ADF-LF (7 ± 1 cm). FMD decreased (P , 0.05) in ADF-HF (2 ± 2%) and increased (P , 0.05) in ADF-LF (2 ± 2%). Adiponectin increased (P , 0.05) in ADF-HF (43 ± 7%) and in ADF-LF (51 ± 7%). Leptin decreased (P , 0.05) in ADF-HF (32 ± 5%) and in ADF-LF (30 ± 3%). Resistin decreased (P , 0.05) in ADF-HF (23 ± 5%) and ADF-LF (27 ± 4%). Increases in adiponectin were associated with augmented FMD post-treatment in the ADF-LF group only (r = 0.34, P = 0.03). Leptin and resistin were not correlated with changes in FMD. ...
Continued From Above... The brachial artery stems from the axillary artery and moves along the humerus (upper arm bone) down to the elbow. It gives rise to the deep brachial artery, which curves around the back of the humerus to supply blood to the triceps muscles. Shorter branches pass into various other muscles on the front of the upper arm, and others descend down each side of the elbow to join arteries in the forearms.. ...
This study evaluated the relationship between functional sympathetic activity and structural markers of sympathetic innervation with functional vascular parameters in children with SDB. We found that increased SNFD of the dorsal lingual artery of the tonsil was associated with functional markers of increased sympathetic tone as measured by pupillometry and reduced vascular compliance, as indicated by higher resting blood flow velocity and a longer time to maximal dilatation of the brachial artery. In addition, we found that children with increased sympathetic activity had evidence of increased endothelial damage as measured using platelet aggregation. In summary, these findings suggest that increased sympathetic activity in children with SDB is associated with both structural and functional vascular change.. The strong association that was observed between resting VTi/PSV and the time to maximal brachial artery dilatation suggests that vascular compliance dynamics are altered in children with ...
... Online Course is designed to provide a comprehensive introduction to peripheral vascular sonography and has been designed to provide a strong foundation to perform and/or interpret vascular ultrasound examinations.
The Society for Vascular Ultrasound (SVU) is based on the involvement of a diverse membership of over 5,400 vascular ultrasound professionals, including vascular technologists, sonographers, echocardiographers, vascular surgeons, physicians, nurses, vascular lab technical directors, physician assistants, nurse practitioners and other allied healthcare professionals. SVU was founded in 1977 by dedicated technologists united by the commitment to achieve excellence in patient care, educational programs, and scientific endeavors. SVU is the only professional organization completely dedicated to the advancement of noninvasive vascular technology in the diagnosis of vascular disease.
The Barker hypothesis proposes that the risk of ischaemic heart disease may be increased in later life by perinatal events that programme permanent alterations to the bodys structure and metabolism. Perinatal modification of arterial compliance and function could initiate and amplify this risk of disease in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition and transient hypoxia in the perinatal period could initiate changes in vasomotility demonstrable in later life. Dams were given Ng-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (n = 5) in drinking water or were kept in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (FiO2 10 %) for one week pre- and one week post-partum. Male offspring were sacrificed at 10 weeks and results compared with the male offspring of control dams (n = 7). Coronary artery reactivity, to both constrictors and dilators, was studied using the wire myograph and isolated blood perfused heart preparations. Perinatal inhibition of NOS increased the ...
The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease involves classifying individuals according to their global cardiovascular risk. However, those at intermediate risk represent a particular challenge; while some may require aggressive treatment, others may be best managed by lifestyle measures alone. Biomarkers that have shown promise in improving risk discrimination include carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring, brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), ankle-brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and, in addition, having a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). Determining whether - and by how much - risk prediction can be improved by various markers could help to determine the most efficient strategy for the use of primary prevention drugs.. 1330 intermediate risk participants (Framingham risk score of ,5% and ,20% for a coronary event within the next ten years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) were ...
Background- Genome-wide association studies have recently identified a locus on chromosome 9p21 that influences risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The effect of the locus on early markers of atherosclerosis is unknown. We examined its association with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Methods and Results- We genotyped 2277 individuals, age 24 to 39 years, from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with CIMT and FMD measurements and 1295 individuals, age 46 to 76 years, from the Health 2000 Survey with CIMT for rs1333049, the chromosome 9p21 variant showing the strongest association with CAD. Both mean and maximum CIMT were significantly higher (P,0.001) in the older subjects of the Health 2000 Survey compared with the Young Finns Study. However, there was no association of the rs1333049 genotype with either mean or maximum CIMT at either age (P=0.959 and 0.977 for the 2 phenotypes in the Young Finns Study and P=0.714 and 0.725 in the ...
Background:. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with dysfunction of pulmonary endothelium. Shearstress dependent peripheral arterial endothelial dysfunction has been found in various cardiovascular diseases and data in PH is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate peripheral endothelial function in IPAH and CTEPH and the relation to right heart function.. Methods:. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was determined in 26 patients (55.5±15.5y, PAPm: 48.0±13.7mmHg, PVR: 837.6±476.8dyn*s*cm-5) with IPAH or CTEPH and 14 healthy controls. FMD was defined as the maximum change in vessel diameter after reactive hyperemia. Right ventricular function was examined by echocardiography.. Results:. Patients and controls were similar in terms of peripheral flow conditions and cardiovascular risk factors including Intima-media thickness (IMT) (IMT: 0.57±0.14 vs. 0.59±0.14 mm, p=0.39). Patients with PH demonstrated impaired peripheral endothelial function (FMD absolute change: ...
The deep brachial artery (or deep artery of arm) is also known as the profunda artery. It is the primary blood vessel in the upper arm. This artery supplies blood to the muscles of the upper arm and to the shaft of the humerus.
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This surgical exhibit reveals illustrations showing decreased Circulation to the Right Arm and Hand followed by operative views of a brachial Artery Repair and Fasciotomy procedure.
Brachial artery and its branches : want to learn more about it? Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster.. What do you prefer to learn with?. ...
Endothelial function in PD patients and controls. Box plot of brachial artery FMD (A) and NMD (B) values in PD patients and controls. Boxes represent the interq
The site home page, Ergonomics , Aortic Disease , Medical Ultrasound , Aortic Stenosis , TCD , Vascular Disease , Renal , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Vascular , Carotid , Arterial Disease , ICD-10 , Arteries, Cardiovascular, Sonography , Vascular Ultrasound, Sonographer, Peripheral Venous, Coding, ICD-9
The AngioDefender system technology takes various readings during the test and converts them to an AngioDefender Score based on flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) of your brachial artery. Your healthcare provider interprets this score along with other factors, including age and lifestyle, to paint a comprehensive picture of your hearts health and future risk of CVD.. How is the AngioDefender system data saved? ...
Introduction Peripheral Vascular Duplex/Color Flow Course (May 11-12) is the perfect course for obtaining a strong foundation for performing and/or interpreting upper & lower extremity peripheral arterial and venous ultrasound examinations. Introduction Peripheral Vascular Duplex/Color Flow Course is taught by leading vascular and interactive case presentations by the masters of Peripheral Vascular Ultrasound. Introduction Peripheral Vascular Duplex/Color Flow Course you will experience extensive hands-on scanning, featuring a 3:1 ratio with live models.. Introduction Peripheral Vascular Duplex/Color Flow Course is taught by leading Peripheral Vascular Duplex/Color Flow Imaging Course Course Experts. Introduction Peripheral Vascular Duplex/Color Flow Course is also offered as a Blended Education (Online Course + Scan Workshop) option where you would complete the online course prior to the course begin date and come to our campus on St. Pete Beach, Florida for the afternoon scan workshops. If you ...
Premier Surgical Associates in Knoxville has a team or 9 registered Vascular Ultrasound Technologists who are well-trained and experienced.
SEATTLE -- Preclinical atherosclerosis, often missed by conventional risk assessment, can be broadly identified by vascular ultrasound, investigators said here.
NAVIX is one of the largest employers of vascular ultrasound technologists. We offer experienced vascular technologists with an opportunity for advancing their career. Check out our current ultrasound jobs. NAVIX employs sonographers in echocardiography, and nuclear cardiology as well as other imaging modalities.
Video articles in JoVE about cardiovascular diseases include Hydra, a Computer-Based Platform for Aiding Clinicians in Cardiovascular Analysis and Diagnosis, An In Vivo Estrogen Deficiency Mouse Model for Screening Exogenous Estrogen Treatments of Cardiovascular Dysfunction After Menopause, Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Blood Pressure Measurement, Invertebrate Lifespan Quantification, Simultaneous Isolation of High Quality Cardiomyocytes, Endothelial Cells, and Fibroblasts from an Adult Rat Heart, Intracellular Staining and Flow Cytometry to Identify Lymphocyte Subsets within Murine Aorta, Kidney and Lymph Nodes in a Model of Hypertension, Glycoproteomics of the Extracellular Matrix: A Method for Intact Glycopeptide Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry, Supramaximal Intensity Hypoxic Exercise and Vascular Function Assessment in Mice, Electrophysiological Analysis of human Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) Using Multi-electrode
Although hitherto considered as a strictly locally acting vasodilator, results from recent clinical studies with inhaled nitric oxide (NO) indicate that NO can exert effects beyond the pulmonary circulation. We therefore sought to investigate potential remote vascular effects of intra-arterially applied aqueous NO solution and to identify the mechanisms involved. On bolus application of NO into the brachial artery of 32 healthy volunteers, both diameter of the downstream radial artery and forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum dilator responses were comparable to those after stimulation of endogenous NO formation with acetylcholine and bradykinin. Response kinetics and pattern of NO decomposition suggested that despite the presence of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes, a significant portion of NO was transported in its unbound form. Infusion of NO (36 μmol/min) into the brachial artery increased levels of plasma nitroso species, nitrite, and nitrate in the draining ...
High resolution ultrasound is an excellent cost-effective modality in imaging of the peripheral nerve system, useful to evaluate compressive, inflammatory, traumatic and neoplastic pathologies of the peripheral nerves. Our exhibit should benefit any student, resident or fellow wishing to review the imaging features, anatomy and pathology of the peripheral nerve high resolution ultrasound. In daily activity, the knowledge of radiology signs is very helpful to add confidence to the diagnosis of certain pathologies.. View ePOS ...
Carotid artery ultrasound is a great screening tool to detect asymptomatic plaque build up in the patients arteries. Studies show that if there is plaque build up in the carotids that there is a 70-95% chance that it is also in the coronary arteries which supply the heart. Dr. Sean Breen is only physician in Orange County, California who uses HeartSmart IMT to screen patients for potentially lethal atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke and congestive heart failure) is the number one cause of death worldwide. 58% of men and women over the age of 50 will die of ...
In this paper, two proposed alterations to the dynamic programming parametric active contour model (or snake) are introduced. The first alteration allows the snake to converge to the one-response result of a modified Canny edge detector. The second provides a function that allows a user to preset a-priori knowledge about a given object being detected, by means of curve fitting and energy modification. The results yield accurate segmentations of cross-sectional transverse carotid artery ultrasound images that are validated by an independent clinical radiologist. Utilizing the proposed alterations leads to a reduction of clinician interaction time while maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy for varying measures such as percent stenosis. ...
The SVU further supports the National Education Curriculum for Sonography (NEC), which functions as a comprehensive outline for entry level education in vascular technology, echocardiography, and general ultrasound. The NEC document should be consulted by students and educators for an understanding of the broad fundamentals of ultrasound education and topical vascular and physical elements considered desirable though not essential for quality education ...
A principal physiological rationale for the association between FMD and cardiovascular prognosis is the assumption that it reflects nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The physiological assumptions underlying the FMD technique were reviewed recently in detail.16 Endothelium-derived NO possesses myriad antiatherogenic and plaque stabilizing properties, including regulation of vascular tone and arterial wall stress, inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion, and antithrombotic and fibrinolytic properties.17,18. Rubanyi et al19 and Pohl et al20 suggested that the substance released from the endothelium in response to flow, such as that occurring after cuff-induced ischemia (FMD), possessed the characteristics of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, NO,21 and in situ studies using NO antagonists decrease FMD.22,23 Subsequent animal studies consolidated the link between increases in flow, wall shear stress, endothelial NO synthase expression, and NO bioactivity.24,25 ...
Fowler positioning to 80 degrees, which accommodates natural body extension and sitting position without slide or shift, an optional Articulating Scanning Arm Board adjustable from 0 to 130-degrees locking every 10 degrees, the thick antimicrobial mattress and table adjustability all create a comfortable imaging experience for the patient.. ...
The endothelium is the single-cell-thick interior lining of all blood vessels in the body. Dilation of blood vessels is enabled by endothelial cells, which release vasodilators like nitric oxide (NO) in response to increased blood flow. The percentage difference in diameter between fully dilated and resting blood vessels is known as flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Healthier vessels release more NO, leading to a higher FMD and a lower risk of CVD and atherosclerosis. The AngioDefender™ system measures these sensitive changes, then calculates and converts them into an FMD score. The process behind FMD is illustrated below.. ...
Initial experience with side-to-side anastomosis of the brachial artery to the median cubital vein is reported in 11 patients in whom it was impossible to use or continue using the more normal sites. Eleven patients have so far been dialysed for a total of 80 fistula months. There was one early failure and no late ones. The appreciable morbidity was considered acceptable in these otherwise difficult patients.. ...
This website provides free online tutorials in echocardiography, abdominal, lung and vascular ultrasound relevant to the care of the critically ill.
This website provides free online tutorials in echocardiography, abdominal, lung and vascular ultrasound relevant to the care of the critically ill.
Our ultrasonic angiology department provides a diagnostic, clinical vascular ultrasound service for the evaluation of a range of vascular disorders.
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Looking for online definition of ankle/brachial blood pressure index in the Medical Dictionary? ankle/brachial blood pressure index explanation free. What is ankle/brachial blood pressure index? Meaning of ankle/brachial blood pressure index medical term. What does ankle/brachial blood pressure index mean?
We have shown that physiological increments of 2 to 3 μmol/L in plasma homocysteine after low-dose oral methionine and dietary animal protein induce vascular endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we observed an inverse and dynamic relationship between plasma homocysteine and endothelial function.. We found evidence of impaired flow-mediated dilatation within 2 hours of high dose oral methionine (100 mg/kg), the dietary precursor of homocysteine. Regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between homocysteine concentration and flow-mediated dilatation. Previous studies show that brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation is endothelium dependent16 and is largely mediated by the release of nitric oxide.17 Our findings therefore imply that vascular endothelial nitric oxide activity may be impaired during acutely elevated homocysteine concentrations. Previous studies have shown that high dose methionine, which elevates plasma homocysteine concentrations to more than 2- to 3-fold normal, is ...
In this population-based study of persons free of clinical cardiovascular disease, we show that wider retinal venular caliber is associated with reduced brachial FMD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our study suggests that retinal venular caliber may reflect underlying systemic endothelial dysfunction, and that this may provide a novel explanation of why retinal venular caliber predicts incident stroke and other cardiovascular events.. To our best knowledge, there has only been one published study with which to compare our findings. An analysis from the Hoorn study of 256 persons 60 to 85 years of age (of 631 eligible, with 6 missing retinal photographs and 52 missing FMD) showed that after controlling for age, sex, glucose tolerance, baseline diameter, and increase in peak systolic velocity, wider venules were associated with reduced brachial FMD,17 although this was not statistically significant.. Our study findings may provide additional insights into previously ...
Abstract. OBJECTIVE:. Impaired endothelial function in obesity may reduce blood flow to sites of metabolism, contributing to impaired fat oxidation and insulin resistance. This study investigated the effects of cocoa flavanols and regular exercise, interventions known to improve endothelial function, on cardiometabolic function and body composition in obese individuals.. DESIGN:. Overweight and obese adults were randomly assigned to high-flavanol cocoa (HF, 902 mg flavanols), HF and exercise, low-flavanol cocoa (LF, 36 mg flavanols), or LF and exercise for 12 weeks (exercise duration was 3 x 45 min per week at 75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0 and 12 weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), supine blood pressure (BP) and fasting plasma insulin, and glucose levels were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Insulin sensitivity/resistance was determined using the modified homeostasis model assessment ...
Aims: To investigate the association between intima-media thickness of brachial and common carotid arteries and factors of the coagulation- and fibrinolysis system with diastolic dysfunction in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. Patients and methods: One hundred and five patients, men (72 %) and women (28%) aged between 32-73 years with a history of previous acute myocardial infarction were included. An age-matched control group with no cardiovascular risk factors was used as a comparison. B-mode ultrasound of common carotid and brachial arteries and echocardiography were evaluated in all subjects. Calculated intima-media area (cIMa) of the common carotid and brachial arteries and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were examined. Factors of the coagulation- and fibrinolysis system were also measured. Results: Prothrombin fragment 1+2 was significantly higher in patients with previous myocardial infarction compared to the control group ( ...
We hypothesized that pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes have cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detectable differences in thoracic aortic wall properties and hemodynamics leading to significant local differences in indices of wall shear stress, when compared with age-matched control subjects without diabetes. Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes were recruited from Childrens Hospital of Wisconsin and compared with controls. All underwent morning CMR scanning, 4-limb blood pressure, brachial artery reactivity testing, and venipuncture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics modeling with fluid-structure interaction, based on CMR data, determined regional time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). Twenty type 1 diabetic subjects, median age 15.8 years (11.6-18.4) and 8 controls 15.4 years (10.3-18.2) were similar except for higher glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and triglycerides for type 1 diabetic subjects. Lower flow-mediated dilation was seen for those with type
TY - GEN. T1 - Relationaship Between Left Centricular and Brachial Artery Functional and Structural Adaptations in Elite Athletes. AU - Naylor, L.H.. AU - Arnolda, L.F.. AU - Playford, D.A.. AU - Deague, J.A.. AU - ODriscoll, J.G.. AU - Green, Daniel J. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. M3 - Conference paper. SN - 14440903. VL - 1. SP - 12. BT - Cardiac Society of Australia & New Zealand 51st Annual Scientific Meeting. A2 - Journal, Internal Medicine. A2 - Byrne, Edward. PB - Blackwell. CY - Sydney, Australia. T2 - Relationaship Between Left Centricular and Brachial Artery Functional and Structural Adaptations in Elite Athletes. Y2 - 1 January 2003. ER - ...
A vascular ultrasound is a noninvasive ultrasound method (also called a duplex study) used to examine the circulation in the blood vessels of the body. Advertising Policy Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy Vascular ultrasound … |a class=
Author: Sanjay Vikani, Pankaj Maheria, Kuldeep Suthar, Satish Patel. Category: Anatomy. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Introduction: Brachial artery is the continuation of the axillary artery at the distal border of teres major. It ends at the level of neck of radius by dividing into radial & ulnar arteries. A detailed description of the vascular pattern of upper limbs especially their variations in their origin & branching pattern is of utmost importance anatomically in general and clinically in particular.. Objective: This study is more informative to know the arterial pattern in this part of Central Gujarat. The primary objective of the study is to establish pattern of human brachial artery &its origin, length, course, branches, and the measurement of the point of origin of branches of the brachial artery. The study also includes the pattern of variations in origin as well as branching. Materials and Method: This is a morphological study in which the study was carried out in 25 cadavers by ...
This study demonstrates that under normal physiological conditions, different types of flow stimulus elicit different mechanisms of conduit artery dilatation in humans. Dilatation, in response to transient increases in blood flow, is largely mediated by synthesis of NO, whereas sustained dilatation during a prolonged hyperemic stimulus is unaffected by L-NMMA, indicating an NO-independent mechanism. Furthermore, in patients with hypercholesterolemia, these pathways were differentially affected, with a selective abnormality only of the NO-dependent component. Our findings indicate that the mechanisms of conduit artery FMD in vivo are more complex than previously thought and have important implications for the design and interpretation of endothelial function tests and the treatment of vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease.. In the present study, pharmacological blockade of physiological pathways was used to probe the mechanisms that regulate radial artery diameter under different blood ...
Results Thirty four women and ten men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 53±13 [18-76] years. The onset of symptoms was mono-articular in 54.5%, oligo-articular in 11.3% and polyarticular in 34.2% of cases. The mean duration of the disease was 11.2±7.6 [2-24] months. Radiographs showed epiphyseal bone demineralization in 12 cases. Ultrasound showed at least one synovitis in 39 patients, 17 of which associated with Doppler hyperhemia. More than 5 joints were involved in 32 patients and bone erosions were detected in 19 cases. High resolution ultrasound allowed confirmation of early RA in 43.1% of cases since it showed bone erosions in 19 patients with inflammatory rheumatism, elsewhere ultrasound has helped the diagnosis of early inflammatory rheumatism since it showed polysynovitis in 14 of 24 patients showing a mono-articular clinical involvement.. ...
Any hard surface will reflect sound. Some hard materials will exhibit a degree of absorption if they have a porous or irregular surface. A room with no furnishings carpets or curtains (drapes for our american cousins) will be acousticaly very lively and sound terrible. Curtains and soft furnishings will improve matters a lot. Further improvements could be made by hanging tapestries (decorative rugs) or curtains on the wall. If that is not good enough specialist sound deadening materials can be used (at great expense). It`s worth remembering that sound will be relflected at the same angle as the source, ie if the source is at 45deg to a reflective surface the reflected sound will come off at 45 deg. Sound deadening materials exploit this by having lots of wedges at right angles to each other ...
What do elite athletes and remote preconditioning have in common? With the 2012 London Olympic Games underway, our Consulting Editor David Gutterman interviews lead author Dick Thijssen (Liverpool John Moores University) and expert Michael Widlansky (Medical College of Wisconsin) about the work by Bailey et al, which investigates how a preconditioning ischemic stimulus applied to the legs could provide protection against endothelial dysfunction in the arms after intense exercise. Could the observation that improved performance times on a 5K run after remote preconditioning lead to new training techniques to improve performance for Olympic athletes? Is this tantamount to doping? Listen in and find out. Tom G. Bailey, Gurpreet K. Birk, N. Timothy Cable, Greg Atkinson, Daniel J. Green, Helen Jones, and Dick H.J. Thijssen Remote Ischemic Preconditoning Prevents Reduction in Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation after Strenuous Exercise Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published online June 22, ...
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether interrelationship among lipid profiles including nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol ..
Leg artery ultrasound education showing how to, scanning protocol, normal anatomy, anatomic variants, doppler, criteria, femoral, popliteal, abis, tibial, peroneal, arteries
In young women, superimposing CPT on FMD resulted in 1) a significant dilation during occlusion and reduction in peak diameter (Fig. 3), 2) an alteration in the postocclusion SR profile (Fig. 5) and 3) an ∼20% decrease in normalized popliteal FMD, when data were calculated relative to occlusion (Fig. 6). When FMD was calculated relative to rest, normalized FMD was not significantly influenced by adrenergic stimulation in young women. By contrast, popliteal dilation estimated relative to rest or occlusion was not significantly blunted in older women after superimposition of CPT on FMD (Fig. 6). These findings underscore the importance of analyzing FMD with respect to both resting and occlusion diameters since changes in conduit artery diameter during occlusion occur through different mechanisms as those evoked by reactive hyperemia and may affect estimation and assessment of endothelium-dependent dilation. Additionally, the application of CPT on FMD in the popliteal artery in young women did ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM S45.101S - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
I dont know if I ever explained why I see him. A few years ago I noticed my left eye was funny. Vision was like looking through cracked glass or a broken dirty screen. Not quite sure how to describe it. Went to eye doctor and she ran all sorts of tests, check for diabetes--no, ran dye up my arm--went just fine took a temporal artery biopsy--no trouble, did and MRI--found nothing so she sent me to Dr. Leo. He order ekg, eeg, and a carotid artery ultrasound. All tests came back normal, but I go yearly to make sure there is no change. Ok by me. Just had a real good friend have a heart attack Fri, and its not looking to good at the moment ...
Learn your risk for heart attack and stroke. This vascular workup includes carotid artery ultrasound, heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation) test, blood pressure
Antioxidants protect NO synthase-the enzyme that produces the artery-relaxing signal, nitric oxide. This may explain why those who eat especially antioxidant-rich plant foods have improved flow-mediated dilation of the brachial arteries.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Sodium, Arterial Stiffness, Artery, Biomarkers, Blood, Blood Pressure, Brachial Artery, Brain, Brain Natriuretic Peptide, C-reactive Protein, Carotid Artery, Inflammation, Morbidity, Mortality, Pressure, Pressures, Regression, Regression Analysis, Risk, Sensitivity
The chic Manhattan nightspot Du Vin is not the kind of place Eve Dallas would usually patronize, and its not the kind of bar where a lot of blood gets spilled. But thats exactly what happens one cold February evening.. The mortally wounded woman is Larinda Mars, a self-described "social information reporter," or as most people would call it, a professional gossip. As it turns out, she was keeping the most shocking stories quiet, for profitable use in her side business as a blackmailer. Setting her sights on rich, prominent marks, shed find out what they most wanted to keep hidden and then bleed them dry. Now someones done the same to her, literally--with a knife to the brachial artery.. Eve didnt like Larinda Mars. But she likes murder even less. To find justice for this victim, shell have to plunge into the dirty little secrets of all the people Larinda Mars victimized herself. But along the way, she may be exposed to some information she really didnt want to know.... ...
The chic Manhattan nightspot Du Vin is not the kind of place Eve Dallas would usually patronize, and its not the kind of bar where a lot of blood gets spilled. But thats exactly what happens one cold February evening. The mortally wounded woman is Larinda Mars, a self-described "social information reporter," or as most people would call it, a professional gossip. As it turns out, she was keeping the most shocking stories quiet, for profitable use in her side business as a blackmailer. Setting her sights on rich, prominent marks, shed find out what they most wanted to keep hidden and then bleed them dry. Now someones done the same to her, literally-with a knife to the brachial artery. Eve didnt like Larinda Mars. But she likes murder even less. To find justice for this victim, shell have to plunge into the dirty little secrets of all the people Larinda Mars victimized herself. But along the way, she may be exposed to some information she really didnt want to know ...
The chic Manhattan nightspot Du Vin is not the kind of place Eve Dallas would usually patronize, and its not the kind of bar where a lot of blood gets spilled. But thats exactly what happens one cold February evening. The mortally wounded woman is Larinda Mars, a self-described "social information reporter," or as most people would call it, a professional gossip. As it turns out, she was keeping the most shocking stories quiet, for profitable use in her side business as a blackmailer. Setting her sights on rich, prominent marks, shed find out what they most wanted to keep hidden and then bleed them dry. Now someones done the same to her, literally-with a knife to the brachial artery. Eve didnt like Larinda Mars. But she likes murder even less. To find justice for this victim, shell have to plunge into the dirty little secrets of all the people Larinda Mars victimized herself. But along the way, she may be exposed to some information she really didnt want to know ...
They escaped their enclosure, chased her, and attacked her from behind. During the attack they severed her brachial artery and she nearly bled to death from her wounds, which included severe lacerations to her arms, chest and legs. One of the EMTs on the scene was overheard saying that he had never seen so much blood ...
When your heart pumps, blood surges through your arteries. This is known as a pulse. When taking your pulse, there are various sites on the body that can be used such as the neck, wrist, behind the knee or on the inside of the elbow (brachial). Some sites are better than others, depending on your purpose.
The Royal Free Hospital has a leading vascular studies department. Read about our vascular ultrasound examinations led by clinical vascular scientists.
Objective: Behcets disease is a chronic inflammatory vasculitis. Vascular involvement is one of the major complications of Behcets disease, during the course of the disease. Previous studies showed that ACE inhibitors and statins may improve endothelial functions in endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study is to compare the effects of atorvastatin and lisinopril to placebo on endothelial dysfunction in patients with Behcets disease. Patients and methods: We prospectively studied 92 (48 female) Behcets patients who were diagnosed according to the International Study Group criteria. Endothelial dysfunction was evaluated by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) method using high-resolution vascular ultrasound device at baseline and after for 3-month therapy. Patients were consecutively randomized into three groups as (atorvastatin (n = 31), lisinopril (n = 31), and placebo groups (n = 30). Patients in atorvastatin group received 20 mg atorvastatin, lisinopril group received 10 mg ...
Endothelial dysfunction, a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk, is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microalbuminuria is frequent in HIV-infected patients, and is a predictor of renal impairment and CV risk. We investigated the association between microalbuminuria and endothelial dysfunction among HIV-infected patients receiving highly-Active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Endothelial function, measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (bFMD), and urine albumin-To-creatinine ratio (UACR), were measured in 170 HAART-Treated HIV-infected adults. The relationship between UACR and bFMD was evaluated. The prevalence of increased UACR, defined by two cut-off levels (20 mg/g and 30 mg/g), was 29 and 17. UACR was significantly higher while bFMD was lower among patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). UACR was associated with bFMD (r = â 0.31; p , 0.001). This association was stronger in MS-patients (r = â 0.44; p = 0.003). UACR above 20 mg/g was associated with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of brachial artery mechanics using velocity vector imaging does not predict arteriovenous fistula failure; A feasibility study. AU - MacDonald, Conor James. AU - Ross, Rose. AU - Houston, John Graeme. PY - 2020/4/10. Y1 - 2020/4/10. N2 - Strain measurements by US have been suggested as a method of assessing arterial elasticity prior to arterio venous fistula creation. This pilot study sought to develop an imaging protocol to measure strain in the brachial artery via velocity vector imaging (VVI) and determine if differences in strain could be observed between a healthy group and a group with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and if VVI measurements were associated with arterio-venous fistula malfunction. 40 healthy volunteers and 33 patients with ESRD were included in this study. All participants underwent US assessment of brachial artery strain via VVI. Peak velocity, strain, strain-rate and velocity were assessed. Patients with and without AVF failure at 3-months were ...
This thesis aims to evaluate the blood flow velocity in the Brachial artery during reactive hyperemia. Primarily to appraise the information it might contain regarding cardiovascular function and cardiovascular risk.. Ultrasonographic doppler measurements of the Brachial artery were made on the 1016 men and women aged 70 included in the prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) study. Analysis of the blood flow velocity in the forearm was made in comparison to established methods of estimating endothelial function, clinical markers of cardiovascular risk, the Framingham risk score and global atherosclerosis determined by whole body magnetic resonance angiography.. Systolic blood flow velocity was positively related to cardiovascular risk whereas the diastolic velocity was inversely correlated. However, the systolic to diastolic blood flow velocity (SDFV) ratio was more closely associated with cardiovascular risk than its components apart.. Ultrasonographic markers ...
Endothelial dysfunction is observed in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), who have increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. This study aimed to assess the acute effects of moderate and higher-intensity exercise on endothelial function, as assessed by flow-mediated-dilation (FMD), in AAA patients (n=22; 74±6 y) and healthy adults (n=22; 72±5y). Participants undertook three randomised visits, including moderate-intensity continuous exercise (40% peak power output, PPO), higher-intensity interval exercise (70% PPO), and a no-exercise control. Brachial artery FMD was assessed at baseline, 10- and 60-min after each condition. Baseline FMD was lower in AAA patients compared to healthy adults [by 1.10%, (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.81), P=0.044]. There were no group differences in the FMD responses after each condition (P=0.397). FMD did not change after the control condition, but increased by 1.21% (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.73, P|0.001) 10 min after moderate-intensity continuous exercise in both
The study is believed to be the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the effects of isoflavone supplement on the way the brachial artery (the main artery in the arm) dilates in response to an increase in blood flow - a phenomenon known as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) - in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Brachial FMD is an indicator of the functioning of the cells that line the inner surfaces of blood vessels (vascular endothelium), and endothelial dysfunction is implicated in cardiovascular disease.. Professor Hung-Fat Tse, William MW Mong Professor in Cardiology and Academic Chief of the Cardiology Division in the Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China) and his team found that 12 weeks of isoflavone supplement, at a dose of 80 mg a day, significantly improved brachial FMD and, therefore, vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients who had suffered an ischaemic stroke (a stroke caused by blood clots or other ...
What is the central question of this study? Although heat stress is known to increase cardiovascular strain, no study, to date, had explored the potential impact of exercise-induced heat stress on vascular function. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that acute exercise tended to reduce flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), owing in part to reduced reactive hyperaemia/shear stimulus; thus, when FMD is normalized to shear no postexercise deficit exists. Exercise-induced heat stress increased reactive hyperaemia, shear rate, coupled with a sustained FMD postexercise, suggests that exercise-induced heat stress increases the amount of shear stimulus to elicit a similar response, indicating reduced vascular responsiveness, or reserve, which might increase cardiovascular susceptibility.
People with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have impaired exercise capacity, even in the absence of complications, which is predictive of their increased cardiovascular mortality. Cardiovascular dysfunction is one potential cause of this exercise defect. Acute infusion of vitamin C has been separately shown to improve diastolic and endothelial function in prior studies. We hypothesized that acute vitamin C infusion would improve exercise capacity and that these improvements would be associated with improved cardiovascular function. Adults with T2D (n = 31, 7 female, 24 male, body mass index (BMI): 31.5 ± 0.8 kg/m2) and BMI-similar healthy adults (n = 21, 11 female, 10 male, BMI: 30.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed two randomly ordered visits: IV infusion of vitamin C (7.5 g) and a volume-matched saline infusion. During each visit peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), reactive hyperemia (RH; plethysmography), and cardiac echocardiography were measured. General linear mixed models
The usual manifestation of brachial artery aneurysms is the incidental finding of a swelling of the arm, combined with paresthesia or pain in some cases. The etiology is often traumatic or secondary to drug abuse. Pathophysiology of brachial artery dilation in these cases is not completely clear. We herein describe a case of a 61-year-old male presenting with a giant, painful, pulsatile mass on his left arm. He was submitted to a cadaveric kidney transplant in 2005. He had a functioning arteriovenous fistula (AVF) on his right arm, and a spontaneously thrombosed radiocephalic AVF on his left arm ...
Patterns of brachial blood pressures (in the arm) and central aortic pressures (where blood exits the heart) were measured at the same time. Though similarities in the circadian rhythms of brachial and central aortic pressures were found, there was a significantly reduced nighttime dip in central aortic pressure relative to the corresponding nighttime dip in brachial pressure. The pressures by the heart do not dip as much during sleep as previously thought based on conventional pressure measurements taken from the arm. ...
The probability and prediction of relapses were calculated in 186 patients who finished the 2 year follow-up period. Modification of G alpha with myristate can be recapitulated in E. In the several hypogonadotropic syndromes described to date autosomal and X-linked transmission have been implicated in the inheritance of the hypogonadism. The technique of low flow antegrade selective cerebral perfusion through the right brachial artery may be used for a vast majority of aortic aneurysms and dissections requiring arch repair. Relation of the Bilateral Earlobe Crease to Endothelial Dysfunction.. One patient is awaiting repair, and 1 underwent a cavopulmonary shunt. The reproductive deficits of the middle-aged Per mutant females are comparable with those seen in aged wild-type mice. Step baroreflex response in awake patients undergoing carotid viagra without doctor prescription surgery: time- and frequency-domain analysis. Our experiment assessed whether azithromycin inhibits neutrophil accumulation ...
Artery. Brachial artery. Nerve. Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)[1]. Actions. *Flexes elbow[1] ...
The brachial artery. The suprascapular, axillary, and radial nerves. This article incorporates text in the public domain from ... is a broad but shallow oblique depression for the radial nerve and deep brachial artery. It is located on the center of the ...
The nerve then runs down the ulnar side of the arm medial to the brachial artery, pierces the deep fascia with the basilic vein ... The brachial artery. Cutaneous nerves of right upper extremity. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve antebrachial cutaneous ... Dorsal antebrachial cutaneous nerve Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve Medial brachial cutaneous nerve Brachial plexus ... It communicates with the medial brachial cutaneous, the dorsal antebrachial cutaneous branch of the radial, and the dorsal ...
The axillary artery and its branches. The brachial artery. The right brachial plexus with its short branches, viewed from in ... The right brachial plexus (infraclavicular portion) in the axillary fossa; viewed from below and in front. Nerves of the left ... The lateral pectoral nerve branches off of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus and is distributed over the deep surface of ... C8 and T1 nerve roots which merge out to form the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. The fibers continue in the anterior ...
From the brachial plexus, it travels behind the third part of the axillary artery (part of the axillary artery distal to the ... The brachial artery. Cutaneous nerves of right upper extremity. Superficial palmar nerves. Nerves of the left upper extremity. ... It continues to move along with posterior interosseous artery(a deep branch of common interosseous artery which is a branch of ... it runs behind the brachial artery and then enters the lower triangular space to reach the radial sulcus of back of the humerus ...
decreased pulsation of one or both brachial arteries. *at least 10 mmHg systolic difference in both arms ... Classically involves arteries of lungs and skin, but may be generalized. At least 4 criteria yields sensitivity and specificity ... Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Systemic vasculitis of medium and small arteries, including venules and arterioles. ... bruit over one or both carotid arteries or abdominal aorta. *arteriographic narrowing of aorta, its primary branches, or large ...
This will occlude the brachial artery. In the absence of blood flow, the patient's hypocalcemia and subsequent neuromuscular ...
It crosses the ulnar artery (branch of brachial artery) while being separated by the deep head of the pronator teres. It then ... Inside the cubital fossa, the median nerve passes medial to the brachial artery. The median nerve gives off an articular branch ... The median nerve continues in the cubital fossa medial to the brachial artery and passes between the two heads of the pronator ... It then passes vertically down and courses lateral to the brachial artery between biceps brachii (above) and brachialis (below ...
From the brachial plexus, it travels behind the third part of the axillary artery (part of the axillary artery distal to the ... It continues to move along with posterior interosseous artery(a deep branch of common interosseous artery which is a branch of ... it runs behind the brachial artery and then enters the lower triangular space to reach the radial sulcus of back of the humerus ... The radial nerve originates as a terminal branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It goes through the arm, first ...
The biceps brachii tendon The brachial artery. The artery usually bifurcates near the apex (inferior part) of the cubital fossa ... During blood pressure measurements, the stethoscope is placed over the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. The artery runs ... the brachial artery and the median nerve). Statiscally, the antecubital fossa is the least tender region for peripheral ... The brachial pulse may be palpated in the cubital fossa just medial to the tendon. The area just superficial to the cubital ...
The blood supply is from the brachial artery. The posterior compartment of the arm is also known as the "extensor compartment ... It is perforated by the radial nerve and profunda branch of the brachial artery. The medial intermuscular septum, is thicker ... It is perforated by the ulnar nerve, the superior ulnar collateral artery, and the posterior branch of the inferior ulnar ... collateral artery. The anterior compartment of the arm is also known as the flexor compartment of the arm as its main action is ...
Detection of peripheral artery disease. The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) is the ratio of ... "Variation of method for measurement of brachial artery pressure significantly affects ankle-brachial pressure index values". ... The higher systolic reading of the left and right arm brachial artery is generally used in the assessment. The pressures in ... The ABPI is the ratio of the highest ankle to brachial artery pressure. An ABPI between and including 0.90 and 1.29 considered ...
A non-invasive method to measure endothelial dysfunction is % Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) as measured by Brachial Artery ... Since NO maintains low tone and high compliance of the small arteries at rest,[11] a reduction of age-dependent small artery ... "Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization". BMC ... Small artery compliance or stiffness can be assessed simply and at rest and can be distinguished from large artery stiffness by ...
The main artery in the arm is the brachial artery. This artery is a continuation of the axillary artery. The point at which the ... The brachial artery gives off an unimportant branch, the deep artery of arm. This branching occurs just below the lower border ... The artery then continues on to anastamose with the recurrent radial branch of the brachial artery, providing a diffuse blood ... The brachial artery continues to the cubital fossa in the anterior compartment of the arm. It travels in a plane between the ...
Reconstruction of brachial artery pressure from noninvasive finger pressure measurements. Circulation, 94(8), 1870-5. http:// ... The non-linear effect of the vascular wall decreases in bigger arteries. It is well known that good access to a "big" artery is ... Detecting pressure changes inside an artery from the outside is difficult, whereas volume and flow changes of the artery can ... As the volume of the finger artery is clamped on a constant diameter, the method is also known as "Volume Clamped Method". The ...
The brachial plexus and the subclavian artery pass anterior to it. The posterior scalene, (Latin: scalenus posterior) is the ... The brachial plexus and subclavian artery pass between the anterior and middle scalenes. The subclavian vein and phrenic nerve ... The passing of the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery through the space of the anterior and middle scalene muscles ... Since the nerves of the brachial plexus pass through the space between the anterior and middle scalene muscles, that area is ...
Blood pressure readings on legs are often 10-20% higher than those on the brachial artery.[7] ... A PICC is inserted in a peripheral vein in the arm, such as the cephalic vein, basilic vein or brachial vein, and then advanced ...
The brachial plexus surrounds the axillary artery and is formed from nerve roots from C5-T1. Branches of the plexus supply the ... The other major sources are the transverse cervical artery and the suprascapular artery, both branches of the thyrocervical ... This becomes the axillary artery as it passes beyond the first rib. The axillary artery also supplies blood to the arm, and is ... The skin around the shoulder is supplied by C2-C4 (upper), and C7 and T2 (lower area).[citation needed] The brachial plexus ...
The median nerve is closely related to the brachial artery within the arm. The nerve enters the cubital fossa medial to the ... which are on either side of the axillary artery and fuse together to create the nerve anterior to the artery. ... It is formed in the axilla by a branch from the medial and lateral chords of the brachial plexus, ...
The ideal blood pressure in the brachial artery, where standard blood pressure cuffs measure pressure, is ,120/80 mmHg. Other ... The smaller arteries and arterioles have higher resistance, and confer the main blood pressure drop across major arteries to ... In the innominate artery, the average reading is 110/70 mmHg, the right subclavian artery averages 120/80 and the abdominal ... The shear stress at the wall that is associated with blood flow through an artery depends on the artery size and geometry and ...
His death certificate recorded that the brachial artery in his left arm had been severed. It gave his age as twenty. No one was ...
The brachial plexus of nerves lies above the artery, and in close contact with it. Passing transversely behind the clavicle are ... Just above the level of the clavicle, the third portion of the subclavian artery curves lateralward and downward from the ... but in some cases it rises as high as the artery, and has even been seen to pass with that vessel behind the Scalenus anterior ... which form a plexus in front of the artery, and occasionally a small vein which crosses the clavicle from the cephalic. The ...
... compression on brachial plexus and/or subclavian artery caused by bone growth). Costoclavicular syndrome (narrowing between the ... compression on brachial plexus and/or subclavian artery caused by muscle growth). Cervical rib syndrome ( ... Arterial TOS is due to compression of the subclavian artery. This is less than one percent of cases. Venous TOS is due to ... In cases where the first rib (or a fibrous band extending from the first rib) is compressing a vein, artery, or the nerve ...
Here the shark pumps blood to its gills via the ventral aorta artery where it branches into afferent brachial arteries. ... Reoxygenation takes place in the gills and the reoxygenated blood flows into the efferent brachial arteries, which come ... In some fish, a rete mirabile allows for an increase in muscle temperature in regions where this network of vein and arteries ... The rete mirabile ("wonderful net"), the intertwining of veins and arteries in the body's periphery, transfers heat from venous ...
The brachialis is supplied by the Muscular branches of brachial artery and the recurrent radial artery. The brachialis muscle ... The brachialis muscle and brachial muscle can be considered as the anglicized variant of the Latin expression musculus ...
Brachial Plexus Anatomy at eMedicine *^ Sammer, Douglas M.; Chung, Kevin C. (2009). "Tendon Transfers Part I: Principles of ... The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar ... which together form the brachial plexus). Next, the signal goes down the median nerve branch of the brachial plexus and ...
The ulnar artery is located in the elbow, and it is one of the branches of the brachial artery. The ulnar artery leads down the ... The corresponding ulnar vein will parallel the brachial artery on its way back to the heart. ... At the wrist, branches of the ulnar and radial arteries join to form a network of vessels, which Continue Scrolling To Read ...
Blood pressure readings on legs are often 10-20% higher than those on the brachial artery. Certain types of PICCs have recently ... A PICC is inserted in a peripheral vein in the arm, such as the cephalic vein, basilic vein or brachial vein, and then advanced ...
... becomes the brachial artery as it passes down the upper arm. At about the level of the elbow, the brachial artery divides into ... Other articles where Brachial artery is discussed: human cardiovascular system: The aorta and its principal branches: …this, in ... two terminal branches, the radial and ulnar arteries, the radial passing downward on the distal (thumb) side of the forearm, ... artery of the neck, the brachial artery inside the elbow, and the radial artery in the wrist. ...
Continued From Above... The brachial artery stems from the axillary artery and moves along the humerus (upper arm bone) down to ... It gives rise to the deep brachial artery, which curves around the back of the humerus to supply blood to the triceps muscles. ... and others descend down each side of the elbow to join arteries in the forearms. ...
The brachial artery continues from the axillary artery at the shoulder and travels down the underside of the arm. ... The brachial artery is a major blood vessel located in the upper arm and is the main supplier of blood to the arm and hand. ... These are the two main branches of the brachial artery. The brachial arterys other branches are: *the inferior ulnar ... superior ulnar arteries. The brachial arterys pulse can be felt on the elbows front side. This is why blood pressure is ...
Profunda brachii artery (deep brachial artery) Superior ulnar collateral artery Inferior ulnar collateral artery Radial artery ... The brachial artery can be palpated midway along the medial side of the arm. Femoral artery a leg based artery with a similar ... The biceps head is lateral to the brachial artery. The median nerve is medial to the brachial artery for most of its course. ... The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm. It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the ...
... or deep artery of arm) is also known as the profunda artery. It is the primary blood vessel in the upper arm. This artery ... The deep brachial artery (or deep artery of arm) is also known as the profunda artery. It is the primary blood vessel in the ... The deep brachial artery is deep within the arm, and runs parallel to the humerus. It originates just below the shoulder at the ... Deep brachial artery. Medically reviewed by Healthlines Medical Network on. February 26, 2015. ...
Background: Brachial artery measures of arterial distensibility have been demonstrated to be independent risk factors for ... revealing that brachial artery measures were the strongest predictor of CAC. For women, brachial artery (BA) resistance was the ... Background: Brachial artery measures of arterial distensibility have been demonstrated to be independent risk factors for ... Measures of brachial artery distensibility in relation to coronary calcification. *Budoff M ...
Deep brachial artery synonyms, Deep brachial artery pronunciation, Deep brachial artery translation, English dictionary ... definition of Deep brachial artery. n. pl. ar·ter·ies 1. Anatomy Any of the muscular elastic tubes that form a branching system ... observed the continuation of the superficial brachial artery as radial artery and deep brachial artery as ulnar artery. ... arteria brachialis, brachial artery - the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into ...
... the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries at the ... n. the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries at ...
Brachial. profunda brachii (radial collateral, medial collateral) - ulnar collateral artery (superior, inferior) ... The brachial artery has several branches along its course. These supply the muscles of the upper arm, such as biceps brachii ... The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow and, with the use of a stethoscope and ... The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the upper arm. ... Profunda brachii artery (also known as the deep brachial artery ...
Once the distal ends of the dilator and the guiding catheter are placed near the ostium of the coronary artery, the dilator and ... the radial artery in the arm to be approximately 2 French sizes smaller in diameter as compared to the hole that would be ... place the guiding catheters distal end in the ostium of a coronary artery. Any of several well known procedures can then be ... the guiding catheter with straightening dilator as described herein allows the hole in the wall of the femoral artery in the ...
... Santvana Kohli, ... "Anatomic Variation of Subclavian Artery Visualized on Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block," Case Reports in ...
We will evaluate the vascular effect of Tibolone on the brachial artery. The diameter of the artery will be measured before and ... Vascular Effect of Tibolone in the Brachial Artery (TDILA). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Tibolone in Flow-Mediated Dilatation of the brachial artery. ... Diameter measurement of the brachial artery using flow-mediated dilation of post menopausal women, before and after use of ...
... brachial artery explanation free. What is brachial artery? Meaning of brachial artery medical term. What does brachial artery ... Looking for online definition of brachial artery in the Medical Dictionary? ... brachial artery. The main artery of the arm. The brachial artery is a continuation of the axillary artery and it runs on the ... brachial artery. the principal artery of the upper arm that is the continuation of the axillary artery. It has three branches ...
Brachial artery reactivity assessed by noninvasively measuring brachial artery diameter and flow velocities in response to ... Percentage Change in Brachial Artery Flow Mediated (FMD) Vasodilation Between Arms From Baseline to Week 24 [ Time Frame: ... Brachial artery reactivity in response to two vasoactive stimuli (increased forearm blood flow and nitroglycerin) will be ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate the change in brachial artery reactivity in HIV-infected subjects with elevated lipid ...
1. brachial artery (n.). the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into the radial ...
Brachial artery blood velocity and diameter were simultaneously recorded during exercise using Doppler ultrasonography. Blood ... flow was calculated using the cross-sectional area of the brachial artery and time-averaged mean blood velocity. RESULTS: Mean ...
A Simple Technique for Observing Carotid and Brachial Artery Pulse Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the brachiocephalic arteries using the right brachial artery ... Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the brachiocephalic arteries using the right brachial artery ... Brachial Artery*. Brachiocephalic Trunk*. Catheterization, Peripheral / methods*. Cerebral Angiography / methods. ... Catheterization was unsuccessful for four patients; two of them elderly hypertensive men with tortuous brachial arteries, and ...
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http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#Brachial_Artery Sage Bionetworks Synapse Ontology LOOM ... http://www.co-ode.org/ontologies/galen#BrachialArtery Galen Ontology LOOM http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/MESH/D001916 ...
Blood flow volume in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and brachial artery (BA), the heart rate and the blood pressure were ... Changes of Blood Flow Volume in the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Brachial Artery with Abdominal Thermal Stimulation. Shin ... To compare intestinal and peripheral blood flow volume, we measured the hemodynamics of the brachial artery (BA) simultaneously ... where T (°C) is the temperature, Ta is the temperature at artery, ωb (s−1) is the blood flow rate of a tissue, qmet is ...
... Shin ... "Changes of Blood Flow Volume in the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Brachial Artery with Abdominal Thermal Stimulation," ...
... Shin ... M. J. Perko, "Duplex ultrasound for assessment of superior mesenteric artery blood flow," European Journal of Vascular and ... F. Van Bel, P. H. T. Van Zwieten, G. L. Guit, and J. Schipper, "Superior mesenteric artery blood flow velocity and estimated ... C. F. Dietrich, M. Jedrzejczyk, and A. Ignee, "Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall," European ...
  • Blood pressure readings on legs are often 10-20% higher than those on the brachial artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • To review the evidence on the ability of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality independent of Framingham Risk Score (FRS) factors in asymptomatic adults and on the benefits and harms of treating screen-detected adults with PAD. (annals.org)
  • The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) is the ratio of the blood pressure at the ankle to the blood pressure in the upper arm (brachium). (wikipedia.org)
  • PAD is typically diagnosed by finding an ankle-brachial index (ABI) less than 0.90, which is the systolic blood pressure at the ankle divided by the systolic blood pressure of the arm. (wikipedia.org)
  • We will evaluate the vascular effect of Tibolone on the brachial artery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • de Souza MA, de Souza BM, Geber S. Vascular resistance of central retinal and ophthalmic arteries in postmenopausal women after use of tibolone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Brachial artery pseudoaneurysms secondary to intravenous drug abuse represent a limb-threatening problem to patients and a technical challenge to the vascular surgeon. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knowledge of the vascular dissimilarity of the brachial artery and its division, and possible neurovascular entrapment is important to surgeons and medical practitioners for anticipating nerve compression and for confirmation via motor and sensory examination. (scirp.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between IMT of the brachial artery, vascular function, and cardiovascular risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- These findings suggest that brachial IMT may be a marker of the grade of atherosclerosis and may be used as a marker of vascular function, providing additive information for stratifying subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • SS is a major factor implicated in vascular remodeling ( 1 , 5 ) and, as such, could influence the mechanical properties of arteries ( 5 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • To determine if holding vasoactive therapy for 24 h before study yields different results than continuation of clinically prescribed medications, we examined vascular function in 72 patients (age 57 ± 10 years) with coronary artery disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • You may not feel any symptoms from mild arm artery disease," according to The Society for Vascular Surgery. (azcentral.com)
  • Chronic reduction in iron stores in response to frequent blood donation is associated with improved vascular function in the brachial artery and biochemical evidence of decreased oxidative stress ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Despite documenting a relatively low rate of vascular complications of brachial artery catheters, Singh et al . (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis of all subjects showed that HbA1c level was an independent determinant for the l -arginine-induced vascular response of each artery. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 6 7 In isolated ophthalmic arteries, NO is an important modulator of vascular tone, 8 and systemic NO-synthase inhibition decreases choroidal blood flow in animals 9 and humans. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings further support the clinical relevance of vascular function measured in the microvasculature and conduit arteries in the upper extremity. (ahajournals.org)
  • To create a fistula, a vascular surgeon joins an artery and a vein together through anastomosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While atherectomy is usually employed to treat arteries it can be used in veins and vascular bypass grafts as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • We calculated that the diameter of the brachial artery was 6.24 mm. (scirp.org)
  • We calculated that the diameter of the brachial artery was 7.54 mm. (scirp.org)
  • We conclude that greater diameter of the brachial artery and lower vasodilator response to nitroglycerine, but not FMD, are associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. (biomedsearch.com)