Blood Flow Velocity
Carotid Artery, Common
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed
Coronary Artery Bypass
Carotid Artery Diseases
Carotid Artery, Internal
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Mesenteric Artery, Superior
Middle Cerebral Artery
Renal Artery Obstruction
Analysis of Variance
Carotid Artery, External
Subclavian Steal Syndrome
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Carotid Artery Injuries
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Predictive Value of Tests
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
Vascular System Injuries
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
Retinal Artery Occlusion
Carotid Artery Thrombosis
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Vascular Access Devices
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Reproducibility of Results
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic
Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular
Severity of Illness Index
Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection
Pulse Wave Analysis
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump
Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis
Coronary Artery Disease
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Vertebral Artery Dissection
Disease pattern in cranial and large-vessel giant cell arteritis. (1/1777)OBJECTIVE: To identify variables that distinguish large-vessel giant cell arteritis (GCA) with subclavian/axillary/brachial artery involvement from cranial GCA. METHODS: Seventy-four case patients with subclavian/axillary GCA diagnosed by angiography and 74 control patients with temporal artery biopsy-proven GCA without large vessel involvement matched for the date of first diagnosis were identified. Pertinent initial symptoms, time delay until diagnosis, and clinical symptoms, as well as clinical and laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis, were recorded by retrospective chart review. Expression of cytokine messenger RNA in temporal artery tissue from patients with large-vessel and cranial GCA was determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Distribution of disease-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles in patients with aortic arch syndrome and cranial GCA was assessed. RESULTS: The clinical presentation distinguished patients with large-vessel GCA from those with classic cranial GCA. Upper extremity vascular insufficiency dominated the clinical presentation of patients with large-vessel GCA, whereas symptoms related to impaired cranial blood flow were infrequent. Temporal artery biopsy findings were negative in 42% of patients with large-vessel GCA. Polymyalgia rheumatica occurred with similar frequency in both patient groups. Large-vessel GCA was associated with higher concentrations of interleukin-2 gene transcripts in arterial tissue and overrepresentation of the HLA-DRB1*0404 allele, indicating differences in pathogenetic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: GCA is not a single entity but includes several variants of disease. Large-vessel GCA produces a distinct spectrum of clinical manifestations and often occurs without involvement of the cranial arteries. Large-vessel GCA requires a different approach to the diagnosis and probably also to treatment. (+info)
Endothelial function in Marfan syndrome: selective impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation. (2/1777)BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular complications of Marfan syndrome arise due to alterations in the structural and functional properties of fibrillin, a constituent of vascular connective tissues. Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are closely associated with arterial endothelial cells, indicating a possible functional role for fibrillin in the endothelium. Plasma concentrations of endothelial cell products are elevated in Marfan subjects, which indirectly indicates endothelial dysfunction. This study directly assessed flow- and agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent brachial artery reactivity in Marfan subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 20 Marfan and 20 control subjects, brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and blood pressure were measured by ultrasonic wall tracking, Doppler ultrasound, and photoplethysmography, respectively. Measurements were taken during hand hyperemia (a stimulus for endothelium-derived nitric oxide [NO] release in the upstream brachial artery) and after sublingual administration of the endothelium-independent vasodilator nitroglycerin. In 9 Marfan and 6 control subjects, the above parameters were also assessed during intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin (agonists that stimulate NO production) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an inhibitor of NO production). Flow-mediated responses differed markedly between Marfan and control subjects (-1.6+/-3.5% versus 6. 50+/-4.1%, respectively; P<0.0001), whereas nitroglycerin produced similar vasodilation (14.2+/-5.7% versus 15.2+/-7.8%; P=NS). Agonist-induced vasodilation to incremental intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin were not significantly different between Marfan and control subjects, and intra-arterial L-NMMA produced similar reductions in brachial artery diameter in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate impaired flow-mediated but preserved agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Marfan subjects and suggest preservation of basal NO release. Selective loss of flow-mediated dilation suggests a role for fibrillin in endothelial cell mechanotransduction. (+info)
Flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility of the brachial artery in renal allograft recipients. (3/1777)BACKGROUND: Alterations of large artery function and structure are frequently observed in renal allograft recipients. However, endothelial function has not yet been assessed in this population. METHODS: Flow-mediated vasodilation is a useful index of endothelial function. We measured the diameter and distensibility of the brachial artery at rest using high-resolution ultrasound and Doppler frequency analysis of vessel wall movements in the M mode. Thereafter, changes in brachial artery diameter were measured during reactive hyperemia (after 4 min of forearm occlusion) in 16 cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients and 16 normal controls of similar age and sex ratio. Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was measured to assess endothelium-independent vasodilation. Brachial artery blood pressure was measured using an automatic sphygmomanometer, and brachial artery flow was estimated using pulsed Doppler. RESULTS: Distensibility was reduced in renal allograft recipients (5.31 +/- 0. 74 vs. 9.10 +/- 0.94 x 10-3/kPa, P = 0.003, mean +/- sem), while the brachial artery diameter at rest was higher (4.13 +/- 0.14 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.14 mm, P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilation was significantly reduced in renal allograft recipients (0.13 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.08 mm or 3 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 3%, both P < 0.001). However, nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was similar in renal allograft recipients and controls (0.76 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.09 mm, NS, or 19 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 2%, NS). There were no significant differences in brachial artery flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia between both groups. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility in renal allograft recipients remained significant after correction for serum cholesterol, creatinine, parathyroid hormone concentrations, end-diastolic diameter, as well as blood pressure levels, and were also present in eight renal allograft recipients not treated with cyclosporine. Flow-mediated vasodilation was not related to distensibility in either group. CONCLUSIONS: The results show impaired endothelial function and reduced brachial artery distensibility in renal allograft recipients. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility are not attributable to a diminished brachial artery vasodilator capacity, because endothelium-independent vasodilation was preserved in renal allograft recipients. (+info)
Endothelial dysfunction by acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia: restoration by folic acid. (4/1777)Recent evidence demonstrates that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In patients with chronic hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia, endothelial function is impaired. However, whether hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia per se is a cause or an epiphenomenon of endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of methionine-induced acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia on human endothelial function. In healthy volunteers we administered methionine (0.1 g/kg body weight, per os), a substrate of homocyst(e)ine, with or without folic acid (20 mg, per os) and examined flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery by high-resolution ultrasonography as a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. We also measured plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine before and 3, 8 and 24 h after methionine loading. Methionine administration increased plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine by four times the basal level at 8 h (P<0.0001, ANOVA). The plasma levels returned to baseline at 24 h. Flow-mediated vasodilatation was significantly decreased to half of the baseline value at 8 h and returned to baseline at 24 h (P<0.0001, ANOVA), whereas endothelium-independent vasodilatation by glyceryl trinitrate was not affected by the methionine loading. Co-administration of folic acid did not attenuate methionine-induced hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia but completely prevented endothelial dysfunction. Our results suggest that in humans a methionine-rich diet may acutely impair endothelial function, which can be prevented by folic acid supplementation. (+info)
Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia: an effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. (5/1777)BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a major and independent risk factor for vascular disease. The mechanisms by which homocysteine promotes atherosclerosis are not well understood. We hypothesized that elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with rapid onset endothelial dysfunction, which is mediated through oxidant stress mechanisms and can be inhibited by the antioxidant vitamin C. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 17 healthy volunteers (10 male and 7 female) aged 33 (range 21 to 59) years. Brachial artery diameter responses to hyperemic flow (endothelium dependent), and glyceryltrinitrate (GTN, endothelium independent) were measured with high resolution ultrasound at 0 hours (fasting), 2 hours, and 4 hours after (1) oral methionine (L-methionine 100 mg/kg), (2) oral methionine preceded by vitamin C (1g/day, for 1 week), and (3) placebo, on separate days and in random order. Plasma homocysteine increased (0 hours, 12.8+/-1.4; 2 hours, 25.4+/-2.5; and 4 hours, 31. 2+/-3.1 micromol/l, P<0.001), and flow-mediated dilatation fell (0 hours, 4.3+/-0.7; 2 hours, 1.1+/-0.9; and 4 hours, -0.7+/-0.8%) after oral L-methionine. There was an inverse linear relationship between homocysteine concentration and flow-mediated dilatation (P<0. 001). Pretreatment with vitamin C did not affect the rise in homocysteine concentrations after methionine (0 hours, 13.6+/-1.6; 2 hours, 28.3+/-2.9; and 4 hours, 33.8+/-3.7 micromol/l, P=0.27), but did ameliorate the reduction in flow-mediated dilatation (0 hours, 4. 0+/-1.0; 2 hours, 3.5+/-1.2 and 4 hours, 2.8+/-0.7%, P=0.02). GTN-induced endothelium independent brachial artery dilatation was not affected after methionine or methionine preceded by vitamin C. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that an elevation in homocysteine concentration is associated with an acute impairment of vascular endothelial function that can be prevented by pretreatment with vitamin C in healthy subjects. Our results support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of homocysteine on vascular endothelial cells are mediated through oxidative stress mechanisms. (+info)
Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (6/1777)PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting. (+info)
Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning. (7/1777)PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease. (+info)
Normal pregnancy is associated with enhanced endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation. (8/1777)Normal pregnancy is characterized by reduced systemic vascular resistance, which may be mediated by nitric oxide (NO). We compared endothelial vasomotor function in 71 normal pregnant women (13 in first, 29 in middle, and 29 in last trimester) to 37 healthy age-matched controls. With external ultrasound, brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, during reactive hyperemia [with increased flow causing endothelium-dependent dilation (FMD)], and after sublingual nitroglycerin (causing endothelium-independent dilation). Compared with controls, resting flow and brachial artery diameter were significantly higher during the middle and last trimesters. Reactive hyperemia was reduced in all pregnant groups. FMD increased from the first trimester (by 26%), reaching the highest value in the last trimester (to 47% above nonpregnant values). FMD was significantly correlated to pregnancy status (nonpregnant or pregnant) and to vessel size. Nitroglycerin-induced dilation was similar in pregnant and nonpregnant women. A longitudinal study of eight women evaluated in the first, middle, and last trimesters confirmed an increase in FMD throughout pregnancy. The study supports the idea that basal and stimulated NO activity is enhanced in normal pregnancy and may contribute to the decrease in peripheral resistance. (+info)
Nitroglycerin is a powerful vasodilator medication that is used to treat angina pectoris (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle) and to prevent heart attacks. It works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the blood vessels, particularly those that supply blood to the heart, which increases blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitroglycerin is usually administered as a sublingual tablet or spray, which is placed under the tongue or sprayed into the mouth. It is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream and begins to work within a few minutes. The effects of nitroglycerin are short-lived, lasting only a few minutes to an hour, and the medication must be taken as needed to relieve symptoms. While nitroglycerin is a highly effective medication for treating angina, it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. It is also contraindicated in patients with certain medical conditions, such as uncontrolled high blood pressure or severe heart failure.
Hyperemia is a medical term that refers to an increase in blood flow to a particular area of the body, often resulting in redness, warmth, and swelling. It can occur in response to various stimuli, such as exercise, injury, inflammation, or emotional stress. In the medical field, hyperemia is often used to describe an increase in blood flow to a specific organ or tissue. For example, angina pectoris, a common symptom of coronary artery disease, is caused by hyperemia in the heart muscle. Similarly, hyperemia in the brain can cause headaches or migraines. Hyperemia can also be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a blood clot, infection, or tumor. In these cases, it is important to identify the underlying cause of the hyperemia in order to provide appropriate treatment.
Carotid artery diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the main blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. These diseases can lead to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, and even stroke. The most common types of carotid artery diseases are carotid artery stenosis and carotid artery dissection. Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the inside of the carotid artery becomes narrowed or blocked by a buildup of plaque, which is made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances. Carotid artery dissection occurs when the inner lining of the carotid artery is torn, which can cause a blood clot to form and block the flow of blood. Other types of carotid artery diseases include carotid artery aneurysm, carotid artery occlusion, and carotid artery inflammation. Carotid artery aneurysm occurs when a section of the carotid artery becomes weakened and bulges outwards. Carotid artery occlusion occurs when the carotid artery is completely blocked, which can cause a stroke. Carotid artery inflammation, also known as carotid artery vasculitis, is an inflammatory condition that can cause the walls of the carotid artery to become thickened and narrowed. Treatment for carotid artery diseases depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly may be sufficient to manage the condition. In more severe cases, medications such as blood thinners or cholesterol-lowering drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or endovascular procedures may be necessary to remove plaque or repair damaged arteries.
Omega-N-Methylarginine (L-NMMA) is a synthetic compound that is structurally similar to the amino acid L-arginine. L-arginine is an important precursor for the production of nitric oxide (NO), a molecule that plays a crucial role in regulating blood flow and blood pressure. L-NMMA inhibits the production of NO by competing with L-arginine for the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to NO. As a result, L-NMMA can reduce NO levels in the body, leading to vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) and an increase in blood pressure. L-NMMA has been used in research studies to investigate the role of NO in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and erectile dysfunction. However, it is not currently used as a therapeutic agent in clinical practice.
Nitroprusside is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart failure. It is a type of drug called a nitrovasodilator, which works by relaxing the blood vessels and allowing blood to flow more easily. This can help to lower blood pressure and improve the function of the heart. Nitroprusside is usually given as an intravenous (IV) injection, although it can also be given as a tablet or a liquid to swallow. It is usually used in the hospital setting, but it may also be used at home if a person's blood pressure is very high and needs to be lowered quickly. It is important to note that nitroprusside can cause side effects, including headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Pathologic dilatation refers to the abnormal enlargement or widening of a body structure, such as a blood vessel, organ, or tube, beyond its normal size. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or genetic abnormalities. Pathologic dilatation can be a sign of underlying health problems and may require medical intervention to prevent further complications. It is important to note that not all dilatation is considered pathologic, as some degree of dilation may be normal or even beneficial in certain situations.
Arterial occlusive diseases refer to a group of medical conditions in which the arteries become narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow to the affected area. This can result in a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the blockage. The most common types of arterial occlusive diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. 2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition that affects the arteries in the legs, causing pain, cramping, and weakness in the legs, especially during physical activity. 3. Coronary artery disease (CAD): A condition that affects the arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. 4. Carotid artery disease: A condition that affects the arteries in the neck, leading to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause stroke. Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to open or bypass blocked arteries.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced naturally in the body by various cells, including endothelial cells in the lining of blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, as well as in the immune response and neurotransmission. In the medical field, NO is often studied in relation to cardiovascular disease, as it is involved in the regulation of blood vessel dilation and constriction. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. NO is also used in medical treatments, such as in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, where it is used to enhance blood flow to the penis. It is also used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, where it helps to relax blood vessels in the lungs and improve blood flow. Overall, NO is a critical molecule in the body that plays a vital role in many physiological processes, and its study and manipulation have important implications for the treatment of various medical conditions.
Vascular diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. These diseases can affect any part of the circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest blood vessels in the body. Some common examples of vascular diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. 2. Arteriosclerosis: A condition in which the walls of the arteries become thickened and stiff, reducing blood flow and increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. 3. Peripheral artery disease: A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and feet become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and other symptoms. 4. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the legs, and can travel to the lungs and cause a life-threatening condition called pulmonary embolism. 5. Varicose veins: Abnormal, enlarged veins that often appear on the legs and are caused by weakened valves in the veins that allow blood to flow backward. 6. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition in which the blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict, leading to numbness, tingling, and sometimes pain. Vascular diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as smoking, poor diet, and lack of exercise), and underlying medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol). Treatment for vascular diseases may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Renal artery obstruction is a medical condition in which there is a blockage or narrowing of the renal artery, which is the main blood vessel that supplies blood to the kidneys. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), fibromuscular dysplasia (a condition in which the walls of the arteries become thick and abnormal), renal artery stenosis (narrowing of the renal artery), or kidney stones that have moved and become lodged in the renal artery. Renal artery obstruction can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, which can cause damage to the kidneys and impair their ability to filter waste products from the blood. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including blood in the urine, high blood pressure, and kidney failure. Treatment for renal artery obstruction may include medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol, angioplasty (a procedure in which a balloon is inflated to widen a narrowed or blocked artery), or surgery to remove the blockage or repair the damaged artery.
Coronary disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In severe cases, coronary disease can lead to a heart attack, which occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. Coronary disease is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
An aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the wall of a blood vessel, typically a artery. It occurs when the weakened wall of the vessel balloons out and becomes distended, creating a sac-like structure. Aneurysms can occur in any part of the body, but they are most commonly found in the brain, aorta, and legs. Aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), trauma, and genetic predisposition. They can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any symptoms, or they can cause symptoms such as headache, neck pain, visual changes, or weakness or numbness in the extremities. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a life-threatening bleeding episode. Treatment for aneurysms depends on the size, location, and risk of rupture. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging studies, while larger aneurysms or those at high risk of rupture may require surgical repair or endovascular coiling, a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the aneurysm and a coil is placed to fill the sac and prevent further expansion.
Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances that accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. As the plaque builds up, it can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Atherosclerosis can also affect the arteries that supply blood to the brain, legs, kidneys, and other organs, leading to a range of health problems such as peripheral artery disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of the condition.
In the medical field, "aneurysm, false" refers to a condition where a blood vessel in the brain is weakened and bulges outwards, but it is not a true aneurysm. A true aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel that can rupture and cause bleeding in the brain, which can be life-threatening. A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a bulge in a blood vessel that is caused by trauma or surgery, but it is not a true aneurysm because the blood vessel wall is not weakened. False aneurysms are typically smaller than true aneurysms and are less likely to rupture, but they can still cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment for a false aneurysm may involve medications to reduce blood pressure and prevent further bleeding, or surgery to repair the blood vessel. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have a false aneurysm, as it can be a serious condition if left untreated.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the transmission of signals between neurons in the nervous system. It is synthesized from the amino acid choline and is stored in vesicles within nerve cells. When an electrical signal reaches the end of a nerve cell, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the nerve cell and the next cell it communicates with. Acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the surface of the receiving cell, causing a change in its electrical activity. Acetylcholine is involved in a wide range of bodily functions, including muscle movement, memory, and learning. It is also important for the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. In the medical field, acetylcholine is used as a diagnostic tool to study the function of the nervous system, particularly in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. It is also used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain conditions, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, by increasing the activity of the affected nerves.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.
Arteriosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and thickening of the walls of arteries due to the buildup of plaque. This buildup can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. The process of arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of fatty deposits, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries. Over time, these deposits can harden and form plaques, which can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow. The plaques can also rupture, causing blood clots that can block blood flow and lead to serious complications. Arteriosclerosis is a common condition that can affect people of all ages, but it is more likely to occur in older adults and people with certain risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for arteriosclerosis typically involves lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to lower blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove plaque or open blocked arteries.
Subclavian steal syndrome is a condition in which blood flow from the aorta to the upper extremities is blocked or reduced, causing blood to flow in the opposite direction through the subclavian artery. This can lead to symptoms such as weakness, numbness, and pain in the arm, as well as decreased blood flow to the brain, which can cause dizziness, fainting, and even stroke. Subclavian steal syndrome is typically caused by a blockage in the subclavian artery, which can be due to atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the arteries, or a blood clot. Treatment may involve medications to dissolve the clot or surgery to open the blocked artery.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Carotid artery injuries refer to damage or trauma to the carotid artery, which is one of the main arteries in the neck that supplies blood to the brain. These injuries can occur as a result of blunt or penetrating trauma to the neck, such as from a car accident, gunshot wound, or surgical procedure. Carotid artery injuries can be life-threatening because they can lead to a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can cause stroke or other serious neurological complications. Symptoms of carotid artery injuries may include neck pain, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, and loss of consciousness. Diagnosis of carotid artery injuries typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment may involve surgical repair or replacement of the damaged artery, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect you or someone else may have a carotid artery injury.
Ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to a particular part of the body. This can happen when the blood vessels that supply blood to the affected area become narrowed or blocked, either due to a physical obstruction or a decrease in blood pressure. Ischemia can affect any part of the body, but it is most commonly associated with the heart and brain. In the heart, ischemia can lead to a condition called angina, which is characterized by chest pain or discomfort. If the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked, it can result in a heart attack. In the brain, ischemia can cause a stroke, which can lead to permanent damage or even death if not treated promptly. Ischemia can also occur in other organs, such as the kidneys, limbs, and intestines, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the affected area. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blockage or narrowing of the blood vessels, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. These vessels include the arteries and veins in the arms, legs, pelvis, and abdomen. PVDs can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas, as well as skin changes and ulcers. PVDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Treatment for PVDs depends on the specific condition and may include lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery.
Pathologic constriction refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel or other tubular structure becomes narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow or obstruction of the flow of other substances through the vessel. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, scarring, abnormal growths, or the presence of a foreign object. Pathologic constriction can have serious consequences, depending on the location and severity of the constriction, and may require medical intervention to treat.
Hypercholesterolemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is produced by the liver and is essential for the normal functioning of the body. However, when levels of cholesterol become too high, it can lead to the formation of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems. Hypercholesterolemia can be classified into two types: primary and secondary. Primary hypercholesterolemia is caused by genetic factors and is inherited from one or both parents. Secondary hypercholesterolemia is caused by other medical conditions or lifestyle factors, such as obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and certain medications. The diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia is typically made through blood tests that measure the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hypercholesterolemia typically involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower cholesterol levels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove plaque from the arteries.
Infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a type of stroke that occurs when blood flow to a specific area of the brain is blocked, usually by a blood clot. The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to the front and side of the brain, and when it becomes blocked, it can cause damage to the brain tissue in that area. Symptoms of MCA infarction can include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and loss of balance or coordination. In severe cases, MCA infarction can lead to or even death. Treatment for MCA infarction typically involves medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, as well as rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair any damage to the artery.
Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. It is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. It is also used to treat certain types of anemia, as well as to boost the immune system and improve wound healing. Ascorbic acid is available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and is also used in some prescription medications. However, it is important to note that high doses of ascorbic acid can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and stomach cramps, and may interact with certain medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking ascorbic acid supplements.
The vascular system is responsible for transporting blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs, and removing waste products. Vascular system injuries refer to any damage or disruption to the blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. These injuries can occur as a result of trauma, such as a car accident or gunshot wound, or as a complication of surgery or medical procedures. Vascular system injuries can range from minor to life-threatening and may require immediate medical attention. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the injury, and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.
Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a medical condition in which there is a blockage of blood flow to the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. This can cause vision loss or even blindness if not treated promptly. RAO can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking, and blood clots. There are two types of RAO: central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). CRAO is a more severe condition that affects the main artery to the retina, while BRAO affects a smaller branch artery. Treatment for RAO may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove blood clots, or laser therapy to help blood flow to the retina.
Carotid artery thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the carotid artery, which is one of the major arteries in the neck that supplies blood to the brain. This condition can lead to a stroke or other serious complications if not treated promptly. Carotid artery thrombosis can occur due to various factors, including blood clots that have traveled from other parts of the body, injury or damage to the artery, or underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes. Symptoms of carotid artery thrombosis may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the face or body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, dizziness or loss of balance, and severe headache. If left untreated, carotid artery thrombosis can lead to a stroke, which can cause permanent damage to the brain and other serious complications. Treatment for carotid artery thrombosis typically involves the use of blood-thinning medications to dissolve the clot or prevent it from growing larger, as well as surgery to remove the clot or repair the damaged artery. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have carotid artery thrombosis.
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. There are three main types of NOS: endothelial NOS (eNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS). eNOS is primarily found in the endothelial cells that line blood vessels and is responsible for producing NO in response to various stimuli, such as shear stress, hormones, and neurotransmitters. NO produced by eNOS helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow, which is important for maintaining cardiovascular health. nNOS is found in neurons and is involved in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. iNOS is induced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of NO in immune cells and other tissues. Abnormal regulation of NOS activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate NOS activity is an important area of research in the medical field.
Arginine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the human body. It is an essential amino acid, meaning that it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, arginine is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Erectile dysfunction: Arginine is a precursor to nitric oxide, which helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow to the penis, leading to improved sexual function. 2. Cardiovascular disease: Arginine has been shown to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressure and improving the function of the endothelium, the inner lining of blood vessels. 3. Wound healing: Arginine is involved in the production of collagen, a protein that is essential for wound healing. 4. Immune function: Arginine is involved in the production of antibodies and other immune system components, making it important for maintaining a healthy immune system. 5. Cancer: Arginine has been shown to have anti-cancer properties and may help to slow the growth of tumors. However, it is important to note that the use of arginine as a supplement is not without risks, and it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a protein that is produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is a nonspecific marker of inflammation and is often used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field. CRP levels can be measured in the blood using a blood test. Elevated levels of CRP are often seen in people with infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP levels can also be elevated in response to other factors such as exercise, injury, and stress. In addition to its diagnostic role, CRP has also been studied as a potential predictor of future health outcomes. For example, high levels of CRP have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other chronic conditions. Overall, CRP is an important biomarker in the medical field that can provide valuable information about a person's health and help guide treatment decisions.
Homocysteine is an amino acid that is produced when the body breaks down the protein methionine. It is a normal component of the body's metabolism, but high levels of homocysteine in the blood can be a risk factor for a number of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and cognitive decline. Homocysteine is formed when the body breaks down the amino acid methionine, which is an essential nutrient that is obtained through the diet. Methionine is converted into homocysteine by an enzyme called methionine synthase, which requires vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate to function properly. If the body does not have enough of these vitamins, the conversion of methionine to homocysteine can be impaired, leading to elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood. High levels of homocysteine in the blood are known as hyperhomocysteinemia. This condition is associated with an increased risk of a number of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and cognitive decline. Hyperhomocysteinemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, certain medical conditions, and poor diet. It is important to maintain healthy levels of homocysteine through a balanced diet and appropriate supplementation with vitamins B6, B12, and folate.
Cholesterol, LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) is a type of cholesterol that is commonly referred to as "bad" cholesterol. It is one of the two main types of cholesterol found in the blood, the other being HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) or "good" cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is produced by the liver and carries cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body, such as the muscles and the brain. However, when there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaques. These plaques can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems. Therefore, high levels of LDL cholesterol are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and doctors often recommend lifestyle changes and medications to lower LDL cholesterol levels in patients with high levels.
Carotid stenosis is a medical condition in which the carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked. This can lead to a reduced flow of blood to the brain, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, and difficulty speaking or thinking. Carotid stenosis is typically caused by the buildup of plaque in the walls of the artery, which can thicken and harden over time. Other risk factors for carotid stenosis include high blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for carotid stenosis may include medication to manage symptoms and prevent further narrowing of the artery, or surgery to remove the plaque and restore blood flow to the brain.
Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is a medical condition that occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to the legs, arms, stomach, and other parts of the body become narrowed or blocked due to atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the arteries. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the affected area, which can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs and feet, especially during physical activity. PAD is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and it is more common in older adults, smokers, and people with diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.，PAD，、、。
In the medical field, "Wounds, Penetrating" refers to injuries that involve a break in the skin or other body tissues caused by an object or force that has penetrated through the skin. These types of wounds can be caused by a variety of objects, including sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass, as well as blunt objects such as hammers or rocks. Penetrating wounds can be classified based on the depth of the injury and the location of the entry and exit wounds. For example, a through-and-through wound is one in which the object passes completely through the body, leaving an entry wound and an exit wound on opposite sides. A blind wound, on the other hand, is one in which the object does not pass completely through the body, leaving only an entry wound. Penetrating wounds can be serious and may require immediate medical attention, as they can cause damage to vital organs or structures within the body. Treatment for penetrating wounds may include cleaning and debriding the wound,（suture）the wound, and administering antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damage to internal organs or structures.
Diabetic Angiopathies refer to a group of circulatory disorders that affect the blood vessels of people with diabetes. These disorders can occur in any part of the body, but are most commonly seen in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. The most common type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic retinopathy, which affects the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. This can lead to vision loss or blindness if left untreated. Another type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic nephropathy, which affects the blood vessels in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure. Diabetic neuropathy, which affects the nerves, is also a common type of diabetic angiopathy. Diabetic angiopathies are caused by damage to the blood vessels that occurs as a result of high blood sugar levels over a long period of time. This damage can lead to the formation of abnormal blood vessels, which can become blocked or leaky, leading to a range of complications. Treatment for diabetic angiopathies typically involves managing blood sugar levels through diet, exercise, and medication, as well as addressing any underlying risk factors such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat more severe cases of diabetic angiopathy.
Bradykinin is a peptide hormone that plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, and pain. It is produced in the body by the breakdown of larger proteins called kinins, which are released from blood vessels and other tissues in response to injury or inflammation. Bradykinin acts on various types of cells in the body, including blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and nerve cells, to cause a range of physiological effects. In the blood vessels, bradykinin causes them to dilate, or widen, which can lead to a drop in blood pressure. It also increases the permeability of blood vessels, allowing fluid and other substances to leak out and cause swelling. In addition to its effects on blood vessels, bradykinin is also involved in the body's inflammatory response. It stimulates the release of other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which can cause redness, swelling, and pain. Overall, bradykinin plays an important role in the body's response to injury and inflammation, and its activity is tightly regulated by various enzymes and other factors in the body.
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide hormone that is primarily produced by endothelial cells in the walls of blood vessels. It plays a key role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel tone, and is also involved in a variety of other physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, inflammation, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). In the medical field, ET-1 is often measured as a biomarker for various cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. It is also used as a therapeutic target in the treatment of these conditions, with drugs such as endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) being developed to block the effects of ET-1 and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, ET-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis, and is being studied as a potential therapeutic target in these conditions as well.
Nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS3) is an enzyme that is primarily found in the endothelial cells of blood vessels. It is responsible for the production of nitric oxide (NO), a gas that plays a crucial role in regulating blood flow and blood pressure. NOS3 is activated by various stimuli, including shear stress, which is caused by the flow of blood through the blood vessels. When activated, NOS3 produces NO, which causes the smooth muscle cells in the blood vessels to relax, allowing blood to flow more easily. This helps to regulate blood pressure and maintain proper blood flow to the body's tissues. In addition to its role in regulating blood flow, NOS3 has been implicated in a number of other physiological processes, including the immune response, neurotransmission, and the development of certain diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Disruptions in NOS3 function have been linked to a number of cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. As a result, NOS3 is an important target for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic is a rare condition that affects the joints and bones. It is characterized by the thickening and hardening of the cartilage that covers the ends of bones, leading to joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. The condition is usually inherited and can affect multiple joints, including the hands, feet, and spine. It is also known as primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy or Brodie's disease. Treatment options for this condition may include pain management, physical therapy, and in severe cases, surgery.
Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.
Carotid artery, internal, dissection is a medical condition in which a tear or a split occurs in the inner lining of the carotid artery, which is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies blood to the brain. This tear can cause a blood clot to form, which can block blood flow to the brain and lead to a stroke. The most common cause of carotid artery dissection is a blow to the neck, such as a fall or a sports injury. Other risk factors include smoking, high blood pressure, and a family history of the condition. Treatment for carotid artery dissection may include medication to dissolve the blood clot, surgery to remove the clot, or angioplasty to open up the artery.
Thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms within a blood vessel. This can occur when the blood flow is slow or when the blood vessel is damaged, allowing the blood to clot. Thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the veins of the legs, which can lead to a condition called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombosis can also occur in the arteries, which can lead to a condition called（arterial thrombosis）. Arterial thrombosis can cause serious complications, such as heart attack or stroke, if the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs or brain. Thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the blood vessel, prolonged immobility, certain medical conditions such as cancer or diabetes, and the use of certain medications such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Treatment for thrombosis depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the clot, but may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, and in some cases, surgical removal of the clot.
In the medical field, "Nails, Malformed" refers to a condition where the nails are not formed properly or are deformed in some way. This can include abnormalities in the shape, size, texture, or color of the nails. Malformed nails can be a sign of a underlying medical condition or can be a result of injury or trauma to the nails or surrounding skin. Treatment for malformed nails depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical procedures.
Coronary stenosis is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked. This can occur due to the buildup of plaque, a fatty substance that can accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. When the arteries become narrowed, it can reduce the amount of blood and oxygen that reaches the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Coronary stenosis is a common condition, particularly in older adults, and can be a serious health concern if left untreated. Treatment options for coronary stenosis may include medications, lifestyle changes, and procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Over time, CAD can also lead to a heart attack if the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked. CAD is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95% of all cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the pancreas may not produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, leading to high blood sugar levels. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, and unexplained weight loss. If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision loss. Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medication to help regulate blood sugar levels. In some cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.
Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, usually by a blood clot. This lack of blood flow can cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to serious complications and even death if not treated promptly. The most common cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. When a plaque ruptures or becomes unstable, it can form a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Other causes of heart attacks include coronary artery spasms, blood clots that travel to the heart from other parts of the body, and certain medical conditions such as Kawasaki disease. Symptoms of a heart attack may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, lightheadedness or dizziness, and pain or discomfort in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. If you suspect that you or someone else is having a heart attack, it is important to call emergency services immediately. Early treatment with medications and possibly surgery can help to reduce the risk of serious complications and improve the chances of a full recovery.
Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a medical condition in which a tear or a split occurs in the inner lining of one of the vertebral arteries, which are blood vessels that supply blood to the brain and spinal cord. This tear can cause a blood clot to form, which can block the flow of blood to the brain and cause a stroke. VAD can occur as a result of a traumatic event, such as a car accident or a sports injury, or it can occur spontaneously without any apparent cause. The risk factors for VAD include a history of head or neck trauma, certain medical conditions such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and the use of certain medications such as blood thinners. Symptoms of VAD may include severe headache, neck pain, dizziness, weakness or numbness in the face or extremities, and loss of vision. Diagnosis of VAD typically involves imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) angiography. Treatment for VAD may involve medication to dissolve the blood clot or prevent further blood clots from forming, as well as surgery to repair the damaged artery. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent long-term complications such as stroke or permanent neurological damage.
Phenylephrine is a medication that is used to treat nasal congestion and other symptoms of the common cold. It is a sympathomimetic drug that works by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages, which helps to reduce swelling and congestion. Phenylephrine is available over-the-counter in a variety of forms, including nasal sprays, tablets, and liquids. It is also sometimes used to treat low blood pressure and to constrict blood vessels in the eyes, such as in the treatment of glaucoma. However, phenylephrine should not be used by people with certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, or glaucoma, as it can worsen these conditions. It is also not recommended for use in children under the age of six, as it can cause serious side effects.
Phentolamine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of conditions, including high blood pressure, Raynaud's disease, and erectile dysfunction. It is a non-selective alpha-adrenergic antagonist, which means that it blocks the action of certain hormones and neurotransmitters that cause blood vessels to constrict. This can help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow to the affected area. Phentolamine is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is usually given as a short-acting medication. It is important to note that phentolamine can cause side effects, including dizziness, headache, and rapid heartbeat, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Deep artery of arm
Inferior ulnar collateral artery
Superior ulnar collateral artery
Trousseau sign of latent tetany
Fascial compartments of arm
Continuous noninvasive arterial pressure
Glossary of medicine
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
Feline arterial thromboembolism
Long thoracic nerve
Medial bicipital groove
Ankle-brachial pressure index
Median nerve palsy
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- However PAD, like coronary artery disease, often doesn't cause symptoms until it is advanced. (footache.com)
- The pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to PVD are similar to those of coronary artery disease (CAD). (medscape.com)
- Real-world approach to comprehensive artificial intelligence-aided CT evaluation of coronary artery disease in 530 patients: A retrospective study. (ottawaheart.ca)
- The efficacy of inspiratory muscle training in patients with coronary artery disease: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. (ottawaheart.ca)
- Whether in coronary or peripheral arteries, response to pharmacological agents and/or to hemodynamic provocation tests is assessed as a measure of endothelial function (2). (escardio.org)
- UBC-Nepal Expedition: Acute alterations in sympathetic nervous activity do not influence brachial artery endothelial function at sea-level and high-altitude. (ljmu.ac.uk)
- OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of shisha smoking on endothelial function compared to cigarettes, using brachial artery ultrasound (BAUS) imaging in asymptomatic young adults with no other cardiovascular risk factors. (who.int)
- They hypothesized (1) that LDMTX would cause no more than a 15% increase in probability of "safety events" (including drops in CD4 count and virologic failure) compared with the background rate, and (2) that reducing inflammation would improve endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery. (natap.org)
- To this end, flow mediated dilatory capability of brachial artery testing, peripheral arterial tonometry, venous occlusion pletismography and study of circulatory markers are non-invasive alternatives to intra-arterial and or intravacular testing. (escardio.org)
- The atherosclerotic process may gradually progress to complete occlusion of medium-sized and large arteries. (medscape.com)
- Blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography), heart rate (electrodcardiogram), oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry), and brachial artery blood flow and shear rate (Duplex ultrasound) were recorded during LBNP, control, and LBPP trials. (ljmu.ac.uk)
- Femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), resting shear rate, and resting blood flow were measured at 0, 1, and 3.5 h. (lww.com)
- Left subclavian artery stenosis. (medscape.com)
- Carrick MM, Morrison CA, Pham HQ, Norman MA, Marvin B, Lee J, Wall MJ, Mattox KL " Modern management of traumatic subclavian artery injuries: a single institution's experience in the evolution of endovascular repair. . (bcm.edu)
- The subclavian artery and brachial plexus both cross over the first rib between these two muscles, with the artery being medial to the plexus. (medscape.com)
- This muscle, lying to the medial side of pronator teres, is the most prominent and may be traced downward to its tendon, which is situated nearer to the radial than to the ulnar border of the front of the wrist and medial to the radial artery. (wikibooks.org)
- Aberrant origin of ulnar artery that potentially changes its normal anatomical relationship is considerable rare. (bvsalud.org)
- While doing the normal dissection of the left upper limb on the 35 year old female cadaver, medical students saw a strangely and superficially placed ulnar artery that arose from the brachial artery way up within the upper part of the middle 3rd of the arm. (bvsalud.org)
- This superficial ulnar artery coursed within the deep brachial and ante-brachial fascia, making it superficial to all flexor muscles of the flexor compartment of the forearm. (bvsalud.org)
- Interscalene nerve block refers to the placement of local anesthetic around the roots or trunks of the brachial plexus at the level of the C6 vertebral body between the anterior and middle scalene muscles. (medscape.com)
- The five roots (anterior rami) of the brachial plexus originate from the spinal nerves of C5-T1. (medscape.com)
- The brachial plexus and nearby structures in the neck. (medscape.com)
- The plexus, artery, and fascial sheath continue down under the clavicle into the axilla. (medscape.com)
- [ 5 ] Muhly and Orebaugh used ultrasound to examine variations in vasculature anatomy around the brachial plexus in the neck. (medscape.com)
- [ 6 ] Scanning revealed an arterial branch adjacent to, or passing directly through, the brachial plexus in the supraclavicular region in 86% of patients. (medscape.com)
- For more information about the relevant anatomy, see Brachial Plexus Anatomy . (medscape.com)
- It originates from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus (C5-T1). (medscape.com)
- It originates at the medial cord of the brachial plexus (C8-T1). (medscape.com)
- Using a standard blood pressure cuff measurements of the pressure in the posterior tibial artery and the dorsalis pedis artery near each ankle are taken and recorded. (footache.com)
- Systolic pressure is measured on the right arm (brachial artery) and both ankles (posterior tibial arteries). (cdc.gov)
- Lower extremities are evaluated over the femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial arteries. (medscape.com)
- A useful way to detect problems in the peripheral arteries is a blood pressure measurement known as the ankle-brachial index. (footache.com)
- The ankle-brachial index, sometimes called the arm-ankle index, compares blood pressure from two locations. (footache.com)
- So an ankle-brachial index is also recommended for people at high risk of developing the disease. (footache.com)
- This gives the ankle-brachial index. (footache.com)
- The normal range for the ankle-brachial index is between 0.90 and 1.30. (footache.com)
- The lower the index, the higher the chances of leg pain while exercising or limb-threatening low blood flow.An ankle-brachial index over 1.30 is usually a sign of stiff, calcium embedded arteries. (footache.com)
- The ankle-brachial index can offer significant information about general cardiovascular health. (footache.com)
- Population: study not conducted in unselected or community-dwelling generally asymptomatic adults (KQ1, KQ2, and KQ3) or study was not conducted in screen-detected or generally asymptomatic adults with PAD or abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) (KQ4 and KQ5). (jamanetwork.com)
- Ankle brachial index combined with Framingham Risk Score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysis. (jamanetwork.com)
- Associations of borderline and low normal ankle-brachial index values with functional decline at 5-year follow-up: the WALCS (Walking and Leg Circulation Study). (jamanetwork.com)
- Screening for peripheral artery disease and cardiovascular disease risk assessment with the ankle-brachial index in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. (jamanetwork.com)
- Flow-mediated dilation was assessed using brachial artery duplex ultrasonography. (who.int)
- The brachial artery coursed normally and bifurcated at the cubital fossa to give radial artery laterally and common interosseous artery medially. (bvsalud.org)
- To test for peripheral artery disease, blood pressure is measured in two arteries that supply the foot using a blood-pressure cuff and an ultrasound probe. (footache.com)
- In all them a brachial artery Doppler ultrasound was done, measuring before and after hyperaemic stimulus of the arterial diameter (AD), the pulsatility index (PI), and the resistive index (RI). (bvsalud.org)
- Brachial artery diameters and blood velocities were obtained by means of high-resolution ultrasound machine. (actapress.com)
- To map the brachial artery with the ultrasound, position the probe cross-sectionally, and begin scanning the inner side of the upper arm, starting at the insertion of the bicep and proceeding proximally. (jove.com)
- Gutton et al examined 146 different brachial plexuses with ultrasound and found the following: 36% had an intramuscular passage of a root, 8% had a C5 root ahead of the anterior scalene muscle, and 23% had an artery crossing the roots or trunks. (medscape.com)
- Associations of depressive symptoms and brachial artery reactivity among police officers. (cdc.gov)
- Among 13,725 VAERS reports reviewed, 97% were classified as nonserious and 3% as serious, † including three reports among women of cases of thrombosis in large arteries or veins accompanied by thrombocytopenia during the second week after vaccination. (cdc.gov)
- Peripheral arteries are essential to good health for the kidneys, intestines, and legs. (footache.com)
- Atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction are diffuse disease processes affecting coronary and peripheral arteries, hence, the physiological basis in assessing endothelium-dependent vasomotion in peripheral vessels. (escardio.org)
- Use the color flow mode to confirm the location of the artery, considering the direction of the transducer when interpreting the color and pulsatility to ensure the assessment of the artery and not the vein. (jove.com)
- Within the interscalene region, an artery was identified coursing in a lateral direction in 90% of cases, while a corresponding small vein, coursing medial to lateral in this area, was noted in 46% of cases. (medscape.com)
- Current or history of CVD disease (heart attack, stroke, heart failure, cardiomyopathy or peripheral artery disease, heart angioplasty/stent or bypass surgery, valve replacement, carotid endarterectomy, heart transplant. (who.int)
- Beber bebidas con cafeína, incluido el té negro, ayuda a aumentar la presión arterial en las personas mayores que tienen presión arterial baja después de comer. (medlineplus.gov)
- Symptoms of PAD (peripheral artery disease) include pain or cramping in the calves, thighs, hips, or buttocks when walking, climbing stairs, or exercising that fades with rest. (footache.com)
- Peripheral artery disease causes suffering, disability, and sometimes death among the millions of Americans who have it. (footache.com)
- Comparing blood pressure at the arm and ankle can reveal peripheral artery disease. (footache.com)
- A large difference between the two can signal the presence of peripheral artery disease. (footache.com)
- Setting: study not conducted in a country relevant to US practice or was conducted or recruited from hospital or specialty settings such as vascular clinics or laboratories that typically represented populations selected for known or highly suspected peripheral artery disease (PAD). (jamanetwork.com)
- McDermott MM. Lower extremity manifestations of peripheral artery disease: the pathophysiologic and functional implications of leg ischemia. (jamanetwork.com)
- 2016 AHA/ACC guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. (jamanetwork.com)
- The Ankle Brachial Blood Pressure Index section of the Lower Extremity Disease component collects data on peripheral vascular disease and the Peripheral Neuropathy section of the Lower Extremity Disease component collects data on peripheral neuropathy. (cdc.gov)
- Press your fingers there to feel the rhythmic pulse that moves through the artery. (md-health.com)
- Objective To examine whether GLP-1 and insulin act additively on skeletal and cardiac microvasculature and conduit artery. (medscape.com)
- Beating heart multi-vessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting: techniques and pitfalls. (ottawaheart.ca)
- The stethoscope, seen in the background, is then used by the clinician, who listens for the sounds produced within the brachial artery, as the blood resumes its circulation through this vessel, when the pressure upon the upper arm is reduced within the cuff. (cdc.gov)
- Exploration of the brachial artery's flow mediated dilatory capability is the most commonly used technique. (escardio.org)
- High-resolution vascular ultra-sound investigation of the brachial artery before and during reactive hyperaemia (1) shows vasodilatation from the release of nitric oxide as a response to stress induced during increased blood flow. (escardio.org)
- [ 14 ] Recent evidence confirms that GLP-1 exerts a potent vasodilatory effect on the conduit and resistance arteries as well as terminal arterioles to significantly increase total muscle blood flow and muscle microvascular perfusion in rats and in healthy humans. (medscape.com)
- These data indicate that acute and mild changes in SNA do not directly influence brachial artery FMD at SL or HA. (ljmu.ac.uk)
- If the participant has a rash or open wound on the right arm, dialysis shunt, right-sided radical mastectomy or any other condition that would interfere with accurate measurement or would cause discomfort to the participant, the left arm is used for the brachial pressure measurement. (cdc.gov)
- La présente étude sur les patients en soins intensifs néonataux a pour objectif de définir l'emplacement de la sonde oxymétrique afin d'obtenir les relevés les plus fiables et les plus précis de la saturation en oxygène (SpO2). (who.int)
- In a healthy circulatory system, blood pressure measured at the brachial artery in the crook of the arm (which is near the heart) is a good indicator of blood pressure elsewhere in the body. (footache.com)
- But when blood must travel through stiff or cholesterol-clogged arteries, the pressure at sites further from the heart can differ from that in the arm. (footache.com)
- Generally, individuals will struggle with this technique, because they cannot obtain a good brachial artery image, requiring an adequate level of skill and practice for reliable results. (jove.com)
- INT RODUCTIO N: Th e eld erly h ypert en si ve pa ti ent s of ten h aveincreased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and their attendantco-morbidities. (bvsalud.org)