Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.SOXD Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Core Binding Factors: Heterodimeric transcription factors containing a DNA-binding alpha subunits, (CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS), along with a non-DNA-binding beta subunits, CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT. Core Binding Factor regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.HMGB Proteins: A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.SOXC Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1: A T-cell factor that plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Core Binding Factor beta Subunit: A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Core Binding Factor alpha Subunits: A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors: Factors that associate with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. Many of them are components of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIIDElectrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.G-Box Binding Factors: A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 22.214.171.124.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.TATA Box Binding Protein-Like Proteins: A class of proteins related in structure and function to TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN that can take the place of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN in the transcription initiation complex. They are found in most multicellular organisms and may be involved in tissue-specific promoter regulation. They bind to DNA and interact with TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS, however they may lack specificity for the TATA-BOX.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 126.96.36.199.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout the CELL CYCLE. It is a suppressor of telomere elongation and may be involved in stabilization of telomere length. It is structurally different from TELOMERIC REPEAT BINDING PROTEIN 2 in that it contains acidic N-terminal amino acid residues.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Mice, Inbred C57BLTranscription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 188.8.131.52.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2: A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout the cell cycle. It is a suppressor of telomere elongation and may be involved in stabilization of telomere length. It is structurally different from TELOMERIC REPEAT BINDING PROTEIN 1 in that it contains basic N-terminal amino acid residues.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An example is the E-box (sequence CACGTG), which binds transcription factors in the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family (e.g. ... the transcription factor binding preference of human bi-directional promoters and functional annotation of related gene pairs ... Divergent transcription could shift nucleosomes to upregulate transcription of one gene, or remove bound transcription factors ... In the case of a transcription factor binding site, there may be a single sequence that binds the protein most strongly under ...
The central feature of this transcription factor gene family is the conserved DNA-binding paired box domain. PAX2 is believed ... Dehbi M, Ghahremani M, Lechner M, Dressler G, Pelletier J (Aug 1996). "The paired-box transcription factor, PAX2, positively ... Paired box gene 2, also known as PAX2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX2 gene. The Pax Genes, or Paired-Box ... Pax 2 is a transcription factor controlled by the signaling molecules Wnt1 and Fgf8. Pax2 along with other transcription ...
The PAX5 gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. The central feature of this gene family is a ... "Id helix-loop-helix proteins antagonize pax transcription factor activity by inhibiting DNA binding". Molecular and Cellular ... "Entrez Gene: PAX5 paired box gene 5 (B-cell lineage specific activator)". Torlakovic E, Torlakovic G, Nguyen PL, Brunning RD, ... Paired box protein Pax-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX5 gene. ...
There are also nine E-boxes that bind the basic helix-loop-helix of muscle-specific transcription factors. The GYG1 gene is ... from base pair 148,709,194 to base pair 148,745,455. Transcription of human glycogenin-1 is mainly initiated at 80bp and 86bp ... Transcriptions factors have different binding sites for its development, some examples are: GATA, activator protein 1 and 2 (AP ... Its proximal promoter contains a TATA box, a cyclic AMP responsive element, and two putative Sp1 binding sites in a CpG island ...
This box along with the GC box is known for binding general transcription factors. Both of these consensus sequences belong to ... It is an invariant DNA sequence at about minus 70 base pairs from the origin of transcription in many eukaryotic promoters. ... These proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT box binding factors. A CCAAT box is a feature frequently found ... The CAAT box signals the binding site for the RNA transcription factor, and is typically accompanied by a conserved consensus ...
... transcription factors by multiple pathways, one of which includes the binding of FOXO to the survival factor Mcl-1". J. Leukoc ... Forkhead box protein O4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXO4 gene. It is located on the long arm of the X ... chromosome from base pair 71,096,148 to 71,103,533. FOXO4 is a member of the forkhead family transcription factors O subclass, ... FOXO transcription factors have been shown to be the down downstream effector molecules of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ...
An example is the E-box (sequence CACGTG), which binds transcription factors in the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family (e.g. ... the transcription factor binding preference of human bi-directional promoters and functional annotation of related gene pairs ... In the case of a transcription factor binding site, there may be a single sequence that binds the protein most strongly under ... 5s ribosomal RNAs and other small RNAs General transcription factor binding sites, e.g. TATA box Proximal promoter - the ...
One of the most frequent transcription factor binding-sites in the promoter region are sites for Y-box binding factor. Though ... It is 3912 base pairs long and the gene sequence has 6 exons. CXorf49 has one protein coding transcript. The protein has 514 ... The promoter region of CXorf49 is located between base pair 71718051 and 71718785 on the minus strand of the X chromosome and ...
FGF and mesoderm formation
MAPK can then enter into the nucleus and activate target transcription factors (2). In particular, three T box transcription ... Upon FGF binding to its receptor, FGFR, the receptor pair dimerizes and is transphosphorylated, enabling it to recruit proteins ... A vegetally localized T-box transcription factor in Xenopus eggs specifies mesoderm and endoderm and is essential for embryonic ... a FGF target transcription factor that binds to an FGF-responsive element of the upstream sequence (16). Activation of FGF by ...
SOX factors E-box binding factors Nerve growth factor-induced protein C Myc-associated zinc finger GC-binding factor 2 X-box ... Transcription of CCDC180 is predicted to be regulated by a 664 base pair promoter region, with the ID GXP_1829211. This ... Transcription factors predicted to bind to this promoter region are described below. Ccaat-enhancer binding protein KRAB domain ... As it is expressed most highly in the testes and is regulated by SRY and SOX transcription factors, it could be involved in sex ...
... is a transcription factor present during embryonic development. The encoded protein contains two different binding sites ... Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... The characteristic paired DNA binding domain of Pax6 utilizes two DNA-binding domains, the paired domain (PD), and the paired- ... The paired domain and paired-type homeodomain each have DNA binding activities, while the P/S/T-rich domain possesses a ...
Transmembrane protein 251
GATA-binding factors, two-handed zinc finger, E2F transcription factor, and T-box transcription factors. No vertebrate TATA ... The gene size is 1,277 base pairs. It contains 3 distinct introns, and transcription produces six different mRNAs that appear ... binding protein factors, RNA polymerase transcription factor II B, CCAAT binding factors, or CCAAT enhancer binding proteins ... Various transcription factors are predicted to bind within the conserved parts of the promoter (upstream regulatory) region, on ...
... in addition to numerous Zinc Finger transcription factor sites, several E-box binding factors and TWIST homologs. The binding ... which is about 600 base pairs upstream from the start of transcription for FAM46B. The image below shows selected transcription ... The El Dorado program through Genomatix was used to predict this list of transcription factors that are likely to bind to the ... factor binding sites for the top twenty matches identified by El Dorado that are on the antisense strand. Yeast two hybrid ...
Transcription factors with Orange domains bind DNA and regulate biological processes such as cell differentiation and embryonic ... The HES7 gene product functions to repress expression of genes with promoters containing an N-box or E-box. HES7 also has been ... from base pair 8,120,590 to 8,126,032. In mice, HES7 is located on chromosome 11. HES7 has 62 known orthologues. The HES7 gene ... The HES7 transcription factor belongs to the Hairy and Enhancer of split families of bHLH transcription factors. The gene that ...
West AG, Shore P, Sharrocks AD (May 1997). "DNA binding by MADS-box transcription factors: a molecular mechanism for ... but typical lengths are in the range of 168 to 180 base pairs, i.e. the encoded MADS domain has a length of 56 to 60 amino ... 6GG termed the CArG-box. MADS-domain proteins are generally transcription factors. The length of the MADS-box reported by ... Plant Transcription Factor Database MIKC type MADS family at PlantTFDB: Plant Transcription Factor Database. ...
... encodes a transcription factor with an N-terminal DNA binding domain consisting of a paired box (PD) encoded by exons 2, 3 ... The PAX3 (paired box gene 3) gene encodes a member of the paired box or PAX family of transcription factors. The PAX family ... PAX3 and FOXO1 encode transcription factors, and the translocation results in a fusion transcription factor containing the N- ... As these exons encode the paired box and homeodomain, these mutations often affect DNA binding function. Alveolar ...
... intragenic A and B boxes), at least two transcription factor binding sites, a TATA-like sequence, TATA-box binding protein (TBP ... The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) binds here, and when inhibited, BC200 RNA levels decrease, indicating that the 100 base pair ... However, transcription is not dependent on the TATA-box binding protein binding to the TATA-like sequence. Both upstream and ... one proximal to the transcription start site and associated with downstream transcription factor binding sites, and the other ...
... such as the Pribnow box and transcription factor binding sites, which are easy to systematically identify. Also, the sequence ... each less than two hundred base pairs in length, and some as short as twenty to thirty. It is therefore much more difficult to ... transcription factors) locate specific binding sites within the genome. Many aspects of structural gene prediction are based on ... An additional important factor underused in current gene detection tools is existence of gene clusters-operons in both ...
This region was used to determine transcription factor interactions. Some of the main transcription factors that bind to the ... and T-box 1 (TBX1). The promoter for the C22orf25 gene spans 687 base pairs from 20,008,092 to 20,008,878 with a predicted ... starting at 20,008,631 base pairs and ending at 20,053,447 base pairs. There is a 1.5-3.0 Mb deletion containing around 30-40 ... transcriptional start site that is 104 base pairs and spans from 20,008,591 to 20,008,694. The promoter region and beginning of ...
T-box transcription factor TBX1 also known as T-box protein 1 and testis-specific T-box protein is a protein that in humans is ... To carry out these roles, proteins made by this gene family bind to specific areas of DNA called T-box binding element (TBE) to ... from base pair 18,118,779 to base pair 18,145,669. The T-box 1 protein appears to be necessary for the normal development of ... Although the T-box 1 protein acts as a transcription factor, it is not yet known which genes are regulated by the protein. Most ...
"Transcriptional modulation of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL by the paired box transcription factors PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR". ... It can bind to DNA as an heterodimer with PAX3. Also interacts with PAXBP1; the interaction links PAX7 to a WDR5-containing ... Paired box protein Pax-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX7 gene. Pax-7 plays a role in neural crest ... "Entrez Gene: PAX7 paired box gene 7". Basch ML, Bronner-Fraser M, García-Castro MI (May 2006). "Specification of the neural ...
The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box ... When TBP binds to a TATA box within the DNA, it distorts the DNA by inserting amino acid side-chains between base pairs, ... "Transcription factor IIA derepresses TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor inhibition of TBP-DNA binding". J. Biol. Chem ... this region binds to the TATA box and interacts with transcription factors and regulatory proteins . By contrast, the N- ...
The GC elements are bound by transcription factors and have similar functions to enhancers. Some known GC box-binding proteins ... Zinc-fingers bind to triplet base pair sequences, with residue 21 binding to the first base pair, residue 18 binding to the ... If residue 18 is a histidine, it will bind to a G, and if residue 18 is a glutamic acid, it will bind to a C. GC box-binding ... The GC box is upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 1
... sequences resembling the Sp1 transcription factor binding site, and two cAMP receptor binding sites upstream of the cap. The ... which range from 61 to 174 base pairs, and introns, whose sizes range from 600 base pairs to 5.7 kilobase pairs. The splice ... The DNA sequence in the transcription initiation site is very GC-rich. There is a "TATA box"-like sequence and a "CAAT present ... Hansen LL, Horn N, Dahl HH, Kruse TA (Jun 1994). "Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency caused by a 33 base pair duplication in the ...
Five of the 8 GC boxes are arranged in tandem and are recognized by the transcription factors Sp1 and Egr-1. A novel Sp1- ... The upstream promoter in the human ALOX5 gene commonly possess five GGGCCGG repeats which bind the Sp1 transcription factor and ... The ALOX5 gene, which occupies 71.9 kilobase pairs (kb) on chromosome 10 (all other human lipoxygenases are clustered together ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ...
... is recognized and bound by transcription factors to initiate gene transcription. Once the transcription factors bind to the ... followed by an E-box like sequence with 6 base pair interval in between is a necessary combination for circadian transcription ... Apr 2013). "Genomic Regions Flanking E-Box Binding Sites Influence DNA Binding Specificity of bHLH Transcription Factors ... established that the E-box affects gene transcription in several eukaryotes and found E-box binding factors that identify E-box ...
... transcription factors, and histones. This nuclear protein organizes the DNA and regulates transcription. After binding, HMGB1 ... High mobility group box 1 protein, also known as high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1) and amphoterin, is a protein that in ... HMGB1 has been shown to play an important role in helping the RAG endonuclease form a paired complex during V(D)J recombination ... HMGB1 supports transcription of many genes in interactions with many transcription factors. It also interacts with nucleosomes ...
Forkhead box d1
"FOX D1 Forkhead box D1". Carlsson P, Mahlapuu M (2002). "Forkhead transcription factors: key players in development and ... Second, heparin binding epidermal growth factor and lastly, the bHLH protein G0S8. Fox D1 is also required for proper formation ... This gene is estimated to be approximately 2.5 kilo base pairs and, most likely introns less. The motif at NH2 terminal part is ... Forkhead box D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXD1 gene. Forkhead d1 is a kidney expressed transcription ...
Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein
... and the activity of homeodomain transcription factor paired box gene 3 (PAX3). Protein kinase C phosphorylation promotes ... This subfamily consists of PCTP, StarD7, StarD10 and collagen type IV alpha-3-binding protein or StarD11, all of which bind ... X-ray crystallography shows that this domain forms a pocket that can bind a single molecule of phosphatidylcholine. This ... is a specific intracellular phospholipid binding protein that can transfer phosphatidylcholine between different membranes in ...
Ectopic expression of Sonic hedgehog alters dorsal-ventral patterning of somites
Pax6: more than meets the eye
The paired-box motif, originally defined in Drosophila segmentation genes is conserved in the Pax family of vertebrate ... PAX6 Transcription Factor * Paired Box Transcription Factors * Repressor Proteins Substances * DNA-Binding Proteins ... The paired-box motif, originally defined in Drosophila segmentation genes is conserved in the Pax family of vertebrate ...
Promoter (genetics) - Wikipedia
An example is the E-box (sequence CACGTG), which binds transcription factors in the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family (e.g. ... the transcription factor binding preference of human bi-directional promoters and functional annotation of related gene pairs ... Divergent transcription could shift nucleosomes to upregulate transcription of one gene, or remove bound transcription factors ... In the case of a transcription factor binding site, there may be a single sequence that binds the protein most strongly under ...
Foxo1 and Foxp1 play opposing roles in regulating the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells programmed by IL-7 |...
Site 1 and site 2 are two predicted binding sites for Forkhead box transcription factors. bp, base pair. (B) Western blotting ... A) Predicted Forkhead box transcription factor-binding sites on the Il9 promoter. Green peaks represent the conserved regions. ... Informatics analysis revealed two adjacent conserved Forkhead box transcription factor-binding sites on the Il9 promoter (Fig. ... The transcription factors Foxo1 (Forkhead box protein O1) and Foxp1 (Forkhead box protein P1) played reciprocal roles in ...
RCSB PDB - 2K27: Solution structure of Human Pax8 Paired Box Domain
Pax-8 is a transcription factor belonging to the PAX genes superfamily and its crucial role has been proven both in embryo and ... These residues belong to a highly evolutionary conserved DNA binding site: the Paired Box (Prd) domain. Crystallographic ... Paired box protein Pax-8. A. 159. N/A. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PAX8. ... Pax-8 is a transcription factor belonging to the PAX genes superfamily and its crucial role has been proven both in embryo and ...
PAX2 - Wikipedia
The central feature of this transcription factor gene family is the conserved DNA-binding paired box domain. PAX2 is believed ... transcription factor binding. • core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. • protein binding. • transcription ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence- ... Dehbi M, Ghahremani M, Lechner M, Dressler G, Pelletier J (Aug 1996). "The paired-box transcription factor, PAX2, positively ...
Canonical and alternative transcript expression of PAX6 and CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer
... paired box transcription factor 6; PAX6(5a), PAX6 exon 5 alternative transcript variant; PD domain, paired-type DNA-binding ... 2A, grey box (13)]. PAX3 was found to bind to this PAX element. The PAX6 paired domain binds to a sequence with a TT(A/C) ACGC( ... The present study demonstrates that paired box transcription factor 6 (PAX6) and C‑X‑C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) are ... Our recent study revealed that paired box transcription factor (PAX3) regulates CXCR4 expression in melanoma (13). PAX6, a PAX3 ...
Pax6 - Paired box protein Pax-6 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Pax6 gene & protein
Competes with PAX4 in binding to a common element in the glucagon, insulin and somatostatin promoters (By similarity). ... Transcription factor with important functions in the development of the eye, nose, central nervous system and pancreas. ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi* ... DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*18287938 ...
Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma: Not all the strains and patients are alike
The IL-1β -31 TC substitution disrupts a TATA-box motif; this leads to several transcription factors having altered binding ... base pairs from the origin of transcription. The two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within promoter region are in ... Barnes PJ, Karin M. Nuclear factor-kappaB: a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory diseases. N Engl J Med. 1997; ... NF-κB dimers are formed upon activation, stimulating the transcription of genes that encode cytokines, growth factors, ...
METHOD FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS INTO MULTI-COMPETENT RENAL PRECURSORS - Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.
The central feature of this transcription factor gene family is the conserved DNA-binding paired box domain. PAX2 is an ... PAX2 (full name Paired Box 2, NCBI Gene ID 5076, also known as PAPRS) encodes paired box gene 2, one of many human homologues ... encodes a transcription factor that contains four zinc-finger motifs at the C-terminus and a proline/glutamine-rich DNA-binding ... a unique cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain. The encoded protein is a transcription factor important for the development of the ...
Regulation of PGC-1 Promoter Activity by Protein Kinase B and the Forkhead Transcription Factor FKHR | Diabetes
The presence of putative IRSs and a consensus CRE are shown by solid or oval boxes, respectively. Arrows indicate a primer pair ... transcription factor FKHR binds the insulin response sequence. Diabetes48 :1885 -1889,1999. ... Phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of the forkhead transcription factor FKHR after epidermal growth factor treatment in ... Phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factors by erythropoietin and stem cell factor prevents acetylation and their ...
Xbp1 - ddPCR Primer Pair - EvaGreen - Digital PCR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad
Long-term association of a transcription factor with its chromatin binding site can stabilize gene expression and cell fate...
25). The base pairs marked in red had been mutated as shown for the E-box and Pou sequences. (C) The mRNAs shown cause a ... The DNA sequence to which the transcription factor Ascl1 binds is an E-box-Pou-E-box motif, this CANNTG sequence being ... This stability of transcription factor binding to chromatin is a necessary part of its action because removal of this factor ... carrying a transfected E-box-Pou-E-box DNA for Ascl1 binding into oocytes already expressing the Ascl1 transcription factor ...
A small molecule differentiation inducer increases insulin production by pancreatic β cells | PNAS
Neither proliferating cell nuclear antigen, an indicator of proliferation, nor octamer-binding transcription factor 4, a factor ... paired box gene 6, Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2, forkhead box A2 (Foxa2), hepatic nuclear factor (Hnf) 6, Hnf1α, Hnf1β, Hnf4α, and islet 1 ( ... Insulin gene transcription is regulated by the cooperation of a group of glucose-sensitive transcription factors expressed in a ... 2004) Acetylation of the BETA2 transcription factor by p300-associated factor is important in insulin gene expression. J Biol ...
E2F4 | Cancer Genetics Web
... paired box 5); and BCL-2 (B-cell CLL/ lymphoma 2) and IGFBP-6 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6) by GLI1. They were ... sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity - transcription factor binding - transcription factor complex - ... RESULTS: Among 90 lncRNAs, E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding (E2F4) antisense, insulin-like growth factor 2 ... E2F4 and SMAD3 as potential transcription factors involved in LTBP4 expression. In in vitro transcription factor activity ...
Mouse Tumor Model for Neurofibromatosis Type 1 | Science
Pax-3, paired box domain transcription factor (GenBank accession no. X59358); p75-NGF, NGF low-affinity receptor (GenBank ... the low-affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor p75, cell adhesion molecules N-CAM and L1, GAP-43, and the calcium binding ... To visualize bound antibody, we used Vectastain Elite ABC peroxidase kits (Vector Laboratories), specific for goat, rabbit, or ... X12875); S100, calcium binding S100 protein (GenBank accession no. L22144); Krox-20, serum response zinc finger protein ( ...
PAX5 - Wikipedia
The PAX5 gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. The central feature of this gene family is a ... "Id helix-loop-helix proteins antagonize pax transcription factor activity by inhibiting DNA binding". Molecular and Cellular ... "Entrez Gene: PAX5 paired box gene 5 (B-cell lineage specific activator)". Torlakovic E, Torlakovic G, Nguyen PL, Brunning RD, ... Paired box protein Pax-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX5 gene. ...
Frontiers | Melanoma Biomolecules: Independently Identified but Functionally Intertwined | Oncology
... and paired box 3 (PAX3). The goal is to provide context around what is known about the contribution of these biomarkers to ... Transcriptional modulation of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL by the paired box transcription factors PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR. ... inhibitor of DNA binding-1 (Id-1) and activating transcription factor (ATF)-3 (124). This study showed that MCAM silencing ... and paired box 3 (PAX3). They comprise a transcription factor (PAX3), cell surface glycoproteins (MCAM and CSPG4), a secreted ...
Frontiers | Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum...
WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. ... WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. ... zinc finger motif has been shown to completely abolish the W-box-specific DNA binding activity of WRKY transcription factors ( ... 2 primer pairs positioned 3′ around the deletion site did not amplify any product (Table S2). As a disruption of the ...
Numb regulates glioma stem cell fate and growth by altering epidermal growth factor receptor and Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin...
Five hundred base pair fragment represents Numb4d7 mRNA. (G): RT-PCR analysis of presence or absence of Numb4d7 mRNA during ... B): Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR of Numb isoforms expressed in two primary human GSC lines. (C): Domain structure and ... phosphotyrosine-binding; PCR, polymerase chain reaction. ... SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases/genetics. *SKP Cullin F-Box ... Numb regulates glioma stem cell fate and growth by altering epidermal growth factor receptor and Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin ...
pax8 Protein, paired box 8 - Creative BioMart
... family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family;typically encode proteins that contain a paired box domain, an ... octapeptide, and a paired-type homeodomain. This;nuclear protein is involved in thyroid follicular cell development and ... This gene encodes a member of the paired box (PAX) ... Function DNA binding. Related Protein ZFP579; TRP53; MAFBB; ... PAX8; paired box 8; paired box gene 8; paired box protein Pax-8; paired domain gene 8 ...
PAX5 | SDIX, LLC
This gene encodes a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. The central feature of this gene family is ... a novel, highly conserved DNA-binding motif, known as the paired box. PAX proteins are important regulators in early ... suggesting that the deregulation of transcription of this gene contributes to the pathogenesis of these lymphomas. ...
TBX3 - PCR Primer Pair - SYBR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad
T-box genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. This protein is a ... This gene is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain the T-box. ... Reverse Transcription Reagent. iScript™ Advanced cDNA Synthesis Kit for RT-qPCR. Real-Time PCR Supermix. SsoAdvanced™ SYBR® ... The below validation information is for the Primer Pair only Download Validation Data (.pdf) ...
PAX7 Gene - GeneCards | PAX7 Protein | PAX7 Antibody
Paired Box 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically contain a ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. TAS. 9339373. GO:0043565. sequence-specific DNA binding. IEA. -- ... GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and transcription ...
Structural insights into Arabidopsis ethylene response factor 96 with an extended N-terminal binding to GCC box | SpringerLink
Until now, we lack a full-length protein structure of the AP2/ERF transcription factor. Only the GCC box-binding domain (GBD, ... and AtERF96-bound GCC11 DNA motif (green). b Zoom-in view of the base pairs of the superimposed AtERF100-bound GCC11 DNA motif ... an AP2-LIKE ERE BINDING FACTOR (ERF), also known as ERE BINDING PROTEIN (EREBP), was first isolated as the GCC box-binding ... P box, CS1 box, and DRE box probes. b-d Fluorescence polarization analysis of AtERF96 proteins with the P box (b), CS1 box (c ...
... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the ... Octamer transcription factor: 1, 2, 3/4, 6, 7). (3.2) Paired box. PAX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C ... This domain is involved in dimerization and DNA binding like other transcription factors of the leucine zipper family like c- ...
Preferred Pair Distance Templates for Identification of Functional Binding Sites for Interacting Transcription Factors
We demonstrate that binding sites for a pair of interacting TFs can be found at distances that are dr ... including the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) involved in regulation of hypoxia response in human cells. ... We study a set of transcription factors (TFs) ... Adenine Press, PO Box 340, Guilderland, NY 12084 USA phone: 518 ... Preferred Pair Distance Templates for Identification of Functional Binding Sites for Interacting Transcription Factors. We ...
Congenital Patterned Leukodermas: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
The PAX3 gene encodes a transcription factor with a paired box domain, an octapeptide domain, and a homeobox domain essential ... The genes up-regulated by this transcription factor have not been identified; however, the PAX3 gene product can bind to the ... Type II Waardenburg syndrome results from mutations in the microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) gene,  which maps to ... The MITF gene encodes a transcription factor containing a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper. The genes up-regulated by this ...
Novel genes and uses thereof, expression profile of colon, gastric and pancreatic cancer - CTI Salud S.A.
TATA box binding protein, "POL2R2" polymerase (RNA) II polypeptide L and "TFCP2" Transcription factor CP2. Data are presented ... A pairing analysis was performed on 8 malignant tissues and their respective adjacent non-tumoral tissues in order to identify ... BHLHE40 (basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40) is a transcription factor that has been found to be up-regulated in certain ... Transcription factor CP2. Data are presented as the fold change in gene expression in cancer and adjacent noncancerous tissue ...
GenesEnhancerDifferentiationKnown as the paired boxMurinePAX2Pax8Amino acidActivatorAssaysMoleculeFamily of transcription factorsRegulatoryBasic-helixTATANucleotidesEmbryonic developmentTumorHumanEpidermal growth fGeneticTransactivationGeneticsGenomeInteractsHumansConsensus sequenceSpecificitySignaling moleculesIdentifiersPutativeTBX5RegionsThyroidLocus
- The paired-box motif, originally defined in Drosophila segmentation genes is conserved in the Pax family of vertebrate developmental genes. (nih.gov)
- Lactose is inhibiting the repressor, allowing the RNA polymerase to bind with the promoter and express the genes, which synthesize lactase. (wikipedia.org)
- Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 3' region of the anti-sense strand ). (wikipedia.org)
- Pax-8 is a transcription factor belonging to the PAX genes superfamily and its crucial role has been proven both in embryo and in the adult organism. (rcsb.org)
- The Pax Genes, or Paired-Box Containing Genes, play important roles in the development and proliferation of multiple cell lines, development of organs, and development and organization of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- Similar patterning during embryological development can be observed in "basal chordates or ascidians," in which organization of the central nervous system in ascidian larvae are also controlled by fibroblast growth factor genes. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain the T-box. (bio-rad.com)
- T-box genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. (bio-rad.com)
- Ethylene-responsive element binding protein, a member of the APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily, is a transcription factor that regulates stress-responsive genes by recognizing a specific cis -acting element of target DNA. (springer.com)
- The motifs discovered were used to detect transcription factor binding sites in the 5' regulatory regions of all human genes (according to the UCSC hg18 assembly). (jbsdonline.com)
- Y axis shows the number of genes for which at least one pair of binding sites is found at the selected distance (shown at X-axis) within the 10kb upstream promoter region. (jbsdonline.com)
- The genes up-regulated by this transcription factor during embryogenesis have not been identified. (medscape.com)
- Our observations indicate that a detailed understanding of T cell-specific gene control must integrate the concerted activity of at least three tissue-specific HMG box genes. (nih.gov)
- Recent findings indicate that Myod functions in an instructive chromatin context and directly regulates genes that are expressed throughout the myogenic program, achieving promoter-specific regulation of its own binding and activity through a feed-forward mechanism. (biologists.org)
- A crucial question in developmental biology since then has been whether such luxury genes are specifically marked for activation by their inherited chromatin structure, or whether transcription factors that are unique to a differentiated cell type can alone induce luxury gene expression and impose upon cells a chromatin structure, regardless of their lineage-established chromatin components. (biologists.org)
- These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. (mdpi.com)
- The TCF/LEF family, which was first discovered during a study of T lymphocytes, has been shown to regulate the expression of specific genes, such as c-myc , cylinD1 , runt-related transcriptional factor 2 ( Runx2 ), and Osx . (medsci.org)
- Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(D)J Recombination. (babraham.ac.uk)
- There may be an E box in the proximal promoter of some genes. (wikiversity.org)
- The GCC box, also referred to as the AGC box (10), GCC element (11), or AGCCGCC sequence (13), is an ethylene-responsive element found in the promoters of a large number of [pathogenesis related] PR genes whose expression is up-regulated following pathogen attack. (wikiversity.org)
- These citations concern the AGC box in plant genes. (wikiversity.org)
- The Myc-Max heterodimer, but not its Mad-Max counterpart, dimerizes to form a bivalent heterotetramer, which explains how Myc can upregulate expression of genes with promoters bearing widely separated E boxes (Nair, 2003). (sdbonline.org)
- Oligonucleotide microarray analysis has identified several Myc target genes that contain multiple E boxes within promoters, typically separated by at least 100 nucleotides. (sdbonline.org)
- Genome-wide expression analysis and expression studies of selected genes in single and double mutants demonstrated that both transcription factors modulate transcriptional changes in response to pathogen challenge. (plantcell.org)
- are members of the Tbx2 subfamily of the T-box family of transcription factor genes. (biologists.org)
- The family is characterized by a highly conserved sequence encoding a DNA-binding domain, called the T-domain, that binds specific sequences in the promoters of target genes. (biologists.org)
- The Tbx2 subfamily, which includes Tbx2, Tbx3, Tbx4 and Tbx5 , evolved by tandem duplication of an ancestral locus to form a linked pair of genes, followed by duplication of the gene pair and dispersal to two chromosomal locations. (biologists.org)
- BACKGROUND: About 11% of human genes occur in divergent pairs such that both genes are located on opposite strands of DNA, and their immediate promoters are overlapping. (uta.fi)
- The overlapping proximal promoter of both genes form an intergenic region called a bidirectional promoter which is less than 1000 base pairs in length. (uta.fi)
- There is evidence that some cis-regulatory elements in bidirectional promoters control the transcription of both flanking genes. (uta.fi)
- The 5'-flanking region does not contain a TATA box or CAAT box, commonly found in housekeeping genes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Work over the last 20 years has uncovered a transcription factor binding code (TFBC) common to most SMC contractile genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- When several similar CRMs have been characterized, and the regulatory factors and binding sites have been elucidated, one can use this knowledge to find new examples of similar CRMs that direct the transcription of other genes that are involved in the same process. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, we identify genes encoding predicted TOX HMG-box subfamily members in pufferfish and mosquito. (biomedcentral.com)
- Researchers believe that all PAX3 gene mutations have the same effect: they prevent the PAX3 protein from binding to DNA and regulating the activity of other genes. (medlineplus.gov)
- We ultimately combined putative and novel Pax8 binding sites with actual target gene expression regulation to define Pax8-dependent genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is well known that these factors bind to the promoter regions of thyroid-specific genes, such as the genes encoding Thyroglobulin ( Tg) , Thyroperoxidase ( Tpo ), and the Sodium Iodide Symporter ( Nis ), thus regulating their expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nevertheless, despite the key relevance of these TFs for thyroid biology, few studies have described additional loci that are transcriptionally regulated by the above mentioned TFs, nor have sequences been described to which these factors bind in enhancers, silencers, or boundary elements that could potentially regulate the transcription of genes over large distances. (biomedcentral.com)
- DNA-binding protein that regulates the transcription of several genes and is involved in heart development and limb pattern formation (PubMed:25725155, PubMed:25963046, PubMed:29174768, PubMed:26917986, PubMed:27035640, PubMed:8988164). (genecards.org)
- Transcription factors bind to specific sites of DNA and regulates the transcription (expression) of other genes. (edu.au)
- Pax: a murine multigene family of paired box-containing genes. (cisreg.ca)
- In this paper, we discuss the structure of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) and its role in embryonic skeletal development and the crosstalk with related signaling pathways and factors. (medsci.org)
- This enhancer contains binding sites for paired-box transcription factors and two E-boxes that in EMSA studies show interaction with Pax6b and NeuroD, respectively. (ac.be)
- Electrophoretic mobility shift and enhancer-blocking assays and ChIP-chip analysis confirmed CTCF binding to these sites both in vitro and in vivo. (babraham.ac.uk)
- A1BG is not transcribed by an enhancer box. (wikiversity.org)
- Existence of an enhancer box on either side of A1BG does not prove that it is actively used to transcribe A1BG. (wikiversity.org)
- A1BG is not transcribed by a downstream enhancer box. (wikiversity.org)
- Additionally, an enhancer may be excised and inserted elsewhere in the chromosome, and still affect gene transcription. (wikiversity.org)
- X-ray structures of the basic/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLHZ) domains of Myc-Max and Mad-Max heterodimers bound to their common DNA target (Enhancer or E box hexanucleotide, 5'-CACGTG-3') have been determined at 1.9 Å and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. (sdbonline.org)
- Smooth muscle calponin ( CNN1 ) contains multiple, conserved intronic CArG elements that bind serum response factor (SRF) and display enhancer activity in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Some lineage-determining transcription factors are overwhelmingly important in directing embryonic cells to a particular differentiation pathway, such as Ascl1 for nerve. (pnas.org)
- This is especially so if the duration of transcription factor binding to DNA is required for some kinds of normal cell lineage progressions and for the stability of cell differentiation. (pnas.org)
- This helps us to understand the mechanism of action of a transcription factor that guides cell fate and stabilizes cell differentiation. (pnas.org)
- this transcription factor functions in neuronal and pancreatic β-cell differentiation and is essential for insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
- Isx increased the expression and secretion of insulin in islets that made little insulin after prolonged ex vivo culture and increased expression of neurogenic differentiation 1 and other regulators of islet differentiation and insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
- Among the most important of these transcription factors are neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1, also known as BETA2), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1), and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which activate the insulin gene promoter synergistically and are essential for glucose-stimulated insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
- Expression of one or more of these factors helps promote differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells from various stem cell populations ( 6 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
- This nuclear protein functions as a sequence-specific transcription factor that is involved in differentiation and limb development. (abnova.com)
- a basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that can induce skeletal muscle differentiation in cells from many different lineages. (biologists.org)
- It also provided the opportunity to address another important question: how does a single transcription factor execute an entire program of cell differentiation? (biologists.org)
- Function: Probable transcription factor that may have a role in kidney cell differentiation. (abcam.com)
- Differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts is a prerequisite to bone formation and is regulated by many factors. (medsci.org)
- Recent experiments have shown that transcription factors play an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation, proliferation, and function. (medsci.org)
- These transcription factors are closely linked with each other and in conjunction with bone-related signaling pathways form a complex network that regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. (medsci.org)
- Transcription factors are important players in these signaling pathways and play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. (medsci.org)
- These transcription factors are interdependent and closely linked with each other to form a network in the above signaling pathways, which regulates the entire process of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. (medsci.org)
- Adipose-derived stem cells are easily obtained, show a strong capacity for ex vivo expansion and differentiation to other cell types, release a large variety of angiogenic factors, and have immunomodulatory properties. (revespcardiol.org)
- their differentiation into GFAP + cells is induced by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). (jneurosci.org)
- Differentiation of insulin producing beta-cells is a genetically well defined process that involves functions of various conserved transcription factors. (ac.be)
- TAZ is a WW domain containing a transcription coactivator that modulates mesenchymal differentiation and development of multiple organs. (asm.org)
- Members of the Myc proto-oncogene family encode transcription factors that function in multiple aspects of cell behavior, including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and apoptosis. (sdbonline.org)
- Myc:Max complexes activate transcription, promote proliferation, and block terminal differentiation. (sdbonline.org)
- The paired box 4 gene is involved in pancreatic islet development and mouse studies have demonstrated a role for this gene in differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells. (nih.gov)
- We recently identified a gene designated Tox (for thymocyte selection-associated HMG-box gene), encoding a novel nuclear protein that shows a highly regulated pattern of expression during thymocyte differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
- The transcription factor Pax8 is essential for the differentiation of thyroid cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- TAZ is proposed to modulate the switch between proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) via interaction with transcription factors Runx2 and PPARγ. (cellsignal.com)
Known as the paired box1
- To gain clues about the role of CTCF binding at the murine immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus, we utilized a computational approach that identified 144 putative CTCF-binding sites within this locus. (babraham.ac.uk)
- 98% of the murine sites being present in one orientation with respect to VH gene transcription. (babraham.ac.uk)
- Paired box gene 2 , also known as PAX2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
- The transcription factor gene Pax2 is important in the regionalized embryological development of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- Concentration gradients of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family, Member 1 (Wnt1) control expression of Pax2 during development of the Mesencephalon, or midbrain. (wikipedia.org)
- Pathologically, Pax2 has been demonstrated to activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene promoter, and both have been indicated as playing a role in human prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
- In fact, a small-molecule was recently identified with the ability to disrupt Pax2 mediated transcription by blocking Pax2 from binding to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Pax2 is a transcription factor critically required during the development of the nervous and excretory systems, including the midbrain, hindbrain, spinal cord, eye, ear and urogenital tract. (abcam.com)
- We found that the Pax2 transcription factor is expressed specifically by all astrocyte lineage cells in the optic nerve throughout their development and not by oligodendrocytes or other cell types. (jneurosci.org)
- The cDNA of DPP4 is composed of 2301 base pairs, translated to 766 amino acid protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- en] Previous studies have identified a single amino-acid substitution in the transcriptional regulator Pax-1 as the cause of the mouse skeletal mutant undulated (un). (uni.lu)
- inclusion of this 14 amino acid coding region changes the binding activity of protein, and leads to different biological activities . (cisreg.ca)
- The results described here give evidence of a very long dwell time by the same molecule for a cell lineage-determining factor. (pnas.org)
- This review focuses on five putative biomarkers - melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), galectin-3 (gal-3), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), and paired box 3 (PAX3). (frontiersin.org)
- In 1993, this adenosine deaminase-binding protein is determined to be identical to CD26, a T-cell activation molecule and a 110-kD glycoprotein that is present also on epithelial cells of various tissues including the liver, kidney, and intestine. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- These molecules can be considered receptors because the primary function of the immunoglobulin molecule is to bind antigen. (mhmedical.com)
Family of transcription factors3
- The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. (cancerindex.org)
- Clone REA140 recognizes PAX-5, which belongs to the paired box (PAX) gene family of transcription factors. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Gene ID: 1874 - "The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. (wikiversity.org)
- Moreover, PPDT can be used as a filter to remove false positive binding sites in human cis -regulatory modules. (jbsdonline.com)
- Hpo complexes have the regulatory subunit Salvador (Sav) and activate Wts by phosphorylation, whereas Wts associates with its activating subunit Mats ( m ob a s t umor s uppressor) and phosphorylates Yorkie (Yki), which is a transcription coactivator ( 12 , 36 ). (asm.org)
- Transcriptional regulatory elements such as locus control regions, enhancers or insulators act by repositioning specific genetic loci to regions with active or silent transcription 6 . (wikiversity.org)
- Transcription initiation is modulated by an interplay of several allosteric DNA-binding transcription factors using effector molecules from three different pathways (arginine, pyrimidines, purines), nucleoid-associated factors (NAPs), trigger enzymes (enzymes with a second unlinked gene regulatory function), DNA remodeling (bending and wrapping), UTP-dependent reiterative transcription initiation, and stringent control by the alarmone ppGpp. (springer.com)
- A DNA transcription unit encoding for a protein contains not only the sequence that will eventually be directly translated into the protein (the coding sequence) but also regulatory sequences that direct and regulate the synthesis of that protein. (wikibooks.org)
- CCAAT boxes are one of the most abundant cis-regulatory elements in the human genome. (uta.fi)
- In contrast, when iron is scarce, Fep1 becomes inactive and php4 + is expressed to act as a regulatory subunit of the CCAAT-binding factor that is required to block pcl1 + , sdh4 + , and isa1 + gene transcription. (asm.org)
- Although these conservation approaches are quite successful in predicting which regions have a regulatory function, they provide no information regarding what expression pattern these regions produce and by which transcription factors they are targeted. (biomedcentral.com)
- The free nucleotides of the RNA, pair with complementary DNA bases. (wikibooks.org)
- NF-Y, a heterotrimeric transcription factor, activates CCAAT boxes and requires both the CCAAT box and specific flanking nucleotides for DNA binding. (uta.fi)
- small RNAs usually about 19-25 nucleotides long and functions to control gene expression by base pairing with many different mRNAs. (coursehero.com)
- A number of factors are aberrantly overexpressed in this tumor type and actively promote cancer progression and metastasis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The specific function of the paired box 7 gene is unknown but speculated to involve tumor suppression since fusion of this gene with a forkhead domain family member has been associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. (genecards.org)
- One factor leading to resistance may be the presentation of breast cancer as heterogeneous tumor manifestation, as for example approximately one third of initially ER-positive breast tumors develop ER-negative lymph node metastases ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- implied that deletions or mutations of YY1-binding sites played a significant role in the over-expression of viral oncogenes and tumor progression [ 9 , 10 ]. (plos.org)
- B): Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR of Numb isoforms expressed in two primary human GSC lines. (nih.gov)
- Orthologous to human PAX3 (paired box 3). (jax.org)
- Test your therapeutic antibodies in immunohistochemistry against a broad panel of normal frozen human tissue types in order to determine potential unintended binding. (lsbio.com)
- Recent data from this laboratory showed that a paired-like homeodomain (HD) protein, Phox2a, interacts with the HD-binding site residing within a composite promoter of the human DBH gene, designated domain IV, in a cell-specific manner and directly controls noradrenergic-specific DBH promoter activity. (jneurosci.org)
- We developed a model of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (OHT)‑resistant human breast cancer cell lines and compared their different expression patterns, activation of growth factor receptor pathways and compared cells by genomic hybridization (CGH). (spandidos-publications.com)
- From paired human lymph node and blood samples, we identify a population of circulating Tfh cells that are transcriptionally and clonally similar to germinal center Tfh cells. (babraham.ac.uk)
- An AGC box occurs in the human genome. (wikiversity.org)
- Spontanteous mutations in the T-box gene TBX3 , result in the human ulnar-mammary syndrome, a dominant developmental disorder characterized by abnormal forelimb and apocrine gland development. (biologists.org)
- This gene is closely linked to related family member T-box 3 (ulnar mammary syndrome) on human chromosome 12. (genecards.org)
Epidermal growth f3
- Numb regulates glioma stem cell fate and growth by altering epidermal growth factor receptor and Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin ligase activity. (nih.gov)
- However, both Numb isoforms decrease epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, thereby regulating GSC fate. (nih.gov)
- In addition, it has been shown that therapy response to tamoxifen is also negatively affected by overexpression of HER2, co-expression of the ER modulator Amplified In Breast Cancer-1 (AIB1), and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ( 5 - 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Although the cause of myopia is unclear, family-based studies and twin studies have shown that genetic factors contribute to its development and progression. (dovepress.com)
- 6 - 13 Therefore, the identification of genetic factors is important for establishing preventive strategies for myopia. (dovepress.com)
- Using genetic approaches we show that pax6b is crucial for maintenance but not induction of pancreatic hb9 transcription. (ac.be)
- Identification of adaptive genetic factors in this population could provide insight into coordinated physiological responses to this environment. (prolekare.cz)
- Adaptations to the challenge imposed by hypoxia have been studied in highland Tibetan populations, and putatively adaptive genetic factors that are associated with both hypoxia and metabolic factors have been reported . (prolekare.cz)
- This observation suggests that FKHR induces PEPCK gene expression by an indirect transactivation mechanism through mediating the other transcription factors or coactivators. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Sox-4 is thus the first 'classical' transcription factor in the Sox gene family with separable DNA-binding and transactivation domains. (nih.gov)
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on the discovery of a binding site for c-Myc in the EBV genome, a new molecular model for the specific role of EBV as a causal factor in the origin of endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma is proposed. (medscimonit.com)
- The aggregate collection of functional CArG boxes in the genome, known as the CArGome 6 , bind the serum response factor (SRF) transcription factor with varying affinity 7 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The largest ERF subfamily comprises 122 members and mainly involves an ERF domain that interacts with the GCC box DNA sequence (Brown et al. (springer.com)
- Based on our current understanding of Myod, it is reasonable to suggest that the regulated activity of a single factor that broadly interacts with many cellular components might be a common mechanism for orchestrating a complex response to an initiating event. (biologists.org)
- On average, only 3 to 4 of the 6 base pairs in each consensus sequence are found in any given promoter. (wikipedia.org)
- The consensus sequence for the E-box element is CANNTG, with a palindromic canonical sequence of CACGTG. (wikiversity.org)
- The AGC box has a consensus sequence as 3'-AGCCGCC-5' in the direction of transcription. (wikiversity.org)
- This binding code, known as a CArG box 4 , is 10 base pairs in length and conforms to either a high affinity binding sequence of CC(A/T) 6 GG or to any one of more than 1,100 permutations of this consensus sequence 5 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We previously identified a family of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles (Isx) by screening a chemical library in mouse pluripotent stem cells for activators of the gene encoding the homeodomain transcription factor, NK2 transcription factor-related, locus 5 (Nkx2.5) ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
- The genomic locus spans 32456 base pairs (NC_000001.11), contains 8 exons and two alternative first exons. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)