Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.HMGB1 Protein: A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.E-Box Elements: DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Small Nucleolar: Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Insulator Elements: Nucleic acid regulatory sequences that limit or oppose the action of ENHANCER ELEMENTS and define the boundary between differentially regulated gene loci.5' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Silencer Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleic acid sequences that are involved in the negative regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by chromatin silencing.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nucleolar: Nucleolar RNA-protein complexes that function in pre-ribosomal RNA processing.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator: Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Serum Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of many growth-related genes. The regulatory transcription factor SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Serum Response Factor: A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Nucleotide Mapping: Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.HMG-Box Domains: DNA-binding domains present in proteins of the HMG-box superfamily including the archetypal HMGB PROTEINS, a number of sequence specific TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS, and other DNA-BINDING PROTEINS. The domains consist of 70-80 amino acids that form an L-shaped fold from three alpha-helical segments. The domain has the capacity to recognize and/or induce specific DNA structures and effect the accessibility of the DNA to other proteins involved in transcription, recombination, or DNA repair. (Note that not all HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS contain this domain.)Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cubozoa: The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.
This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols ... Box Drawing.. *Block Elements.. *Braille Patterns.. *Optical Character Recognition.. *Technical.. *Dingbats.. *Miscellaneous ...
Boom box - a portable battery-powered high fidelity stereo sound system in the form of a box with a handle. Transistor radio - ... As the tube heated up, gas released from the metal elements would change the pressure in the tube, changing the plate current ... Stone, Ellery (1919) Elements of Radiotelegraphy, p. 209-221 Fleming, John Ambrose (1910) The Principles of Electric Wave ... 1731) Hong, Sungook (2001). Wireless: From Marconi's Black-box to the Audion. MIT Press. p. 48 Susan J. Douglas, Listening in: ...
Institute for Transuranium Elements. jrc.ec.europa.eu Rob Toreki (24 May 2004). "Glove Boxes". The Glassware Gallery. ... one nitrogen-filled box contains an argon-filled box. The argon box is fitted with a gas treatment system to keep the gas very ... As a result, the box will start to leak and water and oxygen can then enter the box. Another disadvantage of a glovebox is that ... Such a box is often used by organometallic chemists to transfer dry solids from one container to another container. An ...
We list the elements of A effectively, n0, n1, n2, n3, .... From this list we extract an increasing sublist: put m0=n0, after ... Kugel, Peter (November 2005). "It's time to think outside the computational box". Communications of the ACM. 48 (11).. ... Lewis, H.R.; Papadimitriou, C.H. (1998). Elements of the Theory of Computation. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.. ... L.1) (Locality) A computor can change only elements of an observed symbolic configuration. ...
Notable members of this category include Black Box and Master Mind. Investigation games are board games in which the players ... Though abstract, some introduce random elements. For example, in the game Code 777, the question cards used to gather ...
We list the elements of A effectively, n0, n1, n2, n3, ... From this list we extract an increasing sublist: put m0=n0, after ... Kugel, Peter (November 2005). "It's time to think outside the computational box". Communications of the ACM. 48 (11). Lewis, H. ... L.1) (Locality) A computor can change only elements of an observed symbolic configuration. "(L.2) (Locality) A computor can ... 1 elements of the list and compare them with k. If none of them is equal to k, then k not in B. Since this test is effective, B ...
This element helps people understand situations when the design pattern applies (and when it does not.) Solution: The solution ... "Implementing a Pattern Library in the Real World: A Yahoo! Case Study". Boxes and Arrows. Retrieved 2008-11-24. Kunert, Tibor ... Pattern libraries can also include optional elements, depending on the needs of the team using them. These may include: ... "The Elements of a Design Pattern". User Interface Engineering. Retrieved 2008-11-24. Malone, Erin. " ...
4);// array contains 4 //elements return 0; } In Python, jagged arrays are not native but one can use list comprehensions to ... 210-. ISBN 978-0-596-55420-0. Don Box (2002). Essential .Net: The Common Language Runtime. Addison-Wesley Professional. p. 138 ...
Peltier elements are commonly used in consumer products. For example, Peltier elements are used in camping, portable coolers, ... Kotlyarov, Evgeny; Peter de Crom; Raoul Voeten (2006). "Some Aspects of Peltier-Cooler Optimization Applied for the Glove Box ... Peltier elements are used in scientific devices. They are a common component in thermal cyclers, used for the synthesis of DNA ... "PCB Heaven - Peltier Elements Explained". PCB Heaven. PCB Heaven. Retrieved 1 May 2013. Hsu, Jeremy (2011-06-14). "Cold? Put ...
In each round players put tokens in each box. If a player lays down a card matching a box, they collect those tokens . Most ...
... but without artistic motifs or other ornamental elements. Its crown is a conventional box form without a spire. The amenities ... It appears starkly simple, without contrasting elements. The only exception is the podium along Balmuto Street, which has black ...
Silencer (genetics) ‎ (→‎Repression of the TATA box) *21:10, 27 April 2013 (diff , hist) . . (+4)‎ . . Silencer (genetics) ‎ (→ ... Silencer (genetics) ‎ (→‎Mutations in polycomb-group response elements (PREs)) *23:57, 26 April 2013 (diff , hist) . . (-4)‎ ...
Negative autoregulation through the multiple N box elements". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (7): 5150-6. PMID 7906273. Grbavec D, Stifani ... The protein has a particular type of basic domain that contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box promoter ... While most bHLH factors bind to the E-box consensus sequence (CANNTG) that is present in the promoter region of target genes, ... This suggests that alternating HES1 levels may prompt differences in characteristics between anatomical elements of the central ...
The early promoter for SV40 contains three elements. The TATA box is located approximately 20 base-pairs upstream from the ... When the SP1 protein interacts with the 21 bp repeats it binds either the first or the last three GC boxes. Binding the first ... The 21 base-pair repeats contain six GC boxes and are the site that determines the direction of transcription. Also, the 72 ...
This box contains three elements: brain, intracranial blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The sum of volumes of these three elements ... The main elements of metopic suture closure are a low volume of the anterior cranial fossa, the metopic ridging and ... The three main elements of analysis include medical history, physical examination and radiographic analysis. Medical history ... The response involves vasodilatation of the cranial vault blood vessels, increasing the volume of one of the elements in the ...
It uses elements from the AudioVisuals audio play Endurance. In 1929, Lord Barset's expedition to the Antarctic is lost without ... Instead he finds a police box frozen in ice millennia old. But something else lies here from an era before humankind, frozen in ...
Grooves inside the box held the metal plates in position. The box was then filled with an electrolyte of brine, or watered down ... Tennant ended up discovering the elements iridium and osmium. Wollaston's effort, in turn, led him to the discovery of the ... In Wollaston's battery, the wooden box was replaced with an earthenware vessel, and a copper plate was bent into a U-shape, ... The quantities of different elements deposited by a given amount of electricity are in the ratio of their chemical equivalent ...
The binding of CLOCK-BMAL to an E-box promoter element activates transcription of clock genes such as per1, 2, and 3 and tim in ... Once phosphorylated, this CLK-CYC complex binds to the E-box elements of the promoters of period (per) and timeless (tim) via ... BMAL1 interacts with the E-box regulatory elements. PER and CRY proteins accumulate and dimerize during subjective night, and ... Research shows that the CLOCK gene plays a major role as an activator of downstream elements in the pathway critical to the ...
Digital dashboard technology is available "out-of-the-box" from many software providers. Some companies however continue to do ... There are four key elements to a good dashboard:. Simple, communicates easily Minimum distractions...it could cause confusion ...
Most estimations do not relate well to other box orientations, box styles, or to filled boxes. In order to calculate the value ... Some have involved finite element analysis. One of the commonly referenced empirical estimations was published by McKee in 1963 ... This used the board ECT, the MD and CD flexural stiffness, the box perimeter, and the box depth. Simplifications have used a ... Box compression test in Pounds U = box outline in inch d = thickness of corrugated board in inch Urbanik, T J (July 1981). " ...
A black-box fuzzer treats the program as a black box and is unaware of internal program structure. For instance, a random ... then it is also not able to reveal bugs that are hiding in these elements. Some program elements are considered more critical ... A white-box fuzzer leverages program analysis to systematically increase code coverage or to reach certain critical program ... A gray-box fuzzer leverages instrumentation rather than program analysis to glean information about the program. For instance, ...
The Elements of Typographic Style. 2nd ed. Hartley & Marks, Publishers, Point Roberts, WA. p.p. 351. Evans, Poppy. 2004. Forms ... The point feature cartographic label placement (PFCLP) problem offers the solutions when point boxes overlap. Many software ...
Pokihi (mat covered boxes) is another widely seen instrument used in fatele music, which was a post European innovation seen ... Many of their songs incorporate elements of Tokelauan music. Their music and dance style are not the traditional Pacific Ocean ... Plywood is used for crafting the pokihi, a mat-covered box; it accompanies the fatele dance. Other instruments used in Tokelau ... wooden box) and apa (biscuit tin). Nukunonu is notable for traditional song and dance. Nukunonu is one of the three islands of ...
It was built around an aluminium box spar, was aluminium skinned and carried sealed all-metal ailerons. A 14 in (356 mm) Joy ... Aluminium honeycombs were used throughout the fuselage as structural elements. The XBD-2 was powered by a pair of flat-six ...
"Stra13 homodimers repress transcription through class B E-box elements". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (48): 46544- ... "DEC1 negatively regulates the expression of DEC2 through binding to the E-box in the proximal promoter". The Journal of ... "Identification of functional hypoxia response elements in the promoter region of the DEC1 and DEC2 genes". The Journal of ...
HTML element that appears at the top of the article's page. It should be the only ,h1,. element on the page, but because ...
Two E-box motifs (CACGTG), at map positions -691 (E-box1) and -575 (E-box2), are platforms for occupancy by several members of ... Two E-box motifs (CACGTG), at map positions -691 (E-box1) and -575 (E-box2), are platforms for occupancy by several members of ... Two E-box motifs (CACGTG), at map positions -691 (E-box1) and -575 (E-box2), are platforms for occupancy by several members of ... Two E-box motifs (CACGTG), at map positions -691 (E-box1) and -575 (E-box2), are platforms for occupancy by several members of ...
In addition, cAMP response element binding protein (CBP) and p300 histone acetyltransferase acetylates FOXO1, and silent ... Forkhead box transcription factor 1: role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy Academic research paper on Basic ... Forkhead box transcription factor 1 is a pleiotropic transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in a variety of ... Academic research paper on topic Forkhead box transcription factor 1: role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy.  ...
Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below. Related Journal Articles ... A Nonclassical Finite Element Approach for the Nonlinear Analysis of Micropolar Plates R. Ansari, A. H. Shakouri, M. Bazdid- ... A Nonclassical Finite Element Approach for the Nonlinear Analysis of Micropolar Plates. ASME. J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam. 2016; ... Mesh grids of elements for the SSSS micropolar plate in case I (a) before and (b) after deflection ...
Elements Box is a 4CD box set by Mike Oldfield released in 1993. Each CD covers a different period of time in Oldfields work ... 28 Elements - The Best of Mike Oldfield, single CD edition Elements - The Best of Mike Oldfield (video), video/DVD edition Mike ... the four elements. "Tubular Bells Part 1" "Tubular Bells Part 2" "Hergest Ridge" (Excerpt) "In Dulci Jubilo" "Portsmouth" " ...
Its a special way to package a pair of earrings, a necklace, or other ... - Selection from The Adobe Photoshop Elements Crafts ... Gingham Gift Box Make your next gift stand out with this adorable little pocketbook design. ... The Adobe Photoshop Elements Crafts Book by Elizabeth Bulger. Stay ahead with the worlds most comprehensive technology and ... Gingham Gift Box. Make your next gift stand out with this adorable little pocketbook design. Its a special way to package a ...
I want the input box + submit button combination to take up 100% of the column. The submit button will be a fixed width (in ... I am trying to lay out a search box in a column on my web site, but am failing miserably. I have attached an image of what I am ... Layout of form elements ,, Search box Hi,. I am trying to lay out a search box in a column on my web site, but am failing ... I know, I was thinking this would just be a simple case, but I think since these are form elements they are a bit more ...
... by Salleh Japar. Year: 1987.. References. T.K. Sabapathy. Trimurti: And Ten Years After. ...
... How to Access This is a sub-dialog box of the Control Page Designer dialog. To access the ... To move the element to the top of the order, so that it is in front of all other elements on the page, click the icon. ... You are here: Reference for User Interface Elements , Processing Workspace Interface and Dialog Boxes , Control Systems , Image ... To move the element to the bottom of the order, so that it is behind all other elements on the page, click the icon. ...
Handbag with a hard, box-like exterior and shape Nude/Poppy Paisley print in calfskin ... Handbag with a hard, box-like exterior and shape Nude/Poppy Paisley print in calfskin " ...
box-shadow. property. It permits you to duplicate the shape of any element in any location, at any size, in any color any ... element { width: 100px; height: 100px; background-color: #ccc; border-radius: 50px; box-shadow: 120px 0px 0 15px #f00, -60px ... Just one element is used; in this case, its a single DIV. with the ID element. Its actually an invisible circle since its ... Remember your shape can have also :before and :after pseudo elements with their own box-shadows. ...
2018 Tour Box) - Discipline Global Mobile, Panegyric, Inner Knot, Wowow Entertainment, Inc. - 2xCD, Comp - KCTB18, include Wind ... King Crimson ‎- The Elements (2018 Tour Box) 19,90 € + 17,00 € spedizione (circa 40,55 USD in totale) ... From the Blu-ray disc in the THRAK boxed set. Track 2-12: Live in Japan 2015. Previously available in Japan only on Live In ... Track 2-1: March 18, 1998 From the forthcoming CD/DVD-a The Re-ConstruKction of Light and Heaven & Earth boxed set.. Track 2-2 ...
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A 2019 addition to the popular Tour Box series, originally created for concert venue sales on King Crimsons 2019 European tour ... The Elements Of King Crimson - 2018 Tour Box. Artist: King Crimson Format: cd ... The Elements Of King Crimson - 2016 Tour Box. Artist: King Crimson Format: cd ... A 2019 addition to the popular Tour Box series, originally created for concert venue sales on King Crimsons 2019 European tour ...
13 thoughts on "Elements of Learning Experience Design" * Pingback: » Elements of Learning Experience Design ... ... My one suggestion would be to switch the names of the bottom two elements, Requirements as the name of the lowest element (What ... With that in mind, I took Garretts Elements as inspiration to create my own Elements of Learning Experience Design to ... The best representation of those elements comes from Jesse James Garretts Elements of User Experience. While Garretts " ...
Crystal structure of a human TATA box-binding protein/TATA element complex. D B Nikolov, H Chen, E D Halay, A Hoffman, R G ... Crystal structure of a human TATA box-binding protein/TATA element complex ... Crystal structure of a human TATA box-binding protein/TATA element complex ... Crystal structure of a human TATA box-binding protein/TATA element complex ...
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Putative MCB elements; (□) putative MSE sequence elements. The position of each element relative to the initiating codon of ... Gordon, C. B., and J. L. Campbell, 1991 A cell cycle-responsive transcriptional control element and a negative control element ... Sequence scanning of the CLB5 promoter revealed a cluster of potential MCB elements and a putative MSE element (Figure 3A). To ... Swi4 cell cycle boxes) sequences and those regulated by MCB (MluI cell cycle boxes) sequences in their promoters (Koch and N ...
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... whose promoter contains a G-box located 4 bp downstream of the GCC box. The G box resembles an ocs element half site and is the ... The GCC box, also referred to as the AGC box (10), GCC element (11), or AGCCGCC sequence (13), is an ethylene-responsive ... Synergistic effects of the GCC box with ocs elements or the related G-box sequence have been previously observed, for example, ... 44). Both the GCC box and G box participate in ethylene-induced expression of PRB-1b (11). A similar organization of GCC-box ...
Windsurfing vehicle, Mini Van ,SUV,Honda Element or box van. Goto page Previous 1, 2, 3, ... 13, 14, 15 Next. ... We used to use rental yellow box vans with the gear rigged inside and a rented hide a bed. They were no fun to drive or park.. ... The Honda Element may work, and may be the best compromise. I need to look at all these, especially those that require mods, ... The box van looks to hold a lot more, and you can mold the interior to your requirements. Any thoughts on Dodge Chevy or Ford ...
Windsurfing vehicle, Mini Van ,SUV,Honda Element or box van. Goto page Previous 1, 2, 3 ... , 13, 14, 15 Next. ... FWD, Element or CRV sit much higher than a CRX and plowing isnt an issue. I know what you mean about the plowing thing. ... Yes the Element doesnt have the overall length of the longer wheel base mini vans - good point, but as you said, it all ... Element , another option if your bringing one passenger and you dont want to rack and stack...Using shortboards, I ran straps ...
  • Two E-box motifs (CACGTG), at map positions -691 (E-box1) and -575 (E-box2), are platforms for occupancy by several members of the c-MYC family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • ECs co-transfected with a 251 bp PAI-1 promoter fragment containing the two E-box motifs (p251/luc) and a USF-2 expression vector (pUSF-2/pcDNA) exhibited reduced luciferase activity versus p251/luc alone. (elsevier.com)
  • As with previous releases in the series, the full variety of King Crimson's music is presented over 2 CDs with extracts from rehearsals, new live recordings, elements from studio recordings, full tracks, alternate takes and finished recordings from 1969-2018, 14 of which make their first appearance on CD . (burningshed.com)
  • Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and DNase I footprint analysis revealed that AtEBP can specifically bind to the GCC box. (pnas.org)
  • Consequently, AaERF1 may be a defense responsiveness transcription factor in A. annua.AaERF1 can Bind to the GCC Box in YeastThe yeast one-hybrid system is a stable system to study the DNA binding ability of transcription factors . (dna-alkylating.com)
  • The results demonstrated that AaERF1 could bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in yeast cells (Figure 4B).Expression Profiling Analysis of AaERF1 after Hormone and Stress TreatmentsIn this study, RT-Q-PCR analysis was used to obtain the expression pattern of AaERF1 after hormone and stress treatments including MeJA (100 mM), ethephon (500 mM) and wound treatments. (dna-alkylating.com)
  • The accompanying book sets the scene for cruisers and how they are used in Charted Space in general and the Imperial Navy in particular, then follows the design process of the Element family, from initial navy specification to maiden voyage. (kickstarter.com)
  • Endogenous viral elements in host genomes provide separate evidence that viruses similar to many major contemporary groups circulated 100 million years ago or earlier. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genomes of mammals, birds and other eukaryotes shows that viruses similar to contemporary virus species existed tens of millions of years ago. (nature.com)
  • Results A global study of 891 completely sequenced bacterial genomes identified T box elements associated with control of LysRS expression in only four bacterial species: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Clostridium beijerinckii. (lenus.ie)
  • We show that this T box element is functional, responding in a canonical manner to an increased level of uncharged tRNALys but, unusually, also responding to an increased level of uncharged tRNAAsn. (lenus.ie)
  • Although each of these experiences require their own unique methods and frameworks, the elements that should be taken into consideration during the design process remain mostly the same. (boxesandarrows.com)
  • While Garrett's "elements" are most relevant to digital product design, I've been able to use them as a roadmap for developing learning experiences for adults. (boxesandarrows.com)
  • With that in mind, I took Garrett's Elements as inspiration to create my own Elements of Learning Experience Design to formalize and communicate a design process I have struggled to explain to others. (boxesandarrows.com)
  • By learning these Divi design techniques, you can add one-sided box shadows to any modules or columns you want. (elegantthemes.com)
  • Here is a sneak peek of the FAQ Layout design we will build using one-sided box shadows. (elegantthemes.com)
  • Now that our one-sided box shadows are complete, we have an empty middle column where we can combine a few blurb module icons to create a simple graphic design. (elegantthemes.com)
  • The example "Design elements - Flowchart" is included in the Flowcharts solution from the area "What is a Diagram" of ConceptDraw Solution Park. (conceptdraw.com)
  • The ByPeople Bundle includes themes, icons, backgrounds, buttons, sliders, boxes, business cards…in general a sample of just about everything you might need if you were looking for design help. (redferret.net)
  • Call-to-action in web design - and in user experience (UX) in particular - is a term used for elements in a web page that solicit an action from the user. (smashingmagazine.com)
  • It's always a delight to see some non-straight elements in web design. (joomla.org)
  • There are a set of elements and principles that appear in all genres of art and design. (ehow.com)
  • Art and design are seen as distinct disciplines, but there are natural similarities between them, and many of the key elements are the same. (ehow.com)
  • The elements in works of art and design are a reflection of the principles used to create them. (ehow.com)
  • Color is an essential element in design and art, expressing basic human emotions. (ehow.com)
  • Significant use of color in art and design often involves contrasting colors as well as individual color elements. (ehow.com)
  • Texture is an indicator of the touch quality of an element in an artwork or design. (ehow.com)
  • Balance refers to the way in which the elements in an artwork or design are weighed up against one another horizontally, vertically or on any other axis. (ehow.com)
  • Proportion is a measure of the sizes and areas occupied by elements in a design or artwork, relative to one another. (ehow.com)
  • Our glamorous red satin box adorned with glittering Swarovski® Elements is wrapped in silky hand-tied red ribbon. (godiva.com)
  • For the property-box, there is the thing on the border, which is collapsible when you click on the name. (gamedev.net)
  • Having it like this is quite nice, so I can have buttons in my images of images in my buttons, or texts in the containers inside a tree control which lays inside a container itself while this container can get hidden by a collapsible box. (gamedev.net)
  • The only time you see the Welcome screen on a Mac without deliberately seeking it out is if you launch Elements for the very first time by clicking the Adobe Photoshop Elements 9 button in the last screen of the installer ( Beyond This Book tells you how to install Elements). (oreilly.com)
  • You can bought Adobe photoshop elements from iNetWork Software at a much cheaper price. (fixya.com)
  • Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 plus Premiere. (fixya.com)
  • Hello: I have Adobe Photoshop Elements 6.0,Windows XP with Pentium 2.8Gz and 1.59RAM. (fixya.com)
  • whats Graffi\'s automatic program, it sound like this program is incompatible with adobe photoshop elements. (fixya.com)
  • Having purchased adobe photoshop elements 8 included on the disc is a free trial copy of adobe premiere elements 8 but the prog will not recognise my serial number taken from the box elements 8 went in ok. (fixya.com)
  • The Thermaltake Element S is really intended for users looking for a functional case with minimal style features. (pcper.com)
  • Conclusions The T box element controlling lysK (encoding LysRS1) expression in B. cereus strain 14579 is functional, but unusually responds to depletion of charged tRNALys and tRNAAsn. (lenus.ie)
  • Masks are applied using the mask-image or mask-box-source properties. (w3.org)
  • The mask property serves as a shorthand property for mask-box , mask-image and other characterizing properties. (w3.org)
  • The mask-box-source property splits a mask image into 9 pieces. (w3.org)
  • The pieces may be sliced, scaled and stretched in various ways to fit the size of the mask box image area . (w3.org)
  • Our results indicate that, upon seed imbibition, increased GA levels reduce DELLA protein abundance and release ATML1/PDF2 to activate L1 box gene expression, thus enhancing germination potential. (upm.es)
  • Thus, we conclude that AtERFs are factors that respond to extracellular signals to modulate GCC box-mediated gene expression positively or negatively. (plantcell.org)
  • Typically, rendering an element via CSS or SVG can conceptually described as if the element, including its children, are drawn into a buffer and then that buffer is composited into the element's parent. (w3.org)
  • either contains only block-level boxes or establishes an inline formatting context and thus contains only inline-level boxes. (w3.org)
  • Not all block container boxes are block-level boxes: non-replaced inline blocks and non-replaced table cells are block containers but not block-level boxes. (w3.org)
  • When an inline box contains a block box, the inline box (and its inline ancestors within the same line box) are broken around the block. (w3.org)
  • Download the Free Elements 4D Papercraft Edition! (kickstarter.com)
  • Treat your cat to wash, odor-free privacy Along with the Booda Dome Covered Litter Box. (bloguetechno.com)
  • Instead, they gently wrapped the Element S in a soft cloth-like carrier that keeps the case free and clear from getting scratched or damaged during shipping. (pcper.com)
  • This is where you register Elements and sign up for your free Photoshop.com account (which you can only get if you live in the U.S. (oreilly.com)
  • It will belong in the Form Elements spec that I'm vaguely committed to writing (with smaug from Mozilla, I think), which has the goal of documenting the semi-replacedness of some form inputs, and explaining and specifying which parts of an input can actually be styled cross-platform. (w3.org)
  • Now (without following Mr. Crookes in all the steps of his argument) see how these elements group themselves, and notice the regular ebb and flow of the formation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Fall is a very minimal theme, so by default does not include some elements in the post list such as read more buttons, comment links or the option to show full posts. (oboxthemes.com)
  • for the text box? (sitepoint.com)
  • An HTML element is a type of HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) document component, one of several types of HTML nodes (there are also text nodes, comment nodes and others). (wikipedia.org)
  • [ vague ] HTML document is composed of a tree of simple HTML nodes , such as text nodes , and HTML elements, which add semantics and formatting to parts of document (e.g., make text bold, organize it into paragraphs, lists and tables, or embed hyperlinks and images). (wikipedia.org)
  • The BODY element contains a chunk (C1) of anonymous text followed by a block-level element followed by another chunk (C2) of anonymous text. (w3.org)
  • This keyword clips the mask image to the text of the element. (mozilla.org)
  • This means that you can later change the setting of this check box and the image appearance will always follow the setting. (rane.com)
  • The spread can be positive or negative to make the shadow larger or smaller than the parent element. (sitepoint.com)
  • Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. (rsc.org)
  • Force of Elements is designed from the ground up for competitive gaming with diverse character-based abilities that make interacting with the gem board a tactical experience unlike any match 3 game you ve played before. (addictinggames.com)
  • Packing your cereals in quality custom Cereal Boxes make your brand popular around the world. (playbuzz.com)
  • Make sure you include the unit and box numbers (if assigned). (amazon.com)
  • i know it is a hard element, so make sure you support it very good. (instructables.com)
  • The downside is that all those options can make it tough to find your way around Elements, especially if you're new to the program. (oreilly.com)