A double-walled epithelial capsule that is the bulbous closed proximal end of the kidney tubular system. It surrounds the cluster of convoluted capillaries of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and is continuous with the convoluted PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
A layer of acellular matrix that lies beneath the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM and above the CORNEAL STROMA. It consists of randomly arranged COLLAGEN fibers in a condensed bed of intercellular substance. It provides stability and strength to the cornea.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
A pill sized videocamera encased in a capsule. It is designed to be swallowed and subsequently traverse the gastrointestinal tract while transmitting diagnostic images along the way.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.
A low-molecular-weight protein (minimum molecular weight 8000) which has the ability to inhibit trypsin as well as chymotrypsin at independent binding sites. It is characterized by a high cystine content and the absence of glycine.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
An alternative to REFRACTIVE SURGICAL PROCEDURES. A therapeutic procedure for correcting REFRACTIVE ERRORS. It involves wearing CONTACT LENSES designed to force corrective changes to the curvature of the CORNEA that remain after the lenses are removed. The effect is temporary but is maintained by wearing the therapeutic lenses daily, usually during sleep.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

Intraluminal ATP concentrations in rat renal tubules. (1/26)

It is becoming increasingly recognized that stimulation of apical P2 receptors can influence solute transport in the nephron, but, to date, no information is available on endogenous intraluminal nucleotide concentrations in vivo. This study measured intraluminal ATP concentrations in the renal tubules of anesthetized rats. Proximal tubular concentrations were found to be in the range of 100 to 300 nmol/L, with no significant variation along the S2 segment, whereas concentrations in the early distal tubule were markedly lower. Using collections of varying duration, the half-life of ATP in collected proximal tubular fluid was found to be 3.4 min, indicating significant breakdown by soluble nucleotidases. For assessment of whether proximal tubular ATP was filtered or secreted, experiments were performed in Munich-Wistar rats. The ATP concentration in midproximal tubules (142 +/- 23 nmol/L) was more than four-fold higher than in Bowman's space (32 +/- 7 nmol/L; P < 0.001), whereas fractional water reabsorption between the two sites was modest. In experiments that were designed to determine the effects of (patho)physiologic disturbances on intraluminal ATP, rats were either volume expanded or subjected to hypotensive hemorrhage. Neither maneuver affected proximal tubular luminal ATP concentrations significantly; rapid degradation of secreted ATP by ecto- and soluble nucleotidases is a possible explanation. It is concluded that the proximal tubule secretes ATP into the lumen, where it may have an autocrine/paracrine regulatory role.  (+info)

Fluid flow in the juxtaglomerular interstitium visualized in vivo. (2/26)

Earlier electron microscopy studies demonstrated morphological signs of fluid flow in the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), including fenestrations of the afferent arteriole (AA) endothelium facing renin granular cells. We aimed to directly visualize fluid flow in the JGA, the putative function of the fenestrated endothelium, using intravital multiphoton microscopy of Munich-Wistar rats and C57BL6 mice. Renin content of the AA correlated strongly with the length of the fenestrated, filtering AA segment. Fluorescence of the extracellular fluid marker lucifer yellow (LY) injected into the cannulated femoral vein in bolus was followed in the renal cortex by real-time imaging. LY was detected in the interstitium around the JG AA before the plasma LY filtered into Bowman's capsule and early proximal tubule. The fluorescence intensity of LY in the JGA interstitium was 17.9 +/- 3.5% of that in the AA plasma (n = 6). The JGA fluid flow was oscillatory, consisting of two components: a fast (one every 5-10 s) and a slow (one every 45-50 s) oscillation, most likely due to the rapid transmission of both the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF)-mediated hemodynamic changes. LY was also detected in the distal tubular lumen about 2-5 s later than in the AA, indicating the flow of JGA interstitial fluid through the macula densa. In the isolated microperfused JGA, blocking the early proximal tubule with a micropipette caused significant increases in MD cell volume by 62 +/- 4% (n = 4) and induced dilation of the intercellular lateral spaces. In summary, significant and dynamic fluid flow exists in the JGA which may help filter the released renin into the renal interstitium (endocrine function). It may also modulate TGF and renin signals in the JGA (hemodynamic function).  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of multipotent progenitor cells from the Bowman's capsule of adult human kidneys. (3/26)

Regenerative medicine represents a critical clinical goal for patients with ESRD, but the identification of renal adult multipotent progenitor cells has remained elusive. It is demonstrated that in human adult kidneys, a subset of parietal epithelial cells (PEC) in the Bowman's capsule exhibit coexpression of the stem cell markers CD24 and CD133 and of the stem cell-specific transcription factors Oct-4 and BmI-1, in the absence of lineage-specific markers. This CD24+CD133+ PEC population, which could be purified from cultured capsulated glomeruli, revealed self-renewal potential and a high cloning efficiency. Under appropriate culture conditions, individual clones of CD24+CD133+ PEC could be induced to generate mature, functional, tubular cells with phenotypic features of proximal and/or distal tubules, osteogenic cells, adipocytes, and cells that exhibited phenotypic and functional features of neuronal cells. The injection of CD24+CD133+ PEC but not of CD24-CD133- renal cells into SCID mice that had acute renal failure resulted in the regeneration of tubular structures of different portions of the nephron. More important, treatment of acute renal failure with CD24+CD133+ PEC significantly ameliorated the morphologic and functional kidney damage. This study demonstrates the existence and provides the characterization of a population of resident multipotent progenitor cells in adult human glomeruli, potentially opening new avenues for the development of regenerative medicine in patients who have renal diseases.  (+info)

Gut-like structures from mouse embryonic stem cells as an in vitro model for gut organogenesis preserving developmental potential after transplantation. (4/26)

Recently, we reported the formation of gut-like structures from mouse ESCs in vitro. To determine whether ESCs provide an in vitro model of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts and their organogenesis, we investigated the morphological features, formation process, cellular development, and regional location within the GI tract by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We also examined the developmental potential by transplantation into kidney capsules. The results demonstrated that Id2-expressing epithelium developed first, alpha-smooth muscle actin appeared around the periphery, and finally, the gut-like structures were formed into a three-layer organ with well-differentiated epithelium. A connective tissue layer and musculature with interstitial cells of Cajal developed, similar to organogenesis of the embryonic gut. Enteric neurons appeared underdeveloped, and blood vessels were absent. Many structures expressed intestinal markers Cdx2 and 5-hydroxytryptamine but not the stomach marker H(+)/K(+) ATPase. Transplants obtained blood vessels and extrinsic nerve growth from the host to prolong life, and even grafts of premature structures did not form teratoma. In conclusion, gut-like structures were provided with prototypical tissue components of the GI tract and are inherent in the intestine rather than the stomach. The formation process was basically same as in gut organogenesis. They maintain their developmental potential after transplantation. Therefore, gut-like structures provide a unique and useful in vitro system for development and stem cell studies of the GI tract, including transplantation experiments.  (+info)

Parietal podocytes in normal human glomeruli. (5/26)

Although parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule have been described by electron microscopy in the normal human kidney, their molecular composition remains unknown. Ten human normal kidneys that were removed for cancer were assessed for the presence and the extent of parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule. The expression of podocyte-specific proteins (podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57, and intermediate filaments (cytokeratins and vimentin) was tested. In addition, six normal fetal kidneys were studied to track the ontogeny of parietal podocytes. The podocyte protein labeling detected parietal podocytes in all of the kidneys, was found in 76.6% on average of Bowman's capsule sections, and was prominent at the vascular pole. WT1 and p57 were expressed in some parietal cells, whereas PAX2 was present in all or most of them, so some parietal cells coexpressed WT1 and PAX2. Furthermore, parietal podocytes coexpressed WT1 and podocyte proteins. Cytokeratin-positive cells covered a variable part of the capsule and did not express podocyte proteins. Tuft-capsular podocyte bridges were present in 15.5 +/- 3.7% of the glomerular sections. Parietal podocytes often covered the juxtaglomerular arterioles and were present within the extraglomerular mesangium. Parietal podocytes were present in fetal kidneys. Parietal podocytes that express the same epitopes as visceral podocytes do exist along Bowman's capsule in the normal adult kidney. They are a constitutive cell type of the Bowman's capsule. Therefore, their role in physiology and pathology should be investigated.  (+info)

Expression of the chemokine receptor CCR1 in human renal allografts. (6/26)

BACKGROUND: Chemokines are involved in the recruitment of leukocytes to vascularized allografts. CCR1 is a receptor for various proinflammatory chemokines and CCR1 blockade reduces renal allograft injury in rabbits. The purpose of the study was to characterize CCR1-positive cells in human renal allografts. METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded allograft nephrectomies (n = 9) and non-involved parts of tumour nephrectomies (n = 10) were studied. Immunohistochemistry for CCR1, CD3 and CD68 was performed on consecutive sections. Double immunofluorescence for CCR1 and CD3, CD20, CD68, DC-SIGN and S100 was used on selected cases. Expression of CCR1 mRNA and the ligands CCL3 and CCL5 was studied in renal allograft biopsies with acute rejection (n = 10), with chronic allograft nephropathy (n = 8) and controls (n = 8). RESULTS: CCR1 protein was expressed by circulating cells in glomerular and peritubular capillaries, colocalizing with CD68. In renal allografts CCR1-positive cells were present within glomerular tufts, but only scattered CCR1-positive cells were found in tubulointerstitial infiltrates. CCR1 did not colocalize with the majority of CD68-positive cells in the interstitium. The small number of CCR1-positive interstitial cells were identified as CD20- or DC-SIGN-positive by double immunofluorescence. CCR1 mRNA was significantly increased in renal biopsies with acute allograft rejection (P < 0.001), and with chronic allograft nephropathy (P < 0.05), it correlated with the expression of CCL3 and CCL5, and with serum-creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: CCR1 mRNA expression was associated with renal function in allografts. CCR1 protein expression was restricted to monocytes, CD20-positive B cells and DC-SIGN-positive dendritic cells. Thus most interstitial macrophages were CCR1 negative, which may relate to down-regulation after migration into the interstitium in human renal allografts.  (+info)

A pitfall of glomerular sieving: profibrotic and matrix proteins derive from the Bowman's capsule and not the glomerular tuft in rats with renovascular hypertension. (7/26)

BACKGROUND: The glomeruli in the non-clipped kidney of rats with 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension are a classical model for studying the mechanisms of glomerular injury. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the glomerular expression of PAI-1 and collagen I alpha1 mRNA from glomeruli isolated by the classic technique of sieving with the recently developed technique of tissue laser microdissection. For quantification of mRNA from both methods, real-time PCR was used. RESULTS: Real-time PCR revealed a 9.0 +/- 1.3- and a 7.1 +/- 0.2-fold induction of PAI-1 and collagen I alpha 1, respectively, in the glomeruli from hypertensive rats isolated by sieving. However, in situ hybridization and microdissection revealed that expression of both mRNAs was mainly from the Bowman's capsule and not from the glomerular tuft (10.7 +/- 1.3- and 7.2 +/- 0.6-fold higher induction in whole glomeruli compared with tuft alone). CONCLUSION: This emphasizes that studies focusing on processes in the mesangium, endothelial cells or podocytes should not rely on glomeruli obtained by sieving. Rather, a technique like the laser microdissection or in situ hybridization should be applied which allows the clear separation of different glomerular and periglomerular compartments.  (+info)

Alterations in renal cilium length during transient complete ureteral obstruction in the mouse. (8/26)


The Bowman capsule is the initial component of the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney. It is a structural and functional part of the renal corpuscle, along with the glomerulus. The Bowman capsule surrounds the glomerulus and serves as a site for filtration, helping to separate small molecules from blood cells and large proteins in the process known as urine formation.

The Bowman capsule is composed of a single layer of epithelial cells called podocytes, which have foot-like processes that interdigitate with each other and form filtration slits. These slits are covered by a thin diaphragm, allowing for the passage of small molecules while retaining larger ones. The space within the Bowman capsule is called the urinary space or Bowman's space, where the filtrate from the blood collects before moving into the tubular system for further processing and eventual excretion as urine.

The Bowman membrane, also known as the Bowman's capsule, is a part of the nephron in the kidney. It is the outermost layer of the renal corpuscle and surrounds the glomerulus. The primary function of the Bowman membrane is to filter blood and produce urine.

The Bowman membrane is composed of two layers: an inner visceral layer, which is closely applied to the glomerular capillaries, and an outer parietal layer, which forms the inner lining of the Bowman's capsule. The space between these two layers is called the urinary space or Bowman's space.

The filtration process in the Bowman membrane allows for the passage of small molecules such as water, glucose, and amino acids from the blood into the urinary space, while larger molecules like proteins and blood cells are retained in the bloodstream. The fluid that passes through the Bowman membrane then flows into the tubular part of the nephron, where it is further modified before being excreted as urine.

A kidney glomerulus is a functional unit in the nephron of the kidney. It is a tuft of capillaries enclosed within a structure called Bowman's capsule, which filters waste and excess fluids from the blood. The glomerulus receives blood from an afferent arteriole and drains into an efferent arteriole.

The process of filtration in the glomerulus is called ultrafiltration, where the pressure within the glomerular capillaries drives plasma fluid and small molecules (such as ions, glucose, amino acids, and waste products) through the filtration membrane into the Bowman's space. Larger molecules, like proteins and blood cells, are retained in the blood due to their larger size. The filtrate then continues down the nephron for further processing, eventually forming urine.

A capsule is a type of solid pharmaceutical dosage form in which the drug is enclosed in a small shell or container, usually composed of gelatin or other suitable material. The shell serves to protect the drug from degradation, improve its stability and shelf life, and facilitate swallowing by making it easier to consume. Capsules come in various sizes and colors and can contain one or more drugs in powder, liquid, or solid form. They are typically administered orally but can also be used for other routes of administration, such as rectal or vaginal.

Glomerulonephritis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessel clusters in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood. This inflammation can impair the kidney's ability to filter blood properly, leading to symptoms such as proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), edema (swelling), hypertension (high blood pressure), and eventually kidney failure.

Glomerulonephritis can be acute or chronic, and it may occur as a primary kidney disease or secondary to other medical conditions such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or vasculitis. The diagnosis of glomerulonephritis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies, with confirmation often requiring a kidney biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease but may include medications to suppress inflammation, control blood pressure, and manage symptoms.

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pattern of kidney injury that involves scarring or sclerosis in some (segmental) areas of some (focal) glomeruli. Glomeruli are the tiny blood vessel clusters within the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.

In FSGS, the scarring occurs due to damage to the glomerular basement membrane, which can be caused by various factors such as genetic mutations, viral infections, or immune system disorders. The damage leads to the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and the formation of scar tissue, impairing the kidney's ability to filter blood effectively.

FSGS is characterized by proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), hypertension (high blood pressure), and declining kidney function, which can lead to end-stage renal disease if left untreated. The focal and segmental nature of the scarring means that not all glomeruli are affected, and only some areas of each affected glomerulus are damaged, making FSGS a highly variable condition with different clinical presentations and outcomes.

Podocytes are specialized cells that make up the visceral epithelial layer of the glomerular basement membrane in the kidney. They have long, interdigitating foot processes that wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus and play a crucial role in maintaining the filtration barrier of the kidney. The slit diaphragms between the foot processes allow for the passage of small molecules while retaining larger proteins in the bloodstream. Podocytes also contribute to the maintenance and regulation of the glomerular filtration rate, making them essential for normal renal function. Damage or loss of podocytes can lead to proteinuria and kidney disease.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The basement membrane is a thin, specialized layer of extracellular matrix that provides structural support and separates epithelial cells (which line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels) from connective tissue. It is composed of two main layers: the basal lamina, which is produced by the epithelial cells, and the reticular lamina, which is produced by the connective tissue. The basement membrane plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and survival.

The basal lamina is composed mainly of type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and proteoglycans, while the reticular lamina contains type III collagen, fibronectin, and other matrix proteins. The basement membrane also contains a variety of growth factors and cytokines that can influence cell behavior.

Defects in the composition or organization of the basement membrane can lead to various diseases, including kidney disease, eye disease, and skin blistering disorders.

Nephrosis is an older term that was used to describe a group of kidney diseases, primarily characterized by the damage and loss of function in the glomeruli - the tiny filtering units within the kidneys. This results in the leakage of large amounts of protein (primarily albumin) into the urine, a condition known as proteinuria.

The term "nephrosis" was often used interchangeably with "minimal change nephropathy," which is a specific type of kidney disorder that demonstrates little to no changes in the glomeruli under a microscope, despite significant protein leakage. However, current medical terminology and classifications prefer the use of more precise terms to describe various kidney diseases, such as minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, or membranous nephropathy, among others.

It is important to consult with a healthcare professional or refer to updated medical resources for accurate and current information regarding kidney diseases and their specific diagnoses.

Kidney tubules are the structural and functional units of the kidney responsible for reabsorption, secretion, and excretion of various substances. They are part of the nephron, which is the basic unit of the kidney's filtration and reabsorption process.

There are three main types of kidney tubules:

1. Proximal tubule: This is the initial segment of the kidney tubule that receives the filtrate from the glomerulus. It is responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of the filtrate, including water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes.
2. Loop of Henle: This U-shaped segment of the tubule consists of a thin descending limb, a thin ascending limb, and a thick ascending limb. The loop of Henle helps to concentrate urine by creating an osmotic gradient that allows water to be reabsorbed in the collecting ducts.
3. Distal tubule: This is the final segment of the kidney tubule before it empties into the collecting duct. It is responsible for fine-tuning the concentration of electrolytes and pH balance in the urine by selectively reabsorbing or secreting substances such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ions.

Overall, kidney tubules play a critical role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, regulating acid-base balance, and removing waste products from the body.

CD24 is a cell surface glycoprotein that serves as a marker for B cells at various stages of development and differentiation. It is also expressed on the surface of certain other cell types, including neutrophils and some cancer cells. Antigens are substances that can stimulate an immune response and are recognized as foreign by the body's immune system. CD24 is not typically referred to as an antigen itself, but it can be used as a target for immunotherapy in certain types of cancer. In this context, monoclonal antibodies or other immune-based therapies may be developed to specifically recognize and bind to CD24 on the surface of cancer cells, with the goal of triggering an immune response against the cancer cells.

A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It is responsible for filtering blood, reabsorbing necessary substances, and excreting waste products into the urine. Each human kidney contains approximately one million nephrons.

The structure of a nephron includes a glomerulus, which is a tuft of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule. The glomerulus filters blood, allowing small molecules like water and solutes to pass through while keeping larger molecules like proteins and blood cells within the capillaries.

The filtrate then passes through the tubular portion of the nephron, which includes the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct. The tubular portion reabsorbs necessary substances like water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes back into the bloodstream while excreting waste products like urea and creatinine into the urine.

Overall, nephrons play a critical role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, regulating blood pressure, and removing waste products from the body.

Proteinuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of excess proteins, particularly albumin, in the urine. Under normal circumstances, only small amounts of proteins should be found in the urine because the majority of proteins are too large to pass through the glomeruli, which are the filtering units of the kidneys.

However, when the glomeruli become damaged or diseased, they may allow larger molecules such as proteins to leak into the urine. Persistent proteinuria is often a sign of kidney disease and can indicate damage to the glomeruli. It is usually detected through a routine urinalysis and may be confirmed with further testing.

The severity of proteinuria can vary, and it can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and other kidney diseases. Treatment for proteinuria depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to control blood pressure, manage diabetes, or reduce protein loss in the urine.

Bacterial capsules are slimy, gel-like layers that surround many types of bacteria. They are made up of polysaccharides, proteins, or lipopolysaccharides and are synthesized by the bacterial cell. These capsules play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria as they help the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and promote their survival and colonization within the host. The presence of a capsule can also contribute to the bacteria's resistance to desiccation, phagocytosis, and antibiotics.

The chemical composition and structure of bacterial capsules vary among different species of bacteria, which is one factor that contributes to their serological specificity and allows for their identification and classification using methods such as the Quellung reaction or immunofluorescence microscopy.

Capsule endoscopy is a medical procedure that uses a small, pill-sized camera to capture images of the digestive tract. The capsule is swallowed and transmits images wirelessly as it moves through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, allowing doctors to examine the lining of the small intestine, which can be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

The procedure is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease, obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, and tumors in the small intestine. The images captured by the capsule are transmitted to a recorder worn by the patient, and then reviewed and analyzed by a healthcare professional.

Capsule endoscopy is generally considered safe and non-invasive, with few risks or side effects. However, it may not be suitable for everyone, including patients with swallowing difficulties, pacemakers, or certain gastrointestinal obstructions. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine if capsule endoscopy is the right diagnostic tool for a particular condition.

The proximal kidney tubule is the initial portion of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. It is located in the renal cortex and is called "proximal" because it is closer to the glomerulus, compared to the distal tubule. The proximal tubule plays a crucial role in the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the filtrate that has been formed by the glomerulus. It also helps in the secretion of waste products and other substances into the urine.

The proximal tubule is divided into two segments: the pars convoluta and the pars recta. The pars convoluta is the curved portion that receives filtrate from the Bowman's capsule, while the pars recta is the straight portion that extends deeper into the renal cortex.

The proximal tubule is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium, and its cells are characterized by numerous mitochondria, which provide energy for active transport processes. The apical surface of the proximal tubular cells has numerous microvilli, forming a brush border that increases the surface area for reabsorption.

In summary, the proximal kidney tubule is a critical site for the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the glomerular filtrate, contributing to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

The glomerular mesangium is a part of the nephron in the kidney. It is the region located in the middle of the glomerular tuft, where the capillary loops of the glomerulus are surrounded by a network of extracellular matrix and mesangial cells. These cells and matrix play an important role in maintaining the structure and function of the filtration barrier in the glomerulus, which helps to filter waste products from the blood.

The mesangial cells have contractile properties and can regulate the flow of blood through the capillaries by constricting or dilating the diameter of the glomerular capillary loops. They also play a role in immune responses, as they can phagocytize immune complexes and release cytokines and growth factors that modulate inflammation and tissue repair.

Abnormalities in the mesangium can lead to various kidney diseases, such as glomerulonephritis, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, and diabetic nephropathy.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

A joint capsule is the fibrous sac that encloses a synovial joint, which is a type of joint characterized by the presence of a cavity filled with synovial fluid. The joint capsule provides stability and strength to the joint, while also allowing for a range of motion. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial membrane. The fibrous layer is made up of dense connective tissue that helps to stabilize the joint, while the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and reduces friction during movement.

The crystalline lens of the eye is covered by a transparent, elastic capsule known as the lens capsule. This capsule is made up of collagen and forms the continuous outer layer of the lens. It is highly resistant to both physical and chemical insults, which allows it to protect the lens fibers within. The lens capsule is important for maintaining the shape and transparency of the lens, which are essential for proper focusing of light onto the retina.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

The olfactory mucosa is a specialized mucous membrane that is located in the upper part of the nasal cavity, near the septum and the superior turbinate. It contains the olfactory receptor neurons, which are responsible for the sense of smell. These neurons have hair-like projections called cilia that are covered in a mucus layer, which helps to trap and identify odor molecules present in the air we breathe. The olfactory mucosa also contains supporting cells, blood vessels, and nerve fibers that help to maintain the health and function of the olfactory receptor neurons. Damage to the olfactory mucosa can result in a loss of smell or anosmia.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

The Descemet membrane is the thin, transparent basement membrane that is produced by the corneal endothelial cells. It is located between the corneal stroma and the corneal endothelium, which is the innermost layer of the cornea. The Descemet membrane provides structural support for the corneal endothelium and helps to maintain the proper hydration and clarity of the cornea. It is named after the French physician Jean Descemet, who first described it in 1752.

A capsule endoscope is a type of medical device used for minimally invasive examination of the digestive tract. It is a small, pill-sized capsule that contains a miniaturized camera, light source, and transmitter. The patient swallows the capsule, which then travels through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract while transmitting images to an external receiver worn by the patient.

The capsule endoscope typically captures approximately 50,000 to 60,000 color images during its journey through the digestive tract, providing detailed visualization of the mucosal lining of the small intestine, which can be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes. The examination is called capsule endoscopy or wireless capsule enteroscopy.

Capsule endoscopes are mainly used for diagnosing various gastrointestinal conditions such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), small bowel tumors, and celiac disease. The procedure is generally safe, non-invasive, and well-tolerated by patients, with minimal discomfort or preparation required compared to traditional endoscopies. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with swallowing difficulties, known or suspected gastrointestinal obstructions, or certain implanted electronic devices that could interfere with the capsule's signal transmission.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

The internal capsule is a critical structure in the brain that consists of a bundle of white matter fibers (nerve tracts) located deep within the cerebral hemispheres. It serves as a major pathway for the transmission of motor, sensory, and cognitive information between different regions of the brain. The internal capsule is divided into several segments, including the anterior limb, genu, posterior limb, and retrolentiform and sublentiform parts.

The fibers within the internal capsule can be categorized into three groups: corticopontine fibers, corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers, and thalamocortical fibers. Corticopontine fibers originate from the cerebral cortex and terminate in the pons. Corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers are responsible for motor functions, with corticospinal fibers controlling movements of the trunk and limbs, while corticobulbar fibers control movements of the face and head. Thalamocortical fibers carry sensory information from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex.

Damage to the internal capsule can result in various neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include motor impairments, sensory loss, cognitive dysfunction, or a combination of these symptoms.

The corneal stroma, also known as the substantia propria, is the thickest layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing vision.

The corneal stroma makes up about 90% of the cornea's thickness and is composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers that are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. These fibers give the cornea its strength and transparency. The corneal stroma also contains a small number of cells called keratocytes, which produce and maintain the collagen fibers.

Disorders that affect the corneal stroma can cause vision loss or other eye problems. For example, conditions such as keratoconus, in which the cornea becomes thin and bulges outward, can distort vision and make it difficult to see clearly. Other conditions, such as corneal scarring or infection, can also affect the corneal stroma and lead to vision loss or other eye problems.

Corneal dystrophies, hereditary are a group of genetic disorders that affect the cornea, which is the clear, outermost layer at the front of the eye. These conditions are characterized by the buildup of abnormal material in the cornea, leading to decreased vision, pain, or cloudiness in the eye.

There are many different types of corneal dystrophies, each affecting a specific layer of the cornea and having its own pattern of inheritance. Some common types include:

1. Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy: This affects the inner lining of the cornea (endothelium) and causes swelling and cloudiness in the cornea. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the condition if one parent has it.
2. Granular dystrophy: This affects the stroma, which is the middle layer of the cornea. It causes the formation of opaque, grayish-white deposits in the cornea that can affect vision. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant or recessive manner.
3. Lattice dystrophy: This also affects the stroma and is characterized by the formation of a lattice-like pattern of fine, whitish lines in the cornea. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
4. Macular dystrophy: This affects the central part of the cornea (macula) and can cause cloudiness, leading to decreased vision. It is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

Treatment for corneal dystrophies may include eyedrops, medications, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition and its impact on vision. In some cases, a corneal transplant may be necessary to restore vision.

The Trypsin Inhibitor, Bowman-Birk Soybean is a type of protease inhibitor that is found in soybeans. It is named after its discoverer, Henry B. Bowman, and the location where it was first discovered, the Birk farm in Ohio. This protein inhibits the activity of trypsin, an enzyme that helps digest proteins in the body.

The Bowman-Birk Trypsin Inhibitor (BBTI) is a small protein with a molecular weight of approximately 8000 Da and consists of two inhibitory domains, each containing a reactive site for trypsin. This dual inhibitory property allows BBTI to inhibit both trypsin and chymotrypsin, another proteolytic enzyme.

BBTI has been studied extensively due to its potential health benefits. It has been shown to have anti-cancer properties, as it can inhibit the growth of cancer cells and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). Additionally, BBTI may also have anti-inflammatory effects and has been shown to protect against oxidative stress.

However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of BBTI may interfere with protein digestion and absorption in the body, as it inhibits trypsin activity. Therefore, soybeans and soybean-derived products should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

Orthokeratology, often referred to as "ortho-k," is a non-surgical procedure that uses specially designed contact lenses to temporarily reshape the cornea (the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye). The goal of orthokeratology is to flatten the cornea slightly so that it can properly focus light onto the retina and improve vision.

During an orthokeratology procedure, a patient wears specially fitted contact lenses while they sleep. These lenses gently reshape the cornea overnight, allowing the patient to see clearly during the day without needing glasses or contact lenses. The effects of orthokeratology are usually reversible and may wear off if the patient stops wearing the contact lenses regularly.

Orthokeratology is often used as an alternative to refractive surgery for people who want to correct their vision without undergoing a surgical procedure. It can be particularly useful for individuals with mild to moderate myopia (nearsightedness) and astigmatism, although it may also be used to treat other refractive errors.

It's important to note that orthokeratology is not a permanent solution for vision problems, and it does carry some risks, such as eye infections and corneal abrasions. As with any medical procedure, it's essential to consult with an eye care professional to determine whether orthokeratology is the right choice for you.

Biology is the scientific study of living organisms and their vital processes. It deals with the characteristics, classification, and behaviors of plants, animals, and microorganisms, as well as how they interact with each other and the environment. Biology covers a wide range of topics, including genetics, cell biology, evolution, ecology, and physiology. The goal of biological research is to understand the fundamental principles that govern the functioning of living systems and to apply this knowledge to improve human health, agriculture, and the environment.

Systems Biology is a multidisciplinary approach to studying biological systems that involves the integration of various scientific disciplines such as biology, mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. It aims to understand how biological components, including genes, proteins, metabolites, cells, and organs, interact with each other within the context of the whole system. This approach emphasizes the emergent properties of biological systems that cannot be explained by studying individual components alone. Systems biology often involves the use of computational models to simulate and predict the behavior of complex biological systems and to design experiments for testing hypotheses about their functioning. The ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how biological systems function, with applications in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and bioengineering.

Molecular biology is a branch of biology that deals with the structure, function, and organization of molecules involved in biological processes, especially informational molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. It includes the study of molecular mechanisms of genetic inheritance, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cellular regulation. Molecular biology also involves the use of various experimental techniques to investigate and manipulate these molecules, including recombinant DNA technology, genomic sequencing, protein crystallography, and bioinformatics. The ultimate goal of molecular biology is to understand how biological systems work at a fundamental level and to apply this knowledge to improve human health and the environment.

Developmental biology is a branch of biological research that studies the processes by which organisms grow and develop from fertilized eggs (zygotes) to adults. This field of study encompasses understanding the genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and molecular mechanisms that guide the developmental trajectory of an organism, including cellular differentiation, pattern formation, morphogenesis, and growth control.

Developmental biology has important implications for understanding congenital disorders, regenerative medicine, and evolutionary biology. Researchers in this field use a variety of model organisms, such as fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), zebrafish (Danio rerio), mice (Mus musculus), and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), to investigate the fundamental principles that govern developmental processes. These insights can then be applied to understanding human development and disease.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Synthetic biology is not a medical term per se, but rather it falls under the broader field of biology and bioengineering. Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that combines principles from biology, engineering, chemistry, physics, and computer science to design and construct new biological parts, devices, and systems that do not exist in nature or re-design existing natural biological systems for useful purposes.

In simpler terms, synthetic biology involves the creation of artificial biological components such as genes, proteins, and cells, or the modification of existing ones to perform specific functions. These engineered biological systems can be used for a wide range of applications, including medical research, diagnostics, therapeutics, and environmental remediation.

Examples of synthetic biology in medicine include the development of synthetic gene circuits that can detect and respond to disease-causing agents or the creation of artificial cells that can produce therapeutic proteins or drugs. However, it's important to note that while synthetic biology holds great promise for improving human health, it also raises ethical, safety, and regulatory concerns that need to be carefully considered and addressed.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

... (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the ... Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman's capsule. Outside the capsule, there are two "poles": The ... Bowman's capsule is named after Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), a British surgeon and anatomist. However, thorough ... the filtrate leaving the Bowman's capsule is very similar to blood plasma (filtrate or glomerular filtrate is composed of blood ...
The Bowman's capsule, also called the glomerular capsule, surrounds the glomerulus. It is composed of a visceral inner layer ... The interior of Bowman's capsule, called Bowman's space, collects the filtrate from the filtering capillaries of the glomerular ... The renal corpuscle consists of the glomerulus, and the glomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule.: 1027 The renal corpuscle has ... and into the interior of Bowman's capsule, called Bowman's space. Only about a fifth of the plasma is filtered in the ...
... and a glomerular capsule known as Bowman's capsule. The renal corpuscle is composed of two structures, the glomerulus and the ... The Bowman's capsule has an outer parietal layer composed of simple squamous epithelium. The visceral layer, composed of ... Glomerulus is red; Bowman's capsule is pink. Outline of function of renal corpuscle "Renal corpuscle , anatomy". Encyclopedia ... Fluid from blood in the glomerulus is collected in the Bowman's capsule to form "glomerular filtrate", which is then further ...
The direct mechanism is not well researched but the main symptom is dilated or enlarged Bowman's capsule with glomerular cysts ... There are a variable amount of glomeruli with dilated Bowman's capsules within patients with GCKD. Tufts of the glomerulus ... GCKD involves cystic dilation of Bowman's capsule. It can occur with or without congenital abnormality. Glomerulocystic kidney ... Dilation of Bowman's space in the plane section of two to three fold of normal Kidneys can be described as hypoplastic: meaning ...
"Bowman Museum - Crook County History - Time Capsule Stories". Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved June 27, ...
... a tangled knot of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule. The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule together form the renal ... The filtrate from the glomerulus enters the capsule and proceeds to the renal tubules, which reabsorb water and solutes from ...
The blood leaves the Glomerulus in the efferent arteriole). The liquid from the Bowman's capsule reaches the thick descending ... Liquid enters the nephron system at the Bowman's capsule. Proximal convoluted tubule: It then may reabsorb urea in the thick ... filtered blood is passed to the nephrons in the Bowman's capsule which surrounds the Glomerulus. ( ...
... a tube which connects the Bowman's capsule to the mesonephric duct. A unit consisting of a single glomerulus and the Bowman's ... When these two structures contact each other, they form the glomerulus and the Bowman's capsule surrounding it. The mesonephric ... a Bowman's capsule, a funnel like structure which surrounds the glomerulus; and a mesonephric tubule, ... capsule surrounding it is called renal corpuscle, and a unit consisting of single renal corpuscle with its associated ...
... from the blood in the glomerular capsule across the basement membrane of the Bowman's capsule and into the renal tubules. This ... Bowman's capsule) in the kidneys. As in nonbiological examples of ultrafiltration, pressure (in this case blood pressure) and ... The Bowman's capsule contains a dense capillary network called the glomerulus. Blood flows into these capillaries through the ... In renal physiology, ultrafiltration occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the glomerular capsule ( ...
The afferent arterioles, then, enter Bowman's capsule and end in the glomerulus. From each glomerulus, the corresponding ... efferent arteriole arises and then exits the capsule near the point where the afferent arteriole enters. Distally, efferent ...
... in the Bowman's capsule and proximal tubule can be determined by the difference between the pressure in the Bowman's capsule ... More precisely, GFR is the fluid flow rate between the glomerular capillaries and the Bowman's capsule: Q = d ⁡ V d ⁡ t = K f ... P B {\displaystyle P_{B}} is the hydrostatic pressure within the Bowman's capsule. Π G {\displaystyle \Pi _{G}} is the colloid ... and Π B {\displaystyle \Pi _{B}} is the colloid osmotic pressure within the Bowman's capsule. Because this constant is a ...
Pbc is the Bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure πgc is the glomerular capillary oncotic pressure πbc is the Bowman's capsule ... The filtrate that has passed through the three-layered filtration unit enters Bowman's capsule. From there, it flows into the ... The glomerulus and its surrounding Bowman's capsule constitute a renal corpuscle, the basic filtration unit of the kidney. The ... The rate of filtration from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule is determined (as in systemic capillaries) by the Starling ...
The Bowman's capsule surrounds each glomerulus, and collects the filtrate that the glomerulus forms. The filtrate contains ...
Fibrin stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells of Bowman capsule, and an influx of monocytes. Rapid growing and ... Formation of crescents is initiated by passage of fibrin into the Bowman space as a result of increased permeability of ... fibrosis of crescents compresses the capillary loops and decreases the Bowman space, which leads to kidney failure within weeks ...
Bowman's capsule filters the blood, retaining large molecules such as proteins while smaller molecules such as water, salts, ... Podocytes are cells in Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus. Podocytes make up the ... Podocytes are found lining the Bowman's capsules in the nephrons of the kidney. The foot processes known as pedicels that ... epithelial lining of Bowman's capsule, the third layer through which filtration of blood takes place. ...
Kf is frequently applied to the glomerular capillaries, which filter water into Bowman's capsule to form urine. Typically, in ...
In the other end, the renal tubules give rise to Bowman's capsules and glomeruli. The mesoderm around the tubules becomes ...
Blood that enters the kidneys is filtered through the renal glomeruli into Bowman's capsule to form primary urine. Then it ... In mammals, the nephron consists of the renal glomerulus inside Bowman's capsule, the proximal convoluted tubule, the proximal ... podocytes and parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule. At least 16 different cell types make up the renal tubules. The ... The outer layer of each kidney is made up of a fibrous sheath called a renal capsule. The peripheral layer of the kidney is ...
In the first part of the nephron, Bowman's capsule filters blood from the circulatory system into the tubules. Hydrostatic and ...
Each nephron begins in a renal corpuscle, which is composed of a glomerulus enclosed in a Bowman's capsule. Cells, proteins, ... each of which is composed of a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule. A global assessment of renal function is often ascertained by ... to enter Bowman's space. Filtration is driven by Starling forces. The ultrafiltrate is passed through, in turn, the proximal ...
Research indicates doripenem is filtered by the glomerular capillary bed in Bowman's capsule and the tubular secretions in the ...
... glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per time unit. To measure this parameter, a marker substance is injected into ...
About one-fifth of the blood plasma is filtered into Bowman's capsule as the blood passes through the glomerular capillaries; ...
The toxins cause direct damage to the glomeruli in the kidneys as well as causing protein deposits in Bowman's capsule. Or the ...
The proximal tubule is the segment of the nephron in kidneys which begins from the renal pole of the Bowman's capsule to the ... At this location, the glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) lining bowman's capsule abruptly transition to proximal ...
Among its roles AVT reduces the rate at which blood plasma filters out of the glomeruli and into the Bowman's capsule. This ... under high pressure and leaks out in between the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsules. The ...
Apart from the Bowman's capsule, other anatomical structures named after him include: Bowman's glands - in the olfactory mucosa ... At the young age of 25, he identified what then became known as the Bowman's capsule, a key component of the nephron. He ... He was succeeded in the title by his eldest son, Sir Paget Bowman. Todd, Robert Bentley; Bowman, William (1857), The ... Bowman, William (1849), Lectures on the parts concerned in the operations on the eye, and on the structure of the retina: ...
Bowman's capsule) in the kidneys. It is a member of the CD34 family of transmembrane sialomucins. It coats the secondary foot ...
... salts and water that have passed through Bowman's capsule, to return to the circulation. These solutes are reabsorbed ...
... and the Bowman's capsules in renal corpuscles. TLR2 is also expressed by intestinal epithelial cells and subsets of lamina ...
Bowmans capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the ... Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowmans capsule. Outside the capsule, there are two "poles": The ... Bowmans capsule is named after Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), a British surgeon and anatomist. However, thorough ... the filtrate leaving the Bowmans capsule is very similar to blood plasma (filtrate or glomerular filtrate is composed of blood ...
Bowmans capsule Bowmans capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sack at the ... Bowmans capsule is named after Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), a British surgeon and anatomist.[3] However, thorough ... As a result, the filtrate leaving the Bowmans capsule is very similar to blood plasma (filtrate or glomerular filtrate is ... The process of filtration of the blood in the Bowmans capsule is ultrafiltration (or glomerular filtration), and the normal ...
Thickening and duplication of the Bowman capsule * Intrarenal arterial medial thickening In patients with renal artery stenosis ...
A) Kidney, showing urate deposits in the dilated Bowmans capsule (arrows) and degeneration and dilatation of proximal ...
glomerular filtrate The fluid in the lumen of the Bowmans capsule of the nephron that has been filtered from the capillaries ... glomerular filtrate The fluid in the lumen of the Bowmans capsule of the nephron that has been filtered from the capillaries ...
"Capsular drops" -- hyaline material on the inside surface of Bowmans capsule (highly characteristic of diabetes.) Clinically, ... Long-term reversal of the diabetic state by implantation of islets immunoprotected by alginate poly-amino acid capsules. Nice ...
CMFE, Cornus mas fruit extract; CCl4, carbon tetrachloride; DBC, damaged Bowman capsule; TD, tubular degeneration; LBB, loss of ... normal glomerulus and Bowman capsule; BB, border brush; FA, foamy appearance. ...
Over a period from 24 h to 3 days, a significant (p = 0.018) expansion of Bowmans capsule was observed in the kidneys of rats ...
A detailed examination of needle biopsy material revealed the presence of capillary adhesions to Bowmans capsule and fibrin in ...
Bowmans capsule. Staining:Medium. Intensity: Moderate. Quantity: 75%-25%. Collecting ducts. Staining:Medium. Intensity: Strong ...
Bowmans Capsule. - encloses the glomerulus. *Parietal Layer - simple squamous epithelium that lines the outer wall of the ... Bowmans Space - the space between the parietal and visceral layers that receives the ultrafiltrate. ... where the ultrafiltrate exits Bowmans space and a proximal convoluted tubule begins. ...
Bowmans capsule; Proximal convoluted tubule; Glomerulus; Distal convoluted tubule;(any one). * *State the two hormones whose ...
glomerulus and the Bowmans capsule together. renal fascia. connective tissue that supports the kidneys. renal pelvis. region ... Bowmans capsule. structure that encloses the glomerulus. calyx. structure that connects the renal pelvis to the renal medulla ... renal capsule. layer that encapsulates the kidneys. renal column. area of the kidney through which the interlobar arteries ... perirenal fat capsule. fat layer that suspends the kidneys. peritubular capillary network. capillary network that surrounds the ...
Glomerulus: Network of capillaries • Bowmans Capsule: Encases the glomerulus (66). • The first step is filtration of the blood ...
Bowmans Capsule. *It is blind double-walled cup-shaped structure. The two walls of Bowmans capsule are inner visceral and ... The epithelial cells of Bowmans capsule called podocytes are arranged in an intricate manner so as to leave some minute spaces ... Lower part of Bowmans capsule leads into PCT. The latter is present in the cortex. ... The space between the two layers of Bowmans capsule is called lumen or capsular space. ...
The fruit is an oblong-ovate, flattened, many-seeded capsule. Back to Top ... Bowmans root. Culvers physic. Culvers root. Hini. Leptandra. Oxadoddy. Physic root. Purple leptandra. Tall speedwell. Tall ...
Bowmans Capsule. *Collecting Tubule. *Distal Convoluted Tubule. *Efferent Arteriole. *Glomerulus. *Left Renal Artery ...
Epithelial cells of Bowmans capsule. Juxta glomerular apparatus (JGA). Formed by DCT and afferent arteriole ...
The glomerulus is a network of capillaries that filters blood across Bowman capsule into the proximal convoluted tubule. ... which supply the renal capsule. Renal pelvic and superior ureteric branches also originate from the renal artery and supply the ...
Bowmans capsule dilation, degenerated renal tubules in kidney; myofibril disintegration, muscle oedema, splitting of muscle ...
The Bowmans capsule is a double walled cup shaped structure.. *The proximal tribule leads from the bowmans capsule to the ... Blood enters the Bowmans capsule through a tiny artery (the renal artery). ... Blood pressure in the artery forces some blood plasma and some small particles into the surrounding capsule (this is called the ... The nephric filtrate is pushed out of the capsule and into the proximal tribule ...
Process X happens between the glomerulus and the Bowmans capsule.. Proses X berlaku di antara glomerulus dan kapsul Bowman. ...
The crescent has ruptured Bowman capsule (Jones silver stain, ×200).. Image provided by Agnes Fogo, MD, and the American ... formed within Bowman space from epithelial cell hyperplasia). Endothelial and mesangial cells multiply, and the mesangial ...
This fluid in the in the Bowmans capsule is called glomerular filtrate. It is similar to blood plasma except that it has ... These substances have about the same concentration in the glomerular filtrate (fluid in the in the Bowmans capsule) as in the ... Kidney infection and trauma can damage the filtration membrane (located in the Bowmans capsule). This allows albumin (a ... This involves removal and addition of chemicals, after glomerular filtrate leaves the Bowmans capsule and enters the renal ...
12 Don Bowman - The other Ringo. 13 Geesins Mahoganys Ministrels - Lady Madonna. 14 The Ladmo Trio - Michelle. 15 The Pickin ...
12 Don Bowman - The other Ringo. 13 Geesins Mahoganys Ministrels - Lady Madonna. 14 The Ladmo Trio - Michelle. 15 The Pickin ...
  • Bowman's capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman's capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The process of filtration of the blood in the Bowman's capsule is ultrafiltration (or glomerular filtration), and the normal rate of filtration is 125 ml/min, equivalent to 80 times the daily blood volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As a result, the filtrate leaving the Bowman's capsule is very similar to blood plasma (filtrate or glomerular filtrate is composed of blood plasma minus plasma protein i.e. it contains all the components of blood plasma except the proteins) in composition as it passes into the proximal convoluted tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Bowman's capsule is named after Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), a British surgeon and anatomist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bowman's capsule not labeled, but visible at top. (iiab.me)
  • Bowman's capsule is named after Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), a British surgeon and anatomist . (iiab.me)
  • A) Kidney, showing urate deposits in the dilated Bowman's capsule (arrows) and degeneration and dilatation of proximal convoluted tubules. (cdc.gov)
  • glomerular filtrate The fluid in the lumen of the Bowman's capsule of the nephron that has been filtered from the capillaries of the glomerulus (see ultrafiltration ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • A detailed examination of needle biopsy material revealed the presence of capillary adhesions to Bowman's capsule and fibrin in the glomerular mesangial deposits, which was suggestive of a progressive autoimmune disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The Bowman's capsule is a double walled cup shaped structure. (igcsepro.org)
  • Blood enters the Bowman's capsule through a tiny artery (the renal artery). (igcsepro.org)
  • Fluids comprising excess water, salt and metabolic waste products are extracted from the blood as it enters the Bowman's capsule in the nephrons. (kidneychat.com)
  • This fluid in the in the Bowman's capsule is called glomerular filtrate. (kidneychat.com)
  • Glomerular filtration is a process in which water and some other substances in the blood plasma pass from the capillaries of the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule. (kidneychat.com)
  • Very small molecules can pass through the filtration membrane into the Bowman's capsule. (kidneychat.com)
  • These substances have about the same concentration in the glomerular filtrate (fluid in the in the Bowman's capsule) as in the blood plasma. (kidneychat.com)
  • Kidney infection and trauma can damage the filtration membrane (located in the Bowman's capsule). (kidneychat.com)
  • This involves removal and addition of chemicals, after glomerular filtrate leaves the Bowman's capsule and enters the renal tubule. (kidneychat.com)
  • Tubular reabsorption is the process of reclaiming water and other substances from the tubular fluid (glomerular filtrate which passes from the Bowman's capsule to the renal tubule) and returning them to the blood. (kidneychat.com)
  • The ultrafiltrate is the plasma without proteins that results after the filtration process, that happens in the glomeruli, specifically in Bowman's capsule. (osmosis.org)
  • It is the portion which lies between Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle. (karmaayurveda.in)
  • Some of the terminal branches of the interlobular arteries become perforating radiate arteries, which supply the renal capsule. (medscape.com)
  • Inside the capsule, the layers are as follows, from outside to inside:[citation needed] Parietal layer-A single layer of simple squamous epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parietal Layer - simple squamous epithelium that lines the outer wall of the capsule. (histologyguide.com)
  • Blood pressure in the artery forces some blood plasma and some small particles into the surrounding capsule (this is called the nephric filtrate ). (igcsepro.org)
  • Outside the capsule, there are two "poles": The vascular pole, polus vascularis is the side with the afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse, sexual dimorphism of the glomerular parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule exists. (nih.gov)
  • Glomerular metaplasia of Bowman's capsule should be diagnosed and given a severity grade. (nih.gov)
  • Each nephron contains a network of small blood vessels, called glomerulus, which are enclosed in a sac called Bowman's capsule. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A) Kidney, showing urate deposits in the dilated Bowman's capsule (arrows) and degeneration and dilatation of proximal convoluted tubules. (cdc.gov)
  • 10. [A case of primary amyloidosis associated with giant cell infiltration within a Bowman's capsule]. (nih.gov)
  • Approximately 20% of the plasma that enters the glomerulus is filtered through the capillary filtration barrier and out into the urinary space (US) inside Bowman's capsule. (nih.gov)
  • Influence of pregnancy on the renal cortex of mice as indicated by the structure of Bowman's capsule. (nih.gov)
  • The kidney, a main organ within the renal system, filters blood to remove toxins via millions of structures called glomeruli, consisting of a tuft of blood vessels surrounded by a cuplike cellular structure known as Bowman's Capsule. (nih.gov)
  • A detailed examination of needle biopsy material revealed the presence of capillary adhesions to Bowman's capsule and fibrin in the glomerular mesangial deposits, which was suggestive of a progressive autoimmune disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Introduction:Bowman's capsule is a part of the nephron that forms a cup-like sack surrounding the glomerulus. (cajonsecreto.es)
  • Bowman's capsule encloses a space called Bowman's space," which represents the beginning of the urinary space and is contiguous with the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. (cajonsecreto.es)
  • The Bowman's capsule empties the filtrate into the proximal tubule that is also part of the duct system of the nephron. (brainkart.com)
  • It consists of a knot of capillaries (glomerulus) surrounded by a double-walled capsule (Bowman's capsule) that opens into a tubule. (brainkart.com)
  • At the top left of the image you can even see Bowman's capsule and unremarkable parietal epithelium. (arkanalabs.com)
  • tubule starts with a cup-like structure called Bowman's capsule, by the glomerulus is enclosed and together they are called the renal corpuscle. (esaral.com)
  • While in kidney dilated Bowman's capsule, frequent vacuolization in renal cortex, degeneration of cells of proximal convoluted tubule, whereas in spleen there was increase in size of the follicles and red pulp morphology of parenchyma (increase in red pulp). (manipal.edu)
  • Discussion: Thus it is concluded from the entire study that long term stress causes degeneration in hepatic cells, infiltration in liver, degeneration of glomerulus, bowman's capsule, convoluted tubules in kidney which finally leading to both hepato-toxicity and nephro-toxicity. (manipal.edu)
  • The blood plasma is filtered through the capillaries of the glomerulus into the capsule. (brainkart.com)
  • A double-walled epithelial capsule that is the bulbous closed proximal end of the kidney tubular system. (bvsalud.org)
  • And the outer surface of the kidneys are covered with a white fibrous connective tissue layer called the renal capsule. (nursing.com)
  • Introduction:The pressurized capsule structure provides the pressure environment for astronauts or payloads in space, which is thus considered as the most crucial structural component for manned spacecraft. (cajonsecreto.es)
  • The joint capsule: structure, composition, ageing and disease. (cajonsecreto.es)
  • The renal capsule helps in protection of the kidneys from injuries and the infection. (myassignmenthelp.net)
  • However, current capsule robots have many problems, such as over-sized, single function and lack of active locomotion control. (cajonsecreto.es)
  • I am in favor of all initiatives to put extreme pressure on the Coravin capsule revenue stream. (wineberserkers.com)