A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Diseases of plants.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE with a wide host range. Transmission is by aphids and the type species is ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
BPMV) as plants infected with both viruses show drastically more severe symptoms than plants infected with only one virus. SMV ... "Soybean mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus". WISCONSIN FIELD CROPS PATHOLOGY. Retrieved 2017-12-11. Maroof, Saghai; A, M.; ... Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of the plant virus genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae). It infects mainly plants ... Calvert LA, Ghabrial SA (1983). "Enhancement by Soybean mosaic virus of Bean pod mottle virus Titer in Doubly Infected Soybean ...
BPMV can interact with the soybean mosaic virus to create severe symptoms in plants infected by both viruses. BPMV may also be ... Bean Pod Mottle Virus. Fundamentals:. Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is widespread viral disease in the U.S soybean growing areas ... The causal agent of BPMV is a virus. The disease is transmitted by leaf-feeding beetles, such as the bean leaf beetle and the ... The virus can also be transmitted sap and by infected seed, but seed transmission rates are very low and have been estimated to ...
BPMV) is a virus disease spread primarily by the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata. Seed transmission is al ... Bean Pod Mottle Virus. The mosaic pattern in these soybean leaves is due to infection by Bean pod mottle virus. Photo credit: ... A synergistic reaction occurs when plants are infected with both BPMV and Soybean mosaic virus. Reduction in yield is much ... Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a virus disease spread primarily by the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata. Seed ...
2], soybean, mosaic-virus, cerotoma-trifurcata, injury, iowa, phomopsis, infection, disease, glycine, seeds, gene. Summary:Bean ... pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a management concern for Soybean, Glycine max (L.), producers in the North Central states because it ... Bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) management for reduction of bean pod mottle virus [1]. Paper:43. Year:2004. ... The main vector of BPMV is the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). An experiment was conducted in 2000 and 2001 at ...
... A. E. Dorrance , D. T. Gordon , and A. F. Schmitthenner , Department ... isolate of BPMV and to an Ohio isolate of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) prepared in 1967, both stored at −20°C. Diseased and non- ... Previous surveys in Ohio of viruses infecting soybean failed to identify Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) and soybean virus ... by ELISA and for Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) by a host-range symptom assay; SMV, BYMV and ...
Early symptoms of soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) are light green to yellow patches near the main leaf veins. Learn more ... bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) or other soybean viruses or pathogens. ... Soybean growth and yield may be severely reduced in susceptible varieties or where infections occur with soybean mosaic virus ( ... Thrips acquire the virus, resulting in virus transmission throughout their life.. *Infected thrips feed on soybean plants ...
... a group of picornavirus-like plant viruses. The X-ray structure of RCMV strain S has been determined and refined to 2.4 A. The ... overall structure of RCMV is similar to that of two other comoviruses, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and Bean pod … ... Red clover mottle virus (RCMV) is a member of the comoviruses, ... Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). ... Red clover mottle virus (RCMV) is a member of the comoviruses, a group of picornavirus-like plant viruses. The X-ray structure ...
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) are two of the most prevalent viruses affecting soybean production ... Within-field temporal and spatial dynamics in the Soybean mosaic virus - aphid and Bean pod mottle virus - beetle soybean ... Rates of temporal spread for BPMV were very similar and ranged from 0.5 to 0.13 logits per day (with doubling times of 14.1 to ... worldwide, resulting in losses of up to 35% (SMV) and 52% (BPMV). Both viruses are vectored by insects (aphids and bean leaf ...
BPMV) as plants infected with both viruses show drastically more severe symptoms than plants infected with only one virus. SMV ... "Soybean mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus". WISCONSIN FIELD CROPS PATHOLOGY. Retrieved 2017-12-11. Maroof, Saghai; A, M.; ... Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of the plant virus genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae). It infects mainly plants ... Calvert LA, Ghabrial SA (1983). "Enhancement by Soybean mosaic virus of Bean pod mottle virus Titer in Doubly Infected Soybean ...
Differentiation Study between Alfalfa Mosaic Virus and Red Clover Mottle Virus Affecting Broad Bean by Biological and Molecular ... Squash mosaic virus of RdRp (SqMV-RdRp, CAG27555), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV-R, ABP96717), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV-P, ... Bean pod mottle virus of subgroup II (BPMV-II, AAW69769), Radish mosaic virus isolate 1 (RaMV1, ACE06773), Radish mosaic virus ... Radish mosaic virus of California strain (RaMV-Ca, BAG84602), Radish mosaic virus (RaMV-R, AAY32935), Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV ...
... subgrouping of comoviruses by structural studies of red clover mottle virus to 2.4-A resolution and comparisons with other ... Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). The sequence of the coat proteins of RCMV strain O were modeled ... Virus Genes 18(2): 129-137, 1999. Nucleotide sequence and genetic map of cowpea severe mosaic virus RNA 2 and comparisons with ... Cowpea mosaic virus-encoded protease does not recognize primary translation products of M RNAs from other comoviruses. Journal ...
... or infected with both BPMV and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and in transgenic soybean plants expressing SMV helper component- ... Soybean mosaic virus Infection and Helper Component-protease Enhance Accumulation of Bean pod mottle virus-Specific siRNAs * ... Soybean plants infected with Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) develop acute symptoms that usually decrease in severity over time. ... Plants infected with both BPMV and SMV and BPMV-infected transgenic soybean plants expressing SMV HC-Pro exhibited severe ...
Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly thirty ... Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly thirty ... its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. The challenge and ... its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. The challenge and ...
... virus B (GVB), Grapevine virus D (GVD), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV ... Moreover, the BRMV-PR isolate showed 39 and 44% homology with CPSMV and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), respectively. This work ... Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV ... Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) has been found in mixed infections with Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) increasing the severity ...
BPMV) is the most prevalent virus infecting soybean (1). Other soybean-infecting viruses in Illinois include Alfalfa mosaic ... Alfalfa mosaic virus, B = Bean pod mottle virus, Sb = Soybean dwarf virus, Sm = Soybean mosaic virus, Tr = Tobacco ringspot ... virus (AMV), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and Tobacco streak virus ( ... In the intensive surveys, BPMV, SbDV, and AMV were the three most frequently detected viruses in commercial soybean fields (Fig ...
Assessing the Distribution and Impact of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) as a Re-emerging Virus, and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) in ... The relationship of peanut stunt virus to cucumber mosaic virus and aspermy viruses of tomato and chrysanthemum  Groelke, John ... Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV, Genus Comovirus, Family: Comoviridae)is an important virus in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), ... Mixed Infection of Strawberry Mottle Virus and Strawberry Mild Yellow Edge Virus in the Southeastern United States  Samtani, ...
Plant infection by BPMV and soybean mosaic virus (SMV), vectored by soybean aphid, may cause severe dwarfing, foliar distortion ... Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) Figure 17. Soybean mosaic virus symptoms. Picture courtesy of Daren Mueller, Iowa State University, ... Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) Figure 16. Bean pod mottle virus symptoms on soybean leaf. Picture courtesy of Edward Sikora, ... Plant infection by SMV and bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), vectored by bean leaf beetle, may cause severe dwarfing, foliar ...
Assessing the Distribution and Impact of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) as a Re-emerging Virus, and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) in ... The relationship of peanut stunt virus to cucumber mosaic virus and aspermy viruses of tomato and chrysanthemum  Groelke, John ... Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV, Genus Comovirus, Family: Comoviridae)is an important virus in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), ... another virus, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was identified from Dameâ s Rocket (Hesperis matronalis L.). This is the first report ...
... barley stripe mosaic virus, BSMV (Holzberg et al., 2002); bean pod mottle virus, BPMV (Zhang and Ghabrial, 2006); pea early ... poplar mosaic virus, PopMV (Naylor et al., 2005); brome mosaic virus, BMV (Ding et al., 2006); and tomato bushy stunt virus, ... tobacco mosaic virus, TMV (Kumagai et al., 1995); potato virus X, PVX (Faivre-Rampant et al., 2004); tobacco rattle virus, TRV ... TBSV (Hou and Qiu, 2003)) and DNA viruses (tobacco golden mosaic virus, TGMV (Peele et al., 2001); cabbage leaf curl virus, ...
Bean Mild Mosaic Virus - BMMV poly-poly DAS ELISA. Bean Pod Mottle Virus - BPMV poly-poly DAS ELISA ... African Cassava Mosaic Virus ACMV, Bean Golden Mosaic Virus BGMV, East African Cassava Mosaic Virus EACMV, Indian Cassava ... Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus - White Lupin Mosaic Strain - BYMV-wlm poly-poly DAS ELISA ... Papaya Ringspot Virus (aka. Watermelon Mosaic Virus 1) - PRSV poly-poly DAS ELISA ...
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most prevalent and destructive viral pathogens of soybean worldwide. This soybean ... Similarly to bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), SMV predisposes soybeans to infections by Phomopsis spp. In North Carolina, SMV is ... Soybean mosaic is caused by the single-stranded positive-sense RNA soybean mosaic virus (SMV). SMV is a member of the genus ... Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) was first reported affecting soybean (Glycine max L.) in 1915 in Connecticut, but currently is one ...
BPMV and the previously introduced cowpea mosaic virus, both comoviruses, showed some contrasting differences in requirements ... The protoplasts were inoculated with bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) using a medium consisting of 0.4 m-sorbitol, virus, poly-l- ... When virus was preincubated for 15 min with CaCl2 or MgCl2 prior to inoculation, both at 0.5 mm or with potassium phosphate ... A combination of PLO and CaCl2 had what appeared to be a synergistic effect in enhancing infection, especially at low virus ...
Reported here is the construction of a Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-driven BPMV vector that is efficient for the study ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae, in the genus Ilavirus. It has a wide host range, with at least 200 ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), also known as Lucerne mosaic virus or Potato calico virus, is a worldwide distributed phytopathogen ... Bean pod mottle virus, or BPMV, is a species of plant pathogenic virus in the family Secoviridae. It is known to infect soybean ... Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. It is the type member of the plant virus ...
... virus Pea mild mosaic virus Quail peamosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Red clover mottle virus Squash mosaic virus APMV BPMV ... virus Bean podmottle virus Bean rugose mosaic virus Broad bean stain virus Broad bean true mosaic virus Cowpea mosaic virus ... cucumber mosaic virus)and ilarviruses (e.g. tobacco streak virus). Viruses of the other subclass of positive-strand RNA viruses ... tobacco mosaic virus), tymoviruses (e.g. turnip yellow mosaic virus), bromoviruses (e.g. bromemosaic virus), cucumoviruses (e.g ...
... cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV, X00206 = CAA25029), cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, M83830), cucurbit mild mosaic virus (CuMMV, ... bean pod mottle virus (BPMV, U70866 = U70866), beet ringspot virus (BRSV, D00322 = BAA00234), Bellflower vein chlorosis virus ( ... cowpea mosaic virus, bean pod mottle virus and red clover mottle virus) and three nepoviruses (tobacco ringspot virus, ... Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.. Dioscorea mosaic associated virus, recently isolated ...
... cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV, X00206 = CAA25029), cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV, M83830), cucurbit mild mosaic virus (CuMMV, ... bean pod mottle virus (BPMV, U70866 = U70866), beet ringspot virus (BRSV, D00322 = BAA00234), Bellflower vein chlorosis virus ( ... cowpea mosaic virus, bean pod mottle virus and red clover mottle virus) and three nepoviruses (tobacco ringspot virus, ... cowpea mosaic virus van Wezenbeek, (RNA-1: X00206; RNA-2: X00729), species Cowpea mosaic virus, genus Comovirus ...
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), ... Alfalfa mosaic virus; Bean yellow mosaic virus; Cowpea mild mottle virus; Cowpea severe mosaic virus; Cucumber mosaic virus; ... Bean pod mottle virus, etc ; Bean common mosaic virus; Glycine max; Soybean mosaic virus; Watermelon mosaic virus; crops; ... Bean pod mottle virus, etc ; Bean common mosaic virus; Phaseolus vulgaris; RNA; Soybean mosaic virus; Watermelon mosaic virus; ...
... with tropical soda apple mosaic virus, pepper mild mottle virus, and opuntia tobamovirus 2 being the most common species. ... Seventeen complete virus genomes could be assembled, and phylogenetic analyses showed a large diversity of virus strains ... In this work, we report that plant viruses can also be found frequently in the gut and oropharynx of children during their ... In 100% of the fecal samples and 65% of the oropharynx samples at least one plant virus was identified. Tobamoviruses in the ...
In cases of viral infections, hyaline bleeding such as with this soybean mosaic virus can occur. ... Bean Pod Mottle (BPMV). After Planting: 0-1 Month through Bloom to Pod Fill. ... Adults also transmit bean pod mottle virus, which reduces both soybean quality and yield and also causes green stem and delays ...
More importantly, inoculated plants showed no apparent virus disease symptoms which could otherwise interfere with VIGS ... we modified the inoculation procedure of a VIGS vector based on Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV). The efficacy of this new ... Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful genomics tool for interrogating the function of plant genes. Unfortunately, ... For instance, the most widely used VIGS vector for soybean, based on the Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), requires a modified BPMV ...
  • cowpea failed to express local lesions and cucumber systemic mosaic characteristic of TRSV infection and the two Phaseolus cultivars the yellow mosaic characteristic of BYMV infection. (apsnet.org)
  • The X-ray structure of RCMV strain S has been determined and refined to 2.4 A. The overall structure of RCMV is similar to that of two other comoviruses, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). (nih.gov)
  • BPMV and the previously introduced cowpea mosaic virus, both comoviruses, showed some contrasting differences in requirements for PLO, pH optimum and temperature. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 5. De conclusie van Peng en Shih (1984)dathet door B-RNA van cowpea mosaic virusgecodeerde 87K eiwit afkomstig is van het amino-eindstandige gedeelte van het 170K precursoreiwit is niet alleen fout, maar de door hen verkregen resultaten ondersteunen juist de conclusie van Rezelman et al. (exploredoc.com)
  • and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) can infect more than 1200 plant species in 100 families, including many vegetables and ornamentals ( Zitter and Murphy, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV), Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV), Potato virus Y (PVY) and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). (online-rpd.org)
  • In addition, plants infected with bean pod mottle virus may be predisposed to seed infection by Phomopsis fungi that also reduce seed quality. (umn.edu)
  • Infection is also favored by high populations of bean leaf or other beetles that transmit the virus. (umn.edu)
  • The mosaic pattern in these soybean leaves is due to infection by Bean pod mottle virus. (uwex.edu)
  • The impact of BPMV on yield depends upon the time of virus infection. (uwex.edu)
  • Presence of leaf symptoms: mottled, crinkled leaf symptoms typical of virus infection. (uwex.edu)
  • However, be aware that leaf symptoms are not a consistent indicator of virus infection. (uwex.edu)
  • Varieties differ in the rate of BPMV infection. (uwex.edu)
  • Symptoms are usually more obvious on young, rapidly growing leaves and are variable depending on the host genotype, virus strain, plant age at the moment of infection and the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcome of a virus infection on a plant is determined both by the genotype of the virus and that of the plant. (frontiersin.org)
  • A concentration of 0.5 × 10 5 to 1.0 × 10 5 protoplasts per ml was optimum for efficient virus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A combination of PLO and CaCl 2 had what appeared to be a synergistic effect in enhancing infection, especially at low virus concentrations. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • When virus was preincubated for 15 min with CaCl 2 or MgCl 2 prior to inoculation, both at 0.5 m m or with potassium phosphate buffer at 10 m m pH 5.6, infection of protoplasts was significantly increased over virus which had not been preincubated. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although previous studies revealed that staygreen can be induced when pods/seeds are damaged, it is unknown whether virus infection or insect infestation causes staygreen. (usda.gov)
  • Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is found in many soybean production areas, and SMV infection is one of the prevalent viral diseases that can cause significant yield losses in soybean. (usda.gov)
  • Another limitation of the BPMV and other VIGS systems are the foliar symptoms that develop due to virus infection such as chlorosis, necrosis, and leaf distortion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a series of research studies addressing the role of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in green stem concluded that green stem is not consistently associated with BPMV infection (see Hobbs et al Green Stem Disorder of Soybean ). (soybeanresearchinfo.com)
  • Virus-derived long sRNAs strongly resemble insect piRNAs, leading to the speculation that the piRNA pathway is induced in response to viral infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sap was assayed for the presence of BPMV using an alkaline phosphatase-labeled double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA) for BPMV (AgDia Inc., Elkhart, IN). (apsnet.org)
  • Soybeans can be infected with more than one virus at the same time. (uwex.edu)
  • This timing increases the chance of BPMV transmission to soybeans. (uwex.edu)
  • During 1999, producers in Ohio noticed virus-like symptoms in soybeans in a few isolated locations. (apsnet.org)
  • Thrips must feed on infected weeds, other crop hosts or infected soybeans to acquire the virus and be capable of transmitting it. (pioneer.com)
  • Similarly to bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), SMV predisposes soybeans to infections by Phomopsis spp. (ncsu.edu)
  • Nucleic acid sequence analysis of smallest and biggest bands revealed of 100 and 95% sequence identity with other Red Clover Mottle Virus (RCMV) and Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV) isolates, respectively. (scialert.net)
  • Other soybean-infecting viruses in Illinois include Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and Tobacco streak virus (TSV). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • BPMV can interact with the soybean mosaic virus to create severe symptoms in plants infected by both viruses. (umn.edu)
  • Cool temperatures favor development of BPMV symptoms. (umn.edu)
  • Another sign of virus tolerance is if a variety has had significant bean leaf beetle feeding yet few, if any, virus symptoms. (uwex.edu)
  • Were virus symptoms (leaf mottling, discolored seed, delayed maturity) present this year? (uwex.edu)
  • Early symptoms of soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) are light green to yellow (chlorotic) patches near main leaf veins, where thrips fed. (pioneer.com)
  • Trifoliate leaves show distinct mosaic and mottling symptoms with light and dark green areas that later can become raised or blistered along the main veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to identifying the causal virus (es) inducing wilting and necrotic symptoms on broad bean plants. (scialert.net)
  • and (iii) one randomly selected leaflet from 10 plants with virus-like symptoms from either the lower or upper part of the plant. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • SMV symptoms vary across host genotype, virus strain, and the plant growth stage when infected. (ncsu.edu)
  • Common symptoms include, trifoliolate leaves with a light and dark green mosaic, chlorosis between dark green areas, and leaf curled downward ( Figure 1 ). (ncsu.edu)
  • Seeds of affected plants may also have mottling symptoms that can be attributed to SMV or bean pod mottle virus ( Figure 2 ). (ncsu.edu)
  • Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic. (ictvonline.org)
  • More importantly, inoculated plants showed no apparent virus disease symptoms which could otherwise interfere with VIGS phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bean pod mottle virus symptoms are commonly confused with herbicide injury and can resemble symptoms of other viruses. (sdstate.edu)
  • Symptoms associated with BPMV include mild to severe chlorotic mottling or mosaic and rugosity (distortion or wrinkling) on foliage (Figure 3), stunting, and delayed maturity. (sdstate.edu)
  • The RCMV is a member of the genus Comovirus , family Secoviridae, which represents nonenveloped plant viruses with icosahedral capsids and bipartite, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes. (scialert.net)
  • By comparing the RCMV structure with that of other comoviruses, a structural fingerprint at the N terminus of the small subunit was identified which allowed subgrouping of comoviruses into CPMV-like and BPMV-like viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Last but not least wil ik jullie bedanken, alhoewel jullie geheel buiten het CPMV-gebeuren stonden, toch de ups en downs die aan het promotieonderzoek verbonden waren, met mij hebben gedeeld. (exploredoc.com)
  • Belongs to the genus Tospovirus , a group of plant viruses normally transmitted by thrips. (pioneer.com)
  • Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of the plant virus genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is dependent on the presence of a helper virus in the genus Waikavirus . (ictvonline.org)
  • For example, Spansoy 201 had less incidence of BPMV throughout a study conducted in the 2002 growing season when compared to Spansoy 250. (uwex.edu)
  • Partial resistance is expressed as acceptable yield, low seed mottling and a low incidence of green stem in the presence of BPMV. (uwex.edu)
  • We have observed that soybean varieties differ in yield and incidence of mottled soybean seed in the presence of BPMV. (uwex.edu)
  • One aspect of our virus screening is to identify those varieties with a lower incidence that would slow virus spread. (uwex.edu)
  • Delayed spraying at either crop stage can seriously increase incidence of BPMV. (uwex.edu)
  • Application of lambda-cyhalothrin after soybean emergence and again as first-generation bean leaf beetles emerged in northwestern Iowa in 2000 (treatment 3) significantly reduced beetle densities through mid-season, BPMV field incidence by 31.5%, and seed coat mottling by 31.2%, compared with the unsprayed control. (iastate.edu)
  • Feeding by large numbers of these aphids can significantly reduce yields and increase virus incidence (AMV, SbDV, and SMV). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • This study focuses on Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) incidence over time relative to stages of plant growth in selected fields in Alabama. (usda.gov)
  • Incidence of BPMV was typically highest at crop maturity. (usda.gov)
  • Field surveys to investigate the incidence and occurrence pattern of viruses in red pepper were conducted during 2015-2016 in Korea. (online-rpd.org)
  • The average disease incidence was 91.7% in 2015 and 98% in 2016 and the all seven viruses were found although there were different kinds of regions. (online-rpd.org)
  • Modern plant virology commenced at the end of 19th century with the research on tobacco mosaic disease done by Russian scientist Dmittrii Iwanowski and Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck who discovered the causal agent was much smaller in size compared to other microbes because it can pass bacteria-proof filter candle ( Roger, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Later on, this causal agent was termed tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and became the first virus to be defined. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1983)omopgrond vandedoor hen verkregen resultaten teconcluderen dat het eiwit met een molecuul gewichtvan58.000,datzevinden bij in vitro translatievanRNA-2van grapevine fanleaf virus,het manteleiwit vanditvirusis. (exploredoc.com)
  • The majority of known members infect dicotyledonous plants and many are important plant pathogens (e.g. grapevine fanleaf virus and rice tungro spherical virus). (ictvonline.org)
  • Red clover mottle virus (RCMV) is a member of the comoviruses, a group of picornavirus-like plant viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is widespread viral disease in the U.S soybean growing areas that is transmitted by leaf-feeding beetles. (umn.edu)
  • Bean pod mottle virus causes green to yellow mottling of young leaves. (umn.edu)
  • Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a virus disease spread primarily by the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata . (uwex.edu)
  • Treatment thresholds for bean leaf beetle aimed at the prevention of bean pod mottle virus are not yet available. (uwex.edu)
  • Previous surveys in Ohio of viruses infecting soybean failed to identify Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) and soybean virus diseases have rarely caused economic losses (1). (apsnet.org)
  • Soybean growth and yield may be severely reduced in susceptible varieties or where infections occur with soybean mosaic virus (SMV), bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) or other soybean viruses or pathogens. (pioneer.com)
  • In many Midwestern states, including Illinois, Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is the most prevalent virus infecting soybean (1). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Bean pod mottle virus was detected by immunological assays of individual leaf samples. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Assessing the Distribution and Impact of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) as a Re-emerging Virus, and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) in Soybean Grown in Virginia. (vt.edu)
  • The protoplasts were inoculated with bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) using a medium consisting of 0.4 m -sorbitol, virus, poly- l -ornithine (PLO), buffer and inorganic salts. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The species Strawberry mottle virus , Black raspberry virus and Chocolate lily virus A are unassigned in the family but members form a divergent monophyletic group with isolates of Satsuma dwarf virus in phylogenetic trees using the conserved Pro-Pol region. (ictvonline.org)
  • Tobamoviruses in the Virgaviridae family were by far the most frequently detected, with tropical soda apple mosaic virus, pepper mild mottle virus, and opuntia tobamovirus 2 being the most common species. (nature.com)
  • Adults also transmit bean pod mottle virus, which reduces both soybean quality and yield and also causes green stem and delays harvest. (pioneer.com)
  • If you are finding bean leaf beetles in the field, you will also need to scout for Bean pod mottle virus . (sdstate.edu)
  • Common soybean viruses, including Bean pod mottle virus, have been considered one possible cause. (soybeanresearchinfo.com)
  • Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) was first reported affecting soybean ( Glycine max L.) in 1915 in Connecticut, but currently is one of the most prevalent and destructive viral pathogens of soybean worldwide. (ncsu.edu)
  • In this review we summarized the efforts generating viral resistance with SRGE in different crops, analyzed the evolution of the technology, its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plant viruses impose serious threats to wide range of crops in modern agriculture and it is estimated that economic loss caused by viral pathogen ranks the second compared to those caused by other pathogens ( Simon-Mateo and Garcia, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It includes sections on genes encoding avirulence factors of bacteria and fungi, viral coat proteins of plant viruses, chitinase from fungi, virulence factors from nematodes and mycoplasma, insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis , and herbicide tolerance enzymes from bacteria. (b-ok.org)
  • Once the virus has penetrated into the host cells, it uncoats and releases its viral genomic RNA into the cytoplasm and expressed proteins replicate. (wikimili.com)
  • In cases of viral infections, hyaline bleeding such as with this soybean mosaic virus can occur. (pioneer.com)
  • Among these pathogens, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is the most prevalent and destructive viral pathogen in soybean production worldwide ( Hill and Whitham, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Insect anti-viral RNAi machinery is activated to limit virus accumulation, suggesting a role in insect immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most devastating pathogens that cost huge economic losses in soybean production worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • In most subtropical and tropical areas, tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) can cause complete economic loss in a tomato field ( Czosnek and Laterrot, 1997 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The causal agent of BPMV is a virus. (umn.edu)
  • [6] Subgenomic RNA4 is translated producing capsid proteins and the new virus particles are assembled. (wikimili.com)
  • The main vector of BPMV is the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). (iastate.edu)
  • Reported here is the construction of a Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-driven BPMV vector that is efficient for the study of soybean gene function. (enterassked5.icu)
  • The virus may be transmitted by thrips vector, mechanical damage, pollen or dodder. (wikimili.com)
  • To address these shortcomings, we modified the inoculation procedure of a VIGS vector based on Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insecticide Timing Options for Bean Leaf Beetle and BPMV control. (uwex.edu)
  • To prevent transmission of BPMV, an insecticide application must be made in the very early stages (V-V2) of soybean development. (uwex.edu)
  • An experiment was conducted in 2000 and 2001 at two locations in northwestern and central Iowa to test three insecticide treatments for suppression of bean leaf beetles, and subsequently, BPMV. (iastate.edu)
  • The bean leaf beetle obtains the virus from infected seedlings, or from showy tick trefoil outside of soybean fields, and spreads the virus from plant to plant as it feeds. (uwex.edu)
  • This virus is primarily vectored, in the United States, by the bean leaf beetle. (sdstate.edu)
  • When bean leaf beetles feed on BPMV-infected soybean plants, they also ingest the virus and become a carrier (viruliferous). (sdstate.edu)
  • Researchers at Iowa State University have constructed a flowchart to help growers with insect/virus management decisions. (uwex.edu)
  • Virus-infected alternate weed or crop hosts must be present, as well as thrips, the vectoring insect. (pioneer.com)
  • Some waikaviruses are helper viruses for the insect transmission of other viruses, for example, rice tungro spherical virus is the helper virus for rice tungro bacilliform virus (family Caulimoviridae ). (ictvonline.org)
  • The genome organization of strawberry latent ringspot virus is more related to that of cheraviruses (with the exception of the number of CPs) and it groups more closely with cheraviruses than with sadwaviruses in the phylogenetic trees using the Pro-Pol sequence. (ictvonline.org)
  • The genome organization of Soybean mosaic virus . (frontiersin.org)
  • Enveloped viruses, which contain an outer lipoprotein coat, constitute the largest group of pathogenic viruses to humans. (vt.edu)
  • If so, then BPMV is likely a concern for the next crop. (uwex.edu)
  • Worldwide, this crop is known to be naturally infected by about 44 viruses ( Cockbain, 1983 ), which cause considerable yield losses. (scialert.net)
  • Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly 30 years. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to their devastating threat to crop production, plant viruses has been studied extensively since the first virus, TMV, was discovered. (frontiersin.org)
  • The thrips will insert their stylet and "clean" off any virus on their stylet before moving to the target crop. (wikimili.com)
  • A synergistic reaction occurs when plants are infected with both BPMV and Soybean mosaic virus. (uwex.edu)
  • Plant soybean varieties with ability to yield in the presence of BPMV. (uwex.edu)
  • Virus overwinters in southern areas in thrips and in surviving susceptible plant hosts. (pioneer.com)
  • The virus moves systemically throughout the plant and can be detected in all tissues including roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AMV is one of the most biologically variable plant viruses and numerous natural variants having different pathogenicity ( Hajimorad and Francki, 1991 ). (scialert.net)
  • The virus diagnostic capabilities of several plant pathology collaborators within the Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) host countries were evaluated with the aid of a survey. (vt.edu)
  • The subgroup assignments were confirmed by TBIA using CMV subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies (Agdia Inc). At Smithfield Plantation, another virus, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was identified from Dameâ s Rocket (Hesperis matronalis L.). This is the first report of TuMV in Virginia. In TBIA virus-infected plant samples are blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, dried, and processed. (vt.edu)
  • [4] As with many plant viruses, diagnosis is very difficult because TSV has very wide host range and has different effects depending on the host being infected. (wikimili.com)
  • One common form of management for viruses is to plant a desirable host for thrips around the cropping system. (wikimili.com)
  • Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. (wikimili.com)
  • Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. (wikimili.com)
  • Plant viruses have been reported to be common in the gut of human adults, presumably as result of food ingestion. (nature.com)
  • In this work, we report that plant viruses can also be found frequently in the gut and oropharynx of children during their first year of life, even when they are exclusively breast-fed. (nature.com)
  • In 100% of the fecal samples and 65% of the oropharynx samples at least one plant virus was identified. (nature.com)
  • Whether the common presence of plant viruses at an early age influences the infant's immune system, either directly or through interaction with other members of the microbiota, remains to be investigated. (nature.com)
  • Plant viruses are known to be abundant and ubiquitous in nature. (nature.com)
  • In addition to human viruses, we found that plant viruses were commonly present in the gut and the oropharynx of children during their first year of life and, surprisingly, they were found as early as 2-weeks after birth in exclusively breast-fed infants. (nature.com)
  • Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful genomics tool for interrogating the function of plant genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The virus can be obtained with a single bite of an infected plant. (sdstate.edu)
  • Distortion, rugosity, and mottling in a BPMV infected soybean plant. (sdstate.edu)
  • however, the plant remains infected with the virus. (sdstate.edu)
  • SMV and BPMV also interact in a different way: Either one will predispose soy plants to Phomopsis spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the beetle moves throughout the field, it spreads the virus to the healthy plants. (sdstate.edu)
  • [4] Once the virus becomes systemic, it can be transmitted by vectors. (wikimili.com)
  • Soybean leaf samples were assayed using F(ab′) 2 -Protein A ELISA with antiserum prepared in 1968 to a southern U.S. isolate of BPMV and to an Ohio isolate of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) prepared in 1967, both stored at −20°C. Diseased and non-symptomatic soybean leaf samples were ground in 4 ml 0.025M Tris pH 8.0, 0.015M NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20. (apsnet.org)
  • Extracts were tested for BPMV and SMV by ELISA following a protocol described elsewhere (2). (apsnet.org)
  • Complete resistance is not yet available, but partial resistance to BPMV exists in soybean varieties. (uwex.edu)
  • Reduction in yield is much greater in mixed infections than either virus alone. (uwex.edu)
  • Consider a later planting of soybean next season, especially if BPMV was a yield limiting factor in this season. (uwex.edu)
  • In Southeast Asia, Rice tungro virus has been estimated to cause an annual loss of 5-10% of the rice yield ( Dai and Beachy, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Whiteflies ( Bemisia tabaci ) also can cause yield losses in soybean through feeding damage, and indirectly through transmission of a number of viruses none of which have been reported on soybean in the United States. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Five commercial soybean fields in west-central Alabama were surveyed for BPMV and SMV in 2010-2012 and 2014. (usda.gov)
  • Soybean mosaic is caused by the single-stranded positive-sense RNA soybean mosaic virus (SMV). (ncsu.edu)
  • Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Henk Franssen PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OFTHE PRIMARY TRANSLATION PRODUCTS OFCOWPEA MOSAIC VIRUS RNAs Proefschrift terverkrijgingvandegraadvan doctorindelandbouwwetenschappen, op gezag van de rector magnificus, dr. (exploredoc.com)
  • Members of the family Secoviridae are non-enveloped viruses with mono- or bipartite (RNA-1 and RNA-2) linear positive-sense ssRNA genomes with the size of the RNAs combined ranging from 9 to 13.7 kilobases. (ictvonline.org)